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The Relation Ship of Organizational Politics with Psychological Health of employee an Empirical Study.

16. Feb.2013.

Dr. Jahanvash Kareem Lecturer, Institute of Management Sciences University of Baluchistan Quetta Pakistan. Mohammad Abdullah Institute of Management Sciences University of Baluchistan Quetta Pakistan (MBA Finance) session 2010-12

Correspondence author:
Mohammad Abdullah Abdullah.bukhari.ptv@gmail.com Cell: 00923458167252 Class Enrollment: E-37

Abstracts This study was conducted to describe the relation ship concerning organizational politics which is also termed as office politics and psychological health of employees. After reviewing literatures it is concluded that the office politics have an adverse bearing on the psychological well-being of employees more over same is the universal perception. We decided to collect data using questionnaire. 7 & 5 scale Likert style rating questionnaire. Different variables were used Emotional intelligence; negative effects, positive affect, satisfaction with life; happiness and life orientation were the dependent variables of the study. Study (n= 150) employees of Quetta city who were from sundry public and private sectors, response rate was 71 %. SPSS version 16 was used for data analysis. And our findings were totally adverse of all prior theories in this regard. And we are going to unfold new knowledge on this topic. After doing a comprehensive data analysis using Simple Linear Regression and Correlation it is concluded that office politics have a positive bearing on psychological health of employees. If we want productivity from our employees we should reduce restriction as much as possible. Unleashed employees are more likely to be motivated as compare to their counterparts restricted ones. Key words: Organizational Politics, Flourishing, Employee Psychological Health, Office Politics

Prepared By Mohammad Abdullah Shah Bukhari MBA Session 2010-12 Institute Of Management Sciences University Of Baluchistan Quetta Pakistan

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ntroduction Firs of all understand

what politics is? Basically politics is the use of power or put the power into action can be formally defined as Intentional behaviors that are aimed at enhancing the influence in order to protect vested interests. Organizational politics referred to those activities that are not required as a formal role in the organization setting. All organizations are subject to conflict and competition between the desires and interests of different departments, teams and individuals. Organizational politics refers to the processes through which these rival interests are played out and eventually reconciled. While in an ideal organization it may be hoped that decisions are made on a rational basis, politics is inherently nonrational and subject to power interactions between miscellaneous interests. Understanding the political system of an organization is necessary for a leader to operate effectively and reach their goals. A leader, exercising power, is able to have a strong influence on the political climate of an organization through their decisions, their way of handling conflict and providing recognition, support and inspiration to their teams. Negative organizational politics may be very destructive for an organization. This has been identified as one of the major sources of stress within modern businesses. Negative politics includes the use of subversive methods to promote a personal agenda which may undermine organizational objectives, divert energy away from organizational goals and compromise the interests, cooperation and fulfillment of other employees. Such tactics may include filtering or distortion of information, non2. Literature Review

cooperation, allocating blame, reprisals, dishonesty, obstructionism and threats. Often, political behavior and maneuvering within an organization is caused by uncertainty, such as unclear objectives, poorly defined decisions, competition and change. A leader's influence may be used to smother a political climate that promotes such negative politics. By promoting a positive culture that values integrity, respect and fairness within their team, the leader is able to channel people's interests and energy away from negative political interplay and towards an alignment with organization objectives. Allowing team members to express their interests and demonstrating a commitment to support individual needs integrates their fulfillments into the work organization and promotes the positive resolution of political conflicts. Constructive politics are good in the short as well as in the long run in contrast of their counter party distractive politics my rarely benefit in the short run but not at all in the long run. Destructive people are myopic and always found disturbed due to the negative thinking and jealousy due to which they cannot see anybody happy there. The objectives of the study are to scrutinize the Correlations between Organizational politics and psychological health. Identification of pertinent negative features from the organizational perspective. The present research was developed to reexamine the factors organizational politics impacts to psychological health of employees, and provide valid evidence for both the psychological health and new measure of Organizational politics.

Skillful and appropriate use of organizational politics is necessary for a leader to acquire and retain power and to accomplish major goals. Although political behavior can be unethical and destructive, it also can and should be ethical and contribute to a balanced set of interests. Perhaps we can join Aristotle in viewing organizational politics as a means of reconciling differences

Prepared By Mohammad Abdullah Shah Bukhari MBA Session 2010-12 Institute Of Management Sciences University Of Baluchistan Quetta Pakistan

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through consultation and negotiation, and as a means of creating order out of diversity while avoiding abuses. As Adolf Berle wrote in 1969 (p.562-3): Potentially Unethical Political Strategies and Tactics (Adapted from Dubrin p.203-4, 227-8) any technique of gaining power can be unethical if practiced in the extreme and with negative intentions. For example, a person who supports a boss by feeding him or her insider information that could affect the price of company stock is being unethical. Pfeffer (1992, p.30) defined politics as the processes, the actions, the behaviors through which potential power is utilized and realized. Another author (Dubrin, 2001, p.192) defined organizational politics as informal approaches to gaining power through means other than merit or luck. It could be argued that politics are used primarily to achieve power, either directly or indirectly, e.g., by being promoted, receiving a larger budget or other resources, or gaining desirable assignments. Factor Contributing to Political Behavior in Organizations (Morgan, 1986, p.142) it is useful to remember that in its original meaning, the idea of politics stems from the view that, where interests are divergent, society should provide a means of allowing individuals to reconcile their differences through consultation and negotiation. (Morgan, p.148) An organization's politics is most clearly manifested in the conflicts and power plays that sometimes occupy center stage, and in the countless interpersonal intrigues that provide diversions in the flow of organizational activity. Politics occurs on an ongoing basis, often in a way that is invisible to all but those directly involved. (Morgan, p.155) As Scottish sociologist Tom Burns has pointed out, most modern organizations promote various kinds of political behavior because they are designed as systems of simultaneous competition and collaboration. People must collaborate in pursuit of a common task, yet are often pitted against each other in competition for limited resources, status, and career advancement.. (Adapted from Morgan, p.195-8) There is a danger when becoming sensitized to political behavior that one begins to see everything as political, to develop a Machiavellian interpretation that suggests that everyone is trying to outwit and outmaneuver everyone else. Rather than use politics to generate new insights and understandings that can help deal with divergent interests. Exercising Control over Dysfunctional Politics (Loosely based on Culbert & McDonough, 1985; Dubrin, 2001, and Pettigrew, 2003) although necessary, organizational politics can hurt an organization and its members when carried to excess. Too much politicking can result in lower morale, higher turnover, and wasted time and effort, thereby lowering performance. To avoid these negative consequences, leaders should combat political behavior when it is excessive and dysfunctional. (Adapted from Morgan, p.194-5) After reflecting on the realities of political dynamics and behaviors in organizations, it seems appropriate to reevaluate the myth of a highly rational, objective, non-political organization. The idea of rationality seems to be invoked to overcome the contradictions inherent in the fact that an organization is simultaneously a system of competition and a system of cooperation. An emphasis on rationality could lead us to construct an organization that does not manage the diversity of interests present and, therefore, is ineffective and unstable. 3. Research Variables

Research conducted on the basis of organizational politics and psychological health relation. Research determined the impact of organizational politics on employees psychological health.

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Research also examined the relationship between the organization politics and the 6 variables measuring the different dimensions of psychological health. Following are the variables: 3.1 Negative effect Watson and Clark (1984) defined negative affectivity as a mood-dispositional dimension that reflects pervasive individual differences in negative emotionality and self-concept Negative affectivity represents an affective state dimension. Tellegen (1985) has demonstrated that individuals differ in negative emotional reactivity. Trait negative affectivity roughly corresponds to the dominant personality factor of anxiety/neuroticism within the Big Five personality traits. 3.2 Positive affect In recent research, two broad, general factorstypically labeled Positive Affect (PA) and Negative Affect (NA)have emerged reliably as the dominant dimensions of emotional experience. These factors have been identified in both intra and inter individual analyses, and they emerge consistently across diverse descriptor sets, time frames, response formats, languages, and cultures (Almagor & Ben-Porath, 1989; Mayer & Gaschke, 1988; Meyer & Shack, 1989; Tellegen, 1985; Watson, 1988b; Watson, Clark, & Tellegen, 1984; Watson & Tellegen, 1985; Zevon & Tellegen, 1982). To measure these factors, Watson, Clark, and Tellegen (1988) developed the Positive and Negative Affect Schedule (PANAS), which consists of two 10-item scales for PA and NA, respectively. (1994, Watson and Clark the PANAS-X: Manual) 3.3 Life orientation The bipolar dimensional view has two measures: the Scheier and Carver (1985) life orientation test (LOT) and Seligman et al (1975). Attribution style questionnaire the (LOT-R) questionnaire is the most commonly used questionnaire to measure dispositional optimism. Dispositional optimism is a generalized belief that the good things will happen Kavussanu and McAuley (1995). Questions are answered using five point scales. A coping item for the original (LOT). This test focuses more on expectation of good verses bad outcomes. Internal consistency and test re test reliability remained high. 3.4 Satisfaction with life The Satisfaction with Life Scale is a short and reliable measure of life-satisfaction. Lifesatisfaction is the cognitive component of subjective well-being (happiness). It allows people to consider the aspects that are most important to them and to evaluate how satisfied they are with them. Well, the Satisfaction with Life Scale was developed by the man some call Dr. Happiness, who has studied this subject more than 25 years, who featured first among researchers in its January 17, 2005 special issue on happiness research. Dr. Ed Diener from the University of Illinois didnt just make up five questions off the top of his head and call it a scientific instrument. There are a variety of ways to test such scales, and this one has been found to be valid (internally consistent, distinct) and reliable (stable) for both young and old. 3.5 Happiness Happiness constructs and measures vary as to whether they focus mainly on cold cognitions such as beliefs and evaluative judgments or on hot affective phenomena such as moods and emotions. Constructs also vary as to their target. Moods are relatively free floating affective states that may not have a known cause or target, emotions have specific targets, and attitudes by definition are judgments about attitude objects. (Cynthia D. Fisher. 2010) 3.6 Emotional intelligence Emotional intelligence (EI) is the ability to identify, assess, and control the emotions of oneself, of others, and of groups. It can be divided into ability EI and trait EI. Ability EI is usually measured using maximum performance tests and has stronger relationships with traditional intelligence,

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whereas trait EI is usually measured using self-report questionnaires and has stronger relationships with personality. 3.7 Organizational Politics Organizational politics explains self serving, devious and manipulative behavior of employees towards their work environment only for their self interests. These self interests might be at the cost of other employees or may be organizational goals as well. Ferris and Kacmar (1992) described that perception of politics is an employees observation about others self i nterested activities. Self interested activities may be included the selective manipulation and management of organizational policies. Kacmar and Carlson (1997) explained that 15 items scale based upon the three dimensions. 3.8 Structural Model: In this model organizational politics is independent construct and the other 6 variables are the dependent variables, Correlation and regression analysis are used to find the relationship by manipulation of dependent variable. I am here examining the prospective relationship between these variables. For instance increase in organizational politics is producing concomitant increase in Negative effect variable. We are delving in pursuits of the relationship of psychological health & organizational politics. (H 4) (H 2)

SWL

NE

0.461 (P=0.000)
(H6)

**

0.369 (P=0.000)
(H 3)

**

EI

0. .307 (P=0.010)

OP

0.660 (P=0.000)

**

LO

0.137 (P=0.189)

0.473 (P=0.000)

**

PA
(H 1)

H
(H 5)

Prepared By Mohammad Abdullah Shah Bukhari MBA Session 2010-12 Institute Of Management Sciences University Of Baluchistan Quetta Pakistan

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3.9

Hypotheses:

Hypotheses 1: H0: H1: H0: H1: H0: H1: H0: H1: H0: H1: H0: H1: Organizational politics have no relationship with positive affect. organizational politics have a relationship with positive affect. Organizational politics have no relationship with Negative effect. organizational politics have a relationship with Negative effect. Organizational politics have no relationship with Life orientation. organizational politics have a relationship with life orientation. Organizational politics have no relationship with Satisfaction with life. organizational politics have a relationship with Satisfaction with life. Organizational politics have no relationship with happiness. organizational politics have a relationship with happiness. Organizational politics have no relationship with Emotional intelligence. organizational politics have a relationship with Emotional intelligence.

Hypotheses 2:

Hypotheses 3:

Hypotheses 4:

Hypotheses 5:

Hypotheses 6:

These are some logical notions about the main hypothesis relationship. Our main objective through this analysis is to delineate the panoramic view of relationship and to quantify the magnitude of these correlations. Reunion of these variables and hypothesis will result in a purposeful conclusion and are likely to help in understanding and mainstreaming the organizational politics efficiently.

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4. 4.1

Research Methodology: Research design:

The design a master plan that specifies the methods and procedures for collecting and analyzing the needed information. A research design provides a framework or plan of action for the research. Mark Saunders, Philip Lewis, & Adrian Thornhill. (2009)Main purpose of the research was to describe the relationships between organizational politics and the psychological health variables. It is basically a descriptive research and explanatory as well descriptive factor is overwhelming. Examined the bearings of proscribed practices within the organizational setting. Formulation of an astute conclusion regarding the organizational politics. The focus of study is to find and describe the relevance of organizational politics and causes and effects of these relationships. My inclination was also towards the exploratory but I came to know that it is not a new topic lots of researches have been previously done for the said purpose. The researches were similar but less. But now I am delving to enlighten more parameters. 4.2 Universe: The sample frame for the study was all employees whether public or private where the sampling frame geographic area was Quetta city. The reason for sampling frame were following, 4.3 Because they all can give purposeful information Financial constraints I saw every second person was a victim of office politics in Quetta I decided to take initiative from my home town It was feasible to collect data from this population Sampling:

How ever it is decided to collect sample data from 150 employees. Following are the main drivers of the sampling frame 4.4 Because my study was concerned with the organizational psychology Political behavior which is practiced in the organization Psychological distress stems from job Identifying the contribution of organizations to the social psychology Due to large sample size simple random sampling is chosen because there are small organizations in Baluchistan and response rate is very low there fore it was not possible to collect data from only one organization. To capture variety of views To delineate actual representation Sample size was 150 employees Due to fallacious response rate Tools for data collection:

For the data collection closed ended questionnaire is used because it is the best barometer in the Descriptive researches. Fundamentally questionnaire is a set of stimuli in which literate people are exposed in order to observe their verbal behavior under these stimuli. (G.A. Lund Burg) Methods of data collection were mixed i.e. delivery and collection, structured interviews, group interviews.

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4.5

Reasons for selecting questionnaire for data collection

Due to the fact that most of the respondents were literate and if not can consult from an educated person. And ethical point confidentiality was also there these were some reasons to choose questionnaire. And because my research is descriptive and qualitative there fore questionnaire is being selected. 4.6 Formation of questionnaire: Questionnaire was obtained by latest researches of psychometric; questionnaire was highly sophisticated and precise. Content validity; construct validity, reliability, consistency etc. all the dimensions were perfectly well-thought-out in. Every variable is measured by many questions. Every response was authenticating by the numerous questions they were looking dissimilar but measuring the same variable with diverse style. Ethical standpoint was well-thought-out in the questionnaire. That is no one should identify their name their participation is volunteer and every one was free to answer or escape the question and they were free to retreat at any stage from the study. Questions were not so personal. Questionnaire was capturing the following attributes of elements 4.7 Age of respondent Gender of respondent Positive affect of psychological health of respondent Negative effect of psychological health of respondent Life orientation or social perception/relation of respondents Life satisfaction of respondents Emotional intelligence of respondents An attribute of organization i.e. organizational politics Test used for data analysis

As variables are qualitative therefore regression analysis was good for the measurement of variables. Simple linear regression and correlation used due to one fix variable other all random variable. If I had more than one fix variable than I was able to apply multiple linear regression model. Data collected for hypotheses was nonparametric and interval ratio that is scale in spss language. Descriptive statistics for data analysis has also been used here such as mean, standard deviation.

Prepared By Mohammad Abdullah Shah Bukhari MBA Session 2010-12 Institute Of Management Sciences University Of Baluchistan Quetta Pakistan

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5. 5.1 H0: H1:

Results Hypotheses 1: Organizational politics have no relationship with positive affect. organizational politics have a relationship with positive affect.

Correlation matrix specifying that there is positive correlation among organizational politics and positive affect that is 0.137 but due to type-2-error [p >0.05, ] p= 0.189 which is the sign of doubt towards the significance of this relationship and revealed that this relation was by chance and unrealistic. Synthesis: Because p = 0.189 so the positive relation that was 0.137 rendered idealistic and by chance. Hence it is concluded that alternate hypothesis H1 is overruled and null hypothesis H0 is accepted i.e. there is no relationship among these two variables. 5.2 H0: H1: Hypotheses 2: Organizational politics have no relationship with Negative effect. organizational politics have a relationship with Negative effect.

Correlation matrix specifying that there is positive correlation among organizational politics and negative affect that is 0.369 and due to p = 0.000 is type-1-error i.e. [p <0.05, ] which is the connotation towards the significance of this relationship and revealed that this relation is significant and real. Synthesis: Because p = 0.000 so positive relation that was 0.369 rendered realistic and significant. Hence it is concluded that the alternate hypothesis H1 is accepted and null hypothesis H0 is rejected i.e. there is a positive relation relationship among these two variables. That is one unit increase n organizational politics will yield up to 0.369 increases in negative effect. 5.3 H0: H1: Hypotheses 3: Organizational politics have no relationship with Life orientation. organizational politics have a relationship with life orientation.

Correlation matrix specifying that there is positive correlation among organizational politics and negative affect that is 0.660 and due to p = 0.000 is type-1-error i.e. [p <0.05, ] which is the connotation towards the significance of this relationship and revealed that this relation is significant and real. Synthesis: Because p = 0.000 so positive relation that was 0.660 rendered realistic and substantial. Hence it is concluded that the alternate hypothesis H1 is recognized and null hypothesis H0 is nullified i.e. there is a positive relationship among these two variables. That is one unit increase in organizational politics will bring out up to 0.660 set-ups in Life orientation. 5.4 H0: H1: Hypotheses 4: Organizational politics have no relationship with Satisfaction with life. organizational politics have a relationship with Satisfaction with life.

Correlation matrix specifying that there is positive correlation among organizational politics and satisfaction with life that is 0.461 and due to p = 0.000 is type-1-error i.e. [p <0.05, ] which is

Prepared By Mohammad Abdullah Shah Bukhari MBA Session 2010-12 Institute Of Management Sciences University Of Baluchistan Quetta Pakistan

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the connotation towards the significance of this relationship and revealed that this relation is significant and real. Synthesis: Because p = 0.000 so positive relation that was 0.461 delivered realistic and significant. Hence it is concluded that the alternate hypothesis H1 is accepted and null hypothesis H0 is rejected i.e. there is a positive relation relationship among these two variables. That is one unit increase in organizational politics will produce up to 0.461 increases in satisfaction with life. 5.5 H0: H1: Hypotheses 5: Organizational politics have no relationship happiness. organizational politics have a relationship with happiness.

Correlation matrix specifying that there is positive correlation among organizational politics and satisfaction with life that is 0.473 and due to p = 0.000 is type-1-error i.e. [p <0.05, ] which is the connotation towards the significance of this relationship and brought out that this relation is significant and real. Synthesis: Because p = 0.000 so positive relation that was 0.473 rendered realistic and significant. Hence it is concluded that the alternate hypothesis H1 is accepted and null hypothesis H0 is rejected i.e. there is a positive relation relationship among these two variables. That is one unit increase in organizational politics will produce up to 0.473 increases in happiness. 5.6 H0: H1: Hypotheses 6: Organizational politics have no relationship with Emotional intelligence. organizational politics have a relationship with Emotional intelligence.

Correlation matrix specifying that there is positive correlation among organizational politics and emotional intelligence that is 0.307 but due to type-2-error [p >0.05, ] i.e. p=0.010 which is the subtext towards the insignificance of this relationship and revealed that this relation was by chance. Synthesis: Because p = 0.010 so the positive relation that was 0.307 rendered unrealistic and by chance. Hence it is concluded that the alternate hypothesis H1 is rejected and null hypothesis H0 is accepted i.e. there is no relationship among organizational politics and emotional intelligence.

6. 6.1

Discussion and Conclusion Conclusion/ Synthesis:

This study is describing the relation ship between organizational politics that is also termed as office politics and psychological health of employee. After doing a lot of literature review i came to know that the office politics have an adverse effect on the psychological health of employee more over same is the universal perception. We decided to collect data using questionnaire. Questionnaire is developed to measure the different dimensions of psychological health and organizational politics emotional intelligence, negative effects, positive affect, satisfaction with life, happiness and life orientation were the dependent variables of the study and organizational politics was the only independent variable of the study.

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Data collected form the 106 employees sample size was 150 employees of Quetta city who were public and private as well. Major data collected from university of Baluchistan, PTV Quetta Centre, Secretariat and from my acquaintances. Findings of my results were unpredictable and were totally adverse of my expectation and prior theories it may be due to unpredictability of the inhabitant of this geographic area. Even though I am prospered in my aims because I have developed new theory which I believe will be tested in future researches and will contribute towards organizational success. After doing a comprehensive data analysis/systematic empiricism using simple linear regression i came to know that office politics increasing psychological health. Actually organizational politics should reduce the positive effect but here in my result organizational politics have no effects on the positive affect means the optimism is not affected by the organizational politics. And in the 2nd hypothesis my results are illuminating a positive correlation among organizational politics and negative effect which is good sign that there is relationship. As the organizational politics will increase it will adversely affect psychological health and this is logical as well. 3rd hypothesis revealed the results that increase in organizational politics will yield an increase in life orientation. Which is illogical but it is the finding of my research. That means people will start taking care of each others when there will be organizational politics. 4th hypothesis results that increase in organizational politics is likely to reveal corresponding positive change in the satisfaction with life and increase it. It means office politics increasing satisfaction with life people feel contended after doing it. 5th hypothesis also like 4th hypothesis suggesting that increase in organizational politics fetching cheerfulness in the life. Positive correlation has been found in the data analysis. It means people will be better-off if they will be allowed to practice office politics. And the last hypothesis telltale that if organizational politics is more at somewhere than emotional intelligence would build up but it is not necessary it was by chance and unrealistic. It is suggesting that office politics does not increasing emotional intelligence. Sensitivity to the emotions of others and an illusive control on your own emotions. After undertaking a systematic empiricism using simple linear regression and Pearson correlation concluded that office politics increasing psychological health. Overall conclusion is that organizational politics have a positive bearing on psychological well-being and good for psychological health of employees. Employees should be allowed to practice politics but in the favor of organization. Management should keep an eye to the employees activities and stay abreast of internal affairs. Political employees may be the better than non political ones effective utilization of their capabilities may lead to organizational drift and can be emerged as distinctive competence of the organization. 6.2 Importance of findings: Our findings are more valuable because they are exploring glistening avenues. It suggesting that employees should countenance playing politics freely. Ours findings proposing that employees should be allowed to practice office politics because they will feel contended and will work happily. They are more likely to be motivated after achieving career goal in consequence of their own effort rather just working as machine with bounded rationality. It should be accepted that political employees are more fruitful for an organization than non political employees. As all the previous researches done in this topic are suggesting that employees should not allow to play politics within the office premises but we believe if employees are allowed to play politics they will be more productive for the organization and society. This would be their competency and we should take example of Prime Minister or the head of state all are politician how effectively they are serving their country and their vision drift country to the success. Our verdicts are of well Prepared By Mohammad Abdullah Shah Bukhari MBA Session 2010-12 Institute Of Management Sciences University Of Baluchistan Quetta Pakistan

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prominence for the critical thinkers they can find new avenues from this study. Actually people play politics who are optimistic i.e. the believe in positive ramification of their actions. 6.3 Limitations:

Following are some major limitations of my study: 6.4 Illiteracy of society Culture Financial constraints Time constraints Adverse behavior of participants Resource constraints Social values Biased responses Lake of interest from respondent side Random tick marking from respondent side Lake of social support The results are specific in one geographical area and may or may not be generalizable to other areas Biased response of respondents delusions Disability to compensate respondents that brought lake of interest

Recommendations Research recommends that organizations should channelize their human resource towards ensuring that politics in their organizations should not become destructive. Organizations experts like organizational psychologists should be involved to recognize and handle the catastrophes of their organization. By hiring the organization psychologist organizations will be able to realize the employees needs and work for the betterment of the organization environment. Strategic managers should be highly diplomatic and well versed politicians i.e. leadership skill as well. Employees should be allowed to practice politics but management should ensure it functional. It may also propose that the organizations should manage development curriculum periodically for their supervisors to better understand the political environment and enable them to take timely corrective actions. Every member of staff should be the part of decision making i.e. participation and management should share success with their subordinates as well. It may also endorse that the organization should be proactive in analyzing political activities from their inception. Leaders should channelize the political skills of the employees towards the organizational success. In this way the employees of the organization psychologically and expressively associate with their institution and coworkers. Organization must arrange orientations for the new employees, which will be helpful in socializing them to the culture of organization. Organizations should induct employees after intensive psychological scrutiny. Only induct them when they found psychologically fit for the prospective position in term of doctrine, approach, beliefs, background, KSA level, personality etc. Contemporary psychometrics has

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made possible this type of scrutiny using different scale of measurement contagious in the questionnaires. In future the research could be done in different sectors with others variables.

Prepared By Mohammad Abdullah Shah Bukhari MBA Session 2010-12 Institute Of Management Sciences University Of Baluchistan Quetta Pakistan

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Annexure a Questionnaire

Dear Respondent,
I am a graduate student currently at the Institute of Management Sciences, University of Baluchistan and conducting research for the completion of my Masters in Business Administration. This research is about the impacts of political behaviors within organizational settings. Your participation in this study is voluntary and is important for the success of this study. The questionnaire that follows focuses on a variety of issues relating to organizational politics & its consequences. Please answer all questions to the best of your ability so this survey can be used for this research. I will be the only one who will see your responses and your confidentiality is assured. You have the right to withdraw from this research at any stage without penalty or loss of benefits. No individual will be identified in my thesis. If you would like further information about this study, or have problems in completing this questionnaire please contact me: Mohammad Abdullah Institute of Management Sciences, University of Baluchistan Email: Abdullah.bukhari.ptv@gmail.com 1) Indicate your age in years: _____ 2) Gender (Circle One): Positive affect (A) Very Slightly Or Not At All A Little a. Male Negative affect (B) Very Slightly Or Not At All A Little b. Female

On average I am ----

On average I am ----Quite A Bit Moderately Extremely

Quite A Bit 4 4 4

Moderately

1. Active 2. Determined 3. Attentive

1 1 1

2 2 2

3 3 3

4 4 4

5 5 5

1. Afraid 2. Nervous 3. Upset

1 1 1

2 2 2

3 3 3

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Extremely 5 5 5

4. Inspired 5. Alert

1 1

2 2

3 3

4 4

5 5

4. Hostile 5. Ashamed

1 1

2 2

3 3

4 4

5 5

Neither Disagree Nor Agree

Organizational politics Please take a short look on the description and then circle the level of agreement on each of the times below based on your opinion Moderately Disagree Strongly Disagree Slightly Disagree

Moderately Agree 6 6 6 6 6 6 6 6 6 6 6 6 6 6 6

1. It is best not to rock the boat (not make disturbances) in this organization 2. Sometimes it is easier to remain quiet than to fight the system 3. it is safer to think what you are told than to make up your own mind 4. Agreeing with powerful others is the best alternative in this organization 5. When it comes to pay raise and promotion decisions, policies are irrelevant. 6. In this organization, telling others what they want to hear is sometimes better than telling the truth 7. People in this organization attempt to build themselves up by tearing others down 8. There has always been an influential group in this department that no one ever crosses 9. Promotion around here are not valued much because how they are determined is so political 10. None of the raises I have received are consistent with the policies on how raises should be determined 11. Employees are encouraged to speak out frankly even when they are critical of well- established ideas 12. The stated pay and promotion policies have nothing to do with how pay raises and promotions are determined 13. There is no place for yes-men around here; good ideas are desired even if it means Disagreeing with superiors. 14. Since I have worked in this department/organization, I have never seen the pay and promotion policies applied politically 15. I cant remember when a person received a pay increase or promotion that was inconsistent with the published policies.

1 1 1 1 1

2 2 2 2 2

3 3 3 3 3

4 4 4 4 4

5 5 5 5 5

7 7 7 7 7

1 1 1 1

2 2 2 2

3 3 3 3

4 4 4 4

5 5 5 5

7 7 7 7

1 1 1 1 1

2 2 2 2 2

3 3 3 3 3

4 4 4 4 4

5 5 5 5 5

7 7 7 7 7

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Strongly Agree

Slightly Agree

Moderately Disagree

Moderately Agree 6 6 6 6 6 6 Moderately Agree 6 6 6 6 6

Strongly Disagree

Instructions Using the scale below as a guide, Tick a number on the line preceding each statement to indicate how much you agree with it.

Neither Disagree Nor Agree

Life orientation

Slightly Disagree

1. I have so much in life to be thankful for. 2. If I had to list everything that I felt grateful for, it would be a very long list. 3. When I look at the world, I dont see much to be grateful for. 4. I am grateful to a wide variety of people. 5. As I get older I find my self .more able to appreciate the people, events, and situations that have been part of my life history. 6. Long periods of time can go by before I feel grateful to something or someone.

1 1 1 1 1 1

2 2 2 2 2 2

3 3 3 3 3 3

4 4 4 4 4 4

5 5 5 5 5 5

7 7 7 7 7 7

Life satisfaction How much satisfied you are with Life? Moderately Disagree Strongly Disagree Neither Disagree Nor Agree

Slightly Disagree

1. In most ways my life is close to my ideal. ( I am happy with my life) 2. The conditions of my life are excellent. 3. I am satisfied with my life. 4. So far I have gotten the important things I want in life. 5. If I could live my life over, I would change almost nothing.

1 1 1 1 1

2 2 2 2 2

3 3 3 3 3

4 4 4 4 4

5 5 5 5 5

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Strongly Agree 7 7 7 7 7

Slightly Agree

Strongly Agree

Slightly Agree

Happiness Instructions to participants: For each of the following statements and/or questions, please circle the point on the scale that you feel is most appropriate in describing you. 1. In general, I consider myself: Not a very happy person 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 A very happy person 2. Compared to most of my peers, I consider myself: Less happy 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 More happy 3. Some people are generally very happy. They enjoy life regardless of what is going on, getting the most out of everything. To what extent does this characterization describe you? Not at all 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 A great deal 4. Some people are generally not very happy. Although they are not depressed, they never seem as happy as they might be. To what extend does this characterization describe you? Not a great deal 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 A great deal

Emotional intelligence Instructions Following are phrases describing people's behaviors. Please use the rating scale below to describe how accurately each statement describes you. Describe yourself as you generally are now, not as you wish to be in the future. Describe yourself as you honestly see yourself, in relation to other people you know of the same sex as you are, and roughly your same age. So that you can describe yourself in an honest manner, your responses will be kept in absolute confidence. Please read each statement carefully, and then tick in the box that corresponds to the number on the scale.

Neither Disagree Nor Agree 4 4 4 4 4

Moderately Disagree

Strongly Disagree

Slightly Disagree

1 I have a good sense of why I have certain feelings most of the time. 2 I have good understanding of my own emotions (e.g., sadness, happiness or anger). 3 I really understand what I feel. 4 I always know whether or not I am happy. 5 I always know my friends emotions from their behavior.

1 1 1 1 1

2 2 2 2 2

3 3 3 3 3

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Slightly Agree 5 5 5 5 5

6 I am a good observer of others emotions (e.g., sadness, happiness or anger) 7 I am sensitive to the feelings and emotions of others. 8 I have good understanding of the emotions of people around me. 9 I always set goals for myself and then try my best to achieve them. 10 I always tell myself I am a competent person. 11 I am a self-motivated person. 12 I would always encourage myself to try my best. 13 I am able to control my temper and handle difficulties rationally. 14 I am quite capable of controlling my own emotions (e.g., sadness, happiness or anger). 15 I can always calm down quickly when I am very angry. 16 I have good control of my own emotions.

1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1

2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2

3 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 3

4 4 4 4 4 4 4 4 4 4 4

5 5 5 5 5 5 5 5 5 5 5

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Annexure b Refferences bibliographies auxiliaries: Berle, Adolf A. (1969). Power. New York: Harcort, Brace & World. Culbert, Samuel A. & McDonough, John J. (1985). Radical management: Power politics and the pursuit of trust. New York: The Free Press. Jahanvash Karim and Robert Weisz 2010. Cross-Cultural Research on the Reliability andValidity of the Mayer-Salovey-Caruso EmotionalIntelligence Test (MSCEIT) SAGE Publications. Dubrin, Andrew J. (2001). Leadership. (3rd ed) New York: Houghton Mifflin Morgan, Gareth (1996). Images of organization (2nd ed). Newbury Park: Sage Pettigrew, Andrew (2003). "Strategy as process, power and change," in Stephen Cummings & David Wilson (2003), Images of Strategy. Malden, MA: Blackwell. Pfeffer, Jeffrey (1992). Managing with power: Politics and influence in organizations. Boston: Harvard Business School Press. Cynthia D. Fisher. (2010) "Happiness at work" International journal of management reviews, 12 (4), 384-412. G D Batty PhD, J E Ferrie PhD,M Hamer PhD, M Kumari PhD,Prof M G Marmot MD,A Singh-Manoux PhD,Prof A Steptoe DPh); September 14, 2012. Job strain as a risk factor for coronary heart disease: a collaborative meta-analysis of individual participant data. Published online Gallagher, Vickie Coleman, "Situational and Dispositional Antecedents and Consequences of Impression Management Tactics: The Role of Political Skill" (2007). Electronic Theses, Treatises and Dissertations. Paper 4381. http://diginole.lib.fsu.edu/etd/4381
Raymond masse, carole pouling, clement dassa, jeans lambert, Sylvie belair

and alex battaglini (1998). The structure of mentle health: highier order conformatory factor analysis of psychological distress and well beingmeasure social indicator research. Kabilan , Ahmad, Zainol Abidin (2010). Facebook: An online environment for learning of English in institutions of higher education? School of Educational Studies, Universiti Sains Malaysia, 11800 13 179187 Penang, Malaysia Internets and Higher Education. SHARON K. HOWELL B.S.B.A University of Alabama in Huntsville, 1992 INVESTIGATING THE EFFECTS IN THE ACCOUNTING PROFESSION Master

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of Accountancy University of Alabama in Huntsville, 1998. Student: yu-chia-kuo RA 7921123 Advisor: Dr. Tazai-zang-lee June 2005.An empirical study on the impact of perceived organizational politics on job satisfaction. National cheng Kung university (IMBA) Program master thesis. Coole, David R., "Expansion and validation of the Political Skill Inventory (PSI ): An examination of the link between charisma, political skill, and performance" (2007). Graduate School Theses and Dissertations. http://scholarcommons.usf.edu/etd/680CHU Hsiang chang, christopher c. Rosen, paul e. Levy 2009. The relationship between perceptions of organizational politics and employee attitudes, strain, and behavior: a meta-analytic examination. Academy of management journal vol. 52, no. 4, 779801. Roblyer, McDaniel, Webb, Herman and Witty 13 (2010). Findings on Facebook in higher education: A comparison of college faculty and student uses and perceptions of social networking sites. Internet and Higher Education MLA Sample Research Paper MPC English & Study Skills Center, revised 9/09 Ed Diener and the Gallup Organization Ronald Inglehat, Louis Tay Draft Date: April 14, 2012. Theory and Validity of Life Satisfaction Scales Social Indicators Research, in press. Watson, Clark. The PANAS-X: Manual for the Positive and Negative Affect Schedule - Expanded Form LIFE ORIENTATION TEST Revised (LOT-R) University of Iowa Saunders, Lewis, Thornhill 2009. Research methods for business students fi fth edition Pearson Education. Zikmund & Babin 2003,2007. EXPLORING MARKETING RESEARCH NINTH EDITION Thompson Corporation. Zikmund, Babin, Carr and Griffing Business research methods eighth edition.
Mental disorder - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia"

http://www.changes.org.uk/html/mental_distress.html http://www.erin.utoronto.ca/~w3psyuli/survey/demo.cgi?survey=swls

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Annexure c

Characteristics of respondents: Statistics

Gender N Valid Missing 106 0

Gender Frequency Valid Male Female Total 92 14 106 Percent 86.8 13.2 100.0 Valid Percent 86.8 13.2 100.0 Cumulative Percent 86.8 100.0

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Age Stem-and-Leaf Plot Frequency Stem & Leaf . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 00111 2222233333 444445555555555 666666667777777 88899 00000111 22223333 455555 666777 89 0011 223 44455 667 9 3 55 667 (>=58)

5.00 2 10.00 2 15.00 2 15.00 2 5.00 2 8.00 3 8.00 3 6.00 3 6.00 3 2.00 3 4.00 4 3.00 4 5.00 4 3.00 4 1.00 4 .00 5 1.00 5 2.00 5 3.00 5 3.00 Extremes Stem width: Each leaf:

10 1 case(s)

Descriptive Statistics N Age Valid N (list wise) 105 105 Range 46 Minimum 20 Maximum 66 Mean 32.95 Std. Deviation 10.407

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Annexure d Hypotheses 1: H0: H1:

Data Analyses Organizational politics have no relationship with positive affect. Organizational politics have a relationship with positive affect. Descriptive Statistics Mean Std. Deviation .88976 .75191 N 103 97

Positive Affect Organizational Politics

3.1903 4.1498

Correlation Matrix

Positive Affect Positive Affect Pearson Correlation Sig. (2-tailed) N Organizational Politics Pearson Correlation Sig. (2-tailed) N 103 .137 .189 94 1

Organizational Politics .137 .189 94 1

97

Regression

Variables Entered/Removed Model 1 Variables Entered Organizational Politics Variables Removed . Enter Method

a. All requested variables entered. b. Dependent Variable: Positive Affect

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Model Summary Std. Error of the Estimate .90772

Model 1

R .137

R Square .019

Adjusted R Square .008

a. Predictors: (Constant), Organizational Politics

ANOVA Model 1 Regression Residual Total Sum of Squares 1.444 75.804 77.248 df 1 92 93 Mean Square 1.444 .824 F 1.752 Sig. .189

a. Predictors: (Constant), Organizational Politics b. Dependent Variable: Positive Affect

Coefficients Standardized Unstandardized Coefficients Coefficients Model 1 (Constant) Organizational Politics a. Dependent Variable: Positive Affect B 2.481 .166 Std. Error .530 .126 .137 Beta t 4.679 1.324 Sig. .000 .189

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Hypotheses 2: H0: H1: Organizational politics have no relationship with Negative effect. Organizational politics have a relationship with Negative effect.

Descriptive Statistics Mean Negative Effect Organizational Politics 2.5111 4.1498 Std. Deviation .87235 .75191 N 99 97

Correlations Organizational Politics 1 .369** .000 99 .369** .000 92 97 92 1

Negative Effect Negative Effect Pearson Correlation Sig. (2-tailed) N Organizational Politics Pearson Correlation Sig. (2-tailed) N **. Correlation is significant at the 0.01 level (2-tailed).

Regression Variables Entered/Removed Model 1 Variables Entered Organizational Politics Variables Removed . Enter Method

a. All requested variables entered. b. Dependent Variable: Negative Effect

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Model Summary Std. Error of the Estimate .80073

Model 1

R .369

R Square .136

Adjusted R Square .126

a. Predictors: (Constant), Organizational Politics

ANOVA Model 1 Regression Residual Total Sum of Squares 9.089 57.705 66.794 df 1 90 91 Mean Square 9.089 .641 F 14.176 Sig. .000

a. Predictors: (Constant), Organizational Politics b. Dependent Variable: Negative Effect

Coefficients Standardized Unstandardized Coefficients Coefficients Model 1 (Constant) Organizational Politics a. Dependent Variable: Negative Effect B .707 .421 Std. Error .474 .112 .369 Beta t 1.492 3.765 Sig. .139 .000

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Hypotheses 3: H0: H1: Organizational politics have no relationship with Life orientation. Organizational politics have a relationship with life orientation.

Descriptive Statistics Mean Life Orientation Organizational Politics 4.6684 4.1498 Std. Deviation 1.06542 .75191 N 97 97

Correlations Organizational Politics 1 .660** .000 97 .660** .000 91 97 91 1

Life Orientation Life Orientation Pearson Correlation Sig. (2-tailed) N Organizational Politics Pearson Correlation Sig. (2-tailed) N **. Correlation is significant at the 0.01 level (2-tailed).

Regression

Variables Entered/Removed Model 1 Variables Entered Organizational Politics Variables Removed . Enter Method

a. All requested variables entered. b. Dependent Variable: Life Orientation

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Model Summary Std. Error of the Estimate .78260

Model 1

R .660

R Square .435

Adjusted R Square .429

a. Predictors: (Constant), Organizational Politics

ANOVA Model 1 Regression Residual Total Sum of Squares 41.995 54.509 96.504 df 1 89 90 Mean Square 41.995 .612 F 68.568 Sig. .000

a. Predictors: (Constant), Organizational Politics b. Dependent Variable: Life Orientation

Coefficients Standardized Unstandardized Coefficients Coefficients Model 1 (Constant) Organizational Politics a. Dependent Variable: Life Orientation B .907 .911 Std. Error .466 .110 .660 Beta t 1.946 8.281 Sig. .055 .000

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Hypotheses 4: H0: H1: Organizational politics have no relationship with Satisfaction with life. Organizational politics have a relationship with Satisfaction with life.

Descriptive Statistics Mean Organizational Politics Satisfaction With Life 4.1498 4.8560 Std. Deviation .75191 1.40391 N 97 100

Correlations Organizational Politics Organizational Politics Pearson Correlation 1 Satisfaction With Life .461** .000 97 .461** .000 94 100 94 1

Sig. (2-tailed) N Satisfaction With Life Pearson Correlation

Sig. (2-tailed) N **. Correlation is significant at the 0.01 level (2-tailed).

Regression

Variables Entered/Removed Model 1 Variables Entered Organizational Politics Variables Removed . Enter Method

a. All requested variables entered. b. Dependent Variable: Satisfaction With Life

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Model Summary Std. Error of the Estimate 1.28375

Model 1

R .461

R Square .213

Adjusted R Square .204

a. Predictors: (Constant), Organizational Politics

ANOVA Model 1 Regression Residual Total Sum of Squares 40.917 151.618 192.535 df 1 92 93 Mean Square 40.917 1.648 F 24.828 Sig. .000

a. Predictors: (Constant), Organizational Politics b. Dependent Variable: Satisfaction With Life

Coefficients Standardized Unstandardized Coefficients Coefficients Model 1 (Constant) Organizational Politics B 1.159 .886 Std. Error .752 .178 .461 t 1.541 4.983 Sig. .127 .000

a. Dependent Variable: Satisfaction With Life

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Hypotheses 5: H0: H1: Organizational politics have no relationship happiness. Organizational politics have a relationship with happiness. Descriptive Statistics Mean Organizational Politics Happiness 4.1498 4.5026 Std. Deviation .75191 .86640 N 97 97

Correlations Organizational Politics Organizational Politics Pearson Correlation 1

Happiness .473** .000 97 91 1

Sig. (2-tailed) N Happiness Pearson Correlation

.473** .000 91

Sig. (2-tailed) N **. Correlation is significant at the 0.01 level (2-tailed).

97

Regression

Variables Entered/Removed Model 1 Variables Entered Organizational Politics Variables Removed . Enter Method

a. All requested variables entered. b. Dependent Variable: Happiness

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Model Summary Std. Error of the Estimate .72983

Model 1

R .473

R Square .223

Adjusted R Square .215

a. Predictors: (Constant), Organizational Politics

ANOVA Model 1 Regression Residual Total Sum of Squares 13.627 47.406 61.033 df 1 89 90 Mean Square 13.627 .533 F 25.584 Sig. .000

a. Predictors: (Constant), Organizational Politics b. Dependent Variable: Happiness

Coefficients Standardized Unstandardized Coefficients Coefficients Model 1 (Constant) Organizational Politics a. Dependent Variable: Happiness B 2.301 .536 Std. Error .449 .106 .473 t 5.120 5.058 Sig. .000 .000

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Hypotheses 6: H0: H1: Organizational politics have no relationship with Emotional intelligence. Organizational politics have a relationship with Emotional intelligence. Descriptive Statistics Mean Organizational Politics Emotional Intelligence 4.1498 3.8579 Std. Deviation .75191 .59578 N 97 73

Correlations Organizational Politics Organizational Politics Pearson Correlation 1 Emotional Intelligence .307* .010 97 .307* .010 69 73 69 1

Sig. (2-tailed) N Emotional Intelligence Pearson Correlation

Sig. (2-tailed) N *. Correlation is significant at the 0.05 level (2-tailed).

Regression Variables Entered/Removed Model 1 Variables Entered Organizational Politics Variables Removed . Enter Method

a. All requested variables entered. b. Dependent Variable: Emotional Intelligence

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Model Summary Std. Error of the Estimate .56381

Model 1

R .307

R Square .094

Adjusted R Square .081

a. Predictors: (Constant), Organizational Politics

ANOVA Model 1 Regression Residual Total Sum of Squares 2.219 21.298 23.516 df 1 67 68 Mean Square 2.219 .318 F 6.980 Sig. .010

a. Predictors: (Constant), Organizational Politics b. Dependent Variable: Emotional Intelligence

Coefficients Standardized Unstandardized Coefficients Coefficients Model 1 (Constant) Organizational Politics B 2.755 .270 Std. Error .421 .102 .307 t 6.548 2.642 Sig. .000 .010

a. Dependent Variable: Emotional Intelligence

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