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INDUSTRIAL TRAINING REPORT

1. ABSTRACT
Main steps involved in tyre manufacturing process are tyre manufacturing, tyre building and tyre curing. Tyre manufacturing means the mixing of raw materials. This includes coating of rubber over nylon to give strength to the rubber. These units cut the raw rubber into several sheets which used for tyre building. Tyre building means the binding of rubber over a rotating drum. Naphtha is used in this step for binding. This step is manual and the end product is Green tyre. Green tyre is punched to remove the air. And shaped into four parts 1. Cetre 2. Bead 3. Thread 4. Side wall Final step in the tyre manufacturing process is post cure inflation. In this step, the tyre is cooled from cure temperature to below the last glass temperature of the fabric cords while being held at a const inflation pressure. Due to thermal effects and deep creep of the component materials, the shape of the tyre will be different after the post cure inflation than before. this change in shape of tyre from that in the mould drawings should be accounted for in performing finite element analyses to predict tyer performance characteristics.

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2. HISTORY OF APOLLO TYRES AND PRODUCTS

Apollo Tyres Ltd is the world's 17th biggest tyre manufacturer, with annual consolidated revenues of Rs 121.5 billion (US$ 2.5 billion) in 2011. It was founded in 1976. Its first plant was commissioned in Perambra, Kerala The company now has four manufacturing units, one in South Africa, two in Netherland and 1 in Zimbabwe It has a network of over 4,000 dealerships in India, of which over 2,500 are exclusive outlets.

It gets 59% of its revenues from India, 28% from Europe and 13% from Africa.Apollo tyres was awarded the FICCI award among large industries category for the best Quality systems. It is planning to become the 10th biggest tyre manufacturer in the world with annual revenues of $6 billion by 2016.

On 12 June 2013, it is reported that Apollo Tyres Ltd would buy US-based Cooper Tire & Rubber Company for about $2.5 billion in a deal that would make it the world's seventhlargest tyre maker.

Apollo's cash offer of $35 per share represents a premium of about 43 percent to Cooper's share price on the New York Stock Exchange. Apollo Tyres, which does not currently operate in the United States, gets two-thirds of its revenue from India. The acquisition of Cooper, the world's 11th biggest tyre company by sales, will give Apollo access to the US market for replacement tyres for cars and light and medium trucks. The two companies had combined sales of $6.6 billion in 2012. History 1976 Apollo Tyres was registered 1977 1st plant established at Perambra, Kerala, India 1991 2nd plant at Limda, Gujarat, India 1994 Started selling tyres for 2-wheeler 1995 3rd plant at Kalamassery, Kerala, India

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2006 Expanded operations outside India by acquiring Dunlop's Africa operations. 2008 new plant at Chennai, Tamil Nadu, India

In 2009, Apollo Tyres acquired the Netherlands-based tyre maker Vredestein Banden B.V. (VBBV) for an undisclosed sum from Russia's bankrupt largest tyre manufacturer Amtel-Vredestein NV. 2013 Disposed of the Dunlop brand in Africa along with most of the South African operation in a sale to Sumitomo Rubber Industries of Japan. 2013, Apollo is set to acquire the US based Cooper Tire & Rubber Co. which is expected to be completed at the end of the year.

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3. TYRE
Pneumatic tyres are manufactured according to relatively standardized processes and machinery, in around 450 tire factories in the world. With over 1 billion tires manufactured worldwide annually, the tire industry is the major consumer of natural rubber. Tire factories start with bulk raw materials such as rubber, carbon black, and chemicals and produce numerous specialized components that are assembled and cured. This article describes the components assembled to make a tire, the various materials used, the manufacturing processes and machinery, and the overall business model.

The tire is an assembly of numerous components that are built up on a drum and then cured in a press under heat and pressure. Heat facilitates a polymerization reaction that crosses links rubber monomers to create long elastic molecules. These polymers create the elastic quality that permits the tire to be compressed in the area where the tire contacts the road surface and spring back to its original shape under high-frequency cycles. Typical components used in tire assembly are listed below.

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Three type Tire constructions (a) diagonal ply, (b) belted bias, and (c) radial bias Inner layer The inner liner is an extruded halo butyl rubber sheet compounded with additives that result in low air permeability. The inner liner assures that the tire will hold high-pressure air inside, without the air gradually diffusing through the rubber structure Body ply The body ply is a calendered sheet consisting of one layer of rubber, one layer of reinforcing fabric, and a second layer of rubber. The earliest textile used was cotton; later materials include rayon, nylon, polyester, and Kevlar. Passenger tires typically have one or two body plies. Body plies give the tire structure strength. Truck tires, off-road tires, and aircraft tires have progressively more plies. The fabric cords are highly flexible but relatively inelastic. Side wall Sidewalls are non-reinforced extruded profiles with additives to give the sides of the tire good abrasion resistance and environmental resistance. Additives used in sidewall compounds include antioxidants and antiozonants. Sidewall extrusions are nonsymmetrical and provide a thick rubber area to enable molding of raised letters

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Beads Beads are bands of high tensile-strength steel wire encased in a rubber compound. Bead wire is coated with special alloys of bronze or brass. Coatings protect the steel from corrosion. Copper in the alloy and sulfur in the rubber cross-link to produce copper sulfide, which improves bonding of the bead to the rubber. Beads are inflexible and inelastic, and provide the mechanical strength to fit the tire to the wheel. Bead rubber includes additives to maximize strength and toughness Apex The apex is a triangular extruded profile that mates against the bead. The apex provides a cushion between the rigid bead and the flexible inner liner and body ply assembly. Alternatively called "filler" Belt package Belts are calendered sheets consisting of a layer of rubber, a layer of closely spaced steel cords, and a second layer of rubber. The steel cords are oriented radially in radial tire construction, and at opposing angles in bias tire construction. Belts give the tire strength and dent resistance while allowing it to remain flexible. Passenger tires are usually made with two or three belts. Tread The tread is a thick extruded profile that surrounds the tire carcass. Tread compounds include additives to impart wear resistance and traction in addition to environmental resistance. Tread compound development is an exercise in compromise, as hard compounds have long wear characteristics but poor traction whereas soft compounds have good traction but poor wear characteristics. Cushion gum Many higher-performing tires include an extruded component between the belt package and the tread to isolate the tread from mechanical wear from the steel belts.

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Other components Tire construction methods vary somewhat in the number and type of components, as well as the compound formulations for each component, according to the tire use and price point. Tire makers continuously introduce new materials and construction methods in order to achieve higher performance at lower cost. Materials

Natural rubber, or polyisoprene is the basic elastomer used in tire making Styrene-butadiene co-polymer (SBR) is a synthetic rubber which is often substituted

in part for natural rubber based on the comparative raw materials cost

Polybutadiene is used in combination with other rubbers because of its low heat-

buildup properties

Halobutyl rubber is used for the tubeless inner liner compounds, because of its low

air permeability. The halogen atoms provide a bond with the carcass compounds which are mainly natural rubber. Bromobutyl is superior to chlorobutyl, but is more expensive

Carbon Black, forms a high percentage of the rubber compound. This gives rein-

forcement and abrasion resistance

Silica, used together with carbon black in high performance tires, as a low heat build

up reinforcement

Sulphur crosslinks the rubber molecules in the vulcanization process Vulcanizing Accelerators are complex organic compounds that speed up the vulcani-

zation

Activators assist the vulcanization. The main one is zinc oxide Antioxidants and antiozonants prevent sidewall cracking due to the action of sun-

light and ozone

Textile fabric reinforces the carcass of the tire

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4. TYRE MANUFACTURING PROCESS


There are six basic processes in the manufacture of tires: Mixing of carbon blacks, elastomers and chemicals in the Banbury Mixer to form

the rubber compounds. Calendering the fabrics and steel cord and coating them with rubber. Extruding the treads and sidewall components. Manual assembly of the green tire components on tire building machines. Vulcanizing or curing the tire with heat and pressure. Final finishing, including inspection, storage and shipping. (A certain portion of fin-

ished tires are also repaired in the final finishing process.)

I. MIXING

Steel belted radial tires incorporate as many as ten different ingredients with the rubber compounds. These compounds include antioxidants, antiozonants, curing agents, elastomers, sulfur reinforcing agents, cobalt, magnesium oxide, rubber polymers, calcium carbonate, zinc oxide, carbon black, and processing materials. The compounds are prepared by Mechanically mixing in a Banbury Mixer to mechanically break down the rubber in an attempt to obtain a uniformly homogenous mass which is subsequently formed into slabs of rubber that are extruded or calendered for use in tire building. The slabs of rubber produced are used to calender the body plies, chafers, cap plies or edge strips, steel belts, and all other fabric components used in the tire. Some manufacturers also use a steelastic machine to produce their fabric components. Slab stock is used for extruded components such as the sidewalls, treads, wedges and other solid rubber profiled components.

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II. CALENDERING

In the calendering process fabric cords and steel cords are coated with rubber stock. The rubber should be pressed between the individual twisted cord filaments which make up the steel belts. The body plies and reinforcing strips incorporate polyester cord that is coated in an adhesive liquid. The cord is passed between large heated rolls of a calendering machine. A woven fabric is similarly prepared and calendered for the anti-chafing strips.

Since rubber will not adhere to bare steel, the steel cord wires for the steel belts are coated with a very thin layer of brass. These brass coated, rubber encased steel cords (multi-strand cables) become the steel belts. The brass coated steel wire is usually purchased from outside vendor sand shipped to the tire manufacturer in sealed containers to prevent moisture contamination. When received by the manufacturer the wires should be stored in a temperature and humidity controlled environment until they are coated with skim stock rubber in the calender. It is critical that belt wire not be exposed to moisture as it is susceptible to corrosion during the manufacturing process, which leads to a breakdown in adhesion. When the wires are removed from the shipping container they are placed on roller apparatus in the creel room where temperature and humidity should be controlled and continually monitored. The wire then passes from the creel room through the open plant to the calender. The distance from the creel room to the calender varies among manufacturers ranging from 20 to 60 feet. The area of the plant between the creel room and calender is not humidity and temperature controlled so that there is a potential for moisture to accumulate on the bare wire before it is encapsulated in rubber.

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This problem is exacerbated by slowdowns, temporary shutdowns, humidity spikes, and failure to adequately control temperature and humidity within the creel room. Once the belt wire becomes contaminated with moisture, it becomes more difficult to obtain proper adhesion of the rubber to the brass-coated wire. The strongest possible bond between the rubber and the belt wire is critical in the construction of steel belted radial tires. The steel wire passes from the creel room on rollers through aligning combs into the calender where the wires are coated with a thin sheet of skim stock rubber. The rubber should also penetrate the steel cords for maximum adhesion. Both the polyester cords and steel cords are cut at specified angles and widths for use in tire building.

III. EXTRUSION

Some tire components are formed by extrusion of uncured rubber, including tread and sidewall components. Extruders are both hot and cold fed systems. Typically, extruders are barrel shaped. The material is fed into thebarrel and the mixed compound is pushed forward by a screw mechanism.

IV. INNER LINER

The inner liner is a critical component of modern tires. In steel belted radial tubeless tires, the inner liner is the substitute for the tube used in the older style tube tires. It is formulated to provide the least amount of air permeability possible while obtaining adhesion to the body plies. This is accomplished by a combination of gauge and halobutyl content. Inner liners are calendered into thin sheets of specified thicknesses and then cut to appropriate widths for use in tire construction. One indication of inner liners that are excessively thin is cord shadowing where the cords of the body plies show through the inner liner. Localized thinning can also be caused by perforations in the body plies which allow inner liner rubber to flow into the body plies of the tire resulting in localized thinning.

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V. BEADS Bead wire configurations fall into four primary categories: .037 weftless, .050 weftless, .050 single strand, and cable beads. Like belt wire, bead wire is generally purchased from outside vendors and shipped in hermetically sealed containers to prevent corrosion from moisture prior to manufacturing. The bead wire is plated with brass or bronze like the belt wire to provide high adhesion to the insulating rubber. Insulating rubber is usually pressed into and around the bead when it is drawn through an extruding die. Bead chaffer, which is rubber reinforcement around the bead wire, is also placed in the area of the beads to give strength and resilience during tire mounting.

VI. TREAD Tire tread incorporates several special rubber compounds which are simultaneously extruded to provide the appropriate dimensions for the specific tire. Typically, cement is applied to the underside of the tread where it contacts the steel belts or cap plies. This is commonly referred to as tread cement. It is then cut into the appropriate length for tire building. Cement is typically applied to both ends of the tread piece to obtain maximum adhesion.

VII. TIRE BUILDING It is important to note that most tire companies now operate on 12 hour shifts with tire builders bonuses based on the number of tires they produce over a set minimum requirement. Most steel belted radial tires are assembled by hand. The first stage builder constructs the tire on a cylindrical rotating drum. In the first stage of tire building process, the inner liner, body plies, beads, bead reinforcing strips and sidewalls are assembled by the first stage tire builder. During second stage tire building, the steel belts and tread are applied as well as wedges or belt edge gum strips. If a cap ply is utilized, it would be placed on during second stage as well. The tire components, known as green tire components, are held together mechanically by their tack or stickiness. Prior to assembly the body plies and steel tread components are stored in large rolls. Prior to the components being transferred to the building machines they are often stored in this rolled configuration. Woven fabric liners are placed between the layers of the rolled material to prevent the components from sticking together. If the rolls of stored material are not promptly utilized, they can lose

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their tacky quality. This makes it difficult, if not impossible, for the components to properly adhere together before vulcanization. In the latter stages of degradation, sulfur can be visualized on the surface of the components as a white or grayish layer which is called sulfur blooming.

Appropriate building practices require that components which have lost their tackiness, especially components with sulfur bloom, be scrapped. Most manufacturers, however, allow their tire builders to utilize petroleum solvents to freshen belt material or body plies that have lost their tackiness or which demonstrate sulfur bloom. Use of the petroleum solvent which is supposed to remove the sulfur, but sometimes merely masks it, and can cause pockets of trapped gas between components, and can allow the uncured components to move so that the precise alignment necessary for steel belts is compromised unless the solvent is completely dry when the components are assembled.

VIII. VULCANIZATION (CURING)

Subsequent to second stage, the green tire is transferred for vulcanization. The tire is coated with a liquid to ensure that it will not stick to the mold. In the mold the green tire is placed over an inflatable rubber bladder. Typically, the vulcanizing machine is a two piece metal mold. The bladder forces the tire against the mold, forming the sidewall patterns and tread pattern. The molding is accomplished through the use of steam pressure or hot water inside of the bladder.

The rubber components of the tire are vulcanized by steam generated heat in the mold and bladder at pressure as high as 400 psi and temperatures of approximately 200/ for approximately ten minutes. This heat results in chemical and physical changes in the rubber compounds. At the molecular level, profound chemical changes occur during vulcanization. The green tire rubber components are transformed from plastic consistency to the consistency found in a finished tire. The vulcanization process chemically and physically links the various components, forming what should be an inseparable bond. The smaller rubber molecules are linked to the long polymer chain linked molecules.

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When the molecules in the various components properly bond, all interfacing surfaces are obliterated forming the finished green tire. Thus, any liner pattern marks from the fabric liner used during storage should be totally obliterated in a properly cured tire. One should never see liner pattern marks on a tire that has been properly cured (vulcanized). Manufacturers use various time periods for the vulcanization process. In an effort to reduce the time required for the manufacture of a tire, manufacturers are continually attempting to reduce the vulcanizing time. One method that is utilized is radiation of components prior to vulcanization. It should be noted that under-vulcanization will result in a lack of adhesion of the components. One indication of this lack of adhesion in a failed tire can be pattern liner marks. As a result of vulcanization, the rubber becomes essentially insoluble and cannot be processed by any of the means used to manipulate the green rubber during the assembly process.

PCI UNIT Post curing inflation is the last step in tyre manufacturing process. Curing is the process of applying pressure to the green tyre in mould in order to give it its final shape, and applying heat energy to stimulating the chemical reaction between the rubber and other materials. Post curing inflation unit is a machine used to cool tyres under controlled condition. Cooling is carried out by positioning the tyres between bead drinks and inflating them with air at a pressure of 150 PSI.

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While a vehicle runs, the pressur inside the tyres may vary in range of 90 PSI to 120 PSI. Post curing inflation of tyre is done in order to make the tyre to withstand this higher pressure The operations that take place in PCI unit are : 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. Tyre is manually loaded Close PB is actuated & disk starts closing. Close limit switch actuates & motor stops. 5 sec delay Inflation solenoid valve is activated. At around 25 PSI pressure switch activated and inflation solenoid valve is out.

IX. FINAL INSPECTION AND REPAIR

All tires are supposed to be visually inspected and placed on a tire uniformity machine (TUG)before they are sent to the warehouse. Unfortunately, the visual inspection process sometimes lasts as little as fifteen seconds and on occasion is nonexistent. When an abnormality is discovered the tire is sent to classifiers who can route the tire to repair, scrap the tire, or set the tire aside for further inspection. Repairs include buffing and grinding. If a foreign object is ground out of a tire, green tire rubber is placed in the area where finished rubber has been removed. The tire is then spot vulcanized or repaired by the repairman so that the repair cannot be readily seen. Some manufacturers have experienced air bubbles or blisters that can be visualized on the inner liner of the tire. These blisters have been repaired by poking them with an icepick-like device (awl) either through the tread, both steel belts and both body plies down to the blister and then pushing the air back out the hole produced by the icepick device, or by puncturing the blister from the inside and pressing the inner liner against the body plies with a hand stitcher. Neither of these repairs are appropriate or satisfactory and can lead to failure of the tire in the field. After final inspection/repair, tires are sent to the warehouse where tread labels are placed on the tire. They are then transferred to the retailer.

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5. POST-MANUFACTURING
I. ADJUSTMENTS All tires are subject to warranty adjustment until they are worn out. If a tire fails before it is worn down to 2/32nds inch tread wear, it is usually subject to adjustment by the tire manufacturer. The defective tire is returned to the dealer. If the dealer determines an adjustable condition is present, he will give the consumer partial credit on the purchase of a new tire depending on the extent of wear of the old tire. The tire is then sent to a regional adjustment center where a technician verifies the adjustable condition and enters adjustment data in a computer terminal. If the condition is verified, the retailer is given credit and the tire is destroyed. In some instances, the tire will be sent to the manufacturers tire engineering department for evaluation.

The most common mode of failure of steel belted radial tires during service on the highway is tread belt detachment, commonly referred to as tread separation. This can vary from complete delamination of the tread and upper steel belt to small separations between the components which can result in accelerated localized wear or vibrations during operation. There are at least six to eight different categories of adjustment that indicate tread belt separation in various stages.

Despite its limitations, the adjustment system is the best way to evaluate the performance of a tire in the field, as long as the information is not artificially manipulated or improperly handled. One should not just compare the number of adjustments to the total number of tires produced. Rather, one should consider the percentage of adjustments for any given category or categories to the total number of adjustments. For example, one would compare the total number of tread belt separations from the various categories which indicate tread belt separation to the total number of adjustments. If the number of tread belt separation related tires is very high compared to the other adjustable conditions, a serious tread belt separation problem exists.

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II. CLAIMS TIRES

In addition to adjusted tires, companies routinely obtain tires as a result of a claim system. If a tire failure, such as tread separation, causes property damage, that tire will not go into the adjustment system. Claims tires are routinely sent back to the manufacturer for analysis. The vast majority of claims tires are tread belt separations. The claims records can also be beneficial in evaluating the performance of tires in the field, especially when considered with adjustment records.

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6. PROGRAMABLE LOGIC CONTROLLERS


A Programmable Logic Controller, PLC or Programmable Controller is a digital computer used for automation of electromechanical processes, such as control of machinery on factory assembly lines, amusement rides, or light fixtures. PLCs are used in many industries and machines. Unlike general-purpose computers, the PLC is designed for multiple inputs and output arrangements, extended temperature ranges, immunity to electrical noise, and resistance to vibration and impact. Programs to control machine operation are typically stored in battery-backed-up or non-volatile memory. A PLC is an example of a hard realtime system since output results must be produced in response to input conditions within a limited time, otherwise unintended operation will result. PLCs are well adapted to a range of automation tasks. These are typically industrial processes in manufacturing where the cost of developing and maintaining the automation system is high relative to the total cost of the automation, and where changes to the system would be expected during its operational life. PLCs contain input and output devices compatible with industrial pilot devices and controls; little electrical design is required, and the design problem centers on expressing the desired sequence of operations. PLC applications are typically highly customized systems, so the cost of a packaged PLC is low compared to the cost of a specific custom-built controller design. On the other hand, in the case of massproduced goods, customized control systems are economical. This is due to the lower cost of the components, which can be optimally chosen instead of a "generic" solution, and where the non-recurring engineering charges are spread over thousands or millions of units. For high volume or very simple fixed automation tasks, different techniques are used. For example, a consumer dishwasher would be controlled by an electromechanical cam timer costing only a few dollars in production quantities. A microcontroller-based design would be appropriate where hundreds or thousands of units will be produced and so the development cost (design of power supplies, input/output hardware and necessary testing and certification) can be spread over many sales, and where the end-user would not need to alter the control. Automotive applications are an example; millions of units are built each year, and very few end-users alter the programming of these controllers. However, some specialty vehicles such as transit buses economically use PLCs

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instead of custom-designed controls, because the volumes are low and the development cost would be uneconomical. Very complex process control, such as used in the chemical industry, may require algorithms and performance beyond the capability of even high-performance PLCs. Very highspeed or precision controls may also require customized solutions; for example, aircraft flight controls. Single-board computers using semi-customized or fully proprietary hardware may be chosen for very demanding control applications where the high development and maintenance cost can be supported. "Soft PLCs" running on desktop-type computers can interface with industrial I/O hardware while executing programs within a version of commercial operating systems adapted for process control needs. Programmable controllers are widely used in motion control, positioning control and torque control. Some manufacturers produce motion control units to be integrated with PLC so that G-code (involving a CNC machine) can be used to instruct machine movements. PLCs may include logic for single-variable feedback analog control loop, a "proportional, integral, derivative" or "PID controller". A PID loop could be used to control the temperature of a manufacturing process, for example. Historically PLCs were usually configured with only a few analog control loops; where processes required hundreds or thousands of loops, a distributed control system (DCS) would instead be used. As PLCs have become more powerful, the boundary between DCS and PLC applications has become less distinct. PLCs have similar functionality as Remote Terminal Units. An RTU, however, usually does not support control algorithms or control loops. As hardware rapidly becomes more powerful and cheaper, RTUs, PLCs and DCSs are increasingly beginning to overlap in responsibilities, and many vendors sell RTUs with PLC-like features and vice versa. The industry has standardized on the IEC 61131-3functional block language for creating programs to run on RTUs and PLCs, although nearly all vendors also offer proprietary alternatives and associated development environments.

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Basic PLC hardware architecture The basic architecture of a PLC consists of main components The processor module. The power supply. The I/O modules.

The processor module consists of the central processing unit (CPU) and memory. In addition to a microprocessor, the CPU also contains at least an interface to a programming device and may contain interfaces to remote I/O and other communication networks. The power supply is usually a separate module, and the I/O modules are separate from the processor. The types of I/O modules include discrete (on/off), analog (continuous variable), and special modules like motion control or high-speed counters. The field devices are connected to the I/O modules.

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Depending on the amount of I/O and the particular PLC processor, the I/O modules may be in the same chassis as the processor and/or in one or more other chassis. Up until the late 1980s, the I/O modules in a typical PLC system were in chassis separate from the PLC processor. In the more typical present-day PLC, some of the I/O modules are present in the chassis that contains the processor. Some PLC systems allow more than one processor in the same chassis. Smaller PLCs are often mounted on a DIN rail. The smallest PLCs (often called micro-PLCs or nano-PLCs) include the power supply, processor, and all of the I/Os in one package. Some micro-PLCs contain a built-in operator interface panel. For many micro-PLCs, the amount of I/O is limited and not expandable.

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The Processor Module Stores the control program and data in its memory Reads the status of connected input devices Executes the control program Commands connected outputs to change state based on program Execution For ex-

ample: Turn a light on, start a fan, adjust a speed, or temperature Comes in various physical forms

I/O Modules Physically connect to field devices Input modules convert electrical signals coming in from input field devices such as

pushbuttons, to electrical signals that the PLC can understand. Output modules take information coming from the PLC and convert it to electrical

signals the output field devices can understand, such as a motor starter, or a hydraulic solenoid valve. I/O comes in various forms

Input module Input modules interface directly to devices such as switches and temperature sensors. Input modules convert many different types of electrical signals such as 120VAC, 24VDC, or 420mA, to signals which the controller can understand. Input modules convert real world voltage and currents to signals the PLC can understand. Since there are different types of input devices, there is a wide variety of input modules available, including both digital and analog modules. Output modules Output modules interface directly to devices such as motor starters and lights Output modules take digital signals from the PLC and convert them to electrical sig-

nals such as 24VDC and 4 mA that field devices can understand

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Output modules take a signal from a PLC and convert it to a signal that a field de-

vice needs to operate. Since there are different types of output devices, there is a wide variety of output cards available, including both digital and analog cards.

Chassis/Backplane All PLCs need some method of communicating between the controller, I/O and communications modules. Here are three ways used to accomplish this communications between the various components that make up the PLC system. Modules are installed in the same chassis as the PLC and communicate over the Modules are designed to plug into each other. The interconnecting plugs form a

chassis backplane

backplane. There is no chassis Modules are built into the PLC. The modules come together in one physical block.

The backplane in this case is transparent to the user Power Supply A power supply is needed to provide power to the PLC and any other modules. Power supplies come in various forms: Power supply modules that fit into one of the slots in a chassis External power supplies that mount to the outside of a chassis Stand alone power supplies that connect to the PLC or I/O through a power cable Embedded power supplies that come as part of the PLC block.

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Programming Software Software that runs on a PC is required to configure and program PLCs. Different products may require different programming software Software allows programs to be written in several different languages

Every PLC has associated programming software that allows the user to enter a program into the PLC. Software used today is Windows based, and can be run on any PC. Different products may require different software: PLC5, SLC, and ControlLogix each require their own programming software. PLC Controller in industrial application

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7. CONTROL SYSTEM
A complete control system is made up of a combination of PLCs, networks, I/O, terminals and software. All the components work together to form a complete control system.

Centralized Control

Centralized control refers to a control system where a single (usually large) PLC controls all of the I/O and performs all the control for the system

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Distributed Control

Distributed control refers to a control system where multiple PLC controllers share the responsibility of controlling the system. The PLCs usually communicate frequently with each other.

The Control System

The control system is the system that is responsible for the control of the process. This is the system that includes the PLC, all of the I/O and any Human Machine Interfaces (HMI).

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Data Acquisition System

The Data Acquisition system is generally responsible for collecting data about the control system, and storing it on master computers or servers, or displaying it on terminals. The data is often used later for reporting or charting purposes.

Made up of devices and networks which are responsible for acquiring data about the process. Not responsible for direct control of the process. The network used for data acquisition is often Ethernet. While data acquisition devices can exist directly on the control network, a gateway is often used to separate network traffic between the data acquisition system and the control system

Safety System

The Function of a Safety System is to monitor and control conditions on a machine

or process that are hazardous in themselves or, if no action were taken, may give rise to hazardous situations o o The Safety System runs in parallel with the Control System The Control System and

Safety System may share components Focus of Control System is Throughput Focus of Safety System is Protection

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trol

A Safety system is designed to protect People, Environment, Machinery The safety system is often referred to as safety control while the PLC system con-

trolling the devices that produce the end product is often referred to as the standard con-

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8. CONCLUSION
Were given invaluable exposure to the real-world of Industries. All the dry cal material that we have learnt over the years at university has taken on real and

theoretisig-

nificant relevance and we have seen how our studies can be applied to an Industrial organization

During the Industrial training we have learned how the transformation of natural rubber into a real world tyre by watching the entire manufacturing process. Learned about how the measuring instruments that we have learned in theory are used for suitable applications and their calibrations. And also seen how the measurements are taken during the process. The workers who explained how each machine works and also they helped to understand process by working the machines. We have seen entire industry process cycle of tyre manufacturing.

Our knowledge about the PLC applications in industry were only a dry theory during the training period we have seen and learned more about industrial applications of PLC and Control systems like DAS,DCS and safety systems etc. Here we were given to opportunity to investigate how different types of people in the workplace interacted and how to organize different types of people to build an effective and balanced team.

We are lucky enough to work with a group of enthusiastic and communicative people, who for what ever reason share in enjoying what they are doing; the atmosphere at Apollo Tyres Ltd. is unique and hope that it stays that way.

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9. REFERENCES

WWW.WIKIPEDIA.COM www.all-well.com.tw/post-cure-inflator.htm www.google.com www.apollotyres.com

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