Basic Arithmetic
TERMINOLOGY
Absolute value: The distance of a number from zero on the number line. Hence it is the magnitude or value of a number without the sign Directed numbers: The set of integers or whole numbers f 3, 2, 1, 0, 1, 2, 3, f Exponent: Power or index of a number. For example 23 has a base number of 2 and an exponent of 3 Index: The power of a base number showing how many times this number is multiplied by itself e.g. 2 3 = 2 # 2 # 2. The index is 3 Indices: More than one index (plural) Recurring decimal: A repeating decimal that does not terminate e.g. 0.777777 is a recurring decimal that can be written as a fraction. More than one digit can recur e.g. 0.14141414 ... Scientic notation: Sometimes called standard notation. A standard form to write very large or very small numbers as a product of a number between 1 and 10 and a power of 10 e.g. 765 000 000 is 7.65 # 10 8 in scientific notation
INTRODUCTION
THIS CHAPTER GIVES A review of basic arithmetic skills, including knowing the
correct order of operations, rounding off, and working with fractions, decimals and percentages. Work on signicant gures, scientic notation and indices is also included, as are the concepts of absolute values. Basic calculator skills are also covered in this chapter.
Real Numbers
Types of numbers
Unreal or imaginary numbers Real numbers
Rational numbers
Irrational numbers
Integers
Integers are whole numbers that may be positive, negative or zero. e.g.  4, 7, 0, 11 a Rational numbers can be written in the form of a fraction b 3 where a and b are integers, b ! 0. e.g. 1 , 3.7, 0. 5,  5 4 a Irrational numbers cannot be written in the form of a fraction (that b is, they are not rational) e.g. 2 , r
EXAMPLE
Which of these numbers are rational and which are irrational? 3 r 3 , 1. 3, , 9 , ,  2.65 4 5
Solution
r are irrational as they cannot be written as fractions (r is irrational). 4 3 13 1 1. 3 = 1 , 9 = and  2.65 =  2 so they are all rational. 3 1 20 3 and
Order of operations
1. Brackets: do calculations inside grouping symbols rst. (For example, a fraction line, square root sign or absolute value sign can act as a grouping symbol.) 2. Multiply or divide from left to right. 3. Add or subtract from left to right.
EXAMPLE
Evaluate 40  3 ] 5 + 4 g .
Solution
40  3 (5 + 4) = 40  3# 9 = 40  27 = 13
BRACKETS KEYS
Use ( and ) to open and close brackets. Always use them in pairs. For example, to evaluate 40  3 ] 5 + 4 g press 40  3 # To evaluate press : ( ( 5 + 4 ) = = 13 5.67  3.49 correct to 1 decimal place 1.69 + 2.77 ( 5.67  3.49 ) ' ( 1.69 + 2.77 ) ) = = 0.7 correct to 1 decimal place
PROBLEM
What is wrong with this calculation? Evaluate 19  4 1+2 Press 19  4 ' 1 + 2 = 19  4 '1 + 2
17
MEMORY KEYS
Use STO to store a number in memory. There are several memories that you can use at the same timeany letter from A to F, or X, Y and M on the keypad. To store the number 50 in, say, A press 50 STO A To recall this number, press ALPHA A = To clear all memories press SHIFT CLR
Different calculators use different keys so check the instructions for your calculator.
X 1 KEY
Use this key to find the reciprocal of x. For example, to evaluate 1  7.6 # 2.1 1 = press ( () 7.6 # 2.1 ) x =  0.063 (correct to 3 decimal places)
Rounding off
Rounding off is often done in everyday life. A quick look at a newspaper will give plenty of examples. For example in the sports section, a newspaper may report that 50 000 fans attended a football match. An accurate number is not always necessary. There may have been exactly 49 976 people at the football game, but 50 000 gives an idea of the size of the crowd.
EXAMPLES
1. Round off 24 629 to the nearest thousand.
Solution
This number is between 24 000 and 25 000, but it is closer to 25 000.
CONTINUED
Solution
This number is exactly halfway between 800 and 900. When a number is halfway, we round it off to the larger number. ` 850 = 900 to the nearest hundred
In this course you will need to round off decimals, especially when using trigonometry or logarithms. To round a number off to a certain number of decimal places, look at the next digit to the right. If this digit is 5 or more, add 1 to the digit before it and drop all the other digits after it. If the digit to the right is less than 5, leave the digit before it and drop all the digits to the right.
EXAMPLES
1. Round off 0.6825371 correct to 1 decimal place.
Add 1 to the 6 as the 8 is greater than 5.
Solution
0.6825371 # ` 0.6825371 = 0.7 correct to 1 decimal place 2. Round off 0.6825371 correct to 2 decimal places.
Drop off the 2 and all digits to the right as 2 is smaller than 5.
Solution
0.6825371 # ` 0.6825371 = 0.68 correct to 2 decimal places 3. Evaluate 3.56 ' 2.1 correct to 2 decimal places.
Check this on your calculator. Add 1 to the 69 as 5 is too large to just drop off.
Solution
3.56 ' 2.1 = 1.69 # 5238095 = 1.70 correct to 2 decimal places
FIX KEY
Use MODE or SET UP to fix the number of decimal places (see the instructions for your calculator). This will cause all answers to have a fixed number of decimal places until the calculator is turned off or switched back to normal.
While using a xed number of decimal places on the display, the calculator still keeps track internally of the full number of decimal places.
EXAMPLE
Calculate 3.25 ' 1.72 # 5.97 + 7.32 correct to 2 decimal places.
Solution
3.25 ' 1.72 # 5.97 + 7.32 = 1.889534884 # 5.97 + 7.32 = 11.28052326 + 7.32 = 18.60052326 = 18.60 correct to 2 decimal places If the FIX key is set to 2 decimal places, then the display will show 2 decimal places at each step. 3.25 ' 1.72 # 5.97 + 7.32 = 1.89 # 5.97 + 7.32 = 11.28 + 7.32 = 18.60 If you then set the calculator back to normal, the display will show the full answer of 18.60052326.
The calculator does not round off at each step. If it did, the answer might not be as accurate. This is an important point, since some students round off each step in calculations and then wonder why they do not get the same answer as other students and the textbook.
1.1 Exercises
1. State which numbers are rational and which are irrational. (a) 169 (b) 0.546 (c) 17 r (d) 3 (e) 0.34 (f) 218 (g) 2 2 1 (h) 27 (i) 17.4% 1 (j) 5
2.
Evaluate (a) 20  8 ' 4 (b) 3 # 7  2 # 5 (c) 4 # ] 27 ' 3 g ' 6 (d) 17 + 3 #  2 (e) 1.9  2 # 3.1 14 ' 7 (f) 1 + 3 3 1 2 (g) 2  # 5 5 3 3 1 1 4 8 (h) 5 6 5 5 ' 8 6 (i) 1 1 + 4 8 1 7 3 5 10 (j) 1 1 1 4 2 Evaluate correct to 2 decimal places. (a) 2.36 + 4.2 ' 0.3 (b) ] 2.36 + 4.2 g ' 0.3 (c) 12.7 # 3.95 ' 5.7 (d) 8.2 ' 0.4 + 4.1# 0.54 (e) ] 3.2  6.5 g # ] 1.3 + 2.7 g 1 (f) 4.7 + 1.3 1 (g) 4.51 + 3.28 0.9 + 1.4 (h) 5.2  3.6 5.33 + 2.87 (i) 1.23  3.15 (j) 1.7 2 + 8.9 2  3.94 2
7.
A crowd of 10 739 spectators attended a tennis match. Write this gure to the nearest thousand. A school has 623 students. What is this to the nearest hundred? A bank made loans to the value of $7 635 718 last year. Round this off to the nearest million.
8. 9.
10. A company made a prot of $34 562 991.39 last year. Write this to the nearest hundred thousand. 11. The distance between two cities is 843.72 km. What is this to the nearest kilometre? 12. Write 0.72548 correct to 2 decimal places. 13. Round off 32.569148 to the nearest unit. 14. Round off 3.24819 to 3 decimal places. 15. Evaluate 2.45 # 1.72 correct to 2 decimal places. 16. Evaluate 8.7 ' 5 correct to 1 decimal place. 17. If pies are on special at 3 for $2.38, nd the cost of each pie. 18. Evaluate 7.48 correct to 2 decimal places. 19. Evaluate 6.4 + 2.3 correct to 8 1 decimal place.
3.
4. 5. 6.
Round off 1289 to the nearest hundred. Write 947 to the nearest ten. Round off 3200 to the nearest thousand.
20. Find the length of each piece of material, to 1 decimal place, if 25 m of material is cut into 7 equal pieces.
21. How much will 7.5 m 2 of tiles cost, at $37.59 per m2? 22. Divide 12.9 grams of salt into 7 equal portions, to 1 decimal place. 23. The cost of 9 peaches is $5.72. How much would 5 peaches cost? 24. Evaluate correct to 2 decimal places. (a) 17.3  4.33 # 2.16 (b) 8.72 # 5.68  4.9 # 3.98
(c)
3.5 + 9.8 5.6 + 4.35 15.9 + 6.3  7.8 (d) 7.63  5.12 1 (e) 6.87  3.21
25. Evaluate
Directed Numbers
Many students use the calculator with work on directed numbers (numbers that can be positive or negative). Directed numbers occur in algebra and other topics, where you will need to remember how to use them. A good understanding of directed numbers will make your algebra skills much better.
^  h KEY
Use this key to enter negative numbers. For example, press () 3 =
10
To add: move to the right along the number line To subtract: move to the left along the number line
4 3 2 1
1 Add
Subtract
EXAMPLES
You can also do these on a calculator, or you may have a different way of working these out.
Evaluate 1.  4 + 3
Solution
Start at  4 and move 3 places to the right.
4
3
2
1
 4 + 3 = 1 2. 1  2
Solution
Start at 1 and move 2 places to the left.
4
3
2
1
1  2 = 3
11
EXAMPLES
Evaluate 1.  2 #7
Solution
Different signs ( 2 and + 7) give a negative answer.  2 # 7 = 14 2. 12 '  4
Solution
Same signs (12 and  4) give a positive answer. 12 '  4 = 3 3. 1   3
Solution
The signs together are the same (both negative) so give a positive answer. 1  3 = 1 + 3 =2

1.2 Exercises
Evaluate 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. 8. 9. 2 + 3 7  4 8 # 7 7  ]3 g 28 ' 7  4 . 9 + 3 .7  2.14  5.37 4.8 # 7.4 1.7  ]  4.87 g 3 2 1 5 3 11. 5  3 # 4 12.  2 + 7 #  3 13. 4  3 #  2 14. 1  2 15. 7 +  2 16. 2  ] 1 g 17.  2 + 15 ' 5 18.  2 # 6 #  5 19.  28 ' 7 #  5 20. ]  3 g2
10. 
12
EXAMPLES
1. Write 0.45 as a fraction in its simplest form.
Solution
0.45 = 45 5 ' 5 100 9 = 20 3 to a decimal. 8
3 means 3 ' 8. 8
2. Convert
Solution
0.375 8 g 3.000 3 So = 0.375 8 3. Change 35.5% to a fraction.
Solution
35.5% = 35.5 2 # 100 2 71 = 200
Solution
Multiply by 100% to change a fraction or decimal to a percentage.
Solution
1 kg = 1000 g 20 g 20 g = 1000 g 1 kg 1 = 50
13
6. Find the percentage of people who prefer to drink Lemon Fuzzy, if 24 out of every 30 people prefer it.
Solution
24 100% # = 80% 30 1
Sometimes decimals repeat, or recur. Example 1 = 0.33333333 f = 0. 3 3 There are different methods that can be used to change a recurring decimal into a fraction. Here is one way of doing it. Later you will discover another method when studying series. (See HSC Course book, Chapter 8.)
EXAMPLES
1. Write 0. 4 as a rational number.
Solution
Let n = 0.44444 f Then 10n = 4.44444 f (2)  (1): 9n = 4 4 n= 9 2. Change 1.329 to a fraction.
( 1) ( 2)
Solution
n = 1.3292929 f Let Then 100n = 132.9292929 f (2)  (1): 99n = 131.6 131.6 10 n= # 99 10 1316 = 990 163 =1 495 ( 1) ( 2)
Try multiplying n by 10. Why doesnt this work?
CONTINUED
14
Another method
This method avoids decimals in the fraction at the end.
Let n = 1.3292929 f Then 10n = 13.2929292 f and 1000n = 1329.292929 f (2)  (1): 990n = 1316 1316 n= 990 163 =1 495
(1 ) (2 )
1.3 Exercises
1. Write each decimal as a fraction in its lowest terms. (a) 0.64 (b) 0.051 (c) 5.05 (d) 11.8 Change each fraction into a decimal. 2 (a) 5 7 (b) 1 8 5 (c) 12 7 (d) 11 Convert each percentage to a fraction in its simplest form. (a) 2% (b) 37.5% (c) 0.1% (d) 109.7% Write each percentage as a decimal. (a) 27% (b) 109% (c) 0.3% (d) 6.23% Write each fraction as a percentage. 7 20 1 (b) 3 (a) (c) 2 4 15 1 (d) 1000
6.
2.
Write each decimal as a percentage. (a) 1.24 (b) 0.7 (c) 0.405 (d) 1.2794 Write each percentage as a decimal and as a fraction. (a) 52% (b) 7% (c) 16.8% (d) 109% (e) 43.4% 1 (f) 12 % 4 Write these fractions as recurring decimals. 5 (a) 6 7 (b) 99 13 (c) 99 1 (d) 6 2 (e) 3
7.
3.
8.
4.
5.
15
5 33 1 (g) 7 2 (h) 1 11 (f) 9. Express as fractions in lowest terms. (a) 0. 8 (b) (c) (d) (e) (f) (g) 0. 2 1. 5 3. 7 0. 67 0. 54 0.15
31 99 13 + 6 (e) 7+4 (d) 1 11. Evaluate and write as a fraction. (a) 7.5 ' ] 4.1 + 7.9 g 15.7  8.9 (b) 4.5  1.3 6.3 + 1.7 (c) 12.3  8.9 + 7.6 4 .3 (d) 11.5  9.7 64 (e) 8100 12. Angel scored 17 out of 23 in a class test. What was her score as a percentage, to the nearest unit? 13. A survey showed that 31 out of 40 people watched the news on Monday night. What percentage of people watched the news? 14. What percentage of 2 kg is 350 g? 15. Write 25 minutes as a percentage of an hour.
(h) 0.216 (i) 0.2 19 (j) 1.074 10. Evaluate and express as a decimal. 5 (a) 3+6 (b) 8  3 ' 5 4+7 (c) 12 + 3
Investigation
Explore patterns in recurring decimals by dividing numbers by 3, 6, 9, 11, and so on. Can you predict what the recurring decimal will be if a fraction has 3 in the denominator? What about 9 in the denominator? What about 11? Can you predict what fraction certain recurring decimals will be? What denominator would 1 digit recurring give? What denominator would you have for 2 digits recurring?
16
The examples on fractions show how to add, subtract, multiply or divide fractions both with and without the calculator. The decimal examples will help with some simple multiplying and the percentage examples will be useful in Chapter 8 of the HSC Course book when doing compound interest. Most students use their calculators for decimal calculations. However, it is important for you to know how to operate with decimals. Sometimes the calculator can give a wrong answer if the wrong key is pressed. If you can estimate the size of the answer, you can work out if it makes sense or not. You can also save time by doing simple calculations in your head.
EXAMPLES
1. Evaluate 1 3 2  . 5 4
Solution
1 3 3 2 7  = 5 4 5 4 28 15 = 20 20 13 = 20 1 ' 3. 2
2. Evaluate 2
Solution
2 3 5 1 '3 = ' 2 2 1 5 1 = # 2 3 5 = 6
Solution
0.056 #100 = 5.6
17
Solution
0.02 # 0.3 = 0.006 5. Evaluate 8.753 . 10
Multiply the numbers and count the number of decimal places in the question.
Solution
8.753 ' 10 = 0.8753 1 6. The price of a $75 tennis racquet increased by 5 %. Find the new 2 price.
Solution
1 5 % = 0.055 2 1 ` 5 % of $75 = 0.055#$75 2 = $4.13 1 or 105 % of $75 = 1.055#$75 2 = $79.13
So the price increases by $4.13 to $79.13. 7. The price of a book increased by 12%. If it now costs $18.00, what did it cost before the price rise?
Solution
The new price is 112% (old price 100%, plus 12%) $18.00 ` 1% = 112 $18.00 100 100% = # 112 1 = $16.07 So the old price was $16.07.
1.4 Exercises
1. 2. 3. Write 18 minutes as a fraction of 2 hours in its lowest terms. Write 350 mL as a fraction of 1 litre in its simplest form. Evaluate 3 1 (a) + 5 4 2 7 2 5 10 3 2 (c) #1 5 4 3 (d) ' 4 7 3 2 (e) 1 ' 2 5 3 (b) 3
18
4. 5.
Find
3 of $912.60. 5
15. Increase 350 g by 15%. 1 16. Decrease 45 m by 8 %. 2 17. The cost of a calculator is now $32. If it has increased by 3.5%, how much was the old cost? 18. A tree now measures 3.5 m, which is 8.3% more than its previous years height. How high was the tree then, to 1 decimal place?
5 Find of 1 kg, in grams correct 7 to 1 decimal place. Trinh spends sleeping, 1 of her day 3
6.
7 1 at work and 24 12
eating. What fraction of the day is left? 7. I get $150.00 a week for a casual 1 job. If I spend on bus fares, 10 2 1 on lunches and on outings, 15 3 how much money is left over for savings? John grew by 17 of his height 200 this year. If he was 165 cm tall last year, what is his height now, to the nearest cm? Evaluate (a) 8.9 + 3 (b) 9  3.7 (c) 1.9 #10 (d) 0.032 #100 (e) 0.7 # 5 (f) 0.8 # 0.3 (g) 0.02 # 0.009 (h) 5.72 #1000 8.74 (i) 100 (j) 3.76 # 0.1
8.
9.
19. This month there has been a 4.9% increase in stolen cars. If 546 cars were stolen last month, how many were stolen this month? 20. Georges computer cost $3500. If it has depreciated by 17.2%, what is the computer worth now?
10. Find 7% of $750. 11. Find 6.5% of 845 mL. 12. What is 12.5% of 9217 g? 13. Find 3.7% of $289.45. 14. If Kaye makes a profit of $5 by selling a bike for $85, find the profit as a percentage of the selling price.
19
PROBLEM
If both the hour hand and minute hand start at the same position at 12 oclock, when is the rst time, correct to a fraction of a minute, that the two hands will be together again?
EXAMPLES
1. 4 3 = 4 # 4 # 4 = 64 2. 2 5 = 2 # 2 # 2 # 2 # 2 = 32 A root of a number is the inverse of the power.
In 4 3 the 4 is called the base number and the 3 is called the index or power.
EXAMPLES
1. 2. 3.
3
20
key for square roots. key for cube roots. for other roots.
These laws work for any m and n, including fractions and negative numbers.
Index laws
There are some general laws that simplify calculations with indices.
am # an = am + n
Proof
a m # a n = (a # a #f# a) # (a # a #f# a) 14444244443 14444244443 m times n times =a # # f # a a 1444 42444 43 m + n times = am + n
am ' an = am  n
Proof
am ' an = am an a # a #f# a (m times) = a # a #f# a (n times) a # a #f# a (m  n times) = 1 = am  n
(a m)n = a mn
Proof
(a m) n = a m # a m # a m #f# a m = am + m + m + f + m = a mn (n times) (n times)
21
(ab) n = a n b n
Proof
(ab) n = ab # ab # ab #f# ab (n times) = (a # a #f# a) # (b # b #f# b) 14444244443 14444244443 n times n times = an bn
a n an c m = n b b
Proof
a n a a a a c m = # # #f# b b b b b a # a # a #f # a = b # b # b #f # b an = n b (n times) (n times) (n times)
EXAMPLES
Simplify 1. m 9 # m 7 ' m 2
Solution
m9 #m7 ' m2 = m9 + 7  2 = m 14 2. (2y 4)3
Solution
(2y 4) 3 = 2 3 (y 4) 3 = 23 y4 # 3 = 8y 12
CONTINUED
22
3.
(y 6) 3 # y  4 y5
Solution
(y 6) 3 # y  4 y5 = = = y 18 # y  4 y 18 + ( 4) y5 y
14
y5
y5 = y9
1.5 Exercises
1. Evaluate without using a calculator. (a) 5 3 # 2 2 (b) 3 4 + 8 2 1 3 (c) c m 4 (d) (e) 2.
3 4
27 16
Evaluate correct to 1 decimal place. (a) 3.7 2 (b) 1.06 1.5 (c) 2.3  0.2 (d) 3 19 (e) 3 34.8  1.2 # 43.1 1 (f) 3 0.99 + 5.61 Simplify (a) a 6 # a 9 # a 2 (b) y 3 # y  8 # y 5 (c) a 1 # a 3 (d) w 2 # w 2 (e) x 6 ' x (f) p 3 ' p  7 y 11 (g) 5 y
1 1
x2 p y9 w6 # w7 (m) w3 2 p #(p 3) 4 (n) p9 6 x ' x7 (o) x2 2 a # ( b 2) 6 (p) a4 # b9 (x 2)  3 #(y 3) 2 (q) x 1 # y 4 (l) f 4. Simplify (a) x 5 # x 9 (b) a 1 # a  6 m7 (c) m3 (d) k 13 # k 6 ' k 9 (e) a  5 # a 4 # a  7 (f) x 5 # x 5 m5 # n4 (g) 4 m # n2
2 3
3.
23
(h)
p2 # p2
2
p5 q8 r4 p4 q6 r2
. p5 q8 r4
5.
Simplify (a) (pq 3) 5 a 8 (b) c m b 4a 3 (c) d 4 n b (d) (7a5b)2 m4 xy 3 #(xy 2) 4 (f) xy 8 4 (2k ) (g) (6k 3) 3 y 12 7 (h) _ 2y 5 i # 8 (i) e (j) f a6 # a4 o a 11 3 5xy 9 x8 # y3
3
(e)
(2m 7) 3
13. Evaluate y= 2 . 9
14. Evaluate
15. Evaluate b= 1 . 9
6.
16. Evaluate
7.
x3 y2 xy 5
17. Evaluate
8.
If a =
18. Evaluate
9.
(a) Simplify
a 11 b 8 when a8 b7
5 2 and b = as a fraction. 5 8
24
Class Investigation
Explore zero and negative indices by looking at these questions. For example simplify x 3 ' x 5 using (i) index laws and (ii) cancelling. (i) x 3 ' x 5 = x  2 by index laws 3 x# x# x (ii) x = 5 x x# x# x# x # x 1 = 2 x 1 So x  2 = 2 x Now simplify these questions by (i) index laws and (ii) cancelling. (a) x 2 ' x 3 (b) x 2 ' x 4 (c) x 2 ' x 5 (d) x 3 ' x 6 (e) x 3 ' x 3 (f) x 2 ' x 2 (g) x ' x 2 (h) x 5 ' x 6 (i) x 4 ' x 7 (j) x ' x 3 Use your results to complete: x0 = xn =
x0 = 1
Proof
xn ' xn = xn  n = x0 xn xn ' xn = n x =1 ` x0 = 1
25
xn =
1 xn
Proof
x0 ' xn = x0  n = xn x0 x0 ' xn = n x 1 = n x 1 ` xn = n x
EXAMPLES
1. Simplify e ab 5 c o . abc 4
0
Solution
e
ab 5 c o =1 abc 4
2. Evaluate 2  3 .
Solution
23 = 1 23 1 = 8
26
Solution
1 = x2 x2 3 (b) 5 = 3# 15 x x 5 = 3x 1 1 1 = #x (c) 5x 5 1 1 = x 5 1 1 = (d) x +1 (x + 1) 1 = ] x + 1 g1 (a) 4. Write a3 without the negative index.
Solution
a3 = 1 a3
1.6 Exercises
1. Evaluate as a fraction or whole number. (a) 3  3 (b) 4  1 (c) 7  3 (d) 10  4 (e) 2  8 (f) 60 (g) 2  5 (h) 3  4 (i) 7  1 (j) 9  2 (k) 2  6 (l) 3  2 (m) 40 (n) 6  2 (o) 5  3 (p) 10  5 (q) 2  7 (r) 2 0 (s) 8  2 (t) 4  3 2. Evaluate (a) 2 0 1 4 (b) c m 2 2 1 (c) c m 3 5 2 (d) c m 6 x + 2y 0 p (e) f 3x  y 1 3 (f) c m 5 3 1 (g) c m 4 1 2 (h) c m 7 2 3 (i) c m 3 1 5 (j) c m 2 3 1 (k) c m 7
27
8 0 (l) c m 9 6 2 (m)c m 7 9 2 (n) c m 10 6 0 (o) c m 11 1 2 (p) c  m 4 2 3 (q) c  m 5 2 1 (r) c  3 m 7 3 0 (s) c  m 8 1 2 (t) c  1 m 4 3. Change into index form. (a) (b) (c) (d) (e) (f) (g) (h) (i) (j) (k) (l) 1 m3 1 x 1 p7 1 d9 1 k5 1 x2 2 x4 3 y2 1 2z 6 3 5t 8 2 7x
1 (3x + 4) 2 1 (o) ( a + b) 8 1 (p) x2 (n) 1 (5p + 1) 3 2 (r) (4t  9) 5 1 (s) 4 (x + 1) 11 5 (t) 9 ( a + 3 b) 7 (q) 4. Write without negative indices. (a) t  5 (b) x  6 (c) y  3 (d) n  8 (e) w  10 (f) 2x 1 (g) 3m  4 (h) 5x  7 (i) ]2xg 3 (j) ] 4n g1 (k) ] x + 1 g 6 (l) ^ 8y + z h1 (m) ]k  3g 2 (n) ^ 3x + 2y h 9 1 5 (o) b x l 1 10 (p) c y m 2 1 (q) d n p 1 2 m a+b x + y 1 (s) e x  y o (r) c (t) e 2w  z  7 o 3x + y
5 2m 6 2 (m) 7 3y
28
Fractional indices
Class Investigation
Explore fractional indices by looking at these questions. For example simplify (i) ` x 2 j and (ii) ^ x h .
2 1 2
(i) ` x 2 j = x 1 =x 2 (ii) ^ x h = x
1 2 1
1 2
^ by index laws h
So ` x 2 j = ^ x h = x
2
x2 =
1
(c) ` x 3 j
(d) ^ x 3 h 3
3 (e) ^ 3 x h 3
(f)
x3
1 4 1
4 (g) ` x j
(h) ^ x 4 h 4
4 (i) ^ 4 x h 4
(j)
x4
a =n a
1 n
Proof
`an j = a ^ n a hn = a
1 n
^ by index laws h
` a =n a
1 n
29
EXAMPLES
1. Evaluate (a) 49
1 2 1
(b) 27 3
Solution
(a) 49 = 49 =7 (b) 27 = 3 27 =3 2. Write 3x  2 in index form.
1 3 1 2
Solution
3x  2 = (3x  2) 2 3. Write (a + b) 7 without fractional indices.
1 1
Solution
( a + b) 7 = 7 a + b
1
Putting the fractional and negative indices together gives this rule.
1 n
1 a
a = n am = (n a ) m
m n
Proof
n n a = `a j m = ^n a h m 1 m
a = ^ am h = n am
m n
1 n
30
a n b n c m = bal b
Proof
a n 1 c m = b a n c m b 1 = n a bn =1'
an bn bn =1# n a bn = n a b n = bal
EXAMPLES
1. Evaluate
4
2 3 (c) c m 3
Solution
(a) 8 3 = (3 8 ) 4 (or 3 8 4 ) = 24 = 16 (b) 125
1 3 4
1
1
125 3 1 =3 125 1 = 5
31
(c) c 2 m 3
3
3 3 =c m 2 27 = 8 3 =3 8
x5 1 (4x  1) 2
2
Solution
(a) (b)
3
x5 = x 2 1 (4x  1)
2 2
1 (4x 2  1) 3
2 2 3
= (4x 2  1) 3. Write r
3 5
Solution
r
3 5
= =
1 r5 1
5 3
r3
32
1.7 Exercises
1. Evaluate (a) 81
1 2 1
3.
(b) 27 3
1
(c) 16 2
1
(d) 8 3
1
(g) 16 4
1
(k) 81 (l) 32
1
(o) 343 3
1
(p) 128 7
1
(t) 64 2.
(x  2) 2 1 (j) 2 y+7 5 (k) 3 x+4 2 (l) 3 y2  1 3 (m) 5 4 (x 2 + 2) 3 Write in index form and simplify. (a) x x x (b) x x (c) 3 x x2 (d) 3 x (e) x 4 x
5.
5 .9 # 3 .7 8.79  1.4
33
6.
Expand and simplify, and write in index form. (a) ( x + x) 2 (b) (3 a + 3 b ) (3 a  3 b ) 1 2 (c) f p + p p (d) ( x + (e) 1 2 ) x x ( x 2  3x + 1 ) x3
7.
6 (3 x + 8 ) (e) 7
2 9
A number in scientic notation is written as a number between 1 and 10 multiplied by a power of 10.
EXAMPLES
1. Write 320 000 000 in scientic notation.
Solution
320 000 000 = 3.2 #10 8 2. Write 7.1#10 5 as a decimal number.
Write the number between 1 and 10 and count the decimal places moved.
Solution
7.1#10
5
34
15.4 # 10
SIGNIFICANT FIGURES The concept of signicant gures is related to rounding off. When we look at very large (or very small) numbers, some of the smaller digits are not signicant. For example, in a football crowd of 49 976, the 6 people are not really signicant in terms of a crowd of about 50 000! Even the 76 people are not signicant. When a company makes a prot of $5 012 342.87, the amount of 87 cents is not exactly a signicant sum! Nor is the sum of $342.87. To round off to a certain number of signicant gures, we count from the rst nonzero digit. In any number, nonzero digits are always signicant. Zeros are not signicant, except between two nonzero digits or at the end of a decimal number. Even though zeros may not be signicant, they are still necessary. For example 31, 310, 3100, 31 000 and 310 000 all have 2 signicant gures but are very different numbers! Scientic notation uses the signicant gures in a number.
EXAMPLES
12 000 = 1.2 #10 4 0.000 043 5 = 4.35#10  5 0.020 7 = 2.07 #10  2 (2 significant figures) (3 significant figures) (3 significant figures)
When rounding off to signicant gures, use the usual rules for rounding off.
35
EXAMPLES
1. Round off 4 592 170 to 3 signicant gures.
Solution
4 592 170 = 4 590 000 to 3 signicant gures 2. Round off 0.248 391 to 2 signicant gures.
Remember to put the 0s in!
Solution
0.248 391 = 0.25 to 2 signicant gures 3. Round off 1.396 794 to 3 signicant gures.
Solution
1.396 794 = 1.40 to 3 signicant gures
1.8 Exercises
1. Write in scientic notation. (a) 3 800 (b) 1 230 000 (c) 61 900 (d) 12 000 000 (e) 8 670 000 000 (f) 416 000 (g) 900 (h) 13 760 (i) 20 000 000 (j) 80 000 Write in scientic notation. (a) 0.057 (b) 0.000 055 (c) 0.004 (d) 0.000 62 (e) 0.000 002 (f) 0.000 000 08 (g) 0.000 007 6 (h) 0.23 (i) 0.008 5 (j) 0.000 000 000 07 3. Write as a decimal number. (a) 3.6 #10 4 (b) 2.78 #10 7 (c) 9.25#10 3 (d) 6.33#10 6 (e) 4 #10 5 (f) 7.23#10  2 (g) 9.7 #10  5 (h) 3.8 # 10  8 (i) 7 #10  6 (j) 5#10  4 Round these numbers to 2 signicant gures. (a) 235 980 (b) 9 234 605 (c) 10 742 (d) 0.364 258 (e) 1.293 542 (f) 8.973 498 011 (g) 15.694 (h) 322.78 (i) 2904.686 (j) 9.0741
2.
4.
36
5.
Evaluate correct to 3 signicant gures. (a) 14.6 # 0.453 (b) 4.8 ' 7 (c) 4.47 + 2.59 #1.46 1 (d) 3.47  2.7
6.
Evaluate 4.5#10 4 # 2.9 #10 5, giving your answer in scientic notation. 8.72 #10  3 and write 1.34 #10 7 your answer in standard form correct to 3 signicant gures. Calculate
7.
Investigation
A logarithm is an index. It is a way of nding the power (or index) to which a base number is raised. For example, when solving 3 x = 9, the solution is x = 2. The 3 is called the base number and the x is the index or power. You will learn about logarithms in the HSC course.
The a is called the base number and the x is the index or power.
If a x = y then log a y = x
1. The expression log7 49 means the power of 7 that gives 49. The solution is 2 since 7 2 = 49. 2. The expression log2 16 means the power of 2 that gives 16. The solution is 4 since 2 4 = 16. Can you evaluate these logarithms? 1. log3 27 2. log5 25 3. log10 10 000 4. log2 64 5. log4 4 6. log7 7 7. log3 1 8. log4 2 1 9. log 3 3 1 10. log 2 4
37
Absolute Value
Negative numbers are used in maths and science, to show opposite directions. For example, temperatures can be positive or negative.
But sometimes it is not appropriate to use negative numbers. For example, solving c 2 = 9 gives two solutions, c = !3. However when solving c 2 = 9, using Pythagoras theorem, we only use the positive answer, c = 3, as this gives the length of the side of a triangle. The negative answer doesnt make sense. We dont use negative numbers in other situations, such as speed. In science we would talk about a vehicle travelling at 60k/h going in a negative direction, but we would not commonly use this when talking about the speed of our cars!
x =)
x when x $ 0  x when x 1 0
EXAMPLES
1. Evaluate 4 .
Solution
4 = 4 since 4 $ 0
CONTINUED
38
2. Evaluate  3 .
Solution
3 =  ]  3 g since  3 1 0 =3
 ab  =  a # b  a  = a
2 2
a2 =  a   a  =  a  a  b  =  b  a   a + b # a  +  b 
EXAMPLES
1. Evaluate 2  1 +  3 2.
Solution
2  1 +  3 2 = 2  1 + 3 2 =2 1 + 9 = 10 2. Show that a + b # a + b when a =  2 and b = 3.
Solution
LHS means Left Hand Side.
LHS = a + b = 2 + 3 = 1 =1
39
RHS = a + b = 2 + 3 = 2+3 =5 Since 11 5 a+b # a + b 3. Write expressions for 2x  4 without the absolute value signs.
Solution
2x  4 = 2x  4 when 2x  4 $ 0 i.e. 2x $ 4 x$2 2x  4 =  ] 2x  4 g when 2x  4 1 0 =  2x + 4 i.e. 2x 1 4 x12
Class Discussion
Are these statements true? If so, are there some values for which the expression is undefined (values of x or y that the expression cannot have)? 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. 8. x =1 x 2x = 2x 2x = 2 x x + y = x+y
2 x = x2 3 x = x3 x +1 = x +1
3x  2 =1 3x  2 x 9. =1 x2 10. x $ 0 Discuss absolute value and its definition in relation to these statements.
40
1.9 Exercises
1. Evaluate (a) 7 (b)  5 (c)  6 (d) 0 (e) 2 (f) 11 (g)  2 3 (h) 3  8 2 (i)  5 (j)  5 3 Evaluate (a) 3 +  2 (b)  3  4 (c)  5 + 3 (d) 2 # 7 (e)  3 + 1 2 (f) 5   2 # 6 (g)  2 + 5# 1 (h) 3  4 (i) 2  3  3  4 (j) 5  7 + 4  2 Evaluate a  b if (a) (b) (c) (d) (e) 4. a = 5 and b = 2 a = 1 and b = 2 a =  2 and b =  3 a = 4 and b = 7 a = 1 and b =  2. (h) a + 1 when a 1 1 (i) (j) 5. x  2 when x 2 2 x  2 when x 1 2.
Show that a + b # a + b when (a) a = 2 and b = 4 (b) a = 1 and b =  2 (c) a =  2 and b = 3 (d) a =  4 and b = 5 (e) a = 7 and b =  3. Show that x 2 = x when (a) x = 5 (b) x =  2 (c) x =  3 (d) x = 4 (e) x =  9. Use the denition of absolute value to write each expression without the absolute value signs (a) x + 5 (b) b  3 (c) a + 4 (d) 2y  6 (e) 3x + 9 (f) 4  x (g) 2k + 1 (h) 5x  2 (i) a + b (j) p  q Find values of x for which x = 3. n Simplify n where n ! 0. x2 and state which x2 value x cannot be.
2.
6.
7.
3.
Write an expression for (a) a when a 2 0 (b) (c) (d) (e) (f) (g) a when a 1 0 a when a = 0 3a when a 2 0 3a when a 1 0 3a when a = 0 a + 1 when a 2 1
8. 9.
10. Simplify
41
Test Yourself 1
1. Convert (a) 0.45 to a fraction (b) 14% to a decimal 5 (c) to a decimal 8 (d) 78.5% to a fraction (e) 0.012 to a percentage 11 (f) to a percentage 15 Evaluate as a fraction. (a) 7  2 (b) 5 1 (c) 9 3.
1 2
6.
2.
7.
Evaluate (a)  4
1
Evaluate correct to 3 signicant gures. (a) 4.5 2 + 7.6 2 (b) 4.3 0.3 2 (c) 3 5.7 (d) 1.3#10 9 3.8 #10 6
2 3
as a fraction
(e) 6 4.
Evaluate (a) 3   2  (b)  4  5  (c) 7 + 4 # 8 (d) [(3 + 2)#(5  1)  4] ' 8 (e)  4 + 3  9 (f)  2  1 (g)  24 '  6 Simplify (a) x 5 # x 7 ' x 3 (b) (5y 3) 2 (a 5) 4 b 7 (c) a9 b 3 2x 6 n (d) d 3 (e) e ab 4 o a5 b6
0
5.
9.
x +1
42
(e)
a+b
(c) If he spends 3 hours watching TV, what fraction of the day is this? (d) What percentage of the day does he spend sleeping? 16. The price of a car increased by 12%. If the car cost $34 500 previously, what is its new price? 17. Rachel scored 56 out of 80 for a maths test. What percentage did she score? 18. Evaluate 2118, and write your answer in scientic notation correct to 1 decimal place. 19. Write in index form. (a) x 1 (b) y (c) x+3 1 (d) (2x  3) 11
6
x4 (5x + 3) 9 1 m3
(e)
y7
20. Write in scientic notation. (a) 0.000 013 (b) 123 000 000 000 21. Convert to a fraction. (a) 0. 7 (b) 0.124 22. Write without the negative index. (a) x  3 (b) (2a + 5) 1 a 5 (c) c m b 23. The number of people attending a football match increased by 4% from last week. If there were 15 080 people at the match this week, how many attended last week? 24. Show that  a + b  # a + b when a =  2 and b =  5.
3 1 4 13. If a = c m and b = , evaluate ab 3 as a 4 3 fraction. 14. Increase 650 mL by 6%. 15. Johan spends 1 of his 24hour day 3 1 sleeping and at work. 4 (a) How many hours does Johan spend at work? (b) What fraction of his day is spent at work or sleeping?
43
Challenge Exercise 1
1. 2. 3. Simplify c 8 3 2 2 7 + 3 m ' c4  1 m. 4 5 3 8 11. Show that 2 (2 k  1) + 2 k + 1 = 2 (2 k + 1  1) . 12. Find the value of a in index form if b3 c2
3 5 149 7 Simplify + + . 5 12 180 30 Arrange in increasing order of size: 51%, 51 0.502, 0. 5, . 99 1 1 of his day sleeping, 3 12 1 of the day eating and of the day 20 watching TV. What percentage of the day is left? Mark spends Write 64
2 3
3 2 2 4 1 3 a = c m , b = c  m and c = c m . 5 5 3 13. Which of the following are rational 3 numbers: 3 ,  0.34, 2, 3r, 1. 5, 0, ? 7 14. The percentage of salt in 1 L of water is 10%. If 500 mL of water is added to this mixture, what percentage of salt is there now? 15. Simplify x + 1  x2  1 for x ! !1.
4.
5. 6. 7.
as a rational number.
25
Express 3.2 ' 0.014 in scientic notation correct to 3 signicant gures. Vinh scored 17 1 out of 20 for a maths 2 1 test, 19 out of 23 for English and 55 2 out of 70 for physics. Find his average score as a percentage, to the nearest whole percentage. Write 1.3274 as a rational number. The distance from the Earth to the moon is 3.84 #10 5 km. How long would it take a rocket travelling at 2.13#10 4 km h to reach the moon, to the nearest hour? 8.3# 4.1 correct to 0.2 + 5.4 ' 1.3 3 signicant gures.
16. Evaluate 6
17. Write 15 g as a percentage of 2.5 kg. 18. Evaluate 2.3 1.8 + 5.7 #10  2 correct to 3 signicant gures. 19. Evaluate  3.4 #10  3 + 1.7 #10  2 and (6.9 #10 5) 3 express your answer in scientic notation correct to 3 signicant gures.
8. 9.
10. Evaluate 3
45
INTRODUCTION
THIS CHAPTER REVIEWS ALGEBRA skills, including simplifying expressions, removing grouping symbols, factorising, completing the square and simplifying algebraic fractions. Operations with surds, including rationalising the denominator, are also studied in this chapter.
Simplifying Expressions
Addition and subtraction
EXAMPLES
Simplify 1. 7x  x
Solution
7x  x = 7x  1 x = 6x 2. 4x 2  3x 2 + 6x 2
Solution
4x 2  3x 2 + 6x 2 = x 2 + 6 x 2 = 7x 2
CONTINUED
46
3. x 3  3x  5x + 4
Only add or subtract like terms. These have the same pronumeral (for example, 3x and 5x).
Solution
x 3  3 x  5x + 4 = x 3  8 x + 4 4. 3a  4b  5a  b
Solution
3a  4b  5a  b = 3a  5a  4b  b =  2a  5b
2.1 Exercises
Simplify 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. 8. 9. 2x + 5x 9a  6a 5z  4z 5a + a 4b  b 2r  5r  4y + 3y  2x  3x 2a  2a 16. 7b + b  3b 17. 3b  5b + 4b + 9b 18.  5x + 3x  x  7x 19. 6x  5y  y 20. 8a + b  4b  7a 21. xy + 2y + 3xy 22. 2ab 2  5ab 2  3ab 2 23. m 2  5m  m + 12 24. p 2  7p + 5p  6 25. 3x + 7y + 5x  4y 26. ab + 2b  3ab + 8b 27. ab + bc  ab  ac + bc 28. a 5  7x 3 + a 5  2x 3 + 1 29. x 3  3xy 2 + 4x 2 y  x 2 y + xy 2 + 2y 3 30. 3x 3  4x 2  3x + 5x 2  4x  6
47
Multiplication
EXAMPLES
Simplify 1.  5x # 3y # 2x
Solution
 5x # 3y # 2x =  30xyx =  30x 2 y 2.  3x 3 y 2 #  4xy 5
Solution
 3x 3 y 2 #  4xy 5 = 12x 4 y 7
2.2 Exercises
Simplify 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. 8. 9. 5 # 2b 2x # 4y 5p # 2p  3z # 2w  5a #  3b x # 2y # 7z 8ab # 6c 4d # 3d 3a # 4a # a
5 11. ^ 2x 2h
12. 2ab 3 # 3a 13. 5a 2 b #  2ab 14. 7pq 2 # 3p 2 q 2 15. 5ab # a 2 b 2 16. 4h 3 #  2h 7 17. k 3 p # p 2
4 18. ^  3t 3 h
10. ^  3y h3
48
Division
Use cancelling or index laws to simplify divisions.
EXAMPLES
Simplify 1. 6v 2 y ' 2vy
Solution
By cancelling, 6v 2 y ' 2vy = = 6v 2 y 2vy 63 # v # v1 # y1 21 # v # y1
Solution
5a 3 b = 1 a3 1 b1 2 3 15ab 2 = 1 a 2 b 1 3 a2 = 3b
2.3 Exercises
Simplify 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 30x ' 5 2y ' y 8a 2
2
6. 7. 8. 9. 10.
8a 2 a 8a 2 2a
49
16.
42p 5 q 4 7pq 3
4a  9 ^ b 2 h
1
a ] b + c g = ab + ac
EXAMPLE
7 # (9 + 11) = 7 # 20 = 140 Using the distributive law, 7 # (9 + 11) = 7 # 9 + 7 # 11 = 63 + 77 = 140
EXAMPLES
Expand and simplify. 1. 2 ] a + 3 g
Solution
2 (a + 3) = 2 # a + 2 # 3 = 2a + 6
CONTINUED
50
2.  ] 2x  5 g
Solution
(2x  5) = 1 (2x  5) = 1 # 2x  1 #  5 =  2x + 5 3. 5a 2]4 + 3ab  c g
Solution
5a 2 (4 + 3ab  c) = 5a 2 # 4 + 5a 2 # 3ab  5a 2 # c = 20a 2 + 15a 3 b  5a 2 c 4. 5  2 ^ y + 3 h
Solution
5  2 (y + 3 ) = 5  2 # y  2 # 3 = 5  2y  6 =  2y  1 5. 2 ] b  5 g  ] b + 1 g
Solution
2 (b  5)  (b + 1) = 2 # b + 2 #  5  1 # b 1 # 1 = 2b  10  b  1 = b  11
2.4 Exercises
Expand and simplify 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 2]x  4 g 3 ] 2h + 3 g 5 ] a  2 g x ^ 2y + 3 h x]x  2 g 2a ] 3a  8 b g 7. 8. 9. ab ] 2a + b g 5n ] n  4 g 3x 2 y _ xy + 2y 2 i
51
Binomial Products
A binomial expression consists of two numbers, for example x + 3. A set of two binomial expressions multiplied together is called a binomial product. Example: ] x + 3 g ] x  2 g. Each term in the first bracket is multiplied by each term in the second bracket.
] a + b g ^ x + y h = ax + ay + bx + by
Proof
]a + bg]c + d g = a ]c + d g + b ]c + d g
= ac + ad + bc + bd
EXAMPLES
Expand and simplify 1. ^ p + 3h^ q  4h
Solution
^ p + 3 h ^ q  4 h = pq  4p + 3q  12
2. ]a + 5g2
Solution
] a + 5 g2 = (a + 5)(a + 5) = a 2 + 5a + 5a + 25 = a 2 + 10a + 25
52
The rule below is not a binomial product (one expression is a trinomial), but it works the same way.
] a + b g ^ x + y + z h = ax + ay + az + bx + by + bz
EXAMPLE
Expand and simplify ] x + 4 g ^ 2x  3y  1 h .
Solution
(x + 4) (2x  3y  1) = 2x 2  3xy  x + 8x  12y  4 = 2x 2  3xy + 7x  12y  4
2.5 Exercises
Expand and simplify 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. 8. 9.
]a + 5g]a + 2g
]x + 3g]x  1g
17. ]a + 2bg]a  2bg 18. ^ 3x  4y h^ 3x + 4y h 19. ]x + 3g]x  3g 20. ^ y  6h^ y + 6h 21. ] 3a + 1 g ] 3a  1 g 22. ]2z  7g]2z + 7g 23. ]x + 9g^ x  2y + 2h 24. ] b  3 g ] 2a + 2b  1 g 25. ]x + 2g^ x 2  2x + 4h 26. ]a  3g^ a 2 + 3a + 9h 27. ]a + 9g2 28. ]k  4g2 29. ]x + 2g2 30. ^ y  7h2 31. ]2x + 3g2 32. ]2t  1g2
^ 2y  3h^ y + 5h
]m  4g]m  2g ]x + 4g]x + 3g
^ y + 2h^ y  5h
]2x  3g]x + 2g
]h  7g]h  3g ]x + 5g]x  5g
10. ] 5a  4 g ] 3a  1 g 11. ^ 2y + 3h^ 4y  3h 12. ]x  4g^ y + 7h 13. ^ x 2 + 3h]x  2g 14. ]n + 2g]n  2g 15. ]2x + 3g]2x  3g 16. ^ 4  7y h^ 4 + 7y h
53
Some binomial products have special results and can be simplified quickly using their special properties. Binomial products involving perfect squares and the difference of two squares occur in many topics in mathematics. Their expansions are given below.
Difference of 2 squares
] a + b g ] a  b g = a2  b2
Proof
(a + b) (a  b) = a 2  ab + ab  b 2 = a2  b2
Perfect squares
] a + b g2 = a 2 + 2ab + b 2
Proof
] a + b g2 = (a + b) (a + b)
= a 2 + ab + ab + b 2 = a 2 + 2ab + b 2
]a  bg2 = a 2  2ab + b 2
Proof
] a  b g2 = (a  b) (a  b)
= a 2  ab  ab + b 2 = a 2  2ab + b 2
54
EXAMPLES
Expand and simplify 1. ]2x  3g2
Solution
] 2x  3 g2 = ] 2x g2  2 (2x) 3 + 3 2 = 4x 2  12x + 9
2. ^ 3y  4h^ 3y + 4h
Solution
(3y  4) (3y + 4) = ^ 3y h2  4 2 = 9y 2  16
2.6 Exercises
Expand and simplify 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. 8. 9.
]t + 4g2 ]z  6g2
] x  1 g2
16. ^ p + 1 h ^ p  1 h 17. ]r + 6g]r  6g 18. ] x  10 g ] x + 10 g 19. ]2a + 3g]2a  3g 20. ^ x  5y h^ x + 5y h 21. ] 4a + 1 g ] 4a  1 g 22. ]7  3xg]7 + 3xg 23. ^ x 2 + 2h^ x 2  2h
2 24. ^ x 2 + 5h
^ y + 8h2
^ q + 3h2
]k  7g2
] n + 1 g2
]2b + 5g2
]3  xg2
55
30. 7 ] x + 1 g  y A
Expand (x  4) (x  4) 2 .
PROBLEM
Find values of all pronumerals that make this true. a b d f e i i i h i i c c c e b g b #
Try c = 9.
Factorisation
Simple factors
Factors are numbers that exactly divide or go into an equal or larger number, without leaving a remainder.
EXAMPLES
The numbers 1, 2, 3, 4, 6, 8, 12 and 24 are all the factors of 24. Factors of 5x are 1, 5, x and 5x.
ax + bx = x ] a + b g
56
EXAMPLES
Factorise 1. 3x + 12
Solution
Divide each term by 3 to find the terms inside the brackets.
Solution
Check answers by expanding brackets.
Solution
x and x2 are both common factors. We take out the highest common factor which is x2. x 3  2x 2 = x 2 ] x  2 g 4. 5] x + 3 g + 2y ] x + 3 g
Solution
The highest common factor is x + 3. 5 ] x + 3 g + 2y ] x + 3 g = ] x + 3 g ^ 5 + 2 y h 5. 8a 3 b 2  2ab 3
Solution
There are several common factors here. The highest common factor is 2ab2. 8a 3 b 2  2ab 3 = 2ab 2 ^ 4a 2  bh
57
2.7 Exercises
Factorise 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. 8. 9. 2y + 6 5x  10 3m  9 8x + 2 24  18y x 2 + 2x m 2  3m 2y 2 + 4y 15a  3a 2 19. x ] m + 5 g + 7 ] m + 5 g 20. 2 ^ y  1 h  y ^ y  1 h 21. 4^ 7 + y h  3x ^ 7 + y h 22. 6x ]a  2g + 5]a  2g 23. x ] 2t + 1 g  y ] 2t + 1 g 24. a ] 3x  2 g + 2b ] 3x  2 g  3c ] 3x  2 g 25. 6x 3 + 9x 2 26. 3pq 5  6q 3 27. 15a 4 b 3 + 3ab 28. 4x 3  24x 2 29. 35m 3 n 4  25m 2 n 30. 24a 2 b 5 + 16ab 2
2
10. ab 2 + ab 11. 4x 2 y  2xy 12. 3mn 3 + 9mn 13. 8x 2 z  2xz 2 14. 6ab + 3a  2a 15. 5x 2  2x + xy 16. 3q 5  2q 2 17. 5b 3 + 15b 2 18. 6a 2 b 3  3a 3 b 2
31. 2rr 2 + 2rrh 32. ]x  3g2 + 5]x  3g 33. y 2 ]x + 4g + 2]x + 4g 34. a ] a + 1 g  ] a + 1 g2 35. 4ab ^ a 2 + 1 h  3 ^ a 2 + 1 h
Grouping in pairs
If an expression has 4 terms, it may be factorised in pairs.
ax + bx + ay + by = x(a + b) + y (a + b) = ( a + b) ( x + y)
58
EXAMPLES
Factorise 1. x 2  2x + 3x  6
Solution
x 2  2x + 3x  6 = x (x  2) + 3 (x  2) = (x  2) (x + 3) 2. 2x  4 + 6y  3xy
Solution
2x  4 + 6y  3xy = 2 (x  2) + 3y (2  x) = 2 ( x  2)  3y ( x  2 ) = (x  2) (2  3y) or 2x  4 + 6y  3xy = 2 (x  2)  3y ( 2 + x) = 2 ( x  2)  3y ( x  2 ) = (x  2) (2  3y)
2.8 Exercises
Factorise 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. 8. 9. 2x + 8 + bx + 4b ay  3a + by  3b x 2 + 5x + 2x + 10 m 2  2m + 3m  6 ad  ac + bd  bc x 3 + x 2 + 3x + 3 5ab  3b + 10a  6 2xy  x 2 + 2y 2  xy ay + a + y + 1 12. m  2 + 4y  2my 13. 2x 2 + 10xy  3xy  15y 2 14. a 2 b + ab 3  4a  4b 2 15. 5x  x 2  3x + 15 16. x 4 + 7x 3  4x  28 17. 7x  21  xy + 3y 18. 4d + 12  de  3e 19. 3x  12 + xy  4y 20. 2a + 6  ab  3b 21. x 3  3x 2 + 6x  18 22. pq  3p + q 2  3q
10. x 2 + 5x  x  5 11. y + 3 + ay + 3a
59
Trinomials
A trinomial is an expression with three terms, for example x 2  4x + 3. Factorising a trinomial usually gives a binomial product. x 2 + ] a + b g x + ab = ] x + a g ] x + b g
Proof
x 2 + (a + b) x + ab = x 2 + ax + bx + ab = x(x + a) + b(x + a) = (x + a) (x + b)
EXAMPLES
Factorise 1. m 2  5m + 6
Solution
a + b =  5 and ab = + 6 2 +6 ' 3 5 Numbers with sum  5 and product + 6 are  2 and  3. ` m 2  5m + 6 = [m + ]  2 g] [m + ]  3 g] = ]m  2g]m  3g 2. y 2 + y  2
Solution
a + b = + 1 and ab =  2 +2 2 ' 1 +1 Two numbers with sum + 1 and product  2 are + 2 and 1. ` y2 + y  2 = ^ y + 2 h ^ y  1 h
60
2.9 Exercises
Factorise 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. 8. 9. x 2 + 4x + 3 y 2 + 7y + 12 m 2 + 2m + 1 t 2 + 8t + 16 z2 + z  6 x 2  5x  6 v 2  8v + 15 t 2  6t + 9 x 2 + 9x  10 14. a 2  4a + 4 15. x 2 + 14x  32 16. y 2  5y  36 17. n 2  10n + 24 18. x 2  10x + 25 19. p 2 + 8p  9 20. k 2  7k + 10 21. x 2 + x  12 22. m 2  6m  7 23. q 2 + 12q + 20 24. d 2  4d  5 25. l 2  11l + 18
The result x 2 + ] a + b g x + ab = ] x + a g ] x + b g only works when the coefficient of x 2 (the number in front of x 2) is 1. When the coefficient of x 2 is not 1, for example in the expression 5x 2  2x + 4, we need to use a different method to factorise the trinomial. There are different ways of factorising these trinomials. One method is the cross method. Another is called the PSF method. Or you can simply guess and check.
EXAMPLES
Factorise 1. 5y 2  13y + 6
61
The two numbers inside the brackets must multiply to give + 6. To get a positive answer, they must both have the same signs. But there is a negative sign in front of 13y so the numbers cannot be both positive. They must both be negative. ^ 5y  h ^ y  h To get a product of 6, the numbers must be 2 and 3 or 1 and 6. Guess 2 and 3 and check: ^ 5y  2 h ^ y  3 h = 5y 2  15y  2y + 6 = 5y 2  17y + 6 This is not correct. Notice that we are mainly interested in checking the middle two terms, 15y and  2y. Try 2 and 3 the other way around: ^ 5y  3 h ^ y  2 h . Checking the middle terms: 10y  3y = 13y This is correct, so the answer is ^ 5y  3 h ^ y  2 h . Note: If this did not check out, do the same with 1 and 6.
Solutioncross method
Factors of 5y 2 are 5y and y. Factors of 6 are 1 and  6 or  2 and  3. Possible combinations that give a middle term of 13y are 5y y 2 3 5y y 3 2 5y y 1 6 5y y 6 1
` 5y 2  13y + 6 = ^ 5y  3 h ^ y  2 h
SolutionPSF method
P: Product of first and last terms S: Sum or middle term F: Factors of P that give S  3y 30y 2 ) 10y 13y 30y 2 13y  3y, 10y
` 5y 2  13y + 6 = 5y 2  3y  10y + 6 = y ^ 5y  3 h  2 ^ 5 y  3 h = ^ 5y  3 h ^ y  2 h
CONTINUED
62
2. 4y 2 + 4y  3
Solutioncross method
Factors of 4y 2 are 4y and y or 2y and 2y. Factors of 3 are 1 and 3 or  3 and 1. Trying combinations of these factors gives 3 2y 2y #  1 =  2 y 2y 1 2y # 3 = 6y 4y
` 4y 2 + 4y  3 = ^ 2 y + 3 h ^ 2 y  1 h
SolutionPSF method
P: Product of first and last terms 12y 2 S: Sum or middle term 4y F: Factors of P that give S + 6y,  2y 2 + 6y 12y ) 2y + 4y ` 4y 2 + 4y  3 = 4 y 2 + 6 y  2 y  3 = 2y ^ 2y + 3 h  1 ^ 2 y + 3 h = ^ 2y + 3 h ^ 2y  1 h
63
2.10
Factorise 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. 8. 9.
Exercises
16. 4n 2  11n + 6 17. 8t 2 + 18t  5 18. 12q 2 + 23q + 10 19. 8r 2 + 22r  6 20. 4x 2  4x  15 21. 6y 2  13y + 2 22. 6p 2  5p  6 23. 8x 2 + 31x + 21 24. 12b 2  43b + 36 25. 6x 2  53x  9 26. 9x 2 + 30x + 25 27. 16y 2 + 24y + 9 28. 25k 2  20k + 4 29. 36a 2  12a + 1 30. 49m 2 + 84m + 36
10. 6x 2 + 13x + 5 11. 2y 2  11y  6 12. 10x 2 + 3x  1 13. 8t 2  14t + 3 14. 6x 2  x  12 15. 6y 2 + 47y  8
Perfect squares
You have looked at some special binomial products, including ]a + bg2 = a 2 + 2ab + b 2 and ]a  bg2 = a 2  2ab + b 2 . When factorising, use these results the other way around.
a 2 + 2ab + b 2 = ] a + b g2 a 2  2ab + b 2 = ] a  b g2
64
EXAMPLES
In a perfect square, the constant term is always a square number.
Factorise 1. x 2  8x + 16
Solution
x 2  8x + 16 = x 2  2 (4) x + 4 2 = ] x  4 g2 2. 4a 2 + 20a + 25
Solution
4a 2 + 20a + 25 = ] 2a g2 + 2 (2a) (5) + 5 2 = ] 2a + 5 g2
2.11
Factorise 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. 8. 9.
Exercises
12. 16k 2  24k + 9 13. 25x 2 + 10x + 1 14. 81a 2  36a + 4 15. 49m 2 + 84m + 36 16. t 2 + t + 17. x 2 1 4
4x 4 + 3 9 6y 1 18. 9y 2 + + 5 25 19. x 2 + 2 + 1 x2 4 k2
20. 25k 2  20 +
65
Difference of 2 squares
A special case of binomial products is ] a + b g ] a  b g = a 2  b 2. a2  b2 = ] a + b g ] a  b g
EXAMPLES
Factorise 1. d 2  36
Solution
d 2  36 = d 2  6 2 = ]d + 6 g]d  6 g 2. 9b 2  1
Solution
9b 2  1 = ] 3b g2  1 2 = ( 3 b + 1) ( 3 b  1 ) 3. (a + 3) 2  (b  1) 2
Solution
] a + 3 g2  ] b  1 g2 = [(a + 3) + (b  1)] [(a + 3)  (b  1)] = (a + 3 + b  1) ( a + 3  b + 1)
= ( a + b + 2 ) (a  b + 4 )
2.12
Factorise 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. a2  4 x2  9 y2  1
Exercises
7. 8. 9.
1  4z 2 25t 2  1 9t 2  4
x 2  25 4x 2  49 16y 2  9
66
20.
y2 1 9
21. ] x + 2 g2  ^ 2y + 1 h2 22. x 4  1
2
18. z  ] 1 + w g
2
19. x 2 
1 4
a 3 + b 3 = ] a + b g ^ a 2  ab + b 2 h
Proof
(a + b) (a 2  ab + b 2) = a 3  a 2 b + ab 2 + a 2 b  ab 2 + b 3 = a3 + b3 a 3  b 3 = ] a  b g ^ a 2 + ab + b 2 h
Proof
(a  b) (a 2 + ab + b 2) = a 3 + a 2 b + ab 2  a 2 b  ab 2  b 3 = a3  b3
EXAMPLES
Factorise 1. 8x 3 + 1
Solution
8x 3 + 1 = ] 2x g3 + 1 3 = (2x + 1) [] 2x g2  (2x) (1) + 1 2] = (2x + 1 ) (4 x 2  2 x + 1 )
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2. 27a 3  64b 3
Solution
27a 3  64b 3 = ] 3a g3  ] 4b g3 = (3a  4b) [] 3a g2 + (3a) (4b) + ] 4b g2] = (3a  4b) (9a 2 + 12ab + 16b 2)
2.13
Factorise 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. 8. 9. b3  8
Exercises
12. 13.
x3  27 8 1000 1 + 3 3 a b
Mixed factors
Sometimes more than one method of factorising is needed to completely factorise an expression.
EXAMPLE
Factorise 5x 2  45.
Solution
5x 2  45 = 5 (x 2  9) = 5 (x + 3) (x  3) (using simple factors) (the difference of two squares)
68
2.14
Factorise 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. 8. 9.
Exercises
16. x 3  3x 2  10x 17. x 3  3x 2  9x + 27 18. 4x 2 y 3  y 19. 24  3b 3 20. 18x 2 + 33x  30 21. 3x 2  6x + 3 22. x 3 + 2x 2  25x  50 23. z 3 + 6z 2 + 9z 24. 4x 4  13x 2 + 9 25. 2x 5 + 2x 2 y 3  8x 3  8y 3 26. 4a 3  36a 27. 40x  5x 4 28. a 4  13a 2 + 36 29. 4k 3 + 40k 2 + 100k 30. 3x 3 + 9x 2  3x  9
x3
x2 x 2 + 4x x2
x 5x  5 5x  5
69
EXAMPLES
1. Complete the square on x 2 + 6x.
Solution
Using a 2 + 2ab + b 2: a=x 2ab = 6x Substituting a = x: 2xb = 6x b=3 To complete the square: a 2 + 2ab + b 2 = ] a + b g2 2 x + 2x ] 3 g + 3 2 = ] x + 3 g2 x 2 + 6x + 9 = ] x + 3 g2 2. Complete the square on n 2  10n.
Notice that 3 is half of 6.
Solution
Using a 2  2ab + b 2: a=n 2ab = 10x Substituting a = n: 2nb = 10n b=5 To complete the square: a 2  2ab + b 2 = ] a  b g2 n 2  2n ] 5 g + 5 2 = ] n  5 g2 n 2  10n + 25 = ] n  5 g2
70
EXAMPLES
1. Complete the square on x 2 + 12x.
Solution
Divide 12 by 2 and square it: x 2 + 12x + c 12 2 m = x 2 + 12x + 6 2 2 = x 2 + 12x + 36 = ]x + 6g2
Solution
Divide 2 by 2 and square it: 2 2 y 2  2y + c m = y 2  2 y + 1 2 2 = y 2  2y + 1 = ^ y  1 h2
2.15
Exercises
Complete the square on 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. 8. 9. x 2 + 4x b 2  6b x 2  10x y 2 + 8y m 2  14m q 2 + 18q x 2 + 2x t 2  16t x 2  20x 17. k 2 12. y 2 + 3y 13. x 2  7x 14. a 2 + a 15. x 2 + 9x 16. y 2 5y 2 11k 2
71
Algebraic Fractions
Simplifying fractions
EXAMPLES
Simplify 1. 4x + 2 2
Solution
2 ] 2x + 1 g 4x + 2 = 2 2 = 2x + 1 2. 2x 2  3x  2 x3  8
Factorise first, then cancel.
Solution
] 2x + 1 g ] x  2 g 2x 2  3x  2 = 3 ] x  2 g ^ x 2 + 2x + 4 h x 8 2x + 1 = 2 x + 2x + 4
2.16
Simplify 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. 8.
Exercises
b3  1 b2  1 2p 2 + 7p  15 6p  9 a2  1 a + 2a  3
2
5a + 10 5 6t  3 3 8y + 2 6 8 4d  2 x 5x 2  2x y4 y  8y + 16
2 2
9. 10. 11.
12. 13.
3 ]x  2g + y ]x  2g x3  8 x 3 + 3x 2  9x  27 x 2 + 6x + 9 2p 2  3p  2 8p 3 + 1 ay  ax + by  bx 2ay  by  2ax + bx
2ab  4a 2 a 2  3a s2 + s  2 s 2 + 5s + 6
14.
15.
72
Solution
Do algebraic fractions the same way as ordinary fractions.
4 ]x  1 g  5 ]x + 3 g x 1 x +3 = 5 4 20 4x  4  5x  15 = 20  x  19 = 20 2a 2 b + 10ab a 2  25 ' 3 4b + 12 b + 27
2.
Solution
2a 2 b + 10ab a 2  25 2a 2 b + 10ab 4b + 12 ' = # 2 4b + 12 b 3 + 27 b 3 + 27 a  25 2ab ] a + 5 g 4 ]b + 3 g = # 2 ] a + 5 g]a  5 g ] b + 3 g ^ b  3b + 9 h 8ab = ] a  5 g ^ b 2  3b + 9 h 2 1 + x5 x+2
3.
Solution
2 ]x + 2g + 1 ]x  5g 2 1 + = x5 x+2 ]x  5g]x + 2g 2x + 4 + x  5 = ]x  5g]x + 2g 3x  1 = ]x  5g]x + 2g
73
2.17
1.
Exercises
(f) (g) (h) (i) (j) 4. 1 1 + x+1 x3 3 2 x 2 + x 4
2
Simplify x 3x (a) + 4 2 y + 1 2y (b) + 5 3 a+2 a (c) 4 3 p3 p+2 (d) + 6 2 x5 x1 (e) 2 3 Simplify 3 b 2 + 2b # (a) b + 2 6a  3 q3 + 1 (b) 2 # q + 2q + 1 p + 2 3ab 2 12ab  6a (c) ' 2 5xy x y + 2xy 2 (d) ax  ay + bx  by x2  y2 # x3 + y3 ab 2 + a 2 b p2  4
2.
(c) 1 + (d) x 
3 2 + p 2 + pq pq  q 2 a b 1 + a + b a  b a2  b2
(e) p  q +
x+y y x (e) x  y + y  x  2 y  x2
Substitution
Algebra is used in writing general formulae or rules. For example, the formula A = lb is used to find the area of a rectangle with length l and breadth b. We can substitute any values for l and b to find the area of different rectangles.
74
EXAMPLES
1. P = 2l + 2b is the formula for finding the perimeter of a rectangle with length l and breadth b. Find P when l = 1.3 and b = 3.2.
Solution
P = 2 l + 2b = 2 ] 1 . 3 g + 2 ] 3 .2 g = 2 .6 + 6 . 4 =9 2. V = rr 2 h is the formula for finding the volume of a cylinder with radius r and height h. Find V (correct to 1 decimal place) when r = 2.1 and h = 8.7.
Solution
V = rr 2 h = r ] 2.1 g2 (8.7) = 120.5 correct to 1 decimal place
9C + 32 is the formula for changing degrees Celsius ] C g into 5 degrees Fahrenheit ] F g find F when C = 25. 3. If F =
Solution
9C + 32 5 9 ] 25 g = + 32 5 225 = + 32 5 225 + 160 = 5 385 = 5 = 77 This means that 25C is the same as 77F. F=
75
2.18
1.
Exercises
10. Given V = 1 lbh is the volume 3 formula for a rectangular pyramid, find V if l = 4.7, b = 5.1 and h = 6.5. 11. The gradient of a straight line is y2  y1 given by m = x  x . Find m 2 1 if x 1 = 3, x 2 = 1, y 1 =  2 and y 2 = 5. 12. If A = 1 h ] a + b g gives the area 2 of a trapezium, find A when h = 7, a = 2.5 and b = 3.9. 13. Find V if V = 4 rr 3 is the volume 3 formula for a sphere with radius r and r = 7.6, to 1 decimal place.
Given a = 3.1 and b =  2.3 find, correct to 1 decimal place. (a) ab (b) 3b (c) 5a 2 (d) ab 3 (e) ]a + bg2 (f) ab (g)  b 2
2.
T = a + ] n  1 g d is the formula for finding the term of an arithmetic series. Find T when a =  4, n = 18 and d = 3. Given y = mx + b, the equation of a straight line, find y if m = 3, x =  2 and b =  1. If h = 100t  5t 2 is the height of a particle at time t, find h when t = 5. Given vertical velocity v =  gt, find v when g = 9.8 and t = 20. If y = 2 x + 3 is the equation of a function, find y when x = 1.3, correct to 1 decimal place. S = 2r r ] r + h g is the formula for the surface area of a cylinder. Find S when r = 5 and h = 7, correct to the nearest whole number. A = rr 2 is the area of a circle with radius r. Find A when r = 9.5, correct to 3 significant figures. Given u n = ar is the nth term of a geometric series, find u n if a = 5, r =  2 and n = 4.
n1
3.
4.
5. 6.
7.
14. The velocity of an object at a certain time t is given by the formula v = u + at. Find v when u = 1 , a = 3 and t = 5 . 4 5 6 a 15. Given S = , find S if a = 5 1r and r = 2 . S is the sum to infinity 3 of a geometric series. 16. c = a 2 + b 2 , according to Pythagoras theorem. Find the value of c if a = 6 and b = 8. 17. Given y = 16  x 2 is the equation of a semicircle, find the exact value of y when x = 2.
8.
9.
76
18. Find the value of E in the energy equation E = mc 2 if m = 8.3 and c = 1.7. 19. A = P c 1 + r n m is the formula 100
20. If S =
for finding compound interest. Find A when P = 200, r = 12 and n = 5, correct to 2 decimal places.
2 3 1 4 a = c 3 m , b = c 2 m and c = c m . 4 3 2
Surds
An irrational number is a number that cannot be written as a ratio or fraction (rational). Surds are special types of irrational numbers, such as 2, 3 and 5 . Some surds give rational values: for example, 9 = 3. Others, like 2 , do not have an exact decimal value. If a question involving surds asks for an exact answer, then leave it as a surd rather than giving a decimal approximation.
Simplifying surds
Class Investigations
1. Is there an exact decimal equivalent for 2 ? 2. Can you draw a line of length exactly 2 ? 3. Do these calculations give the same results? (a) 9 # 4 and 9 # 4 (b) (c) (d) 4 9 9 + 4 and and 4 9 9 + 9 4 4
9  4 and
a# b = a' b =
ab a b = a b
^ x h2 =
x2 = x
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EXAMPLES
1. Express in simplest surd form 45 .
45 also equals 3 # 15 but this will not simplify. We look for a number that is a perfect square.
Solution
45 = 9 # 5 = 9 # 5 =3# 5 =3 5 2. Simplify 3 40 .
Solution
3 40 = 3 4 # 10 = 3 # 4 # 10 = 3 # 2 # 10 = 6 10 3. Write 5 2 as a single surd.
Solution
5 2 = = 25 # 2 50
2.19
1.
Exercises
(k) (l) (n) (o) (p) (q) (r) 2. 112 300 243 245 108 99 125
Express these surds in simplest surd form. (a) (b) (c) (d) (e) (f) (g) (h) (i) (j) 12 63 24 50 72 200 48 75 32 54
(m) 128
78
(c) 4 98 (d) 2 28 (e) 8 20 (f) 4 56 (g) 8 405 (h) 15 8 (i) 7 40 (j) 8 45 3. Write as a single surd. (a) 3 2 (b) 2 5 (c) 4 11 (d) 8 2 (e) 5 3 (f) 4 10 4.
(g) 3 13 (h) 7 2 (i) 11 3 (j) 12 7 Evaluate x if (a) x =3 5 x x x x x x (b) 2 3 = (c) 3 7 = (d) 5 2 = (e) 2 11 = (f) (h) (j) x =7 3 x = 6 23 x = 8 15 (g) 4 19 = (i) 5 31 =
EXAMPLES
1. Simplify 3 2 + 4 2 .
Solution
3 2+4 2 =7 2 2. Simplify 3  12 .
Solution
First, change into like surds. 3  12 = 3  4 # 3 = 3 2 3 = 3 3. Simplify 2 2  2 + 3 .
Solution
2 2 2+ 3= 2+ 3
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2.20
Simplify 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. 8. 9. 10. 11. 12. 13.
Exercises
14. 15. 50 28 +
5 +2 5 3 2 2 2 3 +5 3 7 3 4 3 5 4 5 4 6 6
32 63 18
16. 2 8 
17. 3 54 + 2 24 18. 90  5 40  2 10
19. 4 48 + 3 147 + 5 12 20. 3 2 + 8  12 21. 22. 23. 24. 25. 63  28  50 12  45  48  5 150 + 45 + 24 32  243  50 + 147 80  3 245 + 2 50
2 8 2 5 +4 5 +3 5 2 2 2 3 2 5 + 8 3 + 12 45 2 48 27
a b
a b
EXAMPLES
Simplify 1. 2 2 #  5 7
Solution
2 2 #  5 7 = 10 14
CONTINUED
80
2. 4 2 # 5 18
Solution
4 2 # 5 18 = 20 36 = 20 # 6 = 120 2 14 4 2
3.
Solution
2 14 4 2 = = 2 2 # 4 2 7 2 7
4.
3 10 15 2
Solution
3 10 15 2 = 3# 5 # 2 15 2
5 = 5 10 n 3
2
5. d
Solution
d
2 ^ 10 h 10 n = 3 ^ 3 h2 10 = 3 =31 3 2
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2.21
Simplify 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. 8. 9. 10. 11. 7 #
Exercises
23. 24. 25. 26. 27. 28. 29. 30. 31. 32. 33.
5 8 10 2 16 2 2 12 10 30 5 10 2 2 6 20 4 2 8 10 3 3 15 2 8 3 15 6 10 5 12 5 8 15 18 10 10 15 2 6 2n 3 5n 7
2
3# 5 2 #3 3 5 7 #2 2 3 3 #2 2 5 3 #2 3  4 5 # 3 11 2 7# 7 2 3 # 5 12 6# 2 8 #2 6
12. 3 2 # 5 14 13. 10 # 2 2
14. 2 6 # 7 6 15. ^ 2 h
2
2 16. ^ 2 7 h
17.
3# 5# 2
18. 2 3 # 7 #  5 19. 2 # 6 #3 3
34. d 35. d
Expanding brackets
The same rules for expanding brackets and binomial products that you use in algebra also apply to surds.
82
a^ b + ch=
ab + ac
Proof
a^ b + ch = = a# b + ab + ac a# c
Binomial product:
^ a + b h^ c + d h =
ac +
ad +
bc +
bd
Proof
^ a + b h^ c + d h = a # c + a # d + b # c + b # d = ac + ad + bc + bd
Perfect squares:
^ a + b h2 = a + 2 ab + b
Proof
^ a + b h2 = ^ a + b h ^ a + b h = a 2 + ab + ab + b 2 = a + 2 ab + b ^ a  b h2 = a  2 ab + b
Proof
^ a  b h2 = ^ a  b h ^ a  b h = a 2  ab  ab + b 2 = a  2 ab + b
Difference of two squares:
^ a + b h^ a  b h = a  b
Proof
^ a + b h ^ a  b h = a 2  ab + ab  b 2 =ab
83
EXAMPLES
Expand and simplify 1. 2 ^ 5 + 2 h
Solution
2( 5 + 2) = = = 2# 5 + 10 + 4 10 + 2 2# 2
2. 3 7 ^ 2 3  3 2 h
Solution
3 7 (2 3  3 2 ) = 3 7 # 2 3  3 7 # 3 2 = 6 21  9 14 3. ^ 2 + 3 5 h ^ 3 2h
Solution
( 2 + 3 5)( 3 2) = = 2# 3  2# 2 +3 5# 3 3 5# 2 6  2 + 3 15  3 10
4. ^ 5 + 2 3 h ^ 5  2 3 h
Solution
( 5 + 2 3 ) ( 5  2 3 ) = 5 # 5  5 #2 3 + 2 3 # 5  2 3 #2 3 = 5  2 15 + 2 15  4#3 = 5  12 = 7 Another way to do this question is by using the difference of two squares.
2 2 ( 5 + 2 3)( 5  2 3) = ^ 5 h  ^2 3 h = 5  4#3 = 7
Notice that using the difference of two squares gives a rational answer.
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2.22
1. (a) (b) (d) (f) (h) (i)
Exercises
2^ 5 + 3h 3 ^2 2  5 h 7 ^5 2  2 3 h 3 ^ 5 11 + 3 7 h 5^ 5  5 3h 3 ^ 12 + 10 h (m)^ 2 11 + 5 2 h^ 2 11  5 2 h (n) ^ 5 + 2 h
2 2 (o) ^ 2 2  3 h 2 (p) ^ 3 2 + 7 h 2 (q) ^ 2 3 + 3 5 h 2 (r) ^ 7  2 5 h 2 (s) ^ 2 8  3 5 h 2 (t) ^ 3 5 + 2 2 h
(j) 2 3 ^ 18 + 3 h (k)  4 2 ^ 2  3 6 h (l)  7 5 ^  3 20 + 2 3 h (m) 10 3 ^ 2  2 12 h (n)  2 ^ 5 + 2 h (o) 2 3 ^ 2  12 h 2. Expand and simplify (a) ^ 2 + 3h^ 5 + 3 3 h (b) ^ 5  2 h^ 2  7 h (c) ^ 2 + 5 3 h^ 2 5  3 2 h (d) ^ 3 10  2 5 h^ 4 2 + 6 6 h (e) ^ 2 5  7 2 h^ 5  3 2 h (f) ^ 5 + 6 2 h^ 3 5  3 h (g) ^ 7 + 3 h^ 7  3 h (h) ^ 2  3 h^ 2 + 3 h (i) ^ 6 + 3 2 h^ 6  3 2 h (j) ^ 3 5 + 2 h^ 3 5  2 h (k) ^ 8  5 h^ 8 + 5 h (l) ^ 2 + 9 3 h^ 2  9 3 h 9. 6. 7. 8. 5. 4.
If a = 3 2 , simplify (a) a2 (b) 2a3 (c) (2a)3 (d) ]a + 1g2 (e) ] a + 3 g ] a 3 g Evaluate a and b if 2 (a) ^ 2 5 + 1h = a + b (b) ^ 2 2  5 h ^ 2  3 5 h = a + b 10 Expand and simplify (a) ^ a + 3  2 h ^ a + 3 + 2 h 2 (b) _ p  1  p i Evaluate k if ^ 2 7  3 h ^ 2 7 + 3 h = k. Simplify _ 2 x + y i _ x  3 y i . If ^ 2 3  5 h = a  b , evaluate a and b.
2
Evaluate a and b if ^ 7 2  3 h2 = a + b 2 .
85
Multiplying by
b a b a # = b b b
Proof
b a b a # = b b b2 a b = b
EXAMPLES
1. Rationalise the denominator of 3 . 5
Solution
5 3 5 3 # = 5 5 5 2. Rationalise the denominator of
2 5 3
.
Dont multiply by
Solution
2 5 3 # 3 3 = 2 3
5 9 2 3 = 5# 3 2 3 = 15
86
When there is a binomial denominator, we use the difference of two squares to rationalise it, as the result is always a rational number.
a+ b c+ d
, multiply by
c d c d
Proof
a+ b c+ d #
^ a + b h^ c  d h c d ^ c + d h^ c  d h ^ a + b h^ c  d h = ^ c h2  ^ d h2 ^ a + b h^ c  d h = cd
c d =
EXAMPLES
1. Write with a rational denominator 5 2 3
Multiply by the conjugate surd 2 + 3.
Solution
5 2 3 # 2 +3 2 +3 = 5 ^ 2 + 3h
^ 2 h2  3 2 10 + 3 5 = 29 10 + 3 5 = 7 10 + 3 5 =7
Solution
2 3 + 5 # 3 4 2 3 4 2 =
^2 3 + 5 h^ 3  4 2 h
3 +4 2
^ 3 h2  ^ 4 2 h2 2 # 3  8 6 + 15  4 10 = 3  16 # 2
87
6  8 6 + 15  4 10  29  6 + 8 6  15 + 4 10 = 29 = 3. Evaluate a and b if 3 3 3 2 = a + b.
Solution
3 3 3 2 # 3+ 2 3+ 2
^ 3  2 h^ 3 + 2 h 3 9+3 6 = ^ 3 h2  ^ 2 h2
3#3+3 6 32 9+3 6 = 1 =9+3 6 = =9+ 9# 6 = 9 + 54
3 3^ 3 + 2h
Solution
2 + 3+2 5 3 2 = 2^ 3  2h + 5 ^ 3 + 2h
^ 3 + 2h ^ 3  2h 2 3  4 + 15 + 2 5 = ^ 3 h2  2 2
2 3  4 + 15 + 2 5 34 2 3  4 + 15 + 2 5 = 1 =  2 3 + 4  15  2 5 =
88
2.23
1.
Exercises
3. Express as a single fraction with rational denominator (a) (b) (c) (d) 2 3 6 5 2 5 +2 2 5 3 2 4 2 7 8+3 2 4 5 4 3 2 2 7 5 (k) (l) 2 4. (j) (i) (h) (g) 1 + 2 +1 2 2 1 5 + 2 2 + 3 2 7 3 + # 1 2 1 3 2 + 3 3 2 2 2 3 + 2 3 5
Express with rational denominator (a) (b) (c) (d) (e) (f) (g) (h) (i) (j) 1 7 3 2 2 2 3 5 6 7 5 2 1+
(e) t +
1 where t = t
3 2 2 2 6 1
(f) z 2 
1 where z = 1 + z2 3 + + 2 2 + 1 3 2 3 2 5 3 2 42+ 3 3 3 +1 2 1 6 + 3
3 2 +4 6 2 +3 2 3 2 +3 5 6 +2 2 +7 4+ 5 3 3
2.
Express with rational denominator (a) (b) (c) (d) (e) (f) 4 3 + 3 2 7 2 3 5 +2 6 3 4 3 +4 2 +5 3 3 3 + 2 2
2 5 +3 2
89
5.
2 1 2 +1
4 is 2
7.
Write 5 +1
2 5 +
1 5 
6.
If x =
3 + 2, simplify 8.
1 (a) x + x (b) x 2 + 1 x2
2
1 (c) b x + x l
9.
90
Test Yourself 2
1. Simplify (a) 5y  7y 3a + 12 (b) 3 (c)  2k 3 # 3k 2 y x (d) + 5 3 (e) 4a  3b  a  5b (f) 8 + 32 (g) 3 5  20 + 45 Factorise (a) x 2  36 (b) a 2 + 2a  3 (c) 4ab 2  8ab (d) 5y  15 + xy  3x (e) 4n  2p + 6 (f) 8  x 3 Expand and simplify (a) b + 3 ] b  2 g (b) ] 2x  1 g ] x + 3 g (c) 5 ] m + 3 g  ] m  2 g (d) ]4x  3g2 (e) ^ p  5h^ p + 5h (f) 7  2 ] a + 4 g  5a (g) 3 ^ 2 2  5 h (h) ^ 3 + 7 h^ 3  2h Simplify 4a  12 10b (a) # 3 5b 3 a  27 (b) 5. 5m + 10 m2  4 ' 2 m  m  2 3m + 3 6. (a) Expand and simplify ^ 2 5 + 3 h ^ 2 5  3 h. (b) Rationalise the denominator of 3 3 . 2 5+ 3 Simplify 3 1 2 +  2 . x2 x+3 x +x6
7. 8.
2.
If a = 4, b =  3 and c =  2, find the value of (a) ab 2 (b) a  bc (c) a (d) ]bcg3 (e) c ] 2a + 3b g Simplify 3 12 (a) 6 15 (b) 4 32 2 2
9.
3.
10. The formula for the distance an object falls is given by d = 5t 2 . Find d when t = 1.5. 11. Rationalise the denominator of 2 (a) 5 3 (b) 1+ 3 2
4.
12. Expand and simplify (a) ^ 3 2  4h^ 3  2 h 2 (b) ^ 7 + 2h 13. Factorise fully (a) 3x 2  27 (b) 6x 2  12x  18 (c) 5y 3 + 40
91
15. Simplify 2 (a) ^ 3 11 h 3 (b) ^ 2 3 h 16. Expand and simplify (a) ] a + b g ] a  b g (b) ] a + b g 2 (c) ] a  b g 2 17. Factorise (a) a 2  2ab + b 2 (b) a 3  b 3 1 18. If x = 3 + 1, simplify x + x and give your answer with a rational denominator. 19. Simplify 4 3 (a) a + b (b) x3 x2 5 2 2 3 , writing 5+2 2 21
22. Expand and simplify (a) 2 2 ^ 3 + 2 h (b) ^ 5 7  3 5 h^ 2 2  3 h (c) ^ 3 + 2 h^ 3  2 h (d) ^ 4 3  5 h^ 4 3 + 5 h 2 (e) ^ 3 7  2 h 23. Rationalise the denominator of 3 (a) 7 5 3 2 (c) 5 1 (d) (e) 2 2 3 2+ 3 5+ 2 4 53 3 (b) 2
20. Simplify
your answer with a rational denominator. 21. Simplify (a) 3 8 (b)  2 2 # 4 3 (c) 108  48 (d) 8 6 2 18 2m 3 n 6m 2 n 5
n n
(e) 5a #  3b #  2a (f)
(g) 3x  2y  x  y
92
26. Evaluate x 2 +
1+2 3 1 if x = 2 x 12 3 3
2 7 (there may be more than one answer). 21 (a) 28 2 21 (b) 28 21 (c) 14 21 (d) 7 x3 x +1 . 5 4 ]x + 7 g 20 x+7 20 x + 17 20  ] x + 17 g 20
3 2 1 + . x2 x+2 x2  4 x+5 ]x + 2g]x  2g x+1 ]x + 2g]x  2g x+9 ]x + 2g]x  2g x3 ]x + 2g]x  2g
32. Simplify 5ab  2a 2  7ab  3a 2 . (a) 2ab + a 2 (b)  2ab  5a 2 (c)  13a 3 b (d)  2ab + 5a 2 33. Simplify (a) (b) (c) 4 5 3 3 4 5 9 3 8 5 9 3 8 5 3 3 80 . 27
29. Factorise x 3  4x 2  x + 4 (there may be more than one answer). (a) ^ x 2  1 h ] x  4 g (b) ^ x 2 + 1 h ] x  4 g (c) x 2 ] x  4 g (d) ] x  4 g ] x + 1 g ] x  1 g 30. Simplify 3 2 + 2 98 . (a) 5 2 (b) 5 10 (c) 17 2 (d) 10 2
(d)
34. Expand and simplify ^ 3x  2y h2 . (a) 3x 2  12xy  2y 2 (b) 9x 2  12xy  4y 2 (c) 3x 2  6xy + 2y 2 (d) 9x 2  12xy + 4y 2 35. Complete the square on a 2  16a. (a) a 2  16a + 16 = ^ a  4 h2 (b) a 2  16a + 64 = ^ a  8 h2 (c) a 2  16a + 8 = ^ a  4 h2 (d) a 2  16a + 4 = ^ a  2 h2
93
Challenge Exercise 2
1. Expand and simplify (a) 4ab ] a  2b g  2a 2 ] b  3a g (b) _ y 2  2 i_ y 2 + 2 i (c) ] 2x  5 g3 Find the value of x + y with rational denominator if x = 3 + 1 and 1 y= . 2 53 Simplify 2 3 7 6  54 . 11. Simplify 2x + y xy 3x + 2y . +  2 x3 x+3 x +x6
2.
12. (a) Expand ^ 2x  1 h3. 6x 2 + 5x  4 (b) Simplify . 8x 3  12x 2 + 6x  1 13. Expand and simplify ] x  1 g ^ x  3 h2. 14. Simplify and express with rational denominator 2 + 5 3 +4 5 3 2 1 .
3.
4. 5.
b Complete the square on x 2 + a x. Factorise (a) (x + 4)2 + 5 (x + 4) (b) x 4  x 2 y  6y 2 (c) 125x 3 + 343 (d) a 2 b  2a 2  4b + 8 Complete the square on 4x 2 + 12x. Simplify 2xy + 2x  6  6y 4x 2  16x + 12 .
15. Complete the square on x 2 + 2 x. 3 16. If x = , find the value of x when k+l k = 3, l =  2, x 1 = 5 and x 2 = 4. lx 1 + kx 2
6. 7.
17. Find the exact value with rational 1 denominator of 2x 2  3x + x if x = 2 5 . 18. Find the exact value of 1+2 3 1 (a) x 2 + 2 if x = x 12 3 (b) a and b if 3 4 2+3 3 =a+b 3
8.
a2 + b2 the perpendicular distance from a point to a line. Find the exact value of d with a rational denominator if a = 2, b = 1, c = 3, x 1 =  4 and y 1 = 5. Simplify
d=
 ax 1 + by 1 + c 
19. A = 1 r 2 i is the area of a sector of a 2 circle. Find the value of i when A = 12 and r = 4. 20. If V = rr 2 h is the volume of a cylinder, find the exact value of r when V = 9 and h = 16. 21. If s = u + 1 at 2, find the exact value of s 2 when u = 2, a = 3 and t = 2 3 .
9.
^a + 1h
a3 + 1
10. Factorise
a2 4  2. 2 x b
Equations
TERMINOLOGY
Absolute value: the distance of a number from zero on a number line. Equation: A mathematical statement that has a pronumeral or unknown number and an equal sign. An equation can be solved to find the value of the unknown number e.g. 2x  3 = 5 Exponential equation: Equation where the unknown pronumeral is the power or index e.g. 2 x = 8 Inequation: A mathematical statement involving an inequality sign, 1, 2, # or $ that has an unknown pronumeral that is solved to find values that make the statement true e.g. 2x  3 2 4 Quadratic equation: An equation involving x 2 as the highest power of x that may have two, one or no solutions Simultaneous equations: Two or more independent equations that can be solved together to produce a solution that makes each equation true at the same time. The number of equations required is the same as the number of unknowns
Chapter 3 Equations
95
INTRODUCTION
EQUATIONS ARE FOUND IN most branches of mathematics. They are also
important in many other elds, such as science, economics, statistics and engineering. In this chapter you will revise basic equations and inequations. Equations involving absolute values, exponential equations, quadratic equations and simultaneous equations are also covered here.
PROBLEM
The age of Diophantus at his death can be calculated from this epitaph: Diophantus passed onesixth of his life in childhood, onetwelfth in youth, and oneseventh more as a bachelor; ve years after his marriage a son was born who died four years before his father at half his fathers nal age. How old was Diophantus?
Simple Equations
Here are the four rules for changing numbers or pronumerals from one side of an equation to the other.
Do the opposite operation to take a number to the other side of an equation.
If a number is added, subtract it from both sides If a number is subtracted, add it to both sides If a number is multiplied, divide both sides by the number If a number is divided, multiply both sides by the number
96
EXAMPLES
Solve 1. 3x + 5 = 17
Solution
3x + 5 = 17 3x + 5  5 = 17  5 3x = 12 3x 12 = 3 3 x=4 You can check the solution by substituting the value into the equation. LHS = 3x + 5 = 3 ( 4) + 5 = 12 + 5 = 17 = RHS Since LHS = RHS, x = 4 is the correct solution. 2. 4y  3 = 8y + 21
Solution
4y  3 4 y  4y  3 3  3  21  24 = 8y + 21 = 8y  4y + 21 = 4y + 21 = 4y + 21  21 = 4y 4y  24 = 4 4 6 = y y = 6
3. 2 ] 3x + 7 g = 6  ] x  1 g
Check these solutions by substituting them into the equation.
Solution
2 (3 x + 7 ) = 6  ( x  1 ) 6x + 14 = 6  x + 1 =7x 6x + x + 14 = 7  x + x 7x + 14 = 7
Chapter 3 Equations
97
7x + 14  14 7x 7x 7 x
= 7  14 = 7 7 7 = 1 =
3.1 Exercises
Solve 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. 8. 9. 10. t + 4 = 1 z + 1.7 = 3.9 y  3 = 2 w  2 .6 = 4 .1 5 = x 7 1.5x = 6 5y = 1 3 b =5 7 2 = r 2 = 6 3 n 8 17. 16. x 3 =7 2 m + 7 = 11 5
18. 3x + 5 = 17 19. 4a + 7 =  21 20. 7y  1 = 20 21. 8b  4 =  36 22. 3 (x + 2) = 15 23. 2 (3a + 1) = 8 24. 7t + 4 = 3t  12 25. x  3 = 6x  9 26. 2 (a  2) = 4  3a 27. 5b + 2 =  3(b  1) 28. 3 (t + 7) = 2 (2t  9) 29. 2 + 5( p  1) = 5p  ( p  2) 30. 3.7x + 1.2 = 5.4x  6.3
A S TA R T L I N G FA C T !
Half full = half empty ` full = empty
98
EXAMPLES
Solve m 1 1. 4= 3 2
Solution
Multiply by the common denominator, 6.
m 1 4 = 3 2 m m  6 (4) = 6 c 1 m 2 3 2m  24 = 3 2m  24 + 24 = 3 + 24 2m = 27 6c 2m 27 = 2 2 27 m= 2 = 13 1 2 2. x+1 x + =5 4 3
Solution
The common denominator of 3 and 4 is 12.
x +1 x + =5 4 3 x +1 x m + 12 c m = 12 (5) 12 c 4 3 4 (x + 1) + 3x = 60 4x + 4 + 3x = 60 7x + 4 = 60 7x + 4  4 = 60  4 7x = 56 7x 56 = 7 7 x=8
Chapter 3 Equations
99
3.
y +1 y2 5 = 5 3 6
Solution
y +1 y2 5 = 5 3 6 y +1 y 2 o  30 e o = 30 c 5 m 30 e 5 3 6 6 (y + 1)  10 (y  2) = 25 6y + 6  10y + 20 = 25  4y + 26 = 25  4y + 26  26 = 25  26  4y = 1  4y 1 = 4 4 y=1 4 When there is a fraction on either side of the equation, multiplying by the common denominator is the same as cross multiplying.
EXAMPLES
5 8 1. Solve x = (x ! 0 ) 3
Solution
5 8 x =3 8x = 15 8x 15 = 8 8 7 x=1 8 2. Solve 3 8 ^n ! 0h = 5 2n
Solution
3 8 = 5 2n 16n = 15 16n 15 = 16 16 15 n= 16
100
3.2 Exercises
Solve 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. 8. 9. 10. 11. 12. 13. b 2 = 5 3 7 1 x = 5 (x ! 0 ) 9 4 y = 10 (y ! 0) 5x 11 = 4 7 9 4 = ( k ! 0) 5 2k x 4=8 3 3 5t = 4 4 5+x 2 = 7 7 y 3 =5 2 x 2  =7 9 3 w3 =5 2 2t t  =2 5 3 x 1 + =4 4 2 14. 15. 16. 17. 18. 19. 20. 21. 22. 23. 24. 25. 3 x x  = 5 2 10 x+4 x + =1 3 2 p3 2p + =2 2 3 t +3 t 1 + =4 7 3 x+5 x+2 =1 5 9 q1 q2 =2 4 3 x+3 x +7 +2= 5 2 3b 1 b  = 4 5 2 a 3 5 + = 4 3 8 3 5 =x x+2 1 1 = y +1 3y  1
^ x ! 0, 2 h
c y ! 1,
1 m 3
2 1 + = 0 ^ t ! 3,  4 h t3 t+4
Substitution
Sometimes substituting values into a formula involves solving an equation.
Investigation
Body mass index (BMI) is a formula that is used to measure body fatness and is used by health professionals to screen for weight categories that may lead to health problems.
Chapter 3 Equations
101
This is not the only measure that is used when looking for health problems, however. For example, there are other factors in cardiac (heart) disease. Research these to nd out what other things doctors look for. The BMI is used in a different way with children and teens, and is taken in relation to the childs age. w The formula for BMI is BMI = 2 where w is weight in kg and h is height h in metres. For adults over 20, a BMI under 18.5 means that the person is underweight and over 25 is overweight. Over 30 is obese. The BMI may not always be reliable in measuring body fat. Can you think of some reasons? Is it important where the body fat is stored? Does it make a difference if it is on the hips or the stomach? Research these questions and nd out more about BMI generally.
EXAMPLES
1. The formula for the surface area of a rectangular prism is given by S = 2 (lb + bh + lh) . Find the value of b when S = 180, l = 9 and h = 6.
Solution
S = 2 (lb + bh + lh) 180 = 2 (9b + 6b + 9 # 6) = 2 (15b + 54) = 30b + 108 180  108 = 30b + 108  108 72 = 30b 30b 72 = 30 30 2. 4 = b
Another way of doing this would be to change the subject of the formula first.
CONTINUED
102
2. The volume of a cylinder is given by V = rr 2 h. Evaluate the radius r, correct to 2 decimal places, when V = 350 and h = 6.5.
Solution
V = rr 2 h 350 = rr 2 (6.5) r r 2 ( 6 .5 ) 350 = 6 .5 r 6.5r 350 = r2 6 .5 r 350 = r2 6 .5 r 350 =r 6 .5 r 4.14 = r
3.3 Exercises
1. Given that v = u + at is the formula for the velocity of a particle at time t, nd the value of t when u = 17.3, v = 100.6 and a = 9.8. The sum of an arithmetic series is n given by S = (a + l ) . Find l if 2 a = 3, n = 26 and S = 1625. The formula for nding the area of a triangle is A = 1 bh. Find b 2 when A = 36 and h = 9. The area of a trapezium is given by A = 1 h (a + b) . Find 2 the value of a when A = 120, h = 5 and b = 7. Find the value of y when x = 3, given the straight line equation 5x  2y  7 = 0. The area of a circle is given by A = rr 2 . Find r correct to 3 signicant gures if A = 140. 7. The area of a rhombus is given by the formula A = 1 xy where x and 2 y are its diagonals. Find the value of x correct to 2 decimal places when y = 7.8 and A = 25.1. The simple interest formula is Pr n . Find n if r = 14.5, I= 100 P = 150 and I = 326.25. The gradient of a straight y2  y1 line is given by m = x  x . 2 1 Find y 1 when m =  5 , 6 y 2 = 7, x 2 =  3 and x 1 = 1. 10. The surface area of a cylinder is given by the formula S = 2rr ] r + h g . Evaluate h correct to 1 decimal place if S = 232 and r = 4.5.
2.
8.
3.
9.
4.
5.
6.
Chapter 3 Equations
103
11. The formula for body mass index w is BMI = 2 . Evaluate h (a) the BMI when w = 65 and h = 1.6 (b) w when BMI = 21.5 and h = 1.8 (c) h when BMI = 19.7 and w = 73.8. 12. A formula for depreciation is D = P ] 1  r g n . Find r if D = 12 000, P = 15 000 and n = 3. 13. The xvalue of the midpoint is x1 + x2 given by x = . Find x1 2 when x =  2 and x 2 = 5. 14. Given the height of a particle at time t is h = 5t 2, evaluate t when h = 23.
15. If y = x 2 + 1, evaluate x when y = 5. 16. If the surface area of a sphere is S = 4rr 2, evaluate r to 3 signicant gures when S = 56.3. 17. The area of a sector of a circle 1 is A = r 2 i. Evaluate r when 2 A = 24.6 and i = 0.45. 18. If y = 2 , nd the value of x x3  1 when y = 3.
19. Given y = 2x + 5 , evaluate x when y = 4. 20. The volume of a sphere is 4 V = rr 3. Evaluate r to 1 decimal 3 place when V = 150.
Inequations
2 means greater than 1 means less than $ means greater than or equal to # means less than or equal to
In order to solve inequations, we need to see what effect one operation applied to both sides has on the inequality sign.
104
1 1 1 . 3 2
The inequality sign reverses when: multiplying by a negative dividing by a negative taking the reciprocal of both sides
On the number plane, we graph inequalities using arrows and circles (open for greater than and less than and closed in for greater than or equal to and less than or equal to) 1 2 # $
Chapter 3 Equations
105
EXAMPLES
Solve and show the solutions on a number line 1. 5x + 7 $ 17
Solution
5x + 7 $ 17 5x + 7  7 $ 17  7 5x $ 10 5x 10 $ 5 5 x$2
4 3 2 1 0 1 2 3 4
2. 3t  2 2 5t + 4
Solution
3t  2 2 5t + 3t  3t  2 2 5t 2 2 2t +  2  4 2 2t + 6 2 2t 2t 6 2 2 2 3 2 t or 3t  2 3t  5t  2 2t  2  2t  2 + 2 2t 2t 2 t
4
4 3t + 4 4 44
2 5t + 4 2 5t  5t + 4 24 24+2 26 6 2 2 1 3
3 2 1 0 1 2 3 4
CONTINUED
106
3. Solve 1 1 2z + 7 # 11.
Solution
Method 1: Separate into two separate questions. 1 1 2z + 7 (i) 1  7 1 2z + 7  7  6 1 2z 6 2z 1 2 2 3 1 z (ii) 2z + 7 # 11 2z + 7  7 # 11  7 2z # 4 2z 4 # 2 2 z #2
Solving this inequation as a single question is quicker than splitting it into two parts. Notice that the circle is not filled in for 1 and filled in for #.
3.4 Exercises
1. Solve and plot the solution on a number line (a) x + 4 2 7 (b) y  3 # 1 Solve (a) 5t 2 35 (b) 3x  7 $ 2 (c) 2 (p + 5) 2 8 (d) 4  (x  1) # 7 (e) 3y + 5 2 2y  4 (f) 2a  6 # 5a  3 (g) 3 + 4y $  2 (1  y) (h) 2x + 9 1 1  4 (x + 1) a (i) #  3 2 2y (j) 8 2 3 b (k) + 5 1  4 2 x (l)  4 2 6 3 x 1 (m) + # 1 4 5 (n) m 2 3 2 4 3
2.
Chapter 3 Equations
107
2b 1  $6 5 2 r3 (p) # 6 2 z+1 (q) +223 9 w 2w + 5 (r) + 14 6 3 (o) (s) (t) (u) x+1 x2 $7 2 3 t+3 t+2 #2 7 2 q2 3q 12+ 4 3
(v) (w) 3.
2x x 1 2 2 3 2 9 2b  5 b+6 +3# 8 12
Solve and plot the solutions on a number line (a) 3 1 x + 2 1 9 (b) 4 # 2p 1 10 (c) 2 1 3x  1 1 11 (d) 6 # 5y + 9 # 34 (e) 2 1 3 (2y  1) 1 7
PROBLEM
Find a solution for this sum. Is it a unique solution? CR OS S +RO A DS DANGE R
EXAMPLES
Plot on a number line and evaluate x 1. x = 2
Solution
x = 2 means the distance of x from zero is 2 (in either direction).
2 2
4
3
2
1
x = !2
CONTINUED
108
2. x # 2
Solution
x # 2 means the distance of x from zero is less than or equal to 2 (in either direction).
2 2
4
The solution of  x  1 2 would be  2 1 x 1 2.
3
2
1
Notice that there is one region on the number line. We can write this as the single statement  2 # x # 2. 3. x 2 2
Solution
x 2 2 means the distance of x from zero is greater than 2 (in either direction).
2 2
4
The solution of  x  $ 2 would be x #  2, x $ 2.
3
2
1
There are two regions on the number line, so we write two separate inequalities x 1  2, x 2 2.
Class Discussion
What does a  b mean as a distance along the number line? Select different values of a and b to help with this discussion.
We use absolute value as a distance on a number line to solve equations and inequations involving absolute values.
Chapter 3 Equations
109
EXAMPLES
Solve 1. x + 4 = 7
Solution
This means that the distance from x + 4 to zero is 7 in either direction. So x + 4 = ! 7. x+4 =7 x+4=7 or x + 4 = 7 x+44=74 x + 4  4 = 7  4 x=3 x = 11 2. 2y  1 1 5
Solution
This means that the distance from 2y  1 to zero is less than 5 in either direction. So it means  5 1 2y  1 1 5.  5 1 2y  1 1 5  5 + 1 1 2y  1 + 1 1 5 + 1 2y 6 4 1 1 2 2 2 2 1 y 1 3 3. 5b  7 $ 3
Solution
5b  7 $ 3 means that the distance from 5b  7 to zero is greater than or equal to 3 in either direction. 5b  7 #  3 5b  7 + 7 # 3 + 7 5b # 4 5b 4 # 5 5 4 b # 5 4 So b # , b $ 2. 5 5b  7 $ 3 5b  7 + 7 $ 3 + 7 5b $ 10 5b 10 $ 5 5 b$2
These must be solved and written as two separate inequations.
110
While it is always a good habit to check solutions to equations and inequations by substituting in values, in these next examples it is essential to check, as some of the solutions are impossible!
EXAMPLES
Solve 1. 2x + 1 = 3x  2
Solution
2x + 1 = 3x  2 means that 2x + 1 is at a distance of 3x  2 from zero. 2x + 1 = ! ] 3x  2 g This question is impossible if 3x  2 is negative. Can you see why? If 2x + 1 is equal to a negative number, this is impossible as the absolute value is always positive. Case (i) 2x + 1 = 3x  2 2x  2x + 1 = 3x  2x  2 1=x2 1+2=x2+2 3=x Check solution is possible: Substitute x = 3 into 2x + 1 = 3x  2. LHS = 2 # 3 + 1 = 7 =7 RHS = 3 # 3  2 =92 =7 Since LHS = RHS, x = 3 is a solution. Case (ii) 2 x + 1 =  ( 3x  2 ) =  3x + 2 2 x + 3x + 1 =  3 x + 3x + 2 5x + 1 = 2 5x + 1  1 = 2  1 5x = 1 5x 1 = 5 5 1 x= 5
Chapter 3 Equations
111
Check: 1 Substitute x = into 2x + 1 = 3x  2. 5 1 LHS = 2 # + 1 5 2 = 1 5 2 =1 5 1 RHS = 3 #  2 5 3 = 2 5 2 = 1 5 1 Since LHS ! RHS, x = is not a solution. 5 So the only solution is x = 3. 2. 2x  3 + x + 1 = 9
It is often easier to solve these harder equations graphically. You will do this in Chapter 5.
Solution
In this question it is difficult to use distances on the number line, so we use the definition of absolute value. 2x  3 2x  3 = '  (2 x  3) x +1 x + 1 = '  (x + 1) when 2x  3 $ 0 when 2x  3 1 0 when x + 1 $ 0 when x + 1 1 0
This gives 4 cases: (i) (2x  3) + (x + 1) = 9 (ii) (2x  3)  (x + 1) = 9 (iii) (2x  3) + (x + 1) = 9 (iv) (2x  3)  (x + 1) = 9 Case (i) ( 2x  3 ) + ( x + 1 ) = 9 2x  3 + x + 1 = 9 3x  2 = 9 3x  2 + 2 = 9 + 2 3x = 11 3x 11 = 3 3 2 x=3 3 Check by substituting x = 3 2 into 2x  3 + x + 1 = 9. 3
CONTINUED
112
2 2 3 + 3 +1 3 3 1 2 = 4 + 4 3 3 1 2 =4 +4 3 3 =9 = RHS 2 So x = 3 is a solution. 3 Case (ii) ( 2 x  3 )  (x + 1 ) = 9 2x  3  x  1 = 9 x4=9 x4+4=9+4 x = 13 Check by substituting x = 13 into 2x  3 + x + 1 = 9. LHS = 2 # 13  3 + 13 + 1 = 23 + 14 = 23 + 14 = 37 ! RHS So x = 13 is not a solution. Case (iii) (2x  3) + (x + 1) = 9  2x + 3 + x + 1 = 9 x + 4 = 9 x + 4  4 = 9  4 x = 5 x 5 = 1 1 x = 5 LHS = 2 # 3 Check by substituting x =  5 into 2x  3 + x + 1 = 9. LHS = 2 #  5  3 +  5 + 1 =  13 +  4 = 13 + 4 = 17 ! RHS So x =  5 is not a solution. Case (iv)  (2x  3)  (x + 1) = 9  2x + 3  x  1 = 9  3x + 2 = 9  3x + 2  2 = 9  2  3x = 7
Chapter 3 Equations
113
 3x 7 = 3 3 1 3 1 Check by substituting x =  2 into 2x  3 + x + 1 = 9. 3 1 1 LHS = 2 #  2  3 +  2 + 1 3 3 2 1 = 7 + 1 3 3 2 1 = 7 +1 3 3 =9 = RHS 1 So x =  2 is a solution. 3 2 1 So solutions are x = 3 ,  2 . 3 3 x = 2 While you should always check solutions, you can see that there are some cases where this is really important.
You will learn how to solve equations involving absolute values graphically in Chapter 5. With graphical solutions it is easy to see how many solutions there are.
3.5 Exercises
1. Solve (a) x = 5 (b) y = 8 (c) a 1 4 (d) k $ 1 (e) x 2 6 (f) p # 10 (g) x = 0 (h) a 2 14 (i) y 1 12 (j) b $ 20 2. Solve (a) x + 2 = 7 (b) n  1 = 3 (c) 2a 2 4 (d) x  5 # 1 (e) 9 = 2x + 3 (f) 7x  1 = 34 (g) 4y + 3 1 11 (h) 2x  3 $ 15 x (i) =4 3 a (j) 3 #2 2 5. 4. 3. Solve (a) x + 2 = 5x  3 (b) 2a  1 = a + 2 (c) b  3 = 2b  4 (d) 3k  2 = k  4 (e) 6y + 23 = y  7 (f) 4x + 3 = 5x  4 (g) 2m  5 = m (h) 3d + 1 = d + 6 (i) 5  y = 4y + 1 (j) 2t  7 = 3  t Solve (a) x + 3 = 3x  1 (b) 2y  5 = y  2 (c) 3a + 1 = 2a  9 (d) 2x + 5 + x = 17 (e) 3d  2 + d + 4 = 18 (a) Solve 4t  3 + t  1 = 11. (b) By plotting the solutions on a number line and looking at values in between the solutions, solve 4t  3 + t  1 1 11.
Remember to check solutions in questions 3, 4 and 5.
114
Exponential Equations
An exponential equation involves an unknown index or power e.g. 2 x = 8. We can also solve other equations involving indices. In order to solve these, you need to understand their relationship. For example, squares and square roots are the reverse of each other (we call them inverse operations). Similarly cubes and cube roots are inverses, and this extends to all indices. To solve equations, use inverse operations: For squares, take the square root For cubes, take the cube root For square roots, take the square For cube roots, take the cube You have previously used these rules when substituting into formulae involving squares and cubes.
EXAMPLES
Solve 1. x 2 = 9
There are two possible solutions for x one positive and one negative since 3 2 = 9 and ( 3) 2 = 9.
Solution
x2 = 9 x2 = ! 9 ` x= !3 2. 5n 3 = 40
Solution
5n 3 = 40 5n 3 40 = 5 5 3 n =8
3
There is only one answer for this question since 2 3 = 8 but ( 2) 3 = 8.
n3 = 3 8 n=2
Chapter 3 Equations
115
3. a 3 = 4
Solution
We use the fact that ` a j = ` a j = a. a3 = 4
2 3 2 3 3 2 3 3 2 3 2 2 3
`a j = 4 2
` a= 42 3 a = ^ 4h = 23 =8
2 3
Investigation
Investigate equations of the type x n = k where k is a constant, for example, x n = 9. Look at these questions: 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. What is the solution when n = 0? What is the solution when n = 1? How many solutions are there when n = 2? How many solutions are there when n = 3? How many solutions are there when n is even? How many solutions are there when n is odd?
In other types of equations, the pronumeral (or unknown variable) is in the index. We call these exponential equations, and we use the fact that if the base numbers are equal, then the powers (or indices or exponents) must be equal.
EXAMPLES
Solve 1. 3 x = 81
Solution
3 x = 81 Equating indices: 3x = 34 `x=4
CONTINUED
116
2. 5 2k  1 = 25
Solution
5 2k  1 = 25 5 2k  1 = 5 2 ` 2k  1 = 2 2k  1 + 1 = 2 + 1 2k = 3 3 2k = 2 2 1 k=1 2 3. 8 n = 4
Solution
It is hard to write 8 as a power of 4 or 4 as a power of 8, but both can be written as powers of 2. 8n = 4 (2 ) = 2 2 2 3n = 2 2 ` 3n = 2 3n 2 = 3 3 2 n= 3
3 n
3.6 Exercises
1. Solve (a) x 3 = 27 (b) y 2 = 64 (c) n 4 = 16 (d) x 2 = 20 (give the exact answer) (e) p 3 = 1000 (f) 2x 2 = 50 (g) 6y 4 = 486 (h) w 3 + 7 = 15 (i) 6n 2  4 = 92 (j) 3q 3 + 20 =  4 2. Solve and give the answer correct to 2 decimal places. (a) p 2 = 45 (b) x 3 = 100 (c) n 5 = 240 (d) 2x 2 = 70 (e) 4y 3 + 7 = 34 d4 (f) = 14 3 k2 (g) 3=7 2 x3  1 (h) =2 5 (i) 2y 2  9 = 20 (j) 7y 3 + 9 = 200
Chapter 3 Equations
117
3.
Solve (a) n = 9 (b) t 4 = 8 (c) x 5 = 4 (d) t 3 = 16 (e) p 5 = 27 (f) 2m 4 = 250 (g) b 3 + 3 = 39 (h) 5y 3 = 405 (i) 3a 7  2 = 10 (j) t =9 3
3 4 2 4 2 3 3 4 2 3 2 3
6.
Solve (a) 2 n = 16 (b) 3 y = 243 (c) 2 m = 512 (d) 10 x = 100 000 (e) 6 m = 1 (f) 4 x = 64 (g) 4 x + 3 = 19 (h) 5 (3 x ) = 45 (i) 4 x = 4 6k (j) = 18 2 Solve (a) 3 2x = 81 (b) 2 5x  1 = 16 (c) 4 x + 3 = 4 (d) 3 n  2 = 1 (e) 7 2x + 1 = 7 (f) 3 x  3 = 27 (g) 5 3y + 2 = 125 (h) 7 3x  4 = 49 (i) 2 4x = 256 (j) 9 3a + 1 = 9 Solve (a) 4 m = 2 (b) 27 x = 3 (c) 125 x = 5 1 k m =7 49 1 k m = 100 (e) c 1000 (f) 16 n = 8 (g) 25 x = 125 (h) 64 n = 16 (d) c 1 3k (i) c m = 2 4 (j) 8 x  1 = 4
7.
4.
Solve (all pronumerals ! 0) (a) x  1 = 5 (b) a  3 = 8 (c) y  5 = 32 (d) x  2 + 1 = 50 (e) 2n  1 = 3 1 (f) a  3 = 8 1 2 (g) x = 4 1 (h) b  1 = 9 1 (i) x  2 = 2 4 16 (j) b  4 = 81 Solve (all pronumerals ! 0) (a) x
1 3 3 2
8.
5.
=8 = 8 125
(b) x (c) a
1 4 3 4 
=3 = 125
2 3
(d) k
(e) 3x (f) x
= 12
9.
3 2
= =
1 32 36 49
Solve (a) 2 4x + 1 = 8 x (b) 3 5x = 9 x  2 (c) 7 2k + 3 = 7 k  1 (d) 4 3n = 8 n + 3 (e) 6 x  5 = 216 x (f) 16 2x  1 = 4 x  4 (g) 27 x + 3 = 3 x 1 x 1 2x + 3 m (h) c m = c 2 64
(j) m
2 3
118
(d) 3 k = 3 3 (e) c 3 1 3n + 1 m = 27 81
2 3 5
PUZZLE
Test your logical thinking and that of your friends. 1. How many months have 28 days? 2. If I have 128 sheep and take away all but 10, how many do I have left? 3. A bottle and its cork cost $1.10 to make. If the bottle costs $1 more than the cork, how much does each cost? 4. What do you get if you add 1 to 15 four times? 5. On what day of the week does Good Friday fall in 2016?
Quadratic Equations
A quadratic equation is an equation involving a square. For example, x 2  4 = 0.
Solving by factorisation
When solving quadratic equations by factorising, we use a property of zero.
EXAMPLES
Solve 1. x 2 + x  6 = 0
Solution
x2 + x  6 = 0 (x + 3) (x  2) = 0
Chapter 3 Equations
119
So the solution is x =  3 or 2. 2. y 2  7y = 0
Solution
y 2  7y = 0 y ( y  7) = 0 ` y=0
or
y7=0
Solution
3a 2  14a =  8 3a 2  14a + 8 =  8 + 8 3a 2  14a + 8 = 0 (3a  2) (a  4) = 0 ` 3a  2 = 0 or 3a  2 + 2 = 0 or 3a = 2 3a 2 = 3 3 2 a= 3 2 So the solution is a = or 4. 3
3.7 Exercises
Solve 1. 2. 3. y2 + y = 0 b2  b  2 = 0 p 2 + 2p  15 = 0 4. 5. 6. t 2  5t = 0 x 2 + 9x + 14 = 0 q2  9 = 0
120
7. 8. 9.
x2  1 = 0 a 2 + 3a = 0 2x 2 + 8x = 0
Application
1 2 at where u is the 2 initial velocity and a is the acceleration. Find the time when the displacement will be zero, given u =  12 and a = 10. A formula for displacement s at time t is given by s = ut +
2 s = ut + 1 at 2 2 0 = 12t + 1 (10) t 2
= 12t + 5t ` t = 0 or
12 + 12 + 5t = 0 + 12
Chapter 3 Equations
121
EXAMPLES
Solve 1. x 2 = 7
Solution
x2 = 7 x=! 7 = ! 2.6 2. ] x + 3 g2 = 11
Solution
] x + 3 g2 = 11
x + 3 = ! 11 x + 3  3 = ! 11  3 x = ! 11  3 = 0.3,  6.3
Take the square root of both sides.
3. ^ y  2 h2 = 7
Solution
^ y  2 h2 = 7
y2=! 7 y2+2=! 7+2 y=! 7+2 = 4.6,  0.6
To solve a quadratic equation like x 2  6x + 3 = 0, which will not factorise, we can use the method of completing the square.
EXAMPLES
Solve by completing the square 1. x 2  6x + 3 = 0 (give exact answer)
Solution
x 2  6x + 3 = 0 x 2  6x =  3
c 6 m = 32 = 9 2
CONTINUED
2
122
Solution
y 2 + 2y  7 = 0 y 2 + 2y = 7 y 2 + 2y + 1 = 7 + 1 ^ y + 1 h2 = 8 ` y+1=! 8 y + 1  1 = ! 8 1 y = ! 8 1 = !2 2  1 y = 1.83 or  3.83
c 2 m = 12 = 1 2
2
3.8 Exercises
1. Solve by completing the square, giving exact answers in simplest surd form (a) x 2 + 4x  1 = 0 (b) a 2  6a + 2 = 0 (c) y 2  8y  7 = 0 (d) x 2 + 2x  12 = 0 (e) p 2 + 14p + 5 = 0 (f) x 2  10x  3 = 0 (g) y 2 + 20y + 12 = 0 (h) x 2  2x  1 = 0 (i) n 2 + 24n + 7 = 0 (j) y 2  3y + 1 = 0 2. Solve by completing the square and write your answers correct to 3 significant figures (a) x 2  2x  5 = 0 (b) x 2 + 12x + 34 = 0 (c) q 2 + 18q  1 = 0 (d) x 2  4x  2 = 0 (e) b 2 + 16b + 50 = 0 (f) x 2  24x + 112 = 0 (g) r 2  22r  7 = 0 (h) x 2 + 8x + 5 = 0 (i) a 2 + 6a  1 = 0 (j) y 2  40y  3 = 0
Solving by formula
Completing the square is difficult with harder quadratic equations, for example 2x 2  x  5 = 0. Completing the square on a general quadratic equation gives the following formula.
Chapter 3 Equations
123
Proof
Solve ax 2 + b + c = 0 by completing the square. ax 2 + bx + c = 0 ax 2 bx c 0 a + a +a=a bx c x2 + a + a = 0 c c bx c x2 + a + a  a = 0  a bx c x2 + a =  a bx c b2 b2 x2 + a + 2 =  a + 2 4a 4a c b2 b 2 cx + m = a + 2 2a 4a  4ac + b 2 = 4a 2  4ac + b 2 b x+ =! 2a 4a 2 2 b  4ac =! 2a b 2  4ac b b b x+ =! 2a 2a 2a 2a b 2  4ac b x= ! 2a 2a 2  b ! b  4ac = 2a
2 2 2 b b ' 2l = c b m = b 2 a 2a 4a
EXAMPLES
1. Solve x 2  x  2 = 0 by using the quadratic formula.
Solution
a = 1, b = 1, c =  2 x= b 2  4ac 2a  (1) ! (1) 2  4 (1) (2) = 2 (1 ) 1! 1+8 = 2
CONTINUED
b !
124
1! 9 2 1!3 = 2 = 2 or  1 =
Solution
a = 2, b = 9, c = 3 x= b ! b 2  4ac 2a  ] 9 g ! ] 9 g2  4 ] 2 g ] 3 g y= 2] 2 g 9 ! 81  24 = 4 9 ! 57 = 4 Z 4.14 or 0.36
3.9
1.
Exercises
2. Solve by formula, leaving the answer in simplest surd form (a) x 2 + x  4 = 0 (b) 3x 2  5x + 1 = 0 (c) q 2  4q  3 = 0 (d) 4h 2 + 12h + 1 = 0 (e) 3s 2  8s + 2 = 0 (f) x 2 + 11x  3 = 0 (g) 6d 2 + 5d  2 = 0 (h) x 2  2x = 7 (i) t 2 = t + 1 (j) 2x 2 + 1 = 7x
Solve by formula, correct to 3 significant figures where necessary (a) y 2 + 6y + 2 = 0 (b) 2x 2  5x + 3 = 0 (c) b 2  b  9 = 0 (d) 2x 2  x  1 = 0 (e)  8x 2 + x + 3 = 0 (f) n 2 + 8n  2 = 0 (g) m 2 + 7m + 10 = 0 (h) x 2  7x = 0 (i) x 2 + 5x = 6 (j) y 2 = 3y  1
Class Investigation
Here is a proof that 1 = 2. Can you see the fault in the proof? x2  x2 = x2  x2 x(x  x) = (x + x) (x  x) x=x+x x = 2x 1=2 `
Chapter 3 Equations
125
Further Inequations
Inequations involving pronumerals in the denominator can be solved in several ways. Here is one method. You will use a different method in Chapter 10.
EXAMPLES
1 1. Solve x 1 3.
Solution
x!0 1 Solve x = 3. 1 x #x=3#x 1 = 3x 3x 1 = 3 3 1 =x 3 1 1 is not a solution of the inequation x 1 3. 3 1 Place x = 0 and x = on a number plane and test x values on either side 3 of these values in the inequation. x=
3 2 1 0 1 3 1 2 3 4 5
1 is undefined. 0
Test for x 1 0, say x = 1 Substitute into the inequation: 1 x 13 1 13 1 1 1 3 So x 1 0 is part of the solution. 1 1 Test for 0 1 x 1 , say x = 3 10 1 13 1 10 10 1 3 1 So 0 1 x 1 is not part of the solution. 3 1 Test for x 2 , say x = 1 3 Substitute into the inequation:
(true)
(false)
CONTINUED
126
(true)
2. Solve
6 is undefined. 0
6 $ 1. x+3
Solution
x ! 3 Solve 6 = 1. x+3
6 $ 1. x+3 Place x =  3 and x = 3 on a number plane and test values on either side in the inequation. x = 3 is a solution of the inequation
3 2 1 0 1 2 3 4 5
Test for x 1  3, say x =  4 Substitute into the inequation: 6 $1 x+3 6 $1 4 + 3 6 $ 3 So x 1  3 is not part of the solution. Test for  3 1 x # 3, say x = 0 6 $1 0+3 2$1 So  3 1 x # 3 is part of the solution. Test for x $ 3, say x = 4 Substitute into the inequation: 6 $1 4+3 6 $1 7 So x $ 3 is not part of the solution.
(false)
(true)
(false)
Chapter 3 Equations
127
Solution is  3 1 x # 3
3 2 1 0 1 2 3 4 5
3. Solve
y2  6 # 1. y
Solution
y!0 y2  6 = 1. y 2 y 6 y #y=1#y y2  6 = y y2  y  6 = y  y y2  y  6 = 0 ^y  3h^y + 2h = 0 y  3 = 0, y+2 =0 y  3 + 3 = 0 + 3, y + 2  2 = 0  2 y = 3, y = 2 Solve Sketch these on a number line and test values on either side.
3 2 1 0 1 2 3 4 5
Test for y #  2, say y =  3 Substitute into the inequation: y2  6 #1 y 2 ]3 g  6 #1 3 1 # 1 So y #  2 is part of the solution. Test for  2 # y 1 0, say y = 1 ] 1 g2  6 #1 1 5#1 So  2 # y 1 0 is not part of the solution. Test 0 1 y # 3, say y = 1 12  6 #1 1 5 # 1 So 0 1 y # 3 is part of the solution. Test y $ 3, say y = 4
(true)
(false)
(true)
CONTINUED
128
(false)
3.10
Solve 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. 8. 9. 10. 11. 12. 13. 14. 15. 1 y 11 1 x 22 3 x 12 2 m $7
Exercises
16. 17. 18. 19. 20. 21. 22. 23. 24. 25. 26. 27. 28. 29. 30.
Chapter 3 Equations
129
Quadratic Inequations
Solving quadratic inequations is similar to solving quadratic equations, but you need to do this in two stages. The rst is to solve the equation and then the second step is to look at either the number line or the number plane for the inequality.
To solve a quadratic inequation: 1. Factorise and solve the quadratic equation 2. Test values in the inequality
In Chapter 10 you will look at how to use the number plane to solve these quadratic inequations. Here are some examples of solving quadratic inequations using the number line.
EXAMPLES
Solve 1. x 2 + x  6 2 0
Solution
First solve x + x  6 = 0 (x  2 ) (x + 3 ) = 0 ` x = 2 or 3
2
Choose a number between  3 and 2, say x = 0. Substitute x = 0 into the inequation. x2 + x  6 2 0 02 + 0  6 2 0 6 2 0 So the solution is not between 3 and 2. ` the solution lies either side of 3 and 2. Check by choosing a number on either side of the two numbers. Choose a number on the RHS of 2, say x = 3.
CONTINUED
(false)
130
Substitute x = 3 into the inequation. 32 + 3  6 2 0 620 So the solution is on the RHS of 2. Choose a number on the LHS of 3, say x = 4 Substitute x = 4 into the inequation ( 4) 2 + (  4)  6 2 0 620 So the solution is on the LHS of 3.
4 3 2 1 0 1 2 3 4
(true)
(true)
Solution
First solve 9  x 2 = 0 (3  x) (3 + x) = 0 ` x = !3
4 3 2 1 0 1 2 3 4
(true)
Earlier in the chapter you learned how to solve inequations with the unknown in the denominator. Some people like to solve these using quadratic inequations. Here are some examples of how to do this.
Chapter 3 Equations
131
EXAMPLES
Solve 1 1. x 1 3
Solution
x!0 First, multiply both sides by x 2 . 1 x 13 x 1 3x 2 0 1 3x 2  x Now, solve 3x 2  x = 0 x(3x  1) = 0 x = 0 or
2
x 2 is positive, so the inequality sign does not change.
1 3
1 0 1 3 1 2
Solution
x ! 5 First, multiply both sides by (x + 5)2 . 3 $2 x+5 3 ( x + 5 ) $ 2 ( x + 5) 2 0 $ 2 ( x + 5 ) 2  3 ( x + 5) 0 $ ( x + 5 ) [ 2 ( x + 5)  3 ] 0 $ ( x + 5 ) ( 2 x + 7) Now, solve (x + 5) (2x + 7) = 0 ` x + 5 = 0 or 2x + 7 = 0 x = 5
6 5
x = 3 1 2
4 3 1 3 2 2
1 Check by choosing a number on each side of 5 and 3 for 2 1 0 $ (x + 5) (2x + 7) that the solution is 5 1 x # 3 . 2
132
3.11
Solve 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. 8. 9.
Exercises
21. x 2 1 2x 22. 2a 2  5a + 3 # 0 23. 5y 2 + 6y $ 8 24. 6m 2 2 15  m 25. 3x 2 # 7x  4 1 26. x 2 2 3 27. x # 6 28. 29. 30. 31. 32. 33. 34. 35. 1 15 y+1 1 $2 n3 3 $ 1 x+5 1 17 5x  2 4 $ 5 x5 x #5 x+1 2x + 1 21 x2 2x  3 $6 5x + 3
x 2 + 3x 1 0 y 2  4y 1 0 n2  n $ 0 x2  4 $ 0 1  n2 1 0 n 2 + 2n  15 # 0 c2  c  2 2 0 x + 6x + 8 # 0
2
x 2  9x + 20 1 0
Simultaneous Equations
Two equations, each with two unknown pronumerals, can be solved together to nd one solution that satises both equations. There are different ways of solving simultaneous equations. The elimination method adds or subtracts the equations. The substitution method substitutes one equation into the other.
Chapter 3 Equations
133
Linear equations
These equations can be solved by either method. Many students prefer the elimination method.
EXAMPLES
Solve simultaneously 1. 3a + 2b = 5 and 2a  b = 6
Solution
3a + 2b = 5 2a  b = 6
] 2 g # 2: ] 1 g + (3):
4a  2b = 12 3a + 2b = 5 7a =  7 a = 1
Solution
5x  3y = 19 2x  4y = 16 20x  12y = 76 6x  12y = 48 14x = 28 x=2 2 ( 2)  4 y 4  4y  4y y = 16 = 16 = 12 = 3 ( 1) ( 2) (3) (4 )
Substitute x = 2 in (2)
134
3.12
1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. 8. 9.
Exercises
12. 3a  4b = 16 and 2a + 3b = 12 13. 5p + 2q + 18 = 0 and 2p  3q + 11 = 0 14. 7x 1 + 3x 2 = 4 and 3x 1 + 5x 2 =  2 15. 9x  2y = 1 and 7x  4y = 9 16. 5s  3t  13 = 0 and 3s  7t  13 = 0 17. 3a  2b =  6 and a  3b =  2 18. 3k  2h = 14 and 2k  5h = 13 19. 2v 1 + 5v 2  16 = 0 and 7v 1 + 2v 2 + 6 = 0 20. 1.5x + 3.4y = 7.8 and 2 . 1 x  1 . 7y = 1 . 8
Solve simultaneously a  b = 2 and a + b = 4 5x + 2y = 12 and 3x  2y = 4 4p  3q = 11 and 5p + 3q = 7 y = 3x  1 and y = 2x + 5 2x + 3y = 14 and x + 3y = 4 7t + v = 22 and 4t + v = 13 4x + 5y + 2 = 0 and 4x + y + 10 = 0 2x  4y = 28 and 2x  3y = 11 5x  y = 19 and 2x + 5y = 14
PROBLEM
A group of 39 people went to see a play. There were both adults and children in the group. The total cost of the tickets was $939, with children paying $17 each and adults paying $29 each. How many in the group were adults and how many were children? (Hint: let x be the number of adults and y the number of children.)
Nonlinear equations
In questions involving nonlinear equations there may be more than one set of solutions. In some of these, the elimination method cannot be used. Here are some examples using the substitution method.
Chapter 3 Equations
135
EXAMPLES
Solve simultaneously 1. xy = 6 and x + y = 5
Solution
xy = 6 x+y=5 From (2): y=5x Substitute (3) in (1) x (5  x) = 6 ( 1) (2 ) (3 )
5x  x 2 = 6 0 = x 2  5x + 6 0 = (x  2 ) (x  3 ) ` x  2 = 0 or x  3 = 0 x = 2 or x = 3 Substitute x = 2 in (3) y=52=3 Substitute x = 3 in (3) y=53=2 ` solutions are x = 2, y = 3 and x = 3, y = 2 2. x 2 + y 2 = 16 and 3x  4y  20 = 0
Solution
x 2 + y 2 = 16 3x  4y  20 = 0 From ] 2 g: 3x  20 = 4y 3x  20 =y 4 Substitute (3) into (1) 3x  20 2 m = 16 x2 + c 4 9x 2  120x + 400 n = 16 x2 + d 16 16x 2 + 9x 2  120x + 400 = 256 25x 2  120x + 144 = 0 (5x  12)2 = 0 ` 5x  12 = 0 5x = 12 x = 2.4 Substitute x = 2.4 into ] 3 g 3 (2.4)  20 4 = 3.2 So the solution is x = 2.4, y = 3.2. y= (1) ( 2)
(3)
136
3.13
1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. 8. 9.
Exercises
11. y = x  1 and y = x 2  3 12. y = x 2 + 1 and y = 1  x 2 13. y = x 2  3x + 7 and y = 2x + 3 14. xy = 1 and 4x  y + 3 = 0 15. h = t 2 and h = ] t + 1 g2 16. x + y = 2 and 2x 2 + xy  y 2 = 8 17. y = x 3 and y = x 2 + 6x 18. y =  x  and y = x 2 19. y = x 2  7x + 6 and 24x + 4y  23 = 0 20. x 2 + y 2 = 1 and 5x + 12y + 13 = 0
Solve the simultaneous equations. y = x 2 and y = x y = x 2 and 2x + y = 0 x 2 + y 2 = 9 and x + y = 3 x  y = 7 and xy = 12 y = x 2 + 4x and 2x  y  1 = 0 y = x 2 and 6x  y  9 = 0 x = t 2 and x + t  2 = 0 m 2 + n 2 = 16 and m + n + 4 = 0 xy = 2 and y = 2x
10. y = x 3 and y = x 2
EXAMPLE
Solve simultaneously a  b + c = 7, a + 2b  c = 4 and 3a  b  c = 3.
Solution
ab +c=7 a + 2b  c =  4 3a  b  c = 3 (1) + (2): ab+c=7 a + 2b  c =  4 2a + b =3 (1) + (3): a b+c=7 3a  b  c = 3 4a  2b = 10 or 2a  b =5 (4) + (5): 2a + b =3 4a =8 a=2 (1 ) (2) (3)
( 4)
(5)
Chapter 3 Equations
137
Substitute a = 2 in (4) 2 ( 2) + b = 3 4+b=3 b = 1 Substitute a = 2 and b = 1 in (1) 2  (1) + c = 7 2 +1 + c = 7 3+c=7 c=4 ` solution is a = 2, b = 1, c = 4
You will solve 3 simultaneous equations in later topics (for example, in Chapter 10).
3.14
1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6.
Exercises
7. 2p + 5q  r = 25, 2p  2q  r = 24 and 3p  q + 5r = 4 2x  y + 3z = 9, 3x + y  2z = 2 and 3x  y + 5z = 14 3h + j  k = 3, h + 2j + k = 3 and 5h  3j  2k = 13
Solve the simultaneous equations. x =  2, 2x  y = 4 and x  y + 6z = 0 a =  2, 2a  3b = 1 and a  b + 5c = 9 2a + b + c = 1, a + b =  2 and c = 7 a + b + c = 0, a  b + c =  4 and 2a  3b  c = 1 x + y  z = 7, x + y + 2z = 1 and 3x + y  2z = 19 x  y  z = 1, 2x + y  z = 9 and 2x  3y  2z = 7 9.
8.
10. 2a  7b + 3c = 7, a + 3b + 2c = 4 and 4a + 5b  c = 9
138
Test Yourself 3
1. Solve (a) 8 = 3b  22 a a+2 (b) =9 4 3 (c) 4 (3x + 1) = 11x  3 4 (d) #3 x+3 (e) 3p + 1 # p + 9 2. The compound interest formula is r n m . Find correct to 2 A = P c1 + 100 decimal places. (a) A when P = 1000, r = 6 and n = 4 (b) P when A = 12 450, r = 5.5 and n = 7 Complete the square on (a) x 2  8x (b) k 2 + 4k Solve these simultaneous equations. (a) x  y + 7 = 0 and 3x  4y + 26 = 0 (b) xy = 4 and 2x  y  7 = 0 Solve (a) 3 x + 2 = 81 (b) 16 y = 2 Solve (a) 3b  1 = 5 (b) 5g  3 = 3g + 1 (c) 2x  7 $ 1 7. The area of a trapezium is given by A = 1 h (a + b). Find 2 (a) A when h = 6, a = 5 and b = 7 (b) b when A = 40, h = 5 and a = 4. Solve 2x 2  3x + 1 = 0 by (a) factorisation (b) quadratic formula. 9. Solve 2 1 3y + 1 # 10, and plot your solution on a number line. 10. Solve correct to 3 significant figures (a) x 2 + 7x + 2 = 0 (b) y 2  2y  9 = 0 (c) 3n 2 + 2n  4 = 0 11. The surface area of a sphere is given by A = 4rr 2 . Evaluate to 1 decimal place (a) A when r = 7.8 (b) r when A = 102.9 12. Solve x3 3  2 9. 7 4
13. Solve x 2  11x + 18 2 0. 14. Solve the simultaneous equations x 2 + y 2 = 16 and 3x + 4y  20 = 0. 15. The volume of a sphere is V = 4 3 rr . 3 Evaluate to 2 significant figures (a) V when r = 8 (b) r when V = 250
3.
4.
5.
16. Which of the following equations has (i) 2 solutions (ii) 1 solution (iii) no solutions? (a) x 2  6x + 9 = 0 (b) 2x  3 = 7 (c) x  2 = 7  x (d) x 2  x + 4 = 0 (e) 2x + 1 = x  2 17. Solve simultaneously a + b = 5, 2 a + b + c = 4, a  b  c = 5. 18. Solve 3n + 5 2 5, and plot the solution on a number line. 19. Solve 3 4 =x x+1
^ x ! 0, 1 h .
6.
8.
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139
20. Solve 9 2x + 1 = 27 x . 21. Solve (a) 2 ^ 3y  5 h 2 y + 5 (b) n 2 + 3n # 0 (c) 3 2x  1 = 27 (d) 5x 3  1 = 39 (e) 5x  4 = 11 (f) 2t + 1 $ 3 (g) x 2 + 2x  8 # 0 (h) 8 x + 1 = 4 x (i) y 2  4 2 0 (j) 1  x 2 # 0
(k) 27 2x  1 = 9 (l) 4b  3 # 5 (m) 3x + 2 = 2x  3 (n) 4t  5 = t + 2 (o) x 2 1 2x + 3 (p) m 2 + m $ 6 2t  3 (q) 15 t y+1 (r) 22 y1 n (s) $3 2n  4 3x  2 (t) # 1 2x + 1
Challenge Exercise 3
1. 2. 3. Find the value of y if a 3y  5 = Solve x 2 a .
2 2
1 . a2
12. Solve x 2 =
1 . 8
The solutions of x 2  6x  3 = 0 are in the form a + b 3 . Find the values of a and b. 2 1 = 1 correct to 3 x 1 x +1 signicant gures. (x ! ! 1) y2  6 Solve # 1. y Solve Factorise x 5  9x 3  8x 2 + 72. Hence solve x 5  9x 3  8x 2 + 72 = 0. Solve simultaneous equations y = x 3 + x 2 and y = x + 1. Find the value of b if x 2  8x + b 2 is a perfect square. Hence solve x 2  8x  1 = 0 by completing the square. Considering the denition of absolute x3 value, solve = x, where x ! 3. 3x
4.
13. The volume of a sphere is given by 4 V = rr 3 . Find the value of r when 3 V = 51.8 (correct to three signicant gures). 14. Solve x  3 + x + 4 = x  2 . 15. Find the solutions of x 2  2ax  b = 0 by completing the square. 16. Solve 6y 2 #  3. 3y  2
5. 6.
7.
17. Given A = P c 1 +
8.
18. Solve 3x 2 = 8 (2x  1) and write the solution in the simplest surd form. 19. Solve 5x + 3 2 2 x. x+4
9.
10. Solve t + 2 + 3t  1 1 5.
20. Solve 3y  1 + 2y + 3 2 5.
Geometry 1
TERMINOLOGY
Altitude: Height. Any line segment from a vertex to the opposite side of a polygon that is perpendicular to that side Congruent triangles: Identical triangles that are the same shape and size. Corresponding sides and angles are equal. The symbol is / Interval: Part of a line including the endpoints Median: A line segment that joins a vertex to the opposite side of a triangle that bisects that side Perpendicular: A line that is at right angles to another line. The symbol is = Polygon: General term for a many sided plane figure. A closed plane (two dimensional) figure with straight sides Quadrilateral: A foursided closed figure such as a square, rectangle, trapezium etc. Similar triangles: Triangles that are the same shape but different sizes. The symbol is z y Vertex: The point where three planes meet. The corner of a figure Vertically opposite angles: Angles that are formed opposite each other when two lines intersect
Chapter 4 Geometry 1
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INTRODUCTION
GEOMETRY IS USED IN many areas, including surveying, building and graphics.
These elds all require a knowledge of angles, parallel lines and so on, and how to measure them. In this chapter, you will study angles, parallel lines, triangles, types of quadrilaterals and general polygons. Many exercises in this chapter on geometry need you to prove something or give reasons for your answers. The solutions to geometry proofs only give one method, but other methods are also acceptable.
Notation
In order to show reasons for exercises, you must know how to name gures correctly. B The point is called B.
This angle is named +BAC or +CAB. It can sometimes be named +A. Angles can also be written as BAC or BAC.
^
142
To name a quadrilateral, go around it: for example, BCDA is correct, but ACBD is not.
Line AB is produced to C.
DB bisects +ABC.
AM is a median of D ABC.
AP is an altitude of D ABC.
Types of Angles
Acute angle
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Right angle
A right angle is 90c. Complementary angles are angles whose sum is 90c.
Obtuse angle
90c1 xc1180c
Straight angle
A straight angle is 180c. Supplementary angles are angles whose sum is 180c.
Reflex angle
Angle of revolution
+AEC and +DEB are called vertically opposite angles. +AED and +CEB are also vertically opposite angles.
144
Vertically opposite angles are equal. That is, +AEC = +DEB and +AED = +CEB.
Proof
Let +AEC = xc Then +AED = 180c  xc (+CED straight angle, 180c) Now +DEB = 180c  (180c  xc) (+AEB straight angle, 180c) = xc Also +CEB = 180c  xc (+CED straight angle, 180c) ` +AEC = +DEB and +AED =+CEB
EXAMPLES
Find the values of all pronumerals, giving reasons. 1.
Solution
x + 154 = 180 (+ABC is a straight angle, 180c) x + 154  154 = 180  154 ` x = 26 2.
Solution
2x + 142 + 90 = 360 (angle of revolution, 360c ) 2x + 232 = 360 2x + 232  232 = 360  232 2x = 128 2x 128 = 2 2 x = 64
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3.
Solution
y + 2y + 30 = 90 (right angle, 90c) 3y + 30 = 90 3y + 30  30 = 90  30 3y = 60 3y 60 = 3 3 y = 20 4.
Solution
x + 50 = 165 x + 50  50 = 165  50 x = 115 y = 180  165 = 15 w = 15 5. (+WZX and +YZV vertically opposite)
CONTINUED
146
Solution
a = 90 b + 53 + 90 = 180 b + 143 = 180 b + 143  143 = 180  143 b = 37 d = 37 c = 53 (vertically opposite angles) (straight angle, 180c)
Solution
Supplementary angles add up to 180c. So the supplement of 57c 12l is 180c  57c 12l = 122c 48l. 7. Prove that AB and CD are straight lines.
A D
(x + 30)c
C
(6x + 10)c
Solution
6x + 10 + x + 30 + 5x + 30 + 2x + 10 = 360 ^ angle of revolution h 14x + 80  80 = 360  80 14x = 280 14x 280 = 14 14 x = 20 +AEC = (20 + 30)c = 50c +DEB = (2 # 20 + 10)c = 50c These are equal vertically opposite angles. ` AB and CD are straight lines
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4.1 Exercises
1. Find values of all pronumerals, giving reasons. (a)
yc 133c
(i)
(b)
(j)
(c) 2. Find the supplement of (a) 59c l (b) 107c 31 (c) 45c 12l Find the complement of (a) 48c (b) 34c 23l (c) 16c 57l Find the (i) complement and (ii) supplement of (a) 43c (b) 81c (c) 27c (d) 55c (e) 38c (f) 74c 53l (g) 42c 24l (h) 17c 39l (i) 63c 49l (j) 51c 9l (a) Evaluate x. (b) Find the complement of x. (c) Find the supplement of x.
(d) 3.
(e) 4.
(f)
(g) 5.
(h)
(2x + 30)c 142c
148
6.
Find the values of all pronumerals, giving reasons for each step of your working. (a)
8.
(b)
(3x + 70)c
(c)
A
(110  3x)c B
(e)
(f)
7.
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Parallel Lines
When a transversal cuts two lines, it forms pairs of angles. When the two lines are parallel, these pairs of angles have special properties.
Alternate angles
Alternate angles form a Z shape. Can you find another set of alternate angles?
Corresponding angles
Corresponding angles form an F shape. There are 4 pairs of corresponding angles. Can you find them?
150
Cointerior angles
Cointerior angles form a U shape. Can you find another pair?
If the lines are parallel, cointerior angles are supplementary (i.e. their sum is 180c).
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If 2 lines are both parallel to a third line, then the 3 lines are parallel to each other. That is, if AB < CD and EF < CD, then AB < EF.
EXAMPLES
1. Find the value of y, giving reasons for each step of your working.
Solution
+AGF = 180c  125c = 55c ` y = 55c (+FGH is a straight angle) (+AGF, +CFE corresponding angles, AB < CD)
Solution
+CBF = 180c  120c (+ABC is a straight angle) = 60c ` +CBF = +HCD = 60c But +CBF and +HCD are corresponding angles ` EF < GH
Can you prove this in a different way?
152
4.2 Exercises
1. Find values of all pronumerals. (a) (h)
(i)
(b) (j)
(c)
2.
(d)
(b) (e)
(c) (f)
(g)
104c
C 76c
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(d)
A 52c B
(e)
A D
C E 128c F D H
Types of Triangles
Names of triangles
A scalene triangle has no two sides or angles equal.
The side opposite the right angle (the longest side) is called the hypotenuse. An isosceles triangle has two equal sides. The angles (called the base angles) opposite the equal sides in an isosceles triangle are equal.
154
The sum of the interior angles in any triangle is 180c, that is, a + b + c = 180
Proof
Let +YXZ = ac, +XYZ = bc and +YZX = cc Draw line AB < YZ Then +BXZ = cc (+BXZ, +XZY alternate angles, AB < YZ) +AXY = bc (similarly) +YXZ + +AXY + +BXZ = 180c (+AXB is a straight angle) ` a + b + c = 180
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Class Investigation
1. 2. 3. 4. 5. Could you prove the base angles in an isosceles triangle are equal? Can there be more than one obtuse angle in a triangle? Could you prove that each angle in an equilateral triangle is 60c? Can a rightangled triangle be an obtuseangled triangle? Can you find an isosceles triangle with a right angle in it?
The exterior angle in any triangle is equal to the sum of the two opposite interior angles. That is, x+y=z
Proof
Let +ABC = xc , +BAC = yc and +ACD = zc Draw line CE < AB zc = +ACE + +ECD +ECD = xc +ACE = yc ` z=x+y (+ECD,+ABC corresponding angles, AB < CE) (+ACE,+BAC alternate angles, AB < CE)
EXAMPLES
Find the values of all pronumerals, giving reasons for each step. 1.
CONTINUED
156
Solution
x + 53 + 82 = 180 (angle sum of D 180c) x + 135 = 180 x + 135  135 = 180  135 x = 45 2.
Solution
+A = +C = x x + x + 48 = 180 2x + 48 = 180 2x + 48  48 = 180  48 2x = 132 132 2x = 2 2 x = 66 3. (base angles of isosceles D) (angle sum in a D 180c)
Solution
y + 35 = 141 (exterior angle of D) y + 35  35 = 141  35 ` y = 106 This example can be done using the interior sum of angles. +BCA = 180c  141c = 39c y + 39 + 35 = 180 y + 74 = 180 y + 74  74 = 180  74 ` y = 106 (+BCD is a straight angle 180c) (angle sum of D 180c)
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4.3 Exercises
1. Find the values of all pronumerals. (a) (h)
(b) (i)
(j) (c)
(d)
(k)
(e)
2.
Show that each angle in an equilateral triangle is 60c. Find +ACB in terms of x.
3. (f)
(g)
158
4.
(d)
7.
(b)
75c
73c
(c)
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Congruent Triangles
Two triangles are congruent if they are the same shape and size. All pairs of corresponding sides and angles are equal. For example:
Tests
To prove that two triangles are congruent, we only need to prove that certain combinations of sides or angles are equal.
Two triangles are congruent if SSS: all three pairs of corresponding sides are equal SAS: two pairs of corresponding sides and their included angles are equal AAS: two pairs of angles and one pair of corresponding sides are equal RHS: both have a right angle, their hypotenuses are equal and one other pair of corresponding sides are equal
EXAMPLES
1. Prove that DOTS / DOQP where O is the centre of the circle.
CONTINUED
160
Solution
S: A: S: ` OS = OQ +TOS = +QOP OT = OP by SAS, DOTS / DOQP (equal radii) (vertically opposite angles) (equal radii)
Solution
To find corresponding sides, look at each side in relation to the angles. For example, one set of corresponding sides is AB, DF, GH and JL. D ABC / D JKL (by SAS) 3. Show that triangles ABC and DEC are congruent. Hence prove that AB = ED.
Solution
A: +BAC = +CDE A: +ABC = +CED S: AC = CD ` by AAS, D ABC / D DEC ` AB = ED (alternate angles, AB < ED) (similarly) (given) (corresponding sides in congruent D s)
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4.4 Exercises
1. Are these triangles congruent? If they are, prove that they are congruent. (a) 2. Prove that these triangles are congruent. (a)
(b)
B Y
4.7 m
110c
2.3
4.7
110 c
C
A
2 .3 m
(b)
(c)
(c)
(d)
(d) (e)
(e)
162
3.
Prove that (a) ABD is congruent to ACD (b) AB bisects BC, given D ABC is isosceles with AB = AC.
B
4.
Prove that triangles ABD and CDB are congruent. Hence prove that AD = BC.
(a) Prove that TABC and TADC are congruent. (b) Show that +ABC = +ADC. 7. The centre of a circle is O and AC is perpendicular to OB.
A
5.
O B
(a) Show that TOAB and TOBC are congruent. (b) Prove that +ABC = 90c. 8. ABCF is a trapezium with AF = BC and FE = CD. AE and BD are perpendicular to FC.
A B
(a) Prove that TOAB and TOCD are congruent. (b) Show that AB = CD. 6. In the kite ABCD, AB = AD and BC = DC.
(a) Show that TAFE and TBCD are congruent. (b) Prove that +AFE = +BCD.
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9.
C O B
D C
(a) Prove that TOAB is congruent to TOBC. (b) Prove that OB is perpendicular to AC.
(a) Prove that TADC is congruent to TBCD. (b) Show that diagonals AC and BD are equal.
Investigation
The triangle is used in many structures, for example trestle tables, stepladders and roofs. Find out how many different ways the triangle is used in the building industry. Visit a building site, or interview a carpenter. Write a report on what you find.
Similar Triangles
Triangles, for example ABC and XYZ, are similar if they are the same shape but different sizes. As in the example, all three pairs of corresponding angles are equal. All three pairs of corresponding sides are in proportion (in the same ratio).
164
We write: D ABC < ; D XYZ D XYZ is three times larger than D ABC. 6 XY = =3 AB 2 XZ 12 = =3 4 AC 15 YZ = =3 5 BC XY XZ YZ ` = = AB AC BC
Application
Similar figures are used in many areas, including maps, scale drawings, models and enlargements.
EXAMPLE
1. Find the values of x and y in similar triangles CBA and XYZ.
Solution
First check which sides correspond to one another (by looking at their relationships to the angles). YZ and BA, XZ and CA, and XY and CB are corresponding sides. ` XZ XY = CA CB y 5.4 = 4.9 3.6 3.6y = 4.9 # 5.4
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y= YZ BA x 2 .3 3 .6x x
Tests
There are three tests for similar triangles. Two triangles are similar if: three pairs of corresponding angles are equal three pairs of corresponding sides are in proportion two pairs of sides are in proportion and their included angles are equal
If 2 pairs of angles are equal then the third pair must also be equal.
EXAMPLES
1. (a) Prove that triangles ABC and ADE are similar. (b) Hence find the value of y, to 1 decimal place.
Solution
(a) +A is common +ABC = +ADE +ACB = +AED ` D ABC < ; D ADE (b) (corresponding angles, BC < DE) (similarly) (3 pairs of angles equal)
CONTINUED
166
Solution
XZ ZV YZ ZW XZ ` ZV +XZY 3 15 = 7 35 3 6 = = 7 14 YZ = ZW = +WZV =
` since two pairs of sides are in proportion and their included angles are equal the triangles are similar
Ratio of intercepts
The following result comes from similar triangles.
When two (or more) transversals cut a series of parallel lines, the ratios of their intercepts are equal. That is, AB : BC = DE : EF AB DE or = EF BC
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Proof
Draw DG and EH parallel to AC.
Then Also `
(opposite sides of a parallelogram) (similarly) (1) (corresponding +s, DG < EH) (corresponding +s, BE < CF) (angle sum of Ds) (2)
EXAMPLES
1. Find the value of x, to 3 significant figures.
Solution
x 1.5 = ^ ratios of intercepts on parallel lines h 8.9 9.3 9.3x = 8.9 # 1.5 8.9 # 1.5 x= 9.3 = 1.44
CONTINUED
168
Solution
Why?
Use either similar triangles or ratios of intercepts to find x. You must use similar triangles to find y. x 2.7 = 5.8 3. 4 2.7 # 5.8 x= 3.4 = 4.6 y 2.7 + 3.4 = 7.1 3.4 6.1 # 7.1 y= 3.4 = 12.7
4.5 Exercises
1. Find the value of all pronumerals, to 1 decimal place where appropriate. (a) (c)
(d)
(e) (b)
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(f)
46 c
9.1
a 14.3
5.
xc
8.9 25.7
Show that D ABC and D DEF are similar. Hence find the value of y.
1.3
A
11
5 c
46
1.82
E 52c
D 87c
C F
6.86
19
6.
(g)
The diagram shows two concentric circles with centre O. (a) Prove that DOAB < ; D OCD. (b) If radius OC = 5.9 cm and radius OB = 8.3 cm, and the length of CD = 3.7 cm, find the length of AB, correct to 2 decimal places.
2.
Evaluate a and b to 2 decimal places. 7. (a) Prove that D ABC < ; D ADE. (b) Find the values of x and y, correct to 2 decimal places.
3.
8.
4.
170
9.
(e)
10. Prove that D ABC and D ACD are similar. Hence evaluate x and y.
11. Find the values of all pronumerals, to 1 decimal place. (a) 13. Evaluate a and b correct to 1 decimal place.
(b)
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Pythagoras Theorem
DID YOU KNOW?
The triangle with sides in the proportion 3:4:5 was known to be right angled as far back as ancient Egyptian times. Egyptian surveyors used to measure right angles by stretching out a rope with knots tied in it at regular intervals. They used the rope for forming right angles while building and dividing fields into rectangular plots. It was Pythagoras (572495 BC) who actually discovered the relationship between the sides of the rightangled triangle. He was able to generalise the rule to all rightangled triangles. Pythagoras was a Greek mathematician, philosopher and mystic. He founded the Pythagorean School, where mathematics, science and philosophy were studied. The school developed a brotherhood and performed secret rituals. He and his followers believed that the whole universe was based on numbers. Pythagoras was murdered when he was 77, and the brotherhood was disbanded.
The square on the hypotenuse in any rightangled triangle is equal to the sum of the squares on the other two sides. That is, c2 = a2 + b2 or c= a2 + b2
172
Proof
Draw CD perpendicular to AB Let AD = x, DB = y Then x + y = c In D ADC and D ABC, +A is common +ADC = +ACB = 90c D ADC < ; D ABC (equal corresponding +s) AC AD = AB AC x b c =b b 2 = xc D BDC < ; D ABC Similarly, BC DB = AB BC y a a= c a 2 = yc Now a 2 + b 2 = yc + xc = c ^y + xh = c ]c g = c2 If c 2 = a 2 + b 2, then D ABC must be right angled `
EXAMPLES
1. Find the value of x, correct to 2 decimal places.
Solution
c2 = a2 + b2 x2 = 72 + 42 = 49 + 16 = 65
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Solution
c2 = a2 + b2 82 = y2 + 42 64 = y 2 + 16 48 = y 2 ` y = 48 = 16 # 3 =4 3
3. Find the length of the diagonal in a square with sides 6 cm. Answer to 1 decimal place.
Solution
6 cm
6 cm
c =a +b = 62 + 62 = 72
2 2 2
CONTINUED
174
4. A triangle has sides 5.1 cm, 6.8 cm and 8.5 cm. Prove that the triangle is right angled.
Solution
5.1 cm
8.5 cm
6.8 cm
Let c = 8.5 (largest side) and a and b the other two smaller sides. a 2 + b 2 = 5 . 1 2 + 6. 8 2 = 72.25 c 2 = 8. 5 2 = 72.25 ` c2 = a2 + b2 So the triangle is right angled.
4.6 Exercises
1. Find the value of all pronumerals, correct to 1 decimal place. (a) 2. Find the exact value of all pronumerals. (a)
(b) (b)
(c) (c)
(d) (d)
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175
3.
Find the slant height s of a cone with diameter 6.8 m and perpendicular height 5.2 m, to 1 decimal place.
7.
8. 4. Find the length of CE, correct to 1 decimal place, in this rectangular pyramid. AB = 8.6 cm and CF = 15.9 cm.
(a) Find the length of diagonal AC in the figure. (b) Hence, or otherwise, prove that AC is perpendicular to DC.
5.
9.
6.
176
11. Show that the distance squared between A and B is given by d 2 = 13t 2  180t + 625.
16. A ramp is 4.5 m long and 1.3 m high. How far along the ground does the ramp go? Answer correct to one decimal place. 12. An 850 mm by 1200 mm gate is to have a diagonal timber brace to give it strength. To what length should the timber be cut, to the nearest mm?
4.5 m
1.3 m
17. The diagonal of a television screen is 72 cm. If the screen is 58 cm high, how wide is it? 18. A property has one side 1.3 km and another 1.1 km as shown with a straight road diagonally through the middle of the property. If the road is 1.5 km long, show that the property is not rectangular.
13. A rectangular park has a length of 620 m and a width of 287 m. If I walk diagonally across the park, how far do I walk? 14. The triangular garden bed below is to have a border around it. How many metres of border are needed, to 1 decimal place?
1.5 km 1.3 km
1.1 km
15. What is the longest length of stick that will fit into the box below, to 1 decimal place?
19. Jodie buys a ladder 2 m long and wants to take it home in the boot of her car. If the boot is 1.2 m by 0.7 m, will the ladder fit?
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20. A chord AB in a circle with centre O and radius 6 cm has a perpendicular line OC as shown 4 cm long.
(a) By finding the lengths of AC and BC, show that OC bisects the chord. (b) By proving congruent triangles, show that OC bisects the chord.
O A
4 cm
C
6 cm
Types of Quadrilaterals
A quadrilateral is any foursided figure
Proof
Draw in diagonal AC +ADC + +DCA + +CAD = 180c (angle sum of D) +ABC + +BCA + +CAB = 180c (similarly) ` +ADC + +DCA + +CAD + +ABC + +BCA + +CAB = 360c That is, +ADC + +DCB + +CBA + +BAD = 360c
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EXAMPLE
Find the value of i.
Solution
i + 120 + 56 + 90 = 360 ^ angle sum of quadrilateral h i + 266 = 360 i = 94
Parallelogram
opposite sides of a parallelogram are equal opposite angles of a parallelogram are equal diagonals in a parallelogram bisect each other each diagonal bisects the parallelogram into two congruent triangles
TESTS A quadrilateral is a parallelogram if: both pairs of opposite sides are equal both pairs of opposite angles are equal one pair of sides is both equal and parallel the diagonals bisect each other
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Rectangle
If one angle is a right angle, then you can prove all angles are right angles.
PROPERTIES the same as for a parallelogram, and also diagonals are equal
Application
Builders use the property of equal diagonals to check if a rectangle is accurate. For example, a timber frame may look rectangular, but may be slightly slanting. Checking the diagonals makes sure that a building does not end up like the Leaning Tower of Pisa!
Rhombus
A rhombus is a parallelogram with a pair of adjacent sides equal PROPERTIES the same as for parallelogram, and also diagonals bisect at right angles diagonals bisect the angles of the rhombus
180
TESTS
A quadrilateral is a rhombus if: all sides are equal diagonals bisect each other at right angles
Square
the same as for rectangle, and also diagonals are perpendicular diagonals make angles of 45c with the sides
Trapezium
Kite
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EXAMPLES
1. Find the values of i, x and y, giving reasons.
Solution
i = 83c x = 6.7 cm y = 2.3 cm (opposite +s in < gram) (opposite sides in < gram) (opposite sides in < gram)
2. Find the length of AB in square ABCD as a surd in its simplest form if BD = 6 cm.
Solution
Let AB = x Since ABCD is a square, AB = AD = x (adjacent sides equal) Also, +A = 90c (by definition) By Pythagoras theorem: c2 = a2 + b2 62 = x2 + x2 36 = 2x 2 18 = x 2 ` x = 18 = 3 2 cm
CONTINUED
182
3. (a) Two equal circles have centres O and P respectively. Prove that OAPB is a rhombus. (b) Hence, or otherwise, show that AB is the perpendicular bisector of OP.
Solution
(a) OA = OB (equal radii) PA = PB (similarly) Since the circles are equal, OA = OB = PA = PB ` since all sides are equal, OAPB is a rhombus (b) The diagonals in any rhombus are perpendicular bisectors. Since OAPB is a rhombus, with diagonals AB and OP, AB is the perpendicular bisector of OP.
4.7 Exercises
1. Find the value of all pronumerals, giving reasons. (a) (e)
(f) (b)
(g) (c)
(d)
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183
2.
(c)
(d)
3.
(a) Show that +C = xc and +B = +D = (180  x)c. (b) Hence show that the sum of angles of ABCD is 360c.
(e)
x+
y
3x
6.
5.
7.
(b)
(b)
184
(c)
(d)
(e) (d)
8.
9.
The diagonals of a rhombus are 8 cm and 10 cm long. Find the length of the sides of the rhombus.
10. ABCD is a rectangle with +EBC = 59c . Find +ECB, +EDC and +ADE. (b)
(c)
11. The diagonals of a square are 8 cm long. Find the exact length of the side of the square. 12. In the rhombus, +ECB = 33c. Find the value of x and y.
ABCD is a kite
Polygons
A polygon is a closed plane figure with straight sides
A regular polygon has all sides and all interior angles equal
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EXAMPLES
4sided (square)
5sided (pentagon)
6sided (hexagon)
8sided (octagon)
10sided (decagon)
The sum of the interior angles of an nsided polygon is given by S = 180n  360 or S = (n  2) # 180c
Proof
Draw any nsided polygon and divide it into n triangles as shown. Then the total sum of angles is n # 180c or 180n. But this sum includes all the angles at O. So the sum of interior angles is 180n  360c . That is, S = 180n  360 = ] n  2 g #180c
Proof
Draw any nsided polygon. Then the sum of both the exterior and interior angles is n #180c. Sum of exterior angles = n #180c  sum of interior angles = 180n  ] 180n  360c g = 180n  180n + 360c = 360c
186
EXAMPLES
1. Find the sum of the interior angles of a regular polygon with 15 sides. How large is each angle?
Solution
n = 15 S = (n  2)#180c = (15  2)#180c = 13#180c = 2340c Each angle has size 2340c' 15 = 156c. 2. Find the number of sides in a regular polygon whose interior angles are 140c.
Solution
Let n be the number of sides Then the sum of interior angles is 140n But S = (n  2)#180c So 140n = (n  2)#180c = 180n  360 360 = 40n 9=n So the polygon has 9 sides.
4.8 Exercises
1. Find the sum of the interior angles of (a) a pentagon (b) a hexagon (c) an octagon (d) a decagon (e) a 12sided polygon (f) an 18sided polygon Find the size of each interior angle of a regular (a) pentagon (b) octagon (c) 12sided polygon (d) 20sided polygon (e) 15sided polygon 3. Find the size of each exterior angle of a regular (a) hexagon (b) decagon (c) octagon (d) 15sided polygon Calculate the size of each interior angle in a regular 7sided polygon, to the nearest minute. The sum of the interior angles of a regular polygon is 1980c. (a) How many sides has the polygon? (b) Find the size of each interior angle, to the nearest minute.
4.
2.
5.
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187
6.
Find the number of sides of a regular polygon whose interior angles are 157c 30l. Find the sum of the interior angles of a regular polygon whose exterior angles are 18c. A regular polygon has interior angles of 156c. Find the sum of its interior angles. Find the size of each interior angle in a regular polygon if the sum of the interior angles is 5220c.
7.
8.
9.
10. Show that there is no regular polygon with interior angles of 145c. 11. Find the number of sides of a regular polygon with exterior angles (a) 40c (b) 30c (c) 45c (d) 36c (e) 12c 12. ABCDEF is a regular hexagon.
A B
Show that ACEG is a square. 14. In the regular pentagon below, show that EAC is an isosceles triangle.
A
(a) Show that triangles AFE and BCD are congruent. (b) Show that AE and BD are parallel.
15. (a) Find the size of each exterior angle in a regular polygon with side p. (b) Hence show that each interior 180 (p  2) . angle is p
188
Areas
Most areas of plane figures come from the area of a rectangle.
Rectangle
A = lb
Square
A = x2
Triangle
A=
1 bh 2
Proof
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189
area = bh Area D DEF = 1 1 area AEFD and area DCEF = area EBCF 2 2 1 area DCDE = area ABCD 2 1 That is, A = bh 2
Parallelogram
A = bh
Proof
In parallelogram ABCD, produce DC to E and draw BE perpendicular to CE. Then ABEF is a rectangle.
Area ABEF = bh In D ADF and D BCE, +AFD = +BEC = 90c AF = BE = h (opposite sides of a rectangle) AD = BC (opposite sides of a parallelogram) ` by RHS, D ADF / D BCE ` area D ADF = area D BCE So area ABCD = area ABEF = bh
Rhombus
190
Proof
Let AC = x and BD = y By properties of a rhombus, 1 1 AE = EC = x and DE = EB = y 2 2 Also +AEB = 90c Area D ABC = = Area D ADC = = ` total area of rhombus = = 1 1 x: y 2 2 1 xy 4 1 1 x: y 2 2 1 xy 4 1 1 xy + xy 4 4 1 xy 2
Trapezium
A=
1 h ( a + b) 2
Proof
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191
Circle
A = rr 2
EXAMPLES
1. Find the area of this trapezium.
Solution
A= 1 h ( a + b) 2 1 = ( 4) ( 7 + 5) 2 = 2 # 12 = 24 m 2 2. Find the area of the shaded region in this figure.
3.7 cm
4.2 cm
12.1 cm
CONTINUED
8.9 cm
192
Solution
Area large rectangle = lb = 8.9 #12.1 = 107.69 cm 2 Area small rectangle = lb = 3 . 7 # 4 .2 ` = 15.54 cm 2 shaded area = 107.69  15.54 = 92.15 cm 2
3. A park with straight sides of length 126 m and width 54 m has semicircular ends as shown. Find its area, correct to 2 decimal places.
126 m
Solution
Area of 2 semicircles = area of 1 circle 54 r = 2 = 27 A = rr 2 = r (27) 2 = 2290.22 m2 Area rectangle = 126 # 54 = 6804 Total area = 2290.22 + 6804 = 9094.22 m2
4.9 Exercises
1. Find the area of each figure. (a) (b)
54 m
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193
(c)
(b)
(d)
(c)
(e) (d)
(f)
(e)
2 cm
2.
Find the area of a rhombus with diagonals 2.3 m and 4.2 m. Find each shaded area. (a)
(b)
3.
cm
194
(c)
(d)
8. (e)
5.
The dimensions of a battleaxe block of land are shown below. (a) Find its area. (b) A house in the district where this land is can only take up 55% of the land. How large (to the nearest m 2) can the area of the house be? (c) If the house is to be a rectangular shape with width 8.5 m, what will its length be?
6.
Find the area of this figure, correct to 4 significant figures. The arch is a semicircle.
9.
A rhombus has one diagonal 25 cm long and its area is 600 cm 2 . Find the length of (a) its other diagonal and (b) its side, to the nearest cm.
7.
Jenny buys tiles for the floor of her bathroom (shown top next column) at $45.50 per m 2 . How much do they cost altogether?
10. The width w of a rectangle is a quarter the size of its length. If the width is increased by 3 units while the length remains constant, find the amount of increase in its area in terms of w.
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Test Yourself 4
1. Find the values of all pronumerals (a) 2. Prove that AB and CD are parallel lines.
(b)
(c)
3.
(d)
4.
(a) Prove that triangles ABC and ADE are similar. (b) Evaluate x and y to 1 decimal place.
(e)
(O is the centre of the circle.)
(f)
5.
Find the size of each interior angle in a regular 20sided polygon. Find the volume of a cylinder with radius 5.7 cm and height 10 cm, correct to 1 decimal place. Find the perimeter of the triangle below.
The perimeter is the distance around the outside of the figure.
6.
(g)
7.
196
8.
(a) Prove triangles ABC and ADC are congruent in the kite below.
(b) Prove triangle AOB and COD are congruent. (O is the centre of the circle.)
(a) Prove triangles ABD and ACD are congruent. (b) Prove AD and BC are perpendicular. 13. Triangle ABC is isosceles, with AB = AC. Show that triangle ACD is isosceles.
9.
14. Prove that opposite sides in any parallelogram are equal. 15. A rhombus has diagonals 6 cm and 8 cm. (a) Find the area of the rhombus. (b) Find the length of its side. 16. The interior angles in a regular polygon are 140c . How many sides has the polygon? 17. Prove AB and CD are parallel. AF AB . = AG AC
11. Prove
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197
20. (a) Prove triangles ABC and DEF are similar. (b) Evaluate x to 1 decimal place.
10 cm
Challenge Exercise 4
1. Find the value of x. 4. Given +BAD =+DBC, show that D ABD and D BCD are similar and hence find d.
2.
Evaluate x, y and z.
5.
3.
Find the sum of the interior angles of a regular 11sided polygon. How large is each exterior angle?
6.
198
7.
Prove that the diagonals in a square make angles of 45c with the sides. Prove that the diagonals in a kite are perpendicular. Prove that MN is parallel to XY.
8.
9.
10. Evaluate x.
14. ABCD is a square and BD is produced to 1 E such that DE = BD. 2 (a) Show that ABCE is a kite. 2x (b) Prove that DE = units when 2 sides of the square are x units long.
(a) Find the area of the letter. (b) Find the exact perimeter of the letter.
205
INTRODUCTION
FUNCTIONS AND THEIR GRAPHS are used in many areas, such as mathematics, science and economics. In this chapter you will study functions, function notation and how to sketch graphs. Some of these graphs will be studied in more detail in later chapters.
Functions
Denition of a function
Many examples of functions exist both in mathematics and in real life. These occur when we compare two different quantities. These quantities are called variables since they vary or take on different values according to some pattern. We put these two variables into a grouping called an ordered pair.
206
EXAMPLES
1. Eye colour
Name
Anne
Marco Green
Russell Brown
Trang Brown
Colour Blue
Ordered pairs are (Anne, Blue), (Jacquie, Brown), (Donna, Grey), (Hien, Brown), (Marco, Green), (Russell, Brown) and (Trang, Brown). 2. y = x + 1 x y 1 2 2 3 3 4 4 5
The ordered pairs are (1, 2), (2, 3), (3, 4) and (4, 5). 3.
A B C 3 D E 4 1 2
The ordered pairs are (A, 1), (B, 1), (C, 4), (D, 3) and (E, 2).
Notice that in all the examples, there was only one ordered pair for each variable. For example, it would not make sense for Anne to have both blue and brown eyes! (Although in rare cases some people have one eye thats a different colour from the other.) A relation is a set of ordered points (x, y) where the variables x and y are related according to some rule. A function is a special type of relation. It is like a machine where for every INPUT there is only one OUTPUT.
INPUT PROCESS OUTPUT
The first variable (INPUT) is called the independent variable and the second (OUTPUT) the dependent variable. The process is a rule or pattern.
207
For example, in y = x + 1, we can use any number for x (the independent variable), say x = 3. When x = 3 y=3+1 =4 As this value of y depends on the number we choose for x, y is called the dependent variable.
A function is a relationship between two variables where for every independent variable, there is only one dependent variable. This means that for every x value, there is only one y value.
While we often call the independent variable x and the dependent variable y, there are other pronumerals we could use. You will meet some of these in this course.
Investigation
When we graph functions in mathematics, the independent variable (usually the xvalue) is on the horizontal axis while the dependent variable (usually the yvalue) is on the vertical axis. In other areas, the dependent variable goes on the horizontal axis. Find out in which subjects this happens at school by surveying teachers or students in different subjects. Research different types of graphs on the Internet to find some examples.
Here is an example of a relationship that is NOT a function. Can you see the difference between this example and the previous ones?
A B C 3 D E 4
1 2
In this example the ordered pairs are (A, 1), (A, 2), (B, 1), (C, 4), (D, 3) and (E, 2). Notice that A has two dependent variables, 1 and 2. This means that it is NOT a function.
208
2.
There is a very simple test to see if these graphs are functions. Notice that in the first example, there are two values of y when x = 0. The yaxis passes through both these points.
y
209
There are also other x values that give two y values around the curve. If we drew a vertical line anywhere along the curve, it would cross the curve in two places everywhere except one point. Can you see where this is? In the second graph, a vertical line would only ever cross the curve in one place. So when a vertical line cuts a graph in more than one place, it shows that it is not a function.
If a vertical line cuts a graph only once anywhere along the graph, the graph is a function.
y
If a vertical line cuts a graph in more than one place anywhere along the graph, the graph is not a function.
y
210
EXAMPLES
1. Is this graph a function?
Solution
You will learn how to sketch these graphs later in this chapter.
A vertical line only cuts the graph once. So the graph is a function. 2. Is this circle a function?
Solution
A vertical line can cut the curve in more than one place. So the circle is not a function.
211
Solution
For each x value there is only one y value, so this set of ordered pairs is a function. 4. Is this a function?
y
Solution
y
Although it looks like this is not a function, the open circle at x = 3 on the top line means that x = 3 is not included, while the closed circle on the bottom line means that x = 3 is included on this line. So a vertical line only touches the graph once at x = 3. The graph is a function.
212
5.1 Exercises
Which of these curves are functions? 1. 6.
2.
7.
3.
8.
4.
9.
^ 1, 3 h, ^ 2, 1 h, ^ 3, 3 h, ^ 4, 0 h
10. ^ 1, 3 h, ^ 2, 1 h, ^ 2, 7 h, ^ 4, 0 h 11.
1 2 3 4 1 2 3 4 5
5. 12.
1 2 3 4 5
1 2 3 4 5
13.
1 2 3 4 5
1 2 3 4 5
213
14. Name Ben Paul Pierre Hamish Jacob Lee Pierre Lien Sport Tennis Football Tennis Football Football Badminton Football Badminton 15. A B C D E F G 3 4 7 3 5 7 4
Function notation
If y depends on what value we give x in a function, then we can say that y is a function of x. We can write this as y = f ] x g.
EXAMPLES
1. Find the value of y when x = 3 in the equation y = x + 1.
Solution
When x = 3: y = x +1 = 3+1 =4 2. If f ] x g = x + 1, evaluate f (3).
Solution
f ]x g = x + 1 f ]3 g = 3 + 1 =4
Notice that these two examples are asking for the same value and f (3) is the value of the function when x = 3.
214
EXAMPLES
1. If f ] x g = x 2 + 3x + 1, find f ]  2 g .
Solution
This is the same as finding y when x =  2.
Solution
f (x) = x 3  x 2 f ( 1) = ]  1 g 3  ]  1 g 2 = 1  1 = 2 3. Find the values of x for which f ] x g = 0, given that f ] x g = x 2 + 3x  10.
Solution
f (x) = 0
Putting f (x) = 0 is different from finding f (0) . Follow this example carefully.
i.e.
x + 3x  10 = 0 ( x + 5 ) ( x  2) = 0 x + 5 = 0, x2=0 x = 5 x=2
2
Solution
f (3 ) = 3 ( 3) + 4 = 13 f (2 ) = 3 ( 2) + 4 = 10 f (0) =  2 (0) =0 f ( 4) =  2 (  4) =8 5. Find the value of x2 g ] x g = * 2x  1 5 since since since 3$2 2$2 012
since 4 1 2
215
Solution
g (1 ) = 2 ( 1)  1 =1 g ( 2) = 5
2
since 1 # 1 # 2 since  2 1  1
5.2 Exercises
1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. 8. 9. Given f ] x g = x + 3, find f ] 1 g and f ]3 g. If h ] x g = x 2  2, find h ] 0 g, h ] 2 g and h ]  4 g . If f ] x g =  x 2, find f ] 5 g, f ]  1 g, f ] 3 g and f ]  2 g . Find the value of f ] 0 g + f ]  2 g if f ] x g = x 4  x 2 + 1. Find f ]  3 g if f ] x g = 2x 3  5x + 4. If f ] x g = 2x  5, find x when f ] x g = 13. Given f ] x g = x + 3, find any values of x for which f ] x g = 28.
2
10. If f ] x g = 2x  9, find f ^ p h and f ]x + h g. 11. Find g ] x  1 g when g ] x g = x 2 + 2x + 3. 12. If f ] x g = x 3  1, find f ] k g as a product of factors. 13. Given f ] t g = t 2 + 2t + 1, find t when f ] t g = 0. Also find any values of t for which f ] t g = 9. 14. Given f ] t g = t 4 + t 2  5, find the value of f ] b g  f ]  b g . 15. f ] x g = ) x3 for x 2 1 x for x # 1 Find f ] 5 g, f ] 1 g and ]  1 g .
We can use pronumerals other than f for functions.
216
17. Find g ] 3 g + g ] 0 g + g ]  2 g if when x $ 0 x+1 g ]x g = )  2x + 1 when x 1 0 18. Find the value of f ] 3 g  f ] 2 g + 2f ]  3 g when x for x 2 2 f ] x g = * x2 4 for 2 # x # 2 for x 1 2
21. If f ] x g = x 2 5x + 4, find f ] x + h g  f ] x g in its simplest form. f ]x + h g  f ]x g where 22. Simplify h 2 ] g f x = 2x + x 23. If f ] x g = 5x  4, find f ] x g  f ] c g in its simplest form. 24. Find the value of f ^ k 2 h if 3x + 5 for x $ 0 f ]x g = * 2 x for x 1 0 Z 3 25. If when x $ 3 ]x f ] x g = [5 when 0 1 x 1 3 ] 2 x  x + 2 when x # 0 \ evaluate (a) f (0) (b) f ] 2 g  f ] 1 g (c) f ^  n 2 h
x 2  2x  3 x3 (a) evaluate f (2) (b) explain why the function does not exist for x = 3 (c) by taking several x values close to 3, find the value of y that the function is moving towards as x moves towards 3.
Graphing Techniques
You may have previously learned how to draw graphs by completing a table of values and then plotting points. In this course, you will learn some other techniques that will allow you to sketch graphs by showing their important features.
Intercepts
One of the most useful techniques is to find the x and yintercepts. For xintercept, y = 0 For yintercept, x = 0
217
EXAMPLE
Find the x and yintercepts of the function f ] x g = x 2 + 7x  8.
Solution
For xintercept: y = 0 0 = x 2 + 7x  8 = ]x + 8g]x  1g x + 8 = 0, x 1=0 x =  8, x=1 For yintercept: x = 0 y = ] 0 g2 + 7 ] 0 g  8 = 8
You will use the intercepts to draw graphs in the next section in this chapter.
The set of all real numbers x for which a function is defined is called the domain. The set of real values for y or f (x) as x varies is called the range (or image) of f.
EXAMPLE
Find the domain and range of f ] x g = x 2 .
Solution
You can see the domain and range from the graph, which is the parabola y = x 2 .
y
CONTINUED
218
Notice that the parabola curves outwards gradually, and will take on any real value for x. However, it is always on or above the xaxis. Domain: {all real x} Range: {y: y $ 0} You can also find the domain and range from the equation y = x 2. Notice that you can substitute any value for x and you will find a value of y. However, all the yvalues are positive or zero since squaring any number will give a positive answer (except zero).
If a curve is decreasing, then as x increases, y decreases and the curve moves downwards from left to right.
219
EXAMPLES
1. State the domain over which each curve is increasing and decreasing.
y
x1
x2
x3
Solution
The lefthand side of the parabola is decreasing and the right side is increasing. So the curve is increasing for x 2 x2 and the curve is decreasing when x 1 x2. 2.
y
The curve isnt increasing or decreasing at x2. We say that it is stationary at that point. You will study stationary points and further curve sketching in the HSC Course.
x1
x2
x3
Solution
The lefthand side of the curve is increasing until it reaches the yaxis (where x = 0). It then turns around and decreases until x3 and then increases again. So the curve is increasing for x 1 0, x 2 x 3 and the curve is decreasing for 0 1 x 1 x 3 .
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As well as looking at where the curve is increasing and decreasing, we can see if the curve is symmetrical in some way. You have already seen that the parabola is symmetrical in earlier stages of mathematics and you have learned how to find the axis of symmetry. Other types of graphs can also be symmetrical. Functions are even if they are symmetrical about the yaxis. They have line symmetry (reflection) about the yaxis. This is an even function:
y
For even functions, f ] x g = f ]  x g for all values of x. Functions are odd if they have point symmetry about the origin. A graph rotated 180 about the origin gives the original graph. This is an odd function:
y
221
EXAMPLES
1. Show that f ] x g = x 2 + 3 is an even function.
Solution
f ]  x g = ]  x g2 + 3 = x2 + 3 = f ]x g ` f ] x g = x 2 + 3 is an even function 2. Show that f ] x g = x 3  x is an odd function.
Solution
f ]  x g = ]  x g3  ]  x g = x3 + x =  ^ x3  x h = f ]x g ` f ] x g = x 3  x is an odd function
Investigation
Explore the family of graphs of f ] x g = x n. For what values of n is the function even? For what values of n is the function odd? Which families of functions are still even or odd given k? Let k take on different values, both positive and negative. 1. f ] x g = kx n 2. f ] x g = x n + k 3. f ] x g = ] x + k gn
k is called a parameter. Some graphics calculators and computer programs use parameters to show how changing values of k change the shape of graphs.
5.3 Exercises
1. Find the x and yintercept of each function. (a) y = 3x  2 (b) 2x  5y + 20 = 0 (c) x + 3y  12 = 0 (d) (e) (f) (g) (h) f ] x g = x 2 + 3x f ] x g = x2  4 p ] x g = x 2 + 5x + 6 y = x 2  8x + 15 p ] x g = x3 + 5
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x+3 ]x ! 0 g x 2 (j) g ] x g = 9  x (i) y = 2. Show that f ] x g = f ]  x g where f ] x g = x 2  2. What type of function is it? If f ] x g = x 3 + 1, find (a) f ^ x 2 h (b) 6 f (x) @ 2 (c) f ]  x g (d) Is it an even or odd function? Show that g ] x g = x 8 + 3x 4  2x 2 is an even function. Show that f (x) is odd, where f ] x g = x. Show that f ] x g = x 2  1 is an even function. Show that f ] x g = 4x  x 3 is an odd function. Prove that f ] x g = x 4 + x 2 is an even function and hence find f ]x g  f ]x g. Are these functions even, odd or neither? x3 (a) y = 4 x  x2 1 (b) y = 3 x 1 3 (c) f ] x g = 2 x 4 x3 (d) y = x+3 x3 (e) f ] x g = 5 x  x2 10. If n is a positive integer, for what values of n is the function f ] x g = xn (a) even? (b) odd? 11. Can the function f ] x g = x n + x ever be (a) even? (b) odd?
3.
12. For the functions below, state (i) the domain over which the graph is increasing (ii) the domain over which the graph is decreasing (iii) whether the graph is odd, even or neither. y (a)
4. 5. 6. 7. 8.
(b)
9.
(c)
2
223
(d)
4 2
(e)
2
1 2 4
Investigation
Use a graphics calculator or a computer with graphing software to sketch graphs and explore what effect different constants have on each type of graph. If your calculator or computer does not have the ability to use parameters (this may be called dynamic graphing), simply draw different graphs by choosing several values for k. Make sure you include positive and negative numbers and fractions for k. Alternatively, you may sketch these by hand. 1. Sketch the families of graphs for these graphs with parameter k. (a) y = kx (b) y = kx 2 (c) y = kx 3 (d) y = kx 4 k (e) y = x What effect does the parameter k have on these graphs? Could you give a general comment about y = k f ] x g? 2. Sketch the families of graphs for these graphs with parameter k. (a) y = ] x + k g 2 (b) y = x 2 + k (c) y = x 3 + k (d) y = x 4 + k 1 (e) y = x + k What effect does the parameter k have on these graphs? Could you give a general comment about y = f ] x g + k?
CONTINUED
224
3. Sketch the families of graphs for these graphs with parameter k. (a) y = x + k (b) y = ] x + k g2 (c) y = ] x + k g3 (d) y = ] x + k g4 1 (e) y = x+k What effect does the parameter k have on these graphs? Could you give a general comment about y = f ] x + k g?
When k 2 0 , the graph moves to the left and when k 1 0 , the graph moves to the right.
For the family of functions y = k f ] x g, as k varies, the function changes its slope or steepness. For the family of functions y = f ] x g + k, as k varies, the graph moves up or down (vertical translation). For the family of functions y = f ] x + k g, as k varies, the graph moves left or right (horizontal translation). Notice that the shape of most graphs is generally the same regardless of the parameter k. For example, the parabola still has the same shape even though it may be narrower or wider or upside down. This means that if you know the shape of a graph by looking at its equation, you can sketch it easily by using some of the graphing techniques in this chapter rather than a timeconsuming table of values. It also helps you to understand graphs more and makes it easier to find the domain and range. You have already sketched some of these graphs in previous years.
Linear Function
A linear function is a function whose graph is a straight line.
Investigation
Are straight line graphs always functions? Can you find an example of a straight line that is not a function? Are there any odd or even straight lines? What are their equations?
225
Use a graphics calculator or a computer with dynamic graphing capability to explore the effect of a parameter on a linear function, or choose different values of k (both positive and negative). Sketch the families of graphs for these graphs with parameter k 1. y = kx 2. y = x + k 3. y = mx + b where m and b are both parameters What effect do the parameters m and b have on these graphs?
EXAMPLE
Sketch the function f ] x g = 3x  5 and state its domain and range.
Solution
This is a linear function. It could be written as y = 3x  5. Find the intercepts y For xintercept: y = 0 6 0 = 3x  5 5 5 = 3x 2 =x 3 For yintercept: x = 0 1 y = 3 ]0 g  5 = 5
4 3 2 1 4 3 2 1 1 2 3 4 5 12 3 1 2 3 4 x
Notice that the line extends over the whole of the number plane, so that it covers all real numbers for both the domain and range. Domain: {all real x} Range: {all real y}
Notice too, that you can substitute any real number into the equation of the function for x, and any real number is possible for y.
The linear function ax + by + c = 0 has domain {all real x} and range {all real y} where a and b are nonzero
Special lines
Horizontal and vertical lines have special equations.
226
EXAMPLES
1. Sketch y = 2 on a number plane. What is its domain and range?
Solution
x can be any value and y is always 2. Some of the points on the line will be (0, 2), (1, 2) and (2, 2). This gives a horizontal line with yintercept 2.
y 5 4 3 2 1 4 3 2 1 1 2 3 4 5 1 2 3 4 x
Domain: " all real x , Range: " y: y = 2 , 2. Sketch x =  1 on a number plane and state its domain and range.
Solution
y can be any value and x is always  1. Some of the points on the line will be ^  1, 0 h, ^  1, 1 h and ^  1, 2 h . This gives a vertical line with xintercept  1.
y 5 4 3 2 1 4 3 2 1 1 2 3 4 5 1 3 4 x
227
x = a is a vertical line with xintercept a Domain: ! x: x = a + Range: {all real y} y = b is a horizontal line with yintercept b Domain: {all real x} Range: " y: y = b ,
5.4 Exercises
1. Find the x and yintercepts of each function. (a) y = x  2 (b) f ] x g = 2x + 3 (c) 2x + y  1 = 0 (d) x  y + 3 = 0 (e) 3x  6y  2 = 0 Draw the graph of each straight line. (a) x = 4 (b) x  3 = 0 (c) y = 5 (d) y + 1 = 0 (e) f ] x g = 2x  1 (f) y = x + 4 (g) f ] x g = 3x + 2 (h) x + y = 3 (i) x  y  1 = 0 (j) 2x + y  3 = 0 3. Find the domain and range of (a) 3x  2y + 7 = 0 (b) y = 2 (c) x =  4 (d) x  2 = 0 (e) 3  y = 0 Which of these linear functions are even or odd? (a) y = 2x (b) y = 3 (c) x = 4 (d) y =  x (e) y = x By sketching x  y  4 = 0 and 2x + 3y  3 = 0 on the same set of axes, find the point where they meet.
4.
2.
5.
228
Quadratic Function
The quadratic function gives the graph of a parabola.
Applications
The parabola shape is used in many different applications as it has special properties that are very useful. For example if a light is placed inside the parabola at a special place (called the focus), then all light rays coming from this light and bouncing off the parabola shape will radiate out parallel to each other, giving a strong light. This is how car headlights work. Satellite dishes also use this property of the parabola, as sound coming in to the dish will bounce back to the focus.
229
The lens in a camera and glasses are also parabola shaped. Some bridges look like they are shaped like a parabola, but they are often based on the catenary. Research the parabola and catenary on the Internet for further information.
Investigation
Is the parabola always a function? Can you find an example of a parabola that is not a function? Use a graphics calculator or a computer with dynamic graphing capability to explore the effect of a parameter on a quadratic function, or choose different values of k (both positive and negative). Sketch the families of graphs for these graphs with parameter k. 1. y = kx 2 2. y = x 2 + k 3. y = ] x + k g2 4. y = x 2 + kx What effect does the parameter k have on these graphs? Which of these families are even functions? Are there any odd quadratic functions?
230
EXAMPLES
1. (a) Sketch the graph of y = x 2  1, showing intercepts. (b) State the domain and range.
Solution
(a) This is the graph of a parabola. Since a 2 0, it is concave upward For xintercept: y = 0 0=x 1 1 = x2 !1 = x For yintercept: x = 0
2
y 5 4 3 2 1 4 3  2  1 1 2 3 4 5 6 1 3 4 5 x
y = 02  1 = 1
(b) From the graph, the curve is moving outwards and will extend to all real x values. The minimum y value is  1. Domain: " all real x , Range: " y: y $ 1 , 2. Sketch f ] x g = ] x + 1 g 2.
Solution
This is a quadratic function. We nd the intercepts to see where the parabola will lie. Alternatively, you may know from your work on parameters that f ] x g = ] x + a g 2 will move the function f ] x g = x 2 horizontally a units to the left. So f ] x g = ] x + 1 g 2 moves the parabola f ] x g = x 2 1 unit to the left. For xintercept: y = 0 0 = ]x + 1 g2 x+1=0 x = 1 For yintercept: x = 0 y = ]0 + 1 g2 =1
231
y 5 4 3 2 1 4 3 2 1 1 2 3 4 5 1 2 3 4 x
3. For the quadratic function f ] x g = x 2 + x  6 (a) Find the x and yintercepts (b) Find the minimum value of the function (c) State the domain and range (d) For what values of x is the curve decreasing?
Solution
(a) For xintercept: y = 0 This means f ] x g = 0 0 = x2 + x  6 = ]x + 3 g]x  2 g x + 3 = 0, x  2 = 0 x =  3, x = 2 For yintercept: x = 0 f ] 0 g = ] 0 g2 + ] 0 g  6 = 6 (b) Since a 2 0, the quadratic function has a minimum value. Since the parabola is symmetrical, this will lie halfway between the xintercepts. Halfway between x =  3 and x = 2: 3 + 2 1 =2 2 1 Minimum value is f c  m 2 1 1 2 1 f c m = c m + c m  6 2 2 2 1 1 =  6 4 2 1 = 6 4 1 So the minimum value is  6 . 4
CONTINUED
232
From the graph, notice that the parabola is gradually going outwards and will include all real x values. Since the minimum value is  6 1 , all y values are greater than this. 4 Domain: " all real x , 1 Range: ' y: y $ 6 1 4 (d) The curve decreases down to the minimum point and then 1 increases. So the curve is decreasing for all x 1  . 2 4. (a) Find the x and yintercepts and the maximum value of the quadratic function f ] x g =  x 2 + 4x + 5. (b) Sketch the function and state the domain and range. (c) For what values of x is the curve increasing?
Solution
(a) For xintercept: y = 0 So f ]x g = 0 0 =  x 2 + 4x + 5 x 2  4x  5 = 0 ]x  5 g]x + 1 g = 0 x  5 = 0, x + 1 = 0 x = 5, x = 1 For yintercept: x = 0 f ] 0 g =  ] 0 g2 + 4 ] 0 g + 5 =5
233
Since a 1 0, the quadratic function is concave downwards and has a maximum value halfway between the xintercepts x =  1 and x = 5. 1 + 5 =2 2 f ]2 g = ]2 g 2+ 4 ]2 g + 5 =9 So the maximum value is 9. (b) Sketching the quadratic function gives a concave downward parabola.
y
9 8 7 6 5 4 3 2 1 4 3 2 1 1 2 3 4 5 1 2 3 4 5 6
From the graph, the function can take on all real numbers for x, but the maximum value for y is 9. Domain: " all real x , Range: " y: y # 9 , (c) From the graph, the function is increasing on the left of the maximum point and decreasing on the right. So the function is increasing when x 1 2.
5.5 Exercises
1. Find the x and yintercepts of each function. (a) y = x 2 + 2x (b) y =  x 2 + 3x (c) f ] x g = x 2  1 (d) y = x 2  x  2 (e) y = x 2  9x + 8 2. Sketch (a) y = x 2 + 2 (b) y =  x 2 + 1 (c) f ] x g = x 2  4 2 (d) y = x + 2x (e) y =  x 2  x (f) f ] x g = ] x  3 g 2
234
f ] x g = ] x + 1 g2 y = x 2 + 3x  4 y = 2x 2  5 x + 3 f ] x g =  x 2 + 3x  2
6.
For each parabola, find (i) the x and yintercepts (ii) the domain and range (a) y = x 2 7x + 12 (b) f ] x g = x 2 + 4x (c) y = x 2  2x  8 (d) y = x 2  6x + 9 (e) f ] t g = 4  t 2 Find the domain and range of (a) y = x 2  5 (b) f ] x g = x 2  6x (c) f ] x g = x 2  x  2 (d) y =  x 2 (e) f ] x g = ] x  7 g 2 Find the range of each function over the given domain. (a) y = x 2 for 0 # x # 3 (b) y =  x 2 + 4 for 1 # x # 2 (c) f ] x g = x 2  1 for 2 # x # 5 (d) y = x 2 + 2x  3 for 2 # x # 4 (e) y =  x 2  x + 2 for 0 # x # 4
Find the domain over which each function is (i) increasing (ii) decreasing (a) y = x 2 (b) y =  x 2 (c) f ] x g = x 2  9 (d) y =  x 2 + 4x (e) f ] x g = ] x + 5 g2 Show that f ] x g =  x 2 is an even function. State whether these functions are even or odd or neither. (a) y = x 2 + 1 (b) f ] x g = x 2  3 (c) y = 2x 2 (d) f ] x g = x 2  3x (e) f ] x g = x 2 + x (f) y = x 2  4 (g) y = x 2  2x  3 (h) y = x 2  5x + 4 (i) p ] x g = ] x + 1 g 2 (j) y = ] x  2 g 2
7. 8.
4.
5.
EXAMPLES
1. Sketch f ] x g = x  1 and state its domain and range.
Solution
Method 1: Table of values When sketching any new graph for the first time, you can use a table of values. A good selection of values is 3 # x # 3 but if these dont give enough information, you can find other values.
235
Method 2: Use the definition of absolute value when x $ 0 x1 y =  x   1 = &x  1 when x 1 0 This gives 2 straight line graphs: y = x  1 ]x $ 0 g
y 5 4 3 2 1 4 3 2 1 1 2 3 4 5 1 2 3 4 x y=x1
CONTINUED
236
y = x  1 ] x 1 0 g
y y=x1 5 4 3 2 1 4 3 2 1 1 2 3 4 5 1 2 3 4 x
Draw these on the same number plane and then disregard the dotted lines to get the graph shown in method 1.
y y = x  1 5 4 3 2 1 4 3 2 1 1 2 3 4 5 1 2 3 4 x y=x1
Method 3: If you know the shape of the absolute value functions, find the intercepts. For xintercept: y = 0 So f ] x g = 0 0 =  x  1 1 = x  ` x = !1 For yintercept: x = 0 f (0) =  0   1 = 1
237
From the graph, notice that x values can be any real number while the minimum value of y is  1. Domain: {all real x} Range: {y: y $ 1} 2. Sketch y =  x + 2  .
Solution
Method 1: Use the definition of absolute value. +2 when x + 2 $ 0 y =  x + 2  = 'x  (x + 2) when x + 2 1 0 This gives 2 straight lines: y = x + 2 when x + 2 $ 0 x $ 2
y 5 4 3 2 1 4 3 2 1 1 2 3 4 5 1 2 3 4 x y=x+2
CONTINUED
238
Draw these on the same number plane and then disregard the dotted lines.
y 5 y = x  2 4 3 2 1 4 3 2 1 1 2 3 4 5 1 2 3 4 x y=x+2
239
Investigation
Are graphs that involve absolute value always functions? Can you find an example of one that is not a function? Can you find any odd or even functions involving absolute values? What are their equations? Use a graphics calculator or a computer with dynamic graphing capability to explore the effect of a parameter on an absolute value function, or choose different values of k (both positive and negative). Sketch the families of graphs for these graphs with parameter k 1. f ] x g = k  x  2. f ] x g =  x  + k 3. f ] x g =  x + k  What effect does the parameter k have on these graphs?
The equations and inequations involving absolute values that you studied in Chapter 3 can be solved graphically.
240
EXAMPLES
Solve 1.  2x  1  = 3
Solution
Sketch y =  2x  1  and y = 3 on the same number plane.
The solution of  2x  1  = 3 occurs at the intersection of the graphs, that is, x = 1, 2. 2.  2x + 1  = 3x  2
Solution
Sketch y =  2x + 1  and y = 3x  2 on the same number plane.
The graph shows that there is only one solution. Algebraically, you need to find the 2 possible solutions and then check them.
The solution is x = 3. 3.  x + 1  1 2
Solution
Sketch y =  x + 1  and y = 2 on the same number plane.
241
The solution of  x + 1  1 2 is where the graph y =  x + 1  is below the graph y = 2, that is,  3 1 x 1 1.
5.6 Exercises
1. Find the x and yintercepts of each function. (a) y =  x  (b) f ] x g =  x  + 7 (c) f ] x g =  x   2 (d) y = 5  x  (e) f ] x g =   x  + 3 (f) y =  x + 6  (g) f ] x g =  3x  2  (h) y =  5x + 4  (i) y =  7x  1  (j) f ] x g =  2x  + 9 Sketch each graph on a number plane. (a) y =  x  (b) f ] x g =  x  + 1 (c) f ] x g =  x   3 (d) y = 2  x  (e) f ] x g =  x  (f) y =  x + 1  (g) f ] x g =  x  1  (h) y =  2x  3  (i) y =  4x + 2  (j) f ] x g =  3x  + 1 Find the domain and range of each function. (a) y =  x  1  (b) f ] x g =  x   8 (c) (d) (e) 4. f ] x g =  2x + 5  y = 2  x  3 f ] x g =  x  3 
2.
Find the domain over which each function is (i) increasing (ii) decreasing (a) y =  x  2  (b) f ] x g =  x  + 2 (c) f ] x g =  2x  3  (d) y = 4  x   1 (e) f ] x g =   x  For each domain, find the range of each function. (a) y =  x  for  2 # x # 2 (b) f ] x g =   x   4 for 4 # x # 3 (c) f ] x g =  x + 4  for 7 # x # 2 (d) y =  2x  5  for 3 # x # 3 (e) f ] x g =  x  for  1 # x # 1 For what values of x is each function increasing? (a) y =  x + 3  (b) f ] x g =   x  + 4 (c) f ] x g =  x  9  (d) y =  x  2   1 (e) f ] x g =   x + 2 
5.
6.
3.
242
7.
Solve graphically (a)  x  = 3 (b)  x  2 1 (c)  x  # 2 (d)  x + 2  = 1 (e)  x  3  = 0 (f)  2x  3  = 1 (g)  x  1  1 4 (h)  x + 1  # 3 (i)  x  2  2 2 (j)  x  3  $ 1
(k)  2x + 3  # 5 (l)  2x  1  $ 1 (m)  3x  1  = x + 3 (n)  3x  2  = x  4 (o)  x  1  = x + 1 (p)  x + 3  = 2x + 2 (q)  2x + 1  = 1  x (r)  2x  5  = x  3 (s)  x  1  = 2x (t)  2x  3  = x + 3
The Hyperbola
a A hyperbola is a function with its equation in the form xy = a or y = x .
EXAMPLE
1 Sketch y = x .
Solution
1 y = x is a discontinuous curve since the function is undefined at x = 0. Drawing up a table of values gives:
x 3 1 3 2 1 2 1 1 1 2 1 4 0 1 4 4 1 2 2 1 2 1 2 3 1 3
2
4
Class Discussion
What happens to the graph as x becomes closer to 0? What happens as x becomes very large in both positive and negative directions? The value of y is never 0. Why?
243
To sketch the graph of a more general hyperbola, we can use the domain and range to help nd the asymptotes (lines towards which the curve approaches but never touches). The hyperbola is an example of a discontinuous graph, since it has a gap in it and is in two separate parts.
Investigation
Is the hyperbola always a function? Can you nd an example of a hyperbola that is not a function? Are there any families of odd or even hyperbolas? What are their equations? Use a graphics calculator or a computer with dynamic graphing capability to explore the effect of a parameter on a hyperbola, or choose different values of k (both positive and negative). Sketch the families of graphs for these graphs with parameter k k 1. y = x 1 2. y = x + k 3. y = 1 x+k
EXAMPLES
1. (a) Find the domain and range of f ] x g = 3 . x3 (b) Hence sketch the graph of the function.
Solution
This is the equation of a hyperbola. To nd the domain, we notice that x  3 ! 0. So x ! 3 Also y cannot be zero (see example on page 242). Domain: {all real x: x ! 3} Range: {all real y: y ! 0} The lines x = 3 and y = 0 (the xaxis) are called asymptotes.
CONTINUED The denominator cannot be zero.
244
To make the graph more accurate we can find another point or two. The easiest one to find is the yintercept. For yintercept, x = 0 3 y= 03 = 1
y 5 4 3 2 1
4 3 2 1 1 1 2 3 4 5 y=0 Asymptotes x=3 x
2
Notice that this graph is 3 a translation of y = x three units to the right.
3 4 5
2. Sketch y = 
1 . 2x + 4
Solution
This is the equation of a hyperbola. The negative sign turns the hyperbola around so that it will be in the opposite quadrants. If you are not sure where it will be, you can find two or three points on the curve. To find the domain, we notice that 2x + 4 ! 0. 2x !  4 x ! 2 For the range, y can never be zero. Domain: {all real x: x ! 2} Range: {all real y: y ! 0} So there are asymptotes at x = 2 and y = 0 (the xaxis). To make the graph more accurate we can find the yintercept. For yintercept, x = 0 y=1 2 ( 0) + 4 1 =4
245
2 1 4
The function f ] x g =
a is a hyperbola with bx + c c domain & all real x: x !  0 and b range {all real y: y ! 0}
5.7 Exercises
1. For each graph (i) State the domain and range. (ii) Find the yintercept if it exists. (iii) Sketch the graph. 2 (a) y = x 1 (b) y =  x 1 (c) f ] x g = x+1 3 (d) f ] x g = x2 1 (e) y = 3x + 6 2 (f) f ] x g = x3 4 (g) f ] x g = x1 (h) y = 2 x+1 2 (i) f ] x g = 6x  3 6 (j) y = x+2
2. 3.
2 Show that f ] x g = x is an odd function. Find the range of each function over the given domain. 1 (a) f ] x g = for 2 # x # 2 2x + 5 1 (b) y = for 2 # x # 0 x+3 5 (c) f ] x g = for  3 # x # 1 2x  4
246
3 for  3 # x # 3 x4 2 for 0 # x # 5 (e) y = 3x + 1 (d) f ] x g = 4. Find the domain of each function over the given range. 3 (a) y = x for 1 # y # 3 2 1 (b) y =  x for  2 # y # 2
Circle gate
A graph whose equation is in the form x 2 + ax + y 2 + by + c = 0 has the shape of a circle. There is a special case of this formula:
Proof
y
(x, y) r x
y x
247
Given the circle with centre (0, 0) and radius r: Let (x, y) be a general point on the circle, with distances from the origin x on the xaxis and y on the yaxis as shown. By Pythagoras theorem: c2 = a2 + b2 ` r2 = x2 + y2
EXAMPLE
(a) Sketch the graph of x 2 + y 2 = 4. Is it a function? (b) State its domain and range.
Solution
The radius is 4.
2
2
The circle is not a function since a vertical line will cut it in more than one place.
y
2
2
CONTINUED
248
(b) Notice that the xvalues for this graph lie between  2 and 2 and the yvalues also lie between  2 and 2. Domain: {x: 2 # x # 2} Range: {y: 2 # y # 2}
We can use Pythagoras theorem to find the equation of a more general circle.
Proof
Take a general point on the circle, (x, y) and draw a rightangled triangle as shown.
y
y r b (a, b) a xa x
(x, y) yb
Notice that the small sides of the triangle are x a and y b and the hypotenuse is r, the radius. By Pythagoras theorem: c2 = a2 + b2 r 2 = ] x a g2 + ^ y b h2
249
EXAMPLES
1. (a) Sketch the graph of x 2 + y 2 = 81. (b) State its domain and range.
Solution
(a) The equation is in the form x 2 + y 2 = r 2. This is a circle, centre (0, 0) and radius 9.
y
9
9
(b) From the graph, we can see all the values that are possible for x and y for the circle. Domain: {x: 9 # x # 9} Range: {y: 9 # y # 9} 2. (a) Sketch the circle ] x 1 g2 + ^ y + 2 h2 = 4. (b) State its domain and range.
Solution
(a) The equation is in the form ] x a g2 + ^ y b h2 = r 2.
] x 1 g 2 + ^ y + 2 h2 = 4 ] x 1 g 2 + _ y ]  2 g i2 = 2 2
So a = 1, b =  2 and r = 2
CONTINUED
250
This is a circle with centre ^ 1,  2 h and radius 2. To draw the circle, plot the centre point ^ 1,  2 h and count 2 units up, down, left and right to find points on the circle.
y 5 4 3 2 1 x
4 3 2
1 1 2 3 4 5
(1, 2)
(b) From the graph, we can see all the values that are possible for x and y for the circle. Domain: {x: 1 # x # 3} Range: {y: 4 # y # 0} 3. Find the equation of a circle with radius 3 and centre ^ 2, 1 h in expanded form.
Solution
This is a general circle with equation ] x a g2 + ^ y b h2 = r 2 where a =  2, b = 1 and r = 3. Substituting: ] x a g2 + ^ y b h2 = r 2
You may need to revise this in Chapter 2.
] x  ]  2 g g2 + ^ y 1 h2 = 3 2 ] x + 2 g2 + ^ y 1 h2 = 9
Remove the grouping symbols. ] a + b g2 = a 2 + 2ab + b 2 So ] x + 2 g2 = x 2 + 2 ] x g ] 2 g + 2 2 = x 2 + 4x + 4 2 ] a b g = a 2  2ab + b 2 So ^ y 1 h2 = y 2  2 ^ y h ] 1 g + 1 2 = y 2  2y + 1 The equation of the circle is: x 2 + 4x + 4 + y  2y + 1 = 9 x 2 + 4 x + y  2y + 5 = 9 x 2 + 4 x + y 2y + 5  9 = 9  9 x 2 + 4x + y  2y  4 = 0
251
Investigation
The circle is not a function. Could you break the circle up into two functions? Change the subject of this equation to y. What do you notice when you change the subject to y? Do you get two functions? What are their domains and ranges? If you have a graphics calculator, how could you draw the graph of a circle?
By rearranging the equation of a circle, we can also find the equations of semicircles. The equation of the semicircle above the xaxis with centre (0, 0) and radius r is y = r 2  x 2 The equation of the semicircle below the xaxis with centre (0, 0) and radius r is y =  r 2  x 2
Proof
x2 + y2 = r2 y2 = r2 x2 y = ! r2  x2 This gives two functions:
y = r 2  x 2 is the semicircle above the xaxis since its range is y $ 0 for all values.
y
r
252
y =  r 2  x 2 is the semicircle above the xaxis since its range is y # 0 for all values.
y
r
r
EXAMPLES
Sketch each function and state the domain and range. 1. f ] x g = 9  x2
Solution
This is in the form f ] x g = r 2  x 2 where r = 3. It is a semicircle above the xaxis with centre (0, 0) and radius 3.
y
3
253
2. y =  4  x 2
Solution
This is in the form y =  r 2  x 2 where r = 2. It is a semicircle below the xaxis with centre (0, 0) and radius 2.
y
2
2
5.8 Exercises
1. For each of the following (i) sketch each graph (ii) state the domain and range. (a) x 2 + y 2 = 9 (b) x 2 + y 2  16 = 0 (c) ] x 2 g2 + ^ y 1 h2 = 4 (d) ] x + 1 g2 + y 2 = 9 (e) ] x + 2 g2 + ^ y 1 h2 = 1 For each semicircle (i) state whether it is above or below the xaxis (ii) sketch the function (iii) state the domain and range. (a) (b) (c) (d) (e) 3. y =  25  x 2 y = 1  x2 y = 36  x 2 y =  64  x 2 y =  7  x2
2.
Find the length of the radius and the coordinates of the centre of each circle. (a) x 2 + y 2 = 100 (b) x 2 + y 2 = 5 (c) ] x 4 g2 + ^ y 5 h2 = 16 (d) ] x 5 g2 + ^ y + 6 h2 = 49 (e) x 2 + ^ y 3 h2 = 81
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4.
Find the equation of each circle in expanded form (without grouping symbols). (a) Centre (0, 0) and radius 4 (b) Centre (3, 2) and radius 5 (c) Centre ^ 1, 5 h and radius 3 (d) Centre (2, 3) and radius 6
Centre ^ 4, 2 h and radius 5 Centre ^ 0, 2 h and radius 1 Centre (4, 2) and radius 7 Centre ^ 3, 4 h and radius 9 Centre ^ 2, 0 h and radius 5 Centre ^ 4, 7 h and radius 3
Other Graphs
There are many other different types of graphs. We will look at some of these graphs and explore their domain and range.
You will meet these graphs again in the HSC Course.
Solution
If you do not know what this graph looks like, draw up a table of values. You may need to revise the indices that you studied in Chapter 1. e.g. When x = 0: y = 3c =1 When x = 1: y = 31 1 = 1 3 1 = 3 x y 3 1 27 2 1 9 1 1 3 0 1 1 3 2 9 3 27
If you already know what the shape of the graph is, you can draw it just using 2 or 3 points to make it more accurate.
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This is an exponential function with yintercept 1. We can find one other point. When x = 1 y = 31 =3
y
3 2 1 1 x
From the graph, x can be any real value (the equation shows this as well since any x value substituted into the equation will give a value for y). From the graph, y is always positive, which can be confirmed by substituting different values of x into the equation. Domain: " all real x , Range: " y: y 2 0 , 2. Sketch f ] x g = log x and state the domain and range.
Solution
Use the LOG key on your calculator to complete the table of values. Notice that you cant find the log of 0 or a negative number. x y 2 # 1 #
y
0 #
0.5 0.3
1 0
2 0.3
3 0.5
4 0.6
2 1 1 2 3 4 x
1
From the graph and by trying different values on the calculator, y can be any real number while x is always positive. Domain: ! x: x 2 0 + Range: " all real y ,
256
The exponential function y = a x has domain {all real x} and range {y: y 2 0} The logarithmic function y = log a x has domain ! x: x 2 0 + and range {all real y}
Cubic function
A cubic function has an equation where the highest power of x is x 3 .
EXAMPLE
1. Sketch the function f ] x g = x 3 + 2 and state its domain and range.
Solution
Draw up a table of values. x y 3 25 2 6 1 1
y 5 4 3 2 1
0 2
1 3
2 10
3 29
4
3
2
1
1 2
If you already know the shape of y = x 3, f (x) = x 3 + 2 has the same shape as f (x) = x 3 but it is translated 2 units up (this gives a yintercept of 2).
3 4 5
The function can have any real x or y value: Domain: " all real x , Range: " all real y ,
257
EXAMPLE
1. Find the range of f ] x g = x 3 + 2 over the given domain of 1 # x # 4.
Solution
The graph of f ] x g = x 3 + 2 is the cubic function in the previous example. From the graph, the range is {all real y}. However, with a restricted domain of 1 # x # 4 we need to see where the endpoints of this function are. f ] 1 g = ] 1 g3 + 2 = 1 + 2 =1 f ] 4 g = ] 4 g3 + 2 = 64 + 2 = 66 Sketching the graph, we can see that the values of y all lie between these points.
y (4, 66)
(1, 1) x
Range: " y: 1 # y # 66 ,
258
You may not know what a function looks like on a graph, but you can still find its domain and range by looking at its equation. When finding the domain, we look for values of x that are impossible. For example, with the hyperbola you have already seen that the denominator of a fraction cannot be zero. For the range, we look for the results when different values of x are substituted into the equation. For example, x2 will always give zero or a positive number.
EXAMPLE
Find the domain and range of f ] x g = x  4.
Solution
We can only find the square root of a positive number or zero. So x 4 $ 0 x$4 When you take the square root of a number, the answer is always positive (or zero). So y $ 0 Domain: ! x: x $ 4 + Range: " y: y $ 0 ,
5.9 Exercises
1. Find the domain and range of (a) y = 4x + 3 (b) f ] x g = 4 (c) x = 3 (d) f ] x g = 4x 2 1 (e) p ] x g = x 3 2 (f) f ] x g = 12  x  x 2 (g) x 2 + y 2 = 64 (h) f ] t g = 3 t4 2 (i) g (z) = + 5 z (j) f ] x g =  x  Find the domain and range of (a) y = x (b) y = x2 3. (c) f ] x g =  2x  3  (d) y =  x   2 (e) f ] x g =  2x + 5 (f) y = 5   x  (g) y = 2 x (h) y = 5 x x+1 (i) f ] x g = x 4x  3 (j) y = 2x Find the xintercepts of (a) y = x ] x  5 g2 (b) f ] x g = ] x 1 g ] x 2 g ] x + 3 g (c) y = x 3  6x 2 + 8x (d) g ] x g = x 4  16x 2 (e) x 2 + y 2 = 49
2.
259
4.
(a) Solve 1  x 2 $ 0. (b) Find the domain of f ] x g = 1  x2 . Find the domain of (a) y = x 2  x  2 (b) g ] t g = t 2 + 6t Each of the graphs has a restricted domain. Find the range in each case. (a) y = 2x  3 in the domain 3 # x # 3 (b) y = x 2 in the domain 2 # x # 3 (c) f ] x g = x 3 in the domain 2 # x # 1 1 (d) y = x in the domain 1# x #5 (e) y =  x  in the domain 0#x#4 (f) y = x 2  2x in the domain 3 # x # 3 (g) y =  x 2 in the domain 1 # x # 1 (h) y = x 2  1 in the domain 2 # x # 3 (i) y = x 2  2x  3 in the domain 4 # x # 4 (j) y =  x 2 + 7x  6 in the domain 0 # x # 7
8.
5.
x Given the function f ] x g = x (a) find the domain of the function (b) find its range. Draw each graph on a number plane (a) f ] x g = x 4 (b) y =  x 3 (c) y = x 4  3 (d) p ] x g = 2x 3 (e) g ] x g = x 3 + 1 (f) x 2 + y 2 = 100 (g) y = 2 x + 1
9.
6.
10. (a) Find the domain and range of y = x  1. (b) Sketch the graph of y = x  1 . 11. Sketch the graph of y = 5 x . 12. For each function, state (i) its domain and range (ii) the domain over which the function is increasing (iii) the domain over which the function is decreasing. (a) y = 2x  9 (b) f ] x g = x 2  2 1 (c) y = x (d) f ] x g = x 3 (e) f ] x g = 3 x 13. (a) Solve 4  x 2 $ 0. (b) Find the domain and range of (i) y = 4  x 2 (ii) y =  4  x 2 .
7.
(a) Find the domain for the 3 function y = . x+1 (b) Explain why there is no x intercept for the function. (c) State the range of the function.
260
EXAMPLES
1. Find lim
x "0
x 2 + 5x . x
Solution
0 , which is undened. 0 Factorising and cancelling help us nd the limit. x 1 ]x + 5 g x 2 + 5x lim lim = x x "0 x "0 x1 = lim (x + 5) Substituting x = 0 into the function gives =5
x "0
261
2. Find lim
x "2
x2 . x2  4
Solution
Substituting x = 2 into the function gives lim
x "2
0 , which is undefined. 0
3. Find lim
h "0
2h 2 x + hx 2  7h . h
Solution
lim
h "0
= x2  7
Continuity
Many functions are continuous. That is, they have a smooth, unbroken curve (or line). However, there are some discontinuous functions that have gaps in their graphs. The hyperbola is an example. If a curve is discontinuous at a certain point, we can use limits to find the value that the curve approaches at that point.
EXAMPLES
1. Find lim
x "1
x2  1 and hence describe the domain and range of the curve x1
y=
Solution
Substituting x = 1 into x2  1 0 gives x1 0
CONTINUED
262
lim
x "1
=2 y=
x "1
This leaves a gap in the curve. The limit tells us that y " 2 as x " 1, so the gap is at ^ 1, 2 h . Domain: " x: all real x, x ! 1 , Range: " y: all real y, y ! 2 , y= = x2  1 x1 ^x + 1h ^x  1h
Remember that x ! 1.
2. Find lim
x " 2
Solution
Substituting x = 2 into lim x2 + x  2 0 gives x+2 0
x " 2
y= y=
x2 + x  2 is discontinuous at x =  2 x+2 ^x + 2h ^x  1h
263
5.10 Exercises
1. Find (a) lim x 2 + 5
x "4
2.
(b) lim t  7
t " 3 x "2
Determine which of these functions are discontinuous and find x values for which they are discontinuous. (a) y = x 2  3 1 (b) y = x+1 x1 1 (d) y = 2 x +4 1 (e) y = 2 x 4 Sketch these functions, showing any points of discontinuity. (a) y = (b) y = (c) y = x 2 + 3x x x 2 + 3x x+3 x 2 + 5x + 4 x+1 (c) f ] x g =
(e) lim
h "2
(f) lim
y "5
(g) lim
x "1
x " 4
(j) lim
x "1
(k) lim
h "0
(l) lim
h "0
(m) lim
h "0
264
Further Graphs
Graphs of functions with asymptotes can be difficult to sketch. It is important to find the limits as the function approaches the asymptotes.
EXAMPLES
1. Find lim 3x 2 . x 2  2x + 3
x "3
Solution
3x 2 3x x2 (dividing by the highest power of x) = lim 2 lim 2 x " 3 x  2x + 3 x "3 x 3 2x + x2 x2 x2 3 = lim x "3 3 2 1x+ 2 x 3 = 10+0 =3
2
x x 2 + 4x + 4 x x + 4x + 4
2
x " 3
lim
Solution
x x x2 (a) lim 2 = lim 2 x " 3 x + 4x + 4 x "3 x 4x 4 + + x2 x2 x2 1 x = lim x "3 4 4 1+x+ 2 x 0 1+0+0 =0 =
265
1 Since x " 0 from the positive side when x " + 3, we can write x lim = 0+ x " 3 x 2 + 4x + 4 1 x x (b) lim 2 = lim x " 3 x + 4x + 4 x " 3 4 4 1+x+ 2 x =0 1 Since x " 0 from the negative side when x "  3, we can write x lim = 0x " 3 x 2 + 4x + 4 3. Find lim 3x 2 . x1
1+
4 4 + is positive x x2
x "3
Solution
3 Dividing by x 2 will give . 0 Divide by x. 3x 2 3x x lim = lim x "3 x  1 x "3 x 1 xx 3x = lim x "3 1 1x 3x = 10 = 3x
2
General graphs
It is not always appropriate to sketch graphs, for example, a hyperbola or circle, from a table of values. By restricting the table of values, important features of a graph may be overlooked.
Other ways of exploring the shape of a graph include: intercepts The xintercept occurs when y = 0. The yintercept occurs when x = 0. even and odd functions Even functions 6 f ^  x h = f (x) @ are symmetrical about the yaxis. Odd functions 6 f ^  x h =  f (x) @ are symmetrical about the origin.
266
asymptotes Vertical asymptotes occur when f ] x g ! 0 and h ] x g = 0, given g ]x g f ]x g = . h ]x g Horizontal and other asymptotes are found (if they exist) when finding lim f ] x g . x "!3 domain and range The domain is the set of all possible x values for a function. The range is the set of all possible y values for a function.
EXAMPLES
1. Sketch y = x2 . x 9
2
Solution
The function is even so it is symmetrical about the yaxis. Vertical asymptotes: x2  9 ! 0 ]x + 3 g]x  3 g ! 0 x + 3 ! 0, x  3 ! 0 x ! 3, x!3 So there are asymptotes at x = !3.
267
^ 3  h2 ^ 3  h2  9
+ + =+ So y " 3 f ( 3 ) = =
+ + =+
So y " 3 As x "  3 from RHS: ^  3 + h2 f ( 3 +) = ^  3 + h2  9 + ==So y "  3 Horizontal asymptotes: x = lim 9 x2  9 x " 3 x2  2 2 x x 1 = lim x "3 9 1 2 x 1 = 10 =1 As x " 3 32 f ( 3) = 2 3 9 21 So as x " 3, y " 1 from above
x "3 2
You could substitute values close to  3 on either side into the equation, say  3.1 on LHS and  2.9 on RHS.
lim
x2 x2
CONTINUED
268
As x "  3
You could substitute values such as 1000 and 1000 to see what y does as x approaches !3.
f (3) =
] 3 g 2 ] 3 g 2  9
21
So as x " 3, y " 1 from above Domain: {x: all real x ! !3} Range: When x 2 3, y 2 1 When  3 1 x 1 3, y # 0 When x 1  3, y 2 1 So the range is {y: y 2 1, y # 0}. All this information put together gives the graph below.
2. Sketch f (x) =
x2 . x2
Solution
Intercepts: For xintercept, y = 0 x2 0= x2 0 = x2 0=x So the xintercept is 0 For yintercept, x = 0 y= 02 02 =0
So the yintercept is 0. Type of function: ]  x g2 f ( x) = ]x g  2 x2 = x  2 x2 =x+2 !  f (x) The function is neither even nor odd.
269
Vertical asymptotes: x2!0 x!2 So there is an asymptote at x = 2. As x " 2 from LHS: 2  2 + ==So y "  3 As x " 2 from RHS: 2+  2 + = + =+ So y " 3 You could substitute values close to 2 on either side into the equation, say 1.9 on LHS and 2.1 on RHS. e.g. When x = 2.1 ] 2.1 g2 f (2.1) = 2 .1  2 = 44.1 Horizontal asymptotes: x = lim x  2 x "3 x 2 xx x = lim x "3 2 1x x = 10 =x This means that as x approaches !3, the function approaches y = x. As x " 3
x "3 2
f (2 ) =
^ 2  h2
f (2 +) =
^ 2 + h2
by x 2, we get
lim
x2 x
f ( 3) =
32 3 2 2x
So as x " 3, y " x from above. As x " 3 3  2 1x So as x " 3, y " x from above.
CONTINUED
f (3) =
] 3 g 2
270
This is not easy to see, so substitute values such as 1000 and 1000 to see what y does as x approaches 3. e.g. When x =  1000 f (1000) =
] 1000 g2 1000  2 =  998
The point ^ 1000, 998 h is just above the line y = x. Domain: {x: all real x ! 2} Range: When x 2 2 we find that an approximate range is y 2 35 (substituting different values of x) When x 1 2, y # 0 So the range is {y: y 2 35, y # 0} Putting all this information together gives the graph below.
y
x 2
There is a method that combines all these features to make sketching easier.
EXAMPLES
1. Sketch y = x2 . x2  9
Solution
First find the critical points (xintercepts and vertical asymptotes). x#x y= ]x + 3g]x  3g
271
These critical points, x = 0, !3, divide the number plane into four regions.
Look at the sign of the curve in each region. Re gion 1: y = x + y=x+3 + y=x3 + x#x y= ` ]x + 3 g]x  3 g +#+ = +#+ =+ Re gion 2: y = x + y=x+3 + y=x3 x#x y= ` ]x + 3 g]x  3 g +#+ = +#+ ==CONTINUED
272
Re gion 3: y = x y=x+3 + y=x3 x#x y= ` ]x + 3 g]x  3 g #= +#+ ==Re gion 4: y = x y=x+3 y=x3 x#x y= ` ]x + 3 g]x  3 g #= #+ = + =+ Find any horizontal asymptotes. x2 1 lim 2 = lim x "3 x  9 x "3 9 1 2 x = 1 from above
Check these!
x " 3
lim
x2 = 1 from above x2  9
2. Sketch y =
Solution
x+1 . ]x + 2 g]x  1 g
273
Use these to divide the number plane into 4 regions and sketch y = x + 1, y = x + 2 and y = x  1.
Re gion 1: y =
Re gion 3: y =
Re gion 2: y =
Re gion 4: y =
For horizontal asymptotes x+1 x+1 lim =x "3 ]x + 2 g]x  1 g x2 + x  2 1 1 x + x2 lim =x "3 1 2 1+x 2 x = 0+ x+1 = 0lim x " 3 ] x + 2 g]x  1 g
x "3
lim
The yintercept is 
1 . 2
274
Class Investigation
You can explore graphs of this type on a graphical calculator or by using computer software designed to draw graphs.
5.11 Exercises
1. Find x (a) lim 2 x "3 x (b) lim
x "3
4.
x4 3x 3 + 7x 5x 3 4x + 3 1 x +1
2
2 x+4 5.
x "3
5x (c) lim 2 x "3 x + 1 2x 3 (d) lim 3 x "3 x  x x2 (e) lim 2 x " 3 x + 7x + 1 (f) lim (g) lim (h) lim (i) lim
x "3
1 x2  1 x x+1 x2 x +1
2
6x x 5  2x  7 2x  3x  6 3x 3 + 1
3
x "3
x "3
x2 x2  4 x x2 + 1
x "3
(j) lim
x+2 x2  4 4  x2 4 + x2
x "3
2.
(a) Show that x +x+3 3 1 =1+x+ 2 x2 x x2 + x + 3 (b) Find lim x "3 x2 2 x +x+3 (c) Find lim x " 3 x2
2
1 (i) y = x + x (j) y = 3 x 4
2
3.
2x x+5 2x x+5
(b) lim
x " 3
275
EXAMPLES
1. Solve 1 $ 2 graphically. x+1
Solution
Sketch y = 1 and y = 2 on the same number plane. x+1
The hyperbola has domain {all real x: x ! 1} and range {all real y: y ! 0}. For yintercept: x = 0 1 y= 0+1 =1
y
y=2 2 1
2
1 1  2
1 1
y=
1 x+1
2
The solution of
276
1 = 2. x+1
2. Solve
Solution
Sketch y = 1 and y = 1 on the same number plane. x2
The hyperbola has domain {all real x: x ! 2} and range {all real y: y ! 0}. For yintercept: x = 0 1 y= 02 1 =2
y
2 y=1
1 x
2
1
1 2
1
2 y= 1 x2
277
1 =1 x2
5.12 Exercises
Solve graphically and algebraically. 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 1 x 1 2 1 x 23 1 x $1 1 x $2 1 23 x1 1 x+2 2 7. x2 3 8. x+3 1 9. x1 x 10. x+2 6. #1 $5 2 1 #3 $4
Regions
Class Investigation
How many solutions are there for y $ x + 2? How would you record them all?
Inequalities can be shown as regions in the Cartesian plane. You can shade regions on a number plane that involve either linear or nonlinear graphs. This means that we can have regions bounded by a circle or a parabola, or any of the other graphs you have drawn in this chapter. Regions can be bounded or unbounded. A bounded region means that the line or curve is included in the region.
278
EXAMPLE
Sketch the region x # 3.
Solution
x # 3 includes both x = 3 and x 1 3 in the region. Sketch x = 3 as an unbroken or filled in line, as it will be included in the region. Shade in all points where x 1 3 as shown.
y 5 4 3 2 1 4 3 2 1 1 2 3 4 5 x=3 1 2 3 4 x
An unbounded region means that the line or curve is not included in the region.
EXAMPLE
Sketch the region y 2 1.
Solution
y 2 1 doesnt include y = 1. When this happens, it is an unbounded region and we draw the line y = 1 as a broken line to show it is not included.
279
For lines that are not horizontal or vertical, or for curves, we need to check a point to see if it lies in the region.
EXAMPLES
Find the region defined by 1. y $ x + 2
Solution
First sketch y = x + 2 as an unbroken line. On one side of the line, y 2 x + 2 and on the other side, y 1 x + 2. To find which side gives y 2 x + 2, test a point on one side of the line (not on the line). For example, choose ^ 0, 0 h and substitute into y$x+2 0$0+2 0$2 (false)
CONTINUED
280
This means that ^ 0, 0 h does not lie in the region y $ x + 2. The region is on the other side of the line.
Any point in the region will make the inequality true. Test one to see this.
2. 2x  3y 1 6
Solution
First sketch 2x  3y = 6 as a broken line, as it is not included in the region. To find which side of the line gives 2x  3y 1 6, test a point on one side of the line. For example, choose ^ 0, 1 h and substitute into 2x  3y 1 6 2 ] 0 g  3 (1 ) 1 6 3 1 6 (true) This means that ^ 0, 1 h lies in the region 2x  3y 1 6.
2x  3y = 6
3. x 2 + y 2 2 1
Solution
The equation x 2 + y 2 = 1 is a circle, radius 1 and centre ^ 0, 0 h . Draw x 2 + y 2 = 1 as a broken line, since the region does not include the curve.
281
Choose a point inside the circle, say ^ 0, 0 h x2 + y2 2 1 02 + 02 2 1 0 2 1 (false) So the region lies outside the circle.
4. y $ x 2
Solution
The equation y = x 2 is a parabola. Sketch this as an unbroken line, as it is included in the region. Choose a point inside the parabola, say ^ 1, 3 h. y $ x2 3 2 12 3 2 1 (true) So ^ 1, 3 h lies in the region.
y = x2
Sometimes a region includes two or more inequalities. When this happens, sketch each region on the number plane, and the final region is where they overlap (intersect).
282
EXAMPLE
Sketch the region x # 4, y 2 2 and y # x 2 .
Solution
Draw the three regions, either separately or on the same set of axes, and see where they overlap. .
If you are given a region, you should also be able to describe it algebraically.
283
EXAMPLES
Describe each region. 1.
6 5 4 3 2 1 4 3 2 1 1 2 3 4 1 2 3 4 x
Solution
The shaded area is below and including y = 6 so can be described as y # 6. It is also to the left of, but not including the line x = 4, which can be described as x 1 4. The region is the intersection of these two regions: y # 6 and x 1 4 2.
2 y
2
2
CONTINUED
284
Solution
The shaded area is the interior of the circle, centre (0, 0) and radius 2 but it does not include the circle. The equation of the circle is x 2 + y 2 = 2 2 or x 2 + y 2 = 4. You may know (or guess) the inequality for the inside of the circle. If you are unsure, choose a point inside the circle and substitute into the equation e.g. (0, 0). LHS = x 2 + y 2 = 02 + 02 =0 1 4 ] RHS g So the region is x 2 + y 2 1 4.
5.13 Exercises
1. Shade the region defined by (a) x # 2 (b) x 2 1 (c) y $ 0 (d) y 1 5 (e) y # x + 1 (f) y $ 2x  3 (g) x + y 2 1 (h) 3x  y  6 1 0 (i) x + 2y  2 $ 0 (j) 2x  1 1 0 Write an inequation to describe each region. (a)
y
(b)
y 6 5 4 3 2 1 x
4 3 2 1 1 2 3 4
2.
(c)
6 5 4 3 2 1 4 3 2 1 1 2 3 4 1 2 3 4 x
6 5 4 3 2 1
4 3 2 1 1
y=x+1
2 3 4
285
(d)
5 4 3 2 1
4 3 2 1 1
y y = x2  4
5.
Shade the region (a) ] x  2 g2 + y 2 # 4 (b) ] x  1 g2 + ^ y  2 h2 # 1 (c) ] x + 2 g2 + ^ y  1 h2 2 9 Shade the intersection of these regions. (a) x # 3, y $ 1 (b) x $ 3, y 2 x 3 (c) y # 1, y $ 3x  5 (d) y 2 x + 1, y # 3  x (e) y # 1, x 2 + y 2 # 9 (f) x 2 1, x 2 + y 2 1 4 (g) y # 4, y $ x 2 (h) x 1 2, y # 3, y 2 x 3 (i) y # 0, x 2 + y 2 $ 1 (j) 1 1 x  y # 2 Shade the region bounded by (a) the curve y = x 2, the xaxis and the lines x = 1 and x = 3 (b) the curve y = x 3, the yaxis and the lines y = 0 and y = 1 (c) the curve x 2 + y 2 = 4, the xaxis and the lines x = 0 and x = 1 in the first quadrant 2 (d) the curve y = x , the xaxis and the lines x = 1 and x = 4 (e) the curve y = x=2 1 , the x+2 xaxis and the lines x = 0 and
6.
2 3 4 5
(e)
y y = 2x 3 2 1 1 x
7.
3.
Shade each region described. (a) y 2 x 2 1 (b) x 2 + y 2 # 9 (c) x 2 + y 2 $ 1 (d) y # x 2 (e) y 1 x 3 Describe as an inequality (a) the set of points that lie below the line y = 3x  2 (b) the set of points that lie inside the parabola y = x 2 + 2 (c) the interior of a circle with radius 7 and centre (0, 0) (d) the exterior of a circle with radius 9 and centre (0, 0) (e) the set of points that lie to the left of the line x = 5 and above the line y = 2 8.
4.
Shade the regions bounded by the intersection of (a) x 1 2, y 1 5 and y # x 2 (b) x 1 3, y $ 1, y # x  2 (c) y # 1  x, y # 2x + 1, 2x  3y # 6 (d) x $ 3, y # 2, x 2 + y 2 $ 9 (e) x 1 2, y # 3, y $  x 
286
Application
Regions are used in business applications to find optimum profit. Two (or more) equations are graphed together, and the region where a profit is made is shaded. The optimum profit occurs at the endpoints (or vertices) of the region.
EXAMPLE
A company makes both roller skates (X ) and ice skates (Y ). Roller skates make a $25 profit, while ice skates make a profit of $21. Each pair of roller skates spends 2 hours on machine A (available 12 hours per day) and 2 hours on machine B (available 8 hours per day). Each pair of ice skates spends 3 hours on machine A and 1 hour on machine B. How many skates of each type should be made each day to give the greatest profit while making the most efficient use of the machines?
SOLUTION
Profit P = $25 X + $21Y Machine A: 2X + 3Y # 12 Machine B: 2X + Y # 8 Sketch the regions and find the point of intersection of the lines.
The shaded area shows all possible ways of making a profit. Optimum profit occurs at one of the endpoints of the regions. (0, 4): P = $25 ] 0 g + $21 ] 4 g = $84 (4, 0): P = $25 ] 4 g + $21 ] 0 g = $100 (3, 2): P = $25 ] 3 g + $21 ] 2 g = $117
^ 3, 2 h gives the greatest profit, so 3 pairs of roller skates and 2 pairs of ice
skates each day gives optimum profit.
287
Test Yourself 5
1. If f ] x g = x 2  3x  4, find (a) f ] 2 g (b) f ] a g (c) x when f ] x g = 0 Sketch each graph (a) y = x 2  3x  4 (b) f ] x g = x 3 (c) x 2 + y 2 = 1 (d) y = 1  x 2 (e) y =  1  x 2 2 (f) y = x (g) 2x  5y + 10 = 0 (h) y =  x + 2  Find the domain and range of each graph in question 2. If f ] x g = * 2x x 3
2
2.
(b)
3.
4.
if x $ 1 if x 1 1
find f ] 5 g  f ] 0 g + f ] 1 g 3 5.
2
Given f ] x g = * x if 1 # x # 3 2  x if x 1 1 find (a) f ] 2 g (b) f ] 3 g (c) f ] 3 g (d) f ] 5 g (e) f ] 0 g Shade the region y $ 2x + 1. Shade the region where x 1 3 and y $ 1. Shade the region given by x 2 + y 2 $ 1. Shade the region given by 2x + 3y  6 # 0 and x $ 2.
if x 2 3
(c)
6. 7. 8. 9.
12. (a) Write down the domain and range of 2 the curve y = . x3 2 (b) Sketch the graph of y = . x3
288
13. (a) Sketch the graph y =  x + 1 . (b) From the graph, solve (i)  x + 1  = 3 (ii)  x + 1  1 3 (iii)  x + 1  2 3 14. If f ] x g = 3x  4, find (a) f ] 2 g (b) x when f ] x g = 7 (c) x when f ] x g = 0 15. Find the x and yintercepts of (a) 2x  5y + 20 = 0 (b) y = x 2  5x  14 16. State which functions are (i) even (ii) odd (iii) neither even nor odd. (a) y = x 2  1 (b) y = x + 1 (c) y = x 3 (d) y = x 4 (e) y = 2 x 17. Find (a) lim
x "3
x " 1
x3 + 1 x2  1
2xh 2 + 3h h
18. Sketch y = 10 x, y = log x and y = x on the same number plane. 19. (a) State the domain and range of y = 2x  4 . (b) Sketch the graph of y = 2x  4 . 20. Show that (a) f ] x g = x 4 + 3x 2  1 is even (b) f ] x g = x 3  x is odd. 21. Sketch the following graphs showing asymptotes and other features. 5 (a) y = 2 x +5 x x2  1 2x 2 (c) f ] x g = 2 x  16 x2 (d) y = 2 x +3 x+2 (e) f ] x g = 2 x  2x  8 (b) y =
x 2  2x  3 x3 2x x 2 + 5x
(b) lim
x "0
Challenge Exercise 5
1. 2. 3. 4. Find the values of b if f ] x g = 3x 2  7x + 1 and f ] b g = 7. Sketch y = ] x + 2 g2  1 in the domain 3 # x # 0. Sketch the curve y = 2x 3 . x2  4 4  x 2 in the first 7. 5. 6. Draw the graph of y =  x  + 3x  4. Z 2x + 3 when x 2 2 ] f ] x g = [1 when 2 # x # 2 ] 2 x when x 1 2 \ Find f ] 3 g, f ] 4 g, f ] 0 g and sketch the curve. Find the domain and range of 1 y= 2 . x 1
289
8. 9.
Sketch the region x 1 y, x + 2y 1 6, x + 2y  4 $ 0. Find the domain and range of x 2 = y in the first quadrant.
10. If f ] x g = 2x 3  2x 2  12x, find x when f ] x g = 0. 1 11. Sketch the region defined by y 2 x+2 in the first quadrant. 12. If h ] t g = ) 1  t2 if t 2 1 2 t 1 if t # 1 ] find the value of h 2 g + h ] 1 g  h ] 0 g and sketch the curve. 1  x 2 in the first quadrant.
18. Sketch y = 2 x  1 . . x2 20. Find the domain and range of f ] x g = 2x  6 . 21. What is the domain of y = 22. Sketch f ] x g = 1 1 . x2 1 4  x2 ? 19. Sketch y =
13. Sketch y =
14. Sketch the region y $ x  5, y 1 x 2 + x. 15. If f ] x g = 2x  1, show that f ^ a 2 h = f _ (a)2 i for all real a. 16. Find the values of x for which f ] x g = 0 when f ] x g = 2x 2  x  5 (give exact answers). 17. (a) Show that 2x + 7 1 =2+ . x+3 x+3 23. (a) Find lim
x "3
2 x . x1 2 x . x1
x+1 . x2  1
Trigonometry
TERMINOLOGY
Angle of depression: The angle between the horizontal and the line of sight when looking down to an object below Angle of elevation: The angle between the horizontal and the line of sight when looking up to an object above Angles of any magnitude: Angles can be measured around a circle at the centre to find the trigonometric ratios of angles of any size from 0c to 360c and beyond Bearing: The direction relative to north. Bearings may be written as true bearings (clockwise from North) or as compass bearings (using N, S, E and W) Complementary angles: Two or more angles that add up to 90c Cosecant: The reciprocal ratio of sine (sin). It is the hypotenuse over the opposite side in a right triangle Cotangent: The reciprocal ratio of tangent (tan). It is the adjacent over the opposite side in a right triangle Secant: The reciprocal ratio of cosine (cos). It is the hypotenuse over the adjacent side in a right triangle Trigonometric identities: A statement that is true for all trigonometric values in the domain. Relationships between trigonometric ratios
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291
INTRODUCTION
TRIGONOMETRY IS USED IN many elds, such as building, surveying and navigating. Wave theory also uses trigonometry. This chapter revises basic rightangled triangle problems and applies them to reallife situations. Some properties of trigonometric ratios, angles greater than 90c and trigonometric equations are introduced. You will also study trigonometry in nonrightangled triangles.
Trigonometric Ratios
In similar triangles, pairs of corresponding angles are equal and sides are in proportion. For example:
In any triangle containing an angle of 30c, the ratio of AB:AC = 1:2. Similarly, the ratios of other corresponding sides will be equal. These ratios of sides form the basis of the trigonometric ratios. In order to refer to these ratios, we name the sides in relation to the angle being studied:
the hypotenuse is the longest side, and is always opposite the right angle the opposite side is opposite the angle marked in the triangle the adjacent side is next to the angle marked
292
The opposite and adjacent sides vary according to where the angle is marked. For example:
Sine Cosine
sin i = cos i =
What about Some Old Hags Cant Always Hide Their Old Age?
Tangent tan i =
Cotangent cot i =
Chapter 6 Trigonometry
293
EXAMPLES
1. Find sin a, tan a and sec a.
Solution
AB = hypotenuse = 5 BC = opposite side = 3 AC = adjacent side = 4 opposite sin a = hypotenuse 3 = 5 opposite tan a = adjacent 3 = 4 1 sec a = cos a hypotenuse = adjacent 5 = 4 2. If sin i = 2 , find the exact ratios of cos i, tan i and cot i. 7
Solution
To find the other ratios you need to find the adjacent side.
294
cos i = = tan i =
Complementary angles
In D ABC, if+B = i, then +A = 90c  i b i= c a cos i = c b tan i = a c sec i = a c cosec i = b a cot i = b sin From these ratios come the results.
(angle sum of a ) a (90c  i) = c b cos (90c  i) = c a tan (90c  i) = b c sec (90c  i) = b c cosec (90c  i) = a b cot (90c  i) = a sin
sin i = cos (90  i) cos i = sin (90  i) sec i = cosec (90  i) cosec i = sec (90  i) tan i = cot (90  i) cot i = tan (90  i)
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295
EXAMPLES
1. Simplify tan 50c  cot 40c.
Solution
tan 50c = cot ] 90c  50c g = cot 40c ` tan 50c  cot 40c = tan 50c  tan 50c =0 2. Find the value of m if sec 55c = cosec ] 2m  15 g c.
Solution
sec 55c = cosec ] 90c  55c g = cosec 35c ` 2m  15 = 35 2m = 50 m = 25
6.1 Exercises
1. Write down the ratios of cos i, sin i and tan i. 3. Find the exact ratios of sin b, tan b and cos b.
2.
Find sin b, cot b and sec b. 4. Find exact values for cos x, tan x and cosec x.
296
5. 6.
4 , find cos i and sin i. 3 2 If cos i = , find exact values for 3 tan i, sec i and sin i. If tan i = 1 If sin i = , find the exact ratios 6 of cos i and tan i. If cos i = 0.7, find exact values for tan i and sin i. D ABC is a rightangled isosceles triangle with +ABC = 90c and AB = BC = 1. (a) Find the exact length of AC. (b) Find +BAC. (c) From the triangle, write down the exact ratios of sin 45c, cos 45c and tan 45c.
(c) Write down the exact ratios of sin 60c, cos 60c and tan 60c. 11. Show sin 67c = cos 23c. 12. Show sec 82c = cosec 8c. 13. Show tan 48c = cot 42c. 14. Simplify (a) cos 61c + sin 29c (b) sec i  cosec ] 90c  i g (c) tan 70c + cot 20c  2 tan 70c (d) (e) sin 55c cos 35c cot 25c + tan 65c cot 25c
7.
8. 9.
15. Find the value of x if sin 80c = cos ] 90  x g c. 16. Find the value of y if tan 22c = cot ^ 90  y h c. 17. Find the value of p if cos 49c = sin ^ p + 10 h c. 18. Find the value of b if sin 35c = cos ] b + 30 g c. 19. Find the value of t if cot ] 2t + 5 g c = tan ] 3t  15 g c.
10.
(a) Using Pythagoras theorem, find the exact length of AC. (b) Write down the exact ratios of sin 30c, cos 30c and tan 30c.
Chapter 6 Trigonometry
297
EXAMPLES
Round off to the nearest minute. 1. 23c 12l 22m
Solution
23c 12l 22m = 23c 12l 2. 59c 34l 41m
Solution
59c 34l 41m = 59c 35l 3. 16c 54l 30m
Solution
16c 54l 30m = 16c 55l
% , ,,
KEY
Some calculators have deg or dms keys.
This key changes decimal angles into degrees, minutes and seconds and vice versa.
EXAMPLES
1. Change 58c 19l into a decimal.
Solution
Press 58 % , ,, 19 % , ,, = % , ,, So 58c 19l = 58.31666667 2. Change 45.236c into degrees and minutes.
If your calculator does not give these answers, check the instructions for its use.
Solution
Press 45.236 = SHIFT % , ,, So 45.236c = 45c14l
298
In order to use trigonometry in rightangled triangle problems, you need to find the ratios of angles on your calculator.
EXAMPLES
1. Find cos 58c 19l, correct to 3 decimal places.
If your calculator doesn't give this answer, check that it is in degree mode.
Solution
Press COS 58 % , ,, 19 % , ,, = So cos 58c19l = 0.525 2. Find sin 38c14l, correct to 3 decimal places.
Solution
Press SIN 38 % , ,, 14 % , ,, = So sin 38c 14l = 0.619 3. If tan i = 0.348, find i in degrees and minutes.
Solution
This is the reverse of finding trigonometric ratios. To find the angle, given the ratio, use the inverse key ^ tan  1 h . Press SHIFT TAN  1 0.348 = SHIFT % , ,, tan i = 0.348 i = tan  1 (0.348) l = 19c11 4. Find i in degrees and minutes if cos i = 0.675.
Solution
Press SHIFT COS  1 0.675 = SHIFT % , ,, cos i = 0.675 i = cos  1 (0.675) = 47c 33l
6.2 Exercises
1. Round off to the nearest degree. (a) 47 13l 12m (b) 81 45l 43m (c) 19 25l 34m (d) 76 37l 19m (e) 52 29l 54m 2. Round off to the nearest minute. (a) 47 13l 12m (b) 81 45l 43m (c) 19 25l 34m (d) 76 37l 19m (e) 52 29l 54m
Chapter 6 Trigonometry
299
3.
Change to a decimal. l (a) 77c45 (b) 65c30l l (c) 24c51 l (d) 68c21 l (e) 82c31 Change into degrees and minutes. (a) 59.53c (b) 72.231c (c) 85.887c (d) 46.9c (e) 73.213c
5.
Find correct to 3 decimal places. l (a) sin 39c25 l (b) cos 45c 51 l (c) tan18c43 (d) sin 68c06l (e) tan 54c20l Find i in degrees and minutes if (a) sin i = 0.298 (b) tan i = 0.683 (c) cos i = 0.827 (d) tan i = 1.056 (e) cos i = 0.188
4.
6.
Finding a side
We can use trigonometry to find a side of a rightangled triangle.
EXAMPLES
1. Find the value of x, correct to 1 decimal place.
Solution
hypotenuse x cos 23 49l = 11.8 x 11.8 # cos 23 49l = 11.8 # 11.8 11.8 cos 23 49l = x ` 10.8 cm = x ^ to 1 decimal point h
CONTINUED
cos i =
adjacent
300
Solution
hypotenuse 9.7 sin 41c 15l = y 9.7 y # sin 41c 15l = y # y y sin 41c 15l = 9.7 y sin 41c 15l 9.7 = c 15l c 15l sin 41 sin 41 9.7 y= sin 41c 15l = 14.7 m ^ to 3 significant figures h sin i = opposite
6.3 Exercises
1. Find the values of all pronumerals, correct to 1 decimal place. (a) (c)
(b) (d)
Chapter 6 Trigonometry
301
(e) (l)
x 4.7 cm
(f)
37c22l
(m)
x
72c18l 6.3 cm
(g) (n)
63c14l 23 mm
(o) (h)
3.7 m
y 39c47l
(i) (p)
k
(j)
46c5l
14.3 cm
(q)
(k)
5.4 cm 31c12l x
4.8 m
74c29l
302
(r)
0.45 m
68c41l
6.2 cm 73c
(s)
19c17l
4.
5.75 cm
(t)
17.3 m
Hamish is standing at an angle of 67c from a goalpost and 12.8 m away as shown. How far does he need to kick a football for it to reach the goal?
12.8 m
67c
b
5.
6c3l
Square ABCD with side 6 cm has line CD produced to E as shown so that +EAD = 64c 12l. Evaluate the length, correct to 1 decimal place, of (a) CE (b) AE
E
2.
A roof is pitched at 60c. A room built inside the roof space is to have a 2.7 m high ceiling. How far in from the side of the roof will the wall for the room go?
D 64c12l A
2.7 m 60c
6 cm
3.
A diagonal in a rectangle with breadth 6.2 cm makes an angle of 73c with the vertex as shown. Find the length of the rectangle correct to 1 decimal place.
6.
A rightangled triangle with hypotenuse 14.5 cm long has one interior angle of 43c 36l. Find the lengths of the other two sides of the triangle.
Chapter 6 Trigonometry
303
7.
A rightangled triangle ABC with the right angle at A has +B = 56c44l and AB = 26 mm. Find the length of the hypotenuse. A triangular fence is made for a garden inside a park. Three holes A, B and C for fence posts are made at the corners so that A and B are 10.2 m apart, AB and CB are perpendicular, and angle CAB is 59c 54l. How far apart are A and C? Triangle ABC has +BAC = 46c and +ABC = 54c. An altitude is drawn from C to meet AB at point D. If the altitude is 5.3 cm long, find, correct to 1 decimal place, the length of sides (a) AC (b) BC (c) AB
(a) Find the length of the side of the rhombus. (b) Find the length of the other diagonal. 11. Kite ABCD has diagonal BD = 15.8 cm as shown. If +ABD =57c29l and l, find the length +DBC = 72c51 of the other diagonal AC.
A
8.
9.
72c51l
57c29l 15.8 cm
10. A rhombus has one diagonal 12 cm long and the diagonal makes an angle of 28c 23l with the side of the rhombus.
Finding an angle
Trigonometry can also be used to find one of the angles in a rightangled triangle.
EXAMPLES
1. Find the value of i, in degrees and minutes.
CONTINUED
304
Solution
cos i = adjacent hypotenuse 5.8 = 7.3 5.8 ` i = cos  1 c m 7.3 = 37c 23l
Solution
tan a = opposite adjacent 4 = .9 2 .1 4 .9 ` a = tan  1 c m 2 .1 = 66c 48l
6.4 Exercises
1. Find the value of each pronumeral, in degrees and minutes. (a) (b)
Chapter 6 Trigonometry
305
(c)
(i)
(j) (d)
(e) (k)
3.8 cm
2.4 cm
(l) (f)
8.3 cm
5.7 cm
(m) (g)
6.9 mm 11.3 mm
(n)
3m
(h)
7m
306
(o)
5.1 cm
b 20 m 12.3 m
11.6 cm
(p)
15 m
3.
A eld is 13.7 m wide and Andre is on one side. There is a gate on the opposite side and 5.6 m along from where Andre is. At what angle will he walk to get to the gate?
Andre i
a 13 m
(q)
4.4 cm
7.6 cm 13.7 m
(r)
8.4 cm
14.3 cm
5.6 m
Gate
4.
(s)
i 3m
A 60 m long bridge has an opening in the middle and both sides open up to let boats pass underneath. The two parts of the bridge oor rise up to a height of 18 m. Through what angle do they move?
5m
18 m i
(t)
c 10.3 cm
18.9 cm
60 m
5.
2.
A kite is ying at an angle of i above the ground as shown. If the kite is 12.3 m above the ground and has 20 m of string, nd angle i.
An equilateral triangle ABC with side 7 cm has an altitude AD that is 4.5 cm long. Evaluate the angle the altitude makes with vertex A ]+DAB g.
Chapter 6 Trigonometry
307
6.
Rectangle ABCD has dimensions 18 cm # 7 cm. A line AE is drawn so that E bisects DC. (a) How long is line AE? (Answer to 1 decimal place). (b) Evaluate +DEA. A 52 m tall tower has wire stays on either side to minimise wind movement. One stay is 61.3 m long and the other is 74.5 m long as shown. Find the angles that the tower makes with each stay.
a b 61.3 m 52 m 74.5 m
5 cm
D 1 cm
7.
(a) Find +BEC. (b) Find the length of the rectangle. 10. A diagonal of a rhombus with side 9 cm makes an angle of 16c with the side as shown. Find the lengths of the diagonals.
16c
9 cm
8.
(a) The angle from the ground up to the top of a pole is 41c when standing 15 m on one side of it. Find the height h of the pole, to the nearest metre. (b) If Seb stands 6 m away on the other side, find angle i.
h 41c
11. (a) Kate is standing at the side of a road at point A, 15.9 m away from an intersection. She is at an angle of 39c from point B on the other side of the road. What is the width w of the road? (b) Kate walks 7.4 m to point C. At what angle is she from point B?
B
i 6m 15 m
9.
Rectangle ABCD has a line BE drawn so that +AEB = 90c and DE = 1 cm. The width of the rectangle is 5 cm.
308
Applications
DID YOU KNOW?
The Leaning Tower of Pisa was built as a belfry for the cathedral nearby. Work started on the tower in 1174, but when it was only half completed the soil underneath one side of it subsided. This made the tower lean to one side. Work stopped, and it wasnt until 100 years later that architects found a way of completing the tower. The third and fifth storeys were built close to the vertical to compensate for the lean. Later a vertical top storey was added.
The tower is about 55 m tall and 16 m in diameter. It is tilted about 5 m from the vertical, and tilts by an extra 0.6 cm each year.
Class Investigation
Discuss some of the problems with the Leaning Tower of Pisa. Find the angle at which it is tilted from the vertical. Work out how far it will be tilted in 10 years. Use research to find out if the tower will fall over, and if so, when.
Angle of elevation
The angle of elevation is used to measure the height of tall objects that cannot be measured directly, for example a tree, cliff, tower or building.
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309
Class Exercise
Stand outside the school building and look up to the top of the building. Think about which angle your eyes pass through to look up to the top of the building.
The angle of elevation, i, is the angle measured when looking from the ground up to the top of the object. We assume that the ground is horizontal.
EXAMPLE
The angle of elevation of a tree from a point 50 m out from its base is 38c 14l. Find the height of the tree, to the nearest metre.
Solution
We assume that the tree is vertical!
h 50 h 50
310
Angle of depression
The angle of depression is the angle formed when looking down from a high place to an object below.
Class Exercise
If your classroom is high enough, stand at the window and look down to something below the window. If the classroom is not high enough, find a hill or other high place. Through which angle do your eyes pass as you look down?
The angle of depression, i, is the angle measured when looking down from the horizontal to an object below.
EXAMPLES
1. The angle of depression from the top of a 20 m building to a boy below is 61c 39l. How far is the boy from the building, to 1 decimal place?
Solution
Chapter 6 Trigonometry
311
+DAC = +ACB = 61c 39l 20 tan 61c 39l = x 20 x # tan 61c 39l = x # x x tan 61c 39l = 20 x tan 61c 39l 20 = tan 61c 39l tan 61c 39l 20 x= tan 61c 39l Z 10.8 (alternate angles, AD < BC)
So the boy is 10.8 m from the building. 2. A bird sitting on top of an 8 m tall tree looks down at a possum 3.5 m out from the base of the tree. Find the angle of elevation to the nearest minute.
Solution
B i A
8m
3.5 m
` i = tan  1 c
8 m 3 .5 = 66c 22l
312
Bearings
Bearings can be described in different ways: For example, N70c W:
EXAMPLES
We could write 315o T for true bearings.
Solution
Solution
3. A house is on a bearing of 305c from a school. What is the bearing of the school from the house?
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313
Solution
The diagram below shows the bearing of the house from the school.
North House
School 305c
To find the bearing of the school from the house, draw in North from the house and use geometry to find the bearing as follows:
N2
N1 H
S 305c
The bearing of the school from the house is +N 2 HS. +N 1 SH = 360c  305c = 55c +N 2 HS = 180c  55c = 125c
^ angle of revolution h
(cointerior angles, N 2 H < N 1 S)
So the bearing of the school from the house is 125c. 4. A plane leaves Sydney and flies 100 km due east, then 125 km due north. Find the bearing of the plane from Sydney, to the nearest degree.
CONTINUED
314
Solution
tan x =
x = tan  1 (1.25) (to the nearest degree) = 51c i = 90c  xc = 90c  51c = 39c So the bearing of the plane from Sydney is 039. 5. A ship sails on a bearing of 140 from Sydney for 250 km. How far east of Sydney is the ship now, to the nearest km?
Solution
i = 140c  90c = 50c x cos 50c = 250 x 250 # cos 50c = 250 # 250 250 cos 50c = x 161 Z x So the ship is 161 km east of Sydney, to the nearest kilometre.
Chapter 6 Trigonometry
315
6.5 Exercises
1. Draw a diagram to show the bearing in each question. (a) A boat is on a bearing of 100c from a beach house. (b) Jamie is on a bearing of 320c from a campsite. (c) A seagull is on a bearing of 200c from a jetty. (d) Alistair is on a bearing of 050c from the bus stop. (e) A plane is on a bearing of 285c from Broken Hill. (f) A farmhouse is on a bearing of 012c from a dam. (g) Mohammed is on a bearing of 160c from his house. (h) A mine shaft is on a bearing of 080c from a town. (i) Yvonne is on a bearing of 349c from her school. (j) A boat ramp is on a bearing of 280c from an island. Find the bearing of X from Y in each question in 3 figure (true) bearings. North (a) (b)
North
West
Y 35c X South
East
(c)
North
South
(d)
X
North
2.
South
(e)
112c Y
North
West
X
East
X South
316
3.
Jack is on a bearing of 260c from Jill. What is Jills bearing from Jack? A tower is on a bearing of 030c from a house. What is the bearing of the house from the tower? Tamworth is on a bearing of 340c from Newcastle. What is the bearing of Newcastle from Tamworth? The angle of elevation from a point 11.5 m away from the base of a tree up to the top of the tree is 42c 12l. Find the height of the tree to one decimal point. Geoff stands 25.8 m away from the base of a tower and measures the angle of elevation as 39c 20l . Find the height of the tower to the nearest metre. A wire is suspended from the top of a 100 m tall bridge tower down to the bridge at an angle of elevation of 52c. How long is the wire, to 1 decimal place?
4.
5.
10. A plane leaves Melbourne and flies on a bearing of 065c for 2500 km. (a) How far north of Melbourne is the plane? (b) How far east of Melbourne is it? (c) What is the bearing of Melbourne from the plane? 11. The angle of elevation of a tower is 39c 44l when measured at a point 100 m from its base. Find the height of the tower, to 1 decimal place. 12. Kim leaves his house and walks for 2 km on a bearing of 155c . How far south is Kim from his house now, to 1 decimal place? 13. The angle of depression from the top of an 8 m tree down to a rabbit is 43c 52l . If an eagle is perched in the top of the tree, how far does it need to fly to reach the rabbit, to the nearest metre? 14. A girl rides a motorbike through her property, starting at her house. If she rides south for 1.3 km, then rides west for 2.4 km, what is her bearing from the house, to the nearest degree? 15. A plane flies north from Sydney for 560 km, then turns and flies east for 390 km. What is its bearing from Sydney, to the nearest degree?
6.
7.
8.
9.
A cat crouches at the top of a 4.2 m high cliff and looks down at a mouse 1.3 m out from the foot (base) of the cliff. What is the angle of depression, to the nearest minute?
16. Find the height of a pole, correct to 1 decimal place, if a 10 m rope tied to it at the top and stretched out straight to reach the ground makes an angle of elevation of 67c13l.
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17. The angle of depression from the top of a cliff down to a boat 100 m out from the foot of the cliff is 59c42l. How high is the cliff, to the nearest metre? 18. A group of students are bushwalking. They walk north from their camp for 7.5 km, then walk west until their bearing from camp is 320c. How far are they from camp, to 1 decimal place? 19. A 20 m tall tower casts a shadow 15.8 m long at a certain time of day. What is the angle of elevation from the edge of the shadow up to the top of the tower at this time?
21. Find the angle of elevation of a 15.9 m cliff from a point 100 m out from its base. 22. A plane leaves Sydney and flies for 2000 km on a bearing of 195c. How far due south of Sydney is it? 23. The angle of depression from the top of a 15 m tree down to a pond l is 25c41 . If a bird is perched in the top of the tree, how far does it need to fly to reach the pond, to the nearest metre? 24. A girl starting at her house, walks south for 2.7 km then walks east for 1.6 km. What is her bearing from the house, to the nearest degree? 25. The angle of depression from the top of a tower down to a car 250 m out from the foot of the tower is 38c19l. How high is the tower, to the nearest metre? 26. A hot air balloon flies south for 3.6 km then turns and flies east until it is on a bearing of 127c from where it started. How far east does it fly? 27. A 24 m wire is attached to the top of a pole and runs down to the ground where the angle of elevation is 22c 32l. Find the height of the pole.
20 m
15.8 m
20. A flat verandah roof 1.8 m deep is 2.6 m up from the ground. At a certain time of day, the sun makes l an angle of elevation of 72c 25 . How much shade is provided on the ground by the verandah roof at that time, to 1 decimal place?
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28. A train depot has train tracks running north for 7.8 km where they meet another set of tracks going east for 5.8 km into a station. What is the bearing of the depot from the station, to the nearest degree? 29. Jessica leaves home and walks for 4.7 km on a bearing of 075c. She then turns and walks for 2.9 km on a bearing of 115c and she is then due east of her home. (a) How far north does Jessica walk? (b) How far is she from home?
30. Builder Jo stands 4.5 m out from the foot of a building and looks up at to the top of the building where the angle of elevation is 71c . Builder Ben stands at the top of the building looking down at his wheelbarrow that is 10.8 m out from the foot of the building on the opposite side from where Jo is standing. (a) Find the height of the building. (b) Find the angle of depression from Ben down to his wheelbarrow.
Exact Ratios
A rightangled triangle with one angle of 45 is isosceles. The exact length of its hypotenuse can be found.
c2 = a2 + b2 AC 2 = 1 2 + 1 2 =2 AC = 2 This means that the trigonometric ratios of 45c can be written as exact ratios.
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This angle is commonly used; for example, 45 is often used for the pitch of a roof. The triangle with angles of 60 and 30 can also be written with exact sides.
AD 2 = 2 2  1 2 =3 AD = 3
1 2
It may be easier to remember the triangle rather than all these ratios.
3 2 1 tan 30c = 3
cos A
The rules of the pattern are: for sin A, when you reach 4, reverse the numbers for cos A, when you reach 0, change signs and reverse
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EXAMPLES
1. Find the exact value of sec 45.
Solution
sec 45 = 1 cos 45 1 = 1 2 = 2
2. A boat ramp is to be made with an angle of 30c and base length 5 m. What is the exact length of the surface of the ramp?
Solution
5 cos 30c = x x cos 30c = 5 x= 5 cos 30c 5 = 3 2 2 =5# 3 10 = 3 10 3 = 3 10 3 m. 3
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6.6 Exercises
Find the exact value in all questions, with rational denominator where relevant. 1. Evaluate (a) sin 60c + cos 60c (b) cos 2 45c + sin 2 45c (c) cosec 45c (d) 2 sec 60c (e) cot 30c + cot 60c (f) tan 60c  tan 30c (g) sin 2 60c + sin 2 45c (h) sin 45c cos 30c + cos 45c sin 30c (i) 3 tan 30c tan 45c + tan 60c (j) 1  tan 45c tan 60c 3. A 2.4 m ladder reaches 1.2 m up a wall. At what angle is it resting against the wall? A 2person tent is pitched at an angle of 45c. Each side of the tent is 2 m long. A pole of what height is needed for the centre of the tent? (b)
(c)
(k) cos 30c cos 60c  sin 30c sin 60c 4. (l) cos 2 30c + sin 2 30c (m) 2 sec 45c  cosec 30c 2 sin 60c sin 45c (o) 1 + tan 2 30c (n) (p) (q) 1  cos 45c 1 + cos 45c cot 30c sec 60c 5.
(r) sin 2 45c  1 (s) 5 cosec 2 60c (t) 2. 2  tan 60c sec 2 45c
If the tent in the previous question was pitched at an angle of 60c, how high would the pole need to be? The angle of elevation from a point 10 m out from the base of a tower to the top of the tower is 30c. Find the exact height of the tower, with rational denominator.
6.
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7.
the floor. How far out from the wall is it? Find the exact length of AC.
(a) What is the length l of the roof? (b) If a wall is placed inside the roof one third of the way along from the corner, what height will the wall be? 8. A 1.8 m ladder is placed so that it makes a 60c angle where it meets
10. The angle of depression from the top of a 100 m cliff down to a boat at the foot of the cliff is 30c. How far out from the cliff is the boat?
Investigation
1. (a) Copy and complete the table for these acute angles (between 0c and 90c). x sin x cos x tan x (b) Copy and complete the table for these obtuse angles (between 90c and 180c). x sin x cos x tan x 100c 110c 120c 130c 140c 150c 160c 170c 180c 0c 10c 20c 30c 40c 50c 60c 70c 80c 90c
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(c) Copy and complete the table for these reflex angles (between 180c and 270c ). x sin x cos x tan x (d) Copy and complete the table for these reflex angles (between 270c and 360c ). x sin x cos x tan x 2. What do you notice about their signs? Can you see any patterns? Could you write down any rules for the sign of sin, cos and tan for different angle sizes? 3. Draw the graphs of y = sin x, y = cos x and y = tan x for 0c # x # 360c. For y = tan x, you may need to find the ratios of angle close to and either side of 90c and 270c. 280c 290c 300c 310c 320c 330c 340c 350c 360c 190c 200c 210c 220c 230c 240c 250c 260c 270c
Drawing the graphs of the trigonometric ratios can help us to see the change in signs as angles increase. We divide the domain 0c to 360c into 4 quadrants: 1st quadrant: 0c to 90c 2nd quadrant: 90c to 180c 3rd quadrant: 180c to 270c 4th quadrant: 270c to 360c
EXAMPLES
1. Describe the sign of sin x in each section (quadrant) of the graph y = sin x.
Solution
We can sketch the graph using the table below or using the values from the tables in the investigation above for more accuracy. x y 0c 0 90c 1 180c 0 270c 1 360c 0
CONTINUED
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1 y = sin x x
90c
180c
270c
360c
1
The graph is above the xaxis for the first 2 quadrants, then below for the 3rd and 4th quadrants. This means that sin x is positive in the 1st and 2nd quadrants and negative in the 3rd and 4th quadrants. 2. Describe the sign of cos x in each section (quadrant) of the graph of y = cos x.
Solution
We can sketch the graph using the table below or using the values from the tables in the investigation above for more accuracy. x y 0c 1
y
90c 0
180c 1
270c 0
360c 1
y = cos x
90c
180c
270c
360c
1
The graph is above the xaxis in the 1st quadrant, then below for the 2nd and 3rd quadrants and above again for the 4th quadrant.
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This means that cos x is positive in the 1st and 4th quadrants and negative in the 2nd and 3rd quadrants. 3. Describe the sign of tan x in each section (quadrant) of the graph y = tan x.
Solution
We can sketch the graph using the table below or using the values from the tables in the investigation above for more accuracy. x y 0c 0 90c No result 180c 0 270c No result 360c 0
Neither tan 90c nor tan 270c exists (we say that they are undefined). Find the tan of angles close to these angles, for example tan 89c 59l and l, tan 279c 59l and tan 270c 01 l. tan 90c 01 There are asymptotes at 90c and 270c. On the left of 90c and 270c, tan x is positive and on the right, the ratio is negative.
y
You will see why these ratios are undefined later on in this chapter.
90c
180c
270c
360c
y = tan x
The graph is above the xaxis in the 1st quadrant, below for the 2nd, above for the 3rd and below for the 4th quadrant. This means that tan x is positive in the 1st and 3rd quadrants and negative in the 2nd and 4th quadrants.
To show why these ratios have different signs in different quadrants, we look at angles around a unit circle (a circle with radius 1 unit). We use congruent triangles when finding angles of any magnitude. Page 326 shows an example of congruent triangles all with angles of 20c inside a circle with radius 1 unit.
326
If we divide the circle into 4 quadrants, we notice that the x and yvalues have different signs in different quadrants. This is crucial to notice when looking at angles of any magnitude and explains the different signs you get when finding sin, cos and tan for angles greater than 90c.
Quadrant 1
Looking at the first quadrant (see diagram below), notice that x and y are both positive and that angle i is turning anticlockwise from the xaxis.
y First quadrant
The angle at the xaxis is 0 and the angle at the yaxis is 90c, with all other angles in this quadrant between these two angles.
(x, y) 1 unit
y x
i
x
Point (x, y) forms a triangle with sides 1, x and y, so we can find the trigonometric ratios for angle i.
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sin i =
y 1 =y x 1 =x
cos i =
y tan i = x
Investigation
Since cos i = x and sin i = y, we can write the point (x, y) as (cos i, sin i). The polar coordinates (cos i, sin i) give a circle. The polar coordinates 6 A sin ] ai + c g, B sin ] bi g @ form a shape called a Lissajous figure. These are sometimes called a Bowditch curve and they are often used as logos, for example the ABC logo. Use the Internet to research these and other similar shapes. Use a graphics calculator or a computer program such as Autograph to draw other graphs with polar coordinates using variations of sin i and cos i.
These are called polar coordinates.
Quadrant 2
In the second quadrant, angles are between 90c and 180c. If we take the 1st quadrant coordinates (x, y), where x 2 0 and y 2 0 and put them in the 2nd quadrant, we notice that all x values are negative in the second quadrant and y values are positive. So the point in the 2nd quadrant will be (x, y)
y 90c Second quadrant (x, y) y 180c 1 unit i 180c i 0c x
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Since cos i = x, cos i will negative in the 2nd quadrant. Since sin i = y , sin i will be positive in the 2nd quadrant. y tan i = x so it will be negative (a positive number divided by a negative number). To have an angle of i in the triangle, the angle around the circle is 180c  i.
Quadrant 3
In the third quadrant, angles are between 180c and 270c.
y
90c
180c y
180c + i
0c
1 unit
270c
Notice that x and y are both negative in the third quadrant, so cos i and sin i will be both negative. y tan i = x so will be positive (a negative divided by a negative number). To have an angle of i in the triangle, the angle around the circle is 180c + i.
Quadrant 4
In the fourth quadrant, angles are between 270c and 360c.
y 90c
180c
i 360c  i
x y
360c
0c
1 unit
270c
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While y remains negative in the fourth quadrant, x is positive again, so sin i is negative and cos i is positive. y tan i = x so will be negative (a negative divided by a positive number) For an angle i in the triangle, the angle around the circle is 360c  i.
ASTC rule
Putting all of these results together gives a rule for all four quadrants that we usually call the ASTC rule.
y 90c
1st quadrant i
You could remember this rule as All Stations To Central or A Silly Trigonometry Concept, or you could make up your own!
S
180c
A
360c 0c x
270c
A: ALL ratios are positive in the 1st quadrant S: Sin is positive in the 2nd quadrant (cos and tan are negative) T: Tan is positive in the 3rd quadrant (sin and cos are negative) C: Cos is positive in the 4th quadrant (sin and tan are negative) This rule also works for the reciprocal trigonometric ratios. For example, where cos is positive, sec is also positive, where sin is positive, so is cosec and where tan is positive, so is cot. We can summarise the ASTC rules for all 4 quadrants:
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Second quadrant: Angle 180c  i: sin ] 180c  i g = sin i cos ] 180c  i g =  cos i tan ] 180c  i g =  tan i Third quadrant: Angle 180c + i: sin ] 180c + i g =  sin i cos ] 180c + i g =  cos i tan ] 180c + i g = tan i Fourth quadrant: Angle 360c  i: sin ] 360c  i g =  sin i cos ] 360c  i g = cos i tan ] 360c  i g =  tan i
EXAMPLES
1. Find all quadrants where (a) sin i 2 0 (b) cos i 1 0 (c) tan i 1 0 and cos i 2 0
Solution
(a) sin i 2 0 means sin i is positive. Using the ASTC rule, sin i is positive in the 1st and 2nd quadrants. (b) cos i is positive in the 1st and 4th quadrants, so cos i is negative in the 2nd and 3rd quadrants. (c) tan i is positive in the 1st and 3rd quadrants so tan i is negative in the 2nd and 4th quadrants. Also cos i is positive in the 1st and 4th quadrants. So tan i 1 0 and cos i 2 0 in the 4th quadrant.
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Solution
First we find the quadrant that 330c is in. It is in the 4th quadrant.
y
330c
30c
The angle inside the triangle in the 4th quadrant is 30c and tan is negative in the 4th quadrant. tan 330c =  tan 30c 1 =3
30c 2
: 3
60c
Solution
The angle in the triangle in the 3rd quadrant is 45c and sin is negative in the 3rd quadrant.
CONTINUED Notice that 180c + 45c = 225c.
332
225c 45c
45c
: 2
45c
Solution
To find cos 510c, we move around the circle more than once.
y
30c
150c 510c
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The angle is in the 2nd quadrant where cos is negative. The triangle has 30c in it. cos 510c =  cos 30c =3 2
2
30c
: 3
60c
Solution
180c + x is an angle in the 3rd quadrant where cos is negative. So cos ] 180c + x g =  cos x 6. If sin x = 3 and cos x 2 0, find the value of tan x and sec x. 5
Solution
sin x 1 0 in the 3rd and 4th quadrants and cos x 2 0 in the 1st and 4th quadrants. So sin x 1 0 and cos x 2 0 in the 4th quadrant. This means that tan x 1 0 and sec x 2 0. sin x = opposite hypotenuse
y
sec x is the reciprocal of cos x so is positive in the 4th quadrant.
x 5 3
334
So tan x = 
3 4 1 sec x = cos x 5 = 4
The ASTC rule also works for negative angles. These are measured in the opposite way (clockwise) from positive angles as shown.
y 270c
180c
i 4th quadrant
90c
The only difference with this rule is that the angles are labelled differently.
EXAMPLE
Find the exact value of tan (120c).
Solution
Notice that  (180c  60c) = 120c.
Moving around the circle the opposite way, the angle is in the 3rd quadrant, with 60c in the triangle.
y
60c
120c
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: 3
60c
6.7 Exercises
1. Find all quadrants where (a) cos i 2 0 (b) tan i 2 0 (c) sin i 2 0 (d) tan i 1 0 (e) sin i 1 0 (f) cos i 1 0 (g) sin i 1 0 and tan i 2 0 (h) cos i 1 0 and tan i 2 0 (i) sin i 2 0 and tan i 1 0 (j) sin i 1 0 and tan i 1 0 (a) Which quadrant is the angle 240c in? (b) Find the exact value of cos 240c. (a) Which quadrant is the angle 315c in? (b) Find the exact value of sin 315c. (a) Which quadrant is the angle 120c in? (b) Find the exact value of tan 120c . (a) Which quadrant is the angle 225c in? (b) Find the exact value of sin (225c). 8. 6. (a) Which quadrant is the angle 330c in? (b) Find the exact value of cos (330c). Find the exact value of each ratio. (a) tan 225c (b) cos 315c (c) tan 300c (d) sin 150c (e) cos 120c (f) sin 210c (g) cos 330c (h) tan 150c (i) sin 300c (j) cos 135c Find the exact value of each ratio. (a) cos (225c) (b) cos (210c) (c) tan (300c) (d) cos (150c) (e) sin (60c) (f) tan (240c) (g) cos (300c) (h) tan (30c) (i) cos (45c) (j) sin (135c)
7.
2.
3.
4.
5.
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9.
Find the exact value of (a) cos 570c (b) tan 420c (c) sin 480c (d) cos 660c (e) sin 690c (f) tan 600c (g) sin 495c (h) cos 405c (i) tan 675c (j) sin 390c 3 and cos i 1 0, find 4 sin i and cos i as fractions.
15. If sin i = 
value of tan i and sec i. 16. If cos i = 3 and 8 180 1 i 1 270, find the exact value of tan x, sec x and cosec x.
10. If tan i =
17. Given sin x = 0.3 and tan x 1 0, (a) express sin x as a fraction (b) find the exact value of cos x and tan x. 18. If tan a =  1.2 and 270 1 i 1 360, find the exact values of cot a, sec a and cosec a. 19. Given that cos i =  0.7 and 90c 1 i 1 180c , find the exact value of sin i and cot i. 20. Simplify (a) sin ] 180c  i g (b) cos ] 360c  x g (c) (d) (e) (f) (g) (h) tan ^ 180c + b h sin ] 180c + a g tan ] 360c  i g sin ]  i g cos ]  a g tan ]  x g
4 11. Given sin i = and tan i 1 0, 7 find the exact value of cos i and tan i. 5 12. If sin x 1 0 and tan x =  , find 8 the exact value of cos x and cosec x. 13. Given cos x = 2 and tan x 1 0, 5 find the exact value of cosec x, cot x and tan x.
14. If cos x 1 0 and sin x 1 0, find cos x and sin x in surd form with 5 rational denominator if tan x = . 7
Trigonometric Equations
This is called the principle solution.
Whenever you find an unknown angle in a triangle, you solve a trigonometric equation e.g. cos x = 0.34. You can find this on your calculator. Now that we know how to find the trigonometric ratios of angles of any magnitude, there can be more than one solution to a trigonometric equation if we look at a larger domain.
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EXAMPLES
1. Solve cos x = 3 in the domain 0 # x # 360. 2
Solution
3 is a positive ratio and cos is positive in the 1st and 4th quadrants. 2 So there are two possible answers. In the 1st quadrant, angles are in the form of i and in the 4th quadrant angles are in the form of 360c  i. cos 30c = 3 2
30c 2
This is called the principle solution.
But there is also a solution in the 4th quadrant where the angle is 360c  i. For cos x = 3 2 x = 30c , 360c  30c = 30c , 330c
: 3
60c
Solution
2 sin 2 x  1 = 0 2 sin 2 x = 1 1 sin 2 x = 2 2 1 =! 2 Since the ratio could be positive or negative, there are solutions in all 4 quadrants. 1st quadrant: angle i 2nd quadrant: angle 180c  i 3rd quadrant: angle 180c + i 4th quadrant: angle 360c  i
CONTINUED
sin x = !
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sin 45c =
1 2 x = 45c , 180c  45c , 180c + 45c , 360c  45c = 45c , 135c , 225c , 315c
45c
45c
: 2
3. Solve tan x =
Solution
3 is a positive ratio and tan is positive in the 1st and 3rd quadrants. So there are two possible answers. In the domain  180c # x # 180c, we use positive angles for 0c # x # 180c and negative angles for  180c # x # 0c.
y 90c
1st quadrant i
S
180c (180c  i) 3rd quadrant 90c 180c
A
0c 0c x
i 4th quadrant
In the 1st quadrant, angles are in the form of i and in the 3rd quadrant angles are in the form of  ^ 180c  i h . tan 60c = 3 But there is also a solution in the 3rd quadrant where the angle is  ^ 180c  i h . For tan x = 3 x = 60c ,  ] 180c  60c g = 30c , 120 c
30c 2
: 3
60c
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Solution
Notice that the angle is 2x but the domain is for x. If 0c # x # 360c then we multiply each part by 2 to get the domain for 2x. 0c # 2x # 720c This means that we can find the solutions by going around the circle twice! 2 sin 2x  1 = 0 2 sin 2x = 1 1 2 1 sin 30c = 2 sin 2x =
30c 2
: 3
60c
Sin is positive in the 1st and 2nd quadrants. First time around the circle, 1st quadrant is i and the 2nd quadrant is 180c  i. Second time around the circle, we add 360c to the angles. So 1st quadrant answer is 360c + i and the 2nd quadrant answer is 360c + ] 180c  i g or 540c  i. So 2x = 30c , 180c  30c, 360c + 30c , 540c  30c = 30c , 150c , 390c , 510c ` x = 15c , 75c , 195c , 255c
Notice that these solutions lie inside the original domain of 0c # x # 360c.
The trigonometric graphs can also help solve some trigonometric equations.
EXAMPLE
Solve cos x = 0 for 0c # x # 360c. cos 90c = 0 However, looking at the graph of y = cos x shows that there is another solution in the domain 0c # x # 360c.
y
1 x
90c 1
180c
270c 360c
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Investigation
Here are the 3 trigonometric graphs that you explored earlier in the chapter. y = sin x
y = cos x
y = tan x
Use the values in the sin, cos and tan graphs to find values for the inverse trigonometric functions in the tables below and then sketch the inverse trigonometric functions. For example sin 270 = 1 1 So cosec 270c = 1 = 1 Some values will be undefined, so you will need to find values near them in order to see where the graph goes. y = cosec x x sin x cosec x 0c 90c 180c 270c 360c
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y = sec x x cos x sec x y = cot x x tan x cot x 0c 90c 180c 270c 360c 0c 90c 180c 270c 360c
y = sec x
y = cot x
y y = cotx 1 x 360c
0 1
90c
180c 270c
360c
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6.8 Exercises
1. Solve for 0c # i # 360c. (a) sin i = 0.35 1 (b) cos i = 2 (c) tan i =  1 3 (d) sin i = 2 1 (e) tan i = 3 (f) 2 cos i = 3 (g) tan 2i = 3 (h) 2 sin 3i =  1 (i) 2 cos 2i  1 = 0 (j) tan 2 3i = 1 2. Solve for 180c # i # 180c. (a) cos i = 0.187 1 (b) sin i = 2 (c) tan i = 1 3 (d) sin i = 2 1 (e) tan i = 3 (f) 3 tan 2 i = 1 (g) tan 2i = 1 (h) 2 sin 2 3i = 1 (i) tan i + 1 = 0 (j) tan 2 2i = 3 3. 4. Sketch y = cos x for 0c # x # 360c . Evaluate sin 270c . 5. 6. 7. 8. 9. Sketch y = tan x for 0c # x # 360c . Solve tan x = 0 for 0c # x # 360c . Evaluate cos 180c . Find the value of sin 90c . Solve cos x = 1 for 0c # x # 360c .
10. Sketch y = sin x for 180c # x # 180c . 11. Evaluate cos 270c. 12. Solve sin x + 1 = 0 for 0c # x # 360c . 13. Solve cos 2 x = 1 for 0c # x # 360c . 14. Solve sin x = 0 for 0c # x # 360c . 15. Solve sin x = 1 for  360c # x # 360c . 16. Sketch y = sec x for 0c # x # 360c . 17. Sketch y = cot x for 0c # x # 360c .
Trigonometric Identities
Trigonometric identities are statements about the relationships of trigonometric ratios. You have already met some of thesethe reciprocal ratios, complementary angles and the rules for the angle of any magnitude.
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Reciprocal ratios
cosec i =
Complementary angles
sin ] 180c  i g = sin i cos ] 180c  i g =  cos i tan ] 180c  i g =  tan i sin (180c + i) =  sin i cos (180c + i) =  cos i tan (180c + i) = tan i sin (360c  i) =  sin i cos (360c  i) = cos i tan (360c  i) =  tan i sin ( i) =  sin i cos ( i) = cos i tan ( i) =  tan i
In this section you will learn some other identities, based on the unit circle. In the work on angles of any magnitude, we defined sin i as the ycoordinate of P and cos i as the xcoordinate of P.
344
tan i =
cot i =
cot i =
Pythagorean identities
The circle has equation x 2 + y 2 = 1. Substituting x = cos i and y = sin i into x 2 + y 2 = 1 gives
Remeber that cos 2 i means (cos i) 2.
cos 2 i + sin 2 i = 1
This is an equation so can be rearranged to give sin 2 i = 1  cos 2 i cos 2 i = 1  sin 2 i There are two other identities that can be derived from this identity.
1 + tan 2 i = sec 2 i
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Proof
cos 2 i + sin 2 i = 1 cos 2 i sin 2 i 1 + = cos 2 i cos 2 i cos 2 i 1 + tan 2 i = sec 2 i This identity can be rearranged to give tan 2 i = sec 2 i  1 1 = sec 2 i  tan 2 i cot 2 i + 1 = cosec 2 i
Proof
cos 2 i + sin 2 i = 1 cos 2 i sin 2 i 1 + = 2 2 sin i sin i sin 2 i 2 cot i + 1 = cosec 2 i This identity can be rearranged to give cot 2 i = cosec 2 i  1 1 = cosec 2 i  cot 2 i
These are called Pythagorean identities since the equation of the circle comes from Pythagoras rule (see Chapter 5).
EXAMPLES
1. Simplify sin i cot i.
Solution
sin i cot i = sin i # = cos i cos i sin i
Solution
sin ^ 90c  b h sec b = cos b # =1 1 cos b
CONTINUED
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3. Simplify
Solution
sin 4 i + sin 2 i cos 2 i = sin 2 i ^ sin 2 i + cos 2 i h = sin 2 i ] 1 g = sin 2 i = sin i 4. Prove cot x + tan x = cosec x sec x.
Solution
LHS = cot x + tan x cos x sin x = + sin x cos x cos 2 x + sin 2 x sin x cos x 1 = sin x cos x 1 1 = # cos x sin x = cosec x sec x = RHS = ` cot x + tan x = cosec x sec x 5. Prove that 1  cos x 1 = . 1 + cos x sin 2 x
Solution
LHS = 1  cos x sin 2 x 1  cos x = 1  cos 2 x 1  cos x = ] 1 + cos x g ] 1  cos x g 1 = 1 + cos x = RHS
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6.9 Exercises
1. Simplify (a) sin ] 90c  i g (b) tan ] 360c  i g (c) cos ]  i g (d) cot ] 90c  i g (e) sec ] 180c + a g Simplify (a) tan i cos i (b) tan i cosec i (c) sec x cot x (d) 1  sin 2 x 1  cos a cot 2 x + 1 1 + tan 2 x sec 2 i  1 5 cot 2 i + 5 1 (j) cosec 2 x (k) sin 2 a cosec 2 a (l) cot i  cot i cos 2 i (e) (f) (g) (h) (i)
2
(d) sec 2 x  tan 2 x = cosec 2 x  cot 2 x (e) ] sin x  cos x g3 = sin x  cos x  2 sin 2 x cos x + 2 sin x cos 2 x (f) cot i + 2 sec i 1  sin 2 i + 2 sin i sin i cos i (g) cos 2 ] 90c  i g cot i = = sin i cos i (h) (cosec x + cot x) (cosec x  cot x) = 1 1  sin 2 i cos 2 i cos 2 i 2 = tan i + cos 2 i 1 + cot b (j)  cos b cosec b sec b = tan b + cot b (i) 4. 5. If x = 2 cos i and y = 2 sin i, show that x 2 + y 2 = 4. Show that x 2 + y 2 = 81 if x = 9 cos i and y = 9 sin i.
2.
3.
Prove that (a) cos 2 x  1 =  sin 2 x 1 + sin i (b) sec i + tan i = cos i 3 2 (c) 3 + 3 tan a = 1  sin 2 a
348
Sine rule
or
Proof
In TABC, draw perpendicular AD and call it h. From TABD, h sin B = c ` h = c sin B From TACD, sin C = ` h b h = b sin C
(1)
(2)
From (1) and (2), c sin B = b sin C sin B sin C = c b Similarly, drawing a perpendicular from C it can be proven that sin A sin B a = b .
Chapter 6 Trigonometry
349
EXAMPLES
1. Find the value of x, correct to 1 decimal place.
The sine rule uses 2 sides and 2 angles, with 1 unknown.
Solution
Name the sides a and b, and angles A and B. a b = sin A sin B 10.7 x = sin 43c 21l sin 79c 12l 10.7 x sin 43c 21l # = sin 43c 21l # sin 43c 21l sin 79c 12l 10.7 sin 43c 21l x= sin 79c 12l Z 7.5 cm 2. Find the value of y, to the nearest whole number.
You can rename the triangle ABC or just make sure you put sides with their opposite angles together.
Solution
+Y = 180c  (53c + 24c ) = 103c a b = sin A sin B y 8 = sin 103c sin 53c y 8 = sin 103c # sin 103c # sin 103c sin 53c 8 sin 103c y= sin 53c Z 10
You need to find +Y first, as it is opposite y.
CONTINUED
350
Solution
sin A sin B a = b sin i sin 86c 11l = 6.7 8.3 sin i sin 86c 11l = 6.7 # 6.7 # 6 .7 8.3 6.7 sin 86c 11l sin i = 8 .3  1 6.7 sin 86c 11l i = sin c m 8 .3 Z 53c39l
Since sin x is positive in the first 2 quadrants, both acute angles (between 0c and 90c ) and obtuse angles (between 90c and 180c ) give positive sin ratios. e.g. sin 50c = 0.766 and sin 130c = 0.766 This affects the sine rule, since there is no way of distinguishing between an acute angle and an obtuse angle. When doing a question involving an obtuse angle, we need to use the 2nd quadrant angle of 180c  i rather than relying on the calculator to give the correct answer.
EXAMPLE
Angle i is obtuse. Find the value of i, in degrees and minutes.
Chapter 6 Trigonometry
351
Solution
sin A sin B a = b sin i sin 15c 49l = 5.4 11.9 sin i sin 15c 49l = 11.9 # 11.9 # 5.4 11.9 11.9 sin 15c 49l sin i = 5.4  1 11.9 sin 15c 49l m i = sin c 5.4 = 36c 55l ^ acute angle h But i is obtuse ` i = 180c  36c 55l = 143c 05l
6.10
1.
Exercises
(c)
(d)
(b)
(e)
352
2.
BC = 4.6 cm and +ACB = 33c 47l. Triangle EFG has +FEG = 48c , +EGF = 32c and FG = 18.9 mm. Find the length of (a) the shortest side (b) the longest side.. Triangle XYZ has +XYZ = 51c , +YXZ = 86c and XZ = 2.1 m. Find the length of (a) the shortest side (b) the longest side. Triangle XYZ has XY = 5.4 cm, +ZXY = 48c and +XZY = 63c. Find the length of XZ. Triangle ABC has BC = 12.7 m, +ABC = 47c and +ACB = 53c as shown. Find the lengths of (a) AB (b) AC.
A
The shortest side is opposite the smallest angle and the longest side is opposite the largest angle.
(b) 5.
(c)
6.
7.
(d)
47c
12.7 m
53c
(e) (i is obtuse)
4.9 3.7 21c31l i
8.
Triangle PQR has sides PQ = 15 mm, QR = 14.7 mm and +PRQ = 62c 29l. Find to the nearest minute (a) +QPR (b) +PQR. Triangle ABC is isosceles with AB = AC. BC is produced to D as shown. If AB = 8.3 cm, +BAC = 52c and +ADC = 32c find the length of
3.
Triangle ABC has an obtuse angle at A. Evaluate this angle to the nearest minute if AB = 3.2 cm,
9.
Chapter 6 Trigonometry
353
32c
10. Triangle ABC is equilateral with side 63 mm. A line is drawn from A to BC where it meets BC at D l and +DAB = 26c 15 . Find the length of (a) AD (b) DC. D
Cosine rule
c 2 = a 2 + b 2  2ab cos C
Proof
A
c p
ax
In triangle ABC, draw perpendicular CD with length p and let CD = x. Since BC = a, BD = a  x From triangle ACD b2 = x2 + p2 x cos C = b ` b cos C = x From triangle DAB c2 = p2 + ] a  x g 2 = p 2 + a 2  2ax + x 2 = p 2 + x 2 + a 2  2ax (1)
(2)
(3)
354
Substitute (1) into (3): c 2 = b 2 + a 2  2ax Substituting (2) into (4): c 2 = b 2 + a 2  2a ] b cos C g = b 2 + a 2  2ab cos C (4)
EXAMPLE
Find the value of x, correct to the nearest whole number.
The cosine rule uses 3 sides and 1 angle, with 1 unknown.
Solution
c 2 = a 2 + b 2  2ab cos C x 2 = 5.6 2 + 6.4 2  2 (5.6) (6.4) cos 112c 32l Z 99.79 x = 99.79 Z 10
Press 5.6 x 2 + 6.4 x 2  2 # 5.6 # 6.4 # cos 112 % , ,, 32 % , ,, = =
Chapter 6 Trigonometry
355
When finding an unknown angle, it is easier to change the subject of this formula to cos C. c 2 = a 2 + b 2  2ab cos C c 2 + 2ab cos C = a 2 + b 2  2ab cos C + 2ab cos C c 2 + 2ab cos C = a 2 + b 2 c 2  c 2 + 2ab cos C = a 2 + b 2  c 2 2ab cos C = a 2 + b 2  c 2 2ab cos C a2 + b2  c2 = 2ab 2ab cos C = Similarly cos A = cos B = b2 + c2  a2 2bc a +c b 2ac
2 2 2
a2 + b2  c2 2ab
EXAMPLES
1. Find i, in degrees and minutes.
Solution
cos C = a2 + b2  c2 2ab 52 + 62  32 cos i = 2 ]5 g]6 g 52 = 60 52 m i = cos  1 c 60 Z 29c 56l 2. Evaluate +BAC in degrees and minutes.
A 4.5 cm B 6.1 cm C
8.4 cm
CONTINUED
356
Solution
a2 + b2  c2 2ab 4.5 2 + 6.1 2  8.4 2 cos +BAC = 2 ] 4. 5 g ] 6 .1 g =  0.2386 cos C = +BAC = cos 1 ]  0.2386 g = 103c 48l
Notice that the negative sign tells us that the angle will be obtuse.
6.11
1.
Exercises
(e)
(b)
(b) (c)
(c) (d)
Chapter 6 Trigonometry
357
(d) 7. (e)
YZ = 5.9 cm. Find the value of all angles, to the nearest minute. Isosceles trapezium MNOP has MP = NO = 12 mm, MN = 8.9 mm, OP = 15.6 mm and +NMP = 119c 15l. (a) Find the length of diagonal NP. (b) Find +NOP. Given the figure below, find the length of (a) AC (b) AD.
B
8.
3.
Kite ABCD has AB = 12.9 mm, CD = 23.8 mm and +ABC = 125c as shown. Find the length of diagonal AC.
B 12.9 mm A 23.8 mm D 125 c C
42 c8 l 8.4 cm
3.7 cm
101 c38 l A
9.9 cm
4.
Parallelogram ABCD has sides 11 cm and 5 cm, and one interior l angle 79c 25 . Find the length of the diagonals. Quadrilateral ABCD has sides AB = 12 cm, BC = 10.4 cm, CD = 8.4 cm and AD = 9.7 cm with +ABC = 63c 57l . (a) Find the length of diagonal AC (b) Find +DAC (c) Find +ADC. Triangle XYZ is isosceles with XY = XZ = 7.3 cm and
9.
5.
In a regular pentagon ABCDE with sides 8 cm, find the length of diagonal AD.
10. A regular hexagon ABCDEF has sides 5.5 cm. (a) Find the length of AD. (b) Find +ADF.
6.
358
Applications
The sine and cosine rules can be used in solving problems.
Use the sine rule to find: 1. a side, given one side and two angles 2. an angle, given two sides and one angle Use the cosine rule to find: 1. a side, given two sides and one angle 2. an angle, given three sides
EXAMPLES
1. The angle of elevation of a tower from point A is 72c. From point B, 50 m further away from the tower than A, the angle of elevation is 47c. (a) Find the exact length of AT. (b) Hence, or otherwise, find the height h of the tower to 1 decimal place.
Solution
(a) +BAT = 180c  72c = 108c +BTA = 180c  ] 47c + 108c g = 25c a b = sin A sin B 50 AT = sin 47c sin 25c 50 sin 47c AT = ` sin 25c
^ straight angle h
(angle sum of T)
Chapter 6 Trigonometry
359
2. A ship sails from Sydney for 200 km on a bearing of 040c , then sails on a bearing of 157c for 345 km. (a) How far from Sydney is the ship, to the nearest km? (b) What is the bearing of the ship from Sydney, to the nearest degree?
Solution
(a) +SAN = 180c  40c = 140c ` +SAB = 360c  (140c + 157c) = 63c
c 2 = a 2 + b 2  2ab cos C x 2 = 200 2 + 345 2  2 (200) (345) cos 63c Z 96374.3 x = 96374.3 Z 310 So the ship is 310 km from Sydney. sin A sin B a = b sin i sin 63c = 345 310 345 sin 63c ` sin i = 310 Z 0.99 i Z 82c ( b) The bearing from Sydney = 40c + 82c = 122c
To find the bearing, measure +TSB.
360
6.12
1.
Exercises
from one post and 11 m from the other, find the angle within which the ball must be kicked to score a goal, to the nearest degree. 7. A boat is sinking 1.3 km out to sea from a marina. Its bearing is 041c from the marina and 324c from a rescue boat. The rescue boat is due east of the marina. (a) How far, correct to 2 decimal places, is the rescue boat from the sinking boat? (b) How long will it take the rescue boat, to the nearest minute, to reach the other boat if it travels at 80 km/h? The angle of elevation of the top of a flagpole from a point a certain distance away from its base is 20c. After walking 80 m towards the flagpole, the angle of elevation is 75c. Find the height of the flagpole, to the nearest metre. A triangular field ABC has sides AB = 85 m and AC = 50 m. If B is on a bearing of 065c from A and C is on a bearing of 166c from A, find the length of BC, correct to the nearest metre.
Find the lengths of the diagonals of a parallelogram with adjacent sides 5 cm and 8 cm and one of its angles 32c 42l. A car is broken down to the north of 2 towns. The car is 39 km from town A and 52 km from town B. If A is due west of B and the 2 towns are 68 km apart, what is the bearing of the car from (a) town A (b) town B, to the nearest degree? The angle of elevation to the top of a tower is 54c 37l from a point 12.8 m out from its base. The tower is leaning at an angle of 85c 58l as shown. Find the height of the tower. 8.
2.
3.
9.
54 c37 l 12.8 m 85c58 l
4.
A triangular park has sides 145.6 m, 210.3 m and 122.5 m. Find the size of the largest interior angle of the park. A 1.5 m high fence leans outwards from a house at an angle of 102c. A boy sits on top of the fence and the angle of depression from him down to the house is 32c 44l . How far from the fence is the house? Football posts are 3.5 m apart. If a footballer is standing 8 m
5.
10. (a) Find the exact value of AC in the diagram. (b) Hence, or otherwise, find the angle i, correct to the nearest minute.
6.
Chapter 6 Trigonometry
361
16. Rhombus ABCD with side 8 cm has diagonal BD 11.3 cm long. Find +DAB. 17. Zeke leaves school and runs for 8.7 km on a bearing of 338c, then turns and runs on a bearing of 061c until he is due north of school. How far north of school is he? 18. A car drives due east for 83.7 km then turns and travels for 105.6 km on a bearing of 029c. How far is the car from its starting point? 19. The figure below shows the diagram that a surveyor makes to measure a triangular piece of land. Find its perimeter.
12. A motorbike and a car leave a service station at the same time. The motorbike travels on a bearing of 080c and the car travels for 15.7 km on a bearing of 108c until the bearing of the motorbike from the car is 310c. How far, correct to 1 decimal place, has the motorbike travelled? 13. A submarine is being followed by two ships, A and B, 3.8 km apart, with A due east of B. If A is on a bearing of 165c from the submarine and B is on a bearing of 205c from the submarine, find the distance from the submarine to both ships. 14. A plane flies from Dubbo on a bearing of 139c for 852 km, then turns and flies on a bearing of 285cuntil it is due west of Dubbo. How far from Dubbo is the plane, to the nearest km? 15. A triangular roof is 16.8 m up to its peak, then 23.4 m on the other side with a 125c angle at the peak as shown. Find the length of the roof.
20. A light plane leaves Sydney and flies for 1280 km on a bearing of 050c. It then turns and flies for 3215 km on a bearing of 149c. How far is the plane from Sydney, to the nearest km? 21. Trapezium ABCD has AD ; BC, with AB = 4.6 cm, BC = 11.3 cm, CD = 6.4 cm, +DAC = 23c 30l and +ABC = 78c . (a) Find the length of AC. (b) Find +ADC to the nearest minute. 22. A plane leaves Adelaide and flies for 875 km on a bearing of 056c. It then turns and flies on a bearing of i for 630 km until it is due east of Adelaide. Evaluate i to the nearest degree.
362
23. Quadrilateral ABCD has AB = AD = 7.2 cm, BC = 8.9 cm and CD = 10.4 cm, with +DAB = 107c (a) Find the length of diagonal BD. (b) Find +BCD. 24. Stig leaves home and travels on a bearing of 248c for 109.8 km. He then turns and travels for 271.8 km on a bearing of 143c . Stig then turns and travels home on a bearing of a. (a) How far does he travel on the final part of his journey? (b) Evaluate a.
25. A wall leans inwards and makes an angle of 88c with the floor. (a) A 4 m long ladder leans against the wall with its base 2.3 m out from the wall. Find the angle that the top of the ladder makes with the wall. (b) A longer ladder is placed the same distance out from the wall and its top makes an angle of 31c with the wall. (i) How long is this ladder? (ii) How much further does it reach up the wall than the first ladder?
Area
To find the area of a triangle, you need to know its perpendicular height. Trigonometry allows us to find this height in terms of one of the angles in the triangle.
A=
1 ab sin C 2
Proof
From D BCD, h sin C = a ` h = a sin C A= 1 bh 2 1 = ba sin C 2
Chapter 6 Trigonometry
363
EXAMPLE
Find the area of D ABC correct to 2 decimal places.
Solution
A= 1 ab sin C 2 1 = (4.3) (5.8) sin 112c 34l 2 Z 11.52 units 2
6.13
1.
Exercises
(c)
(d)
(b)
(e)
364
2.
7. 3. Find the area of DOAB correct to 1 decimal place (O is the centre of the circle).
Find the area of a regular hexagon with sides 4 cm, to the nearest cm 2 . Calculate the area of a regular pentagon with sides 12 mm. The figure below is made from a rectangle and isosceles triangle with AE = AB as shown.
A 84c
8. 9.
4.
Find the area of a parallelogram with sides 3.5 cm and 4.8 cm, and one of its internal angles 67c 13l, correct to 1 decimal place. Find the area of kite ABCD, correct to 3 significant figures.
14.3 cm
10.5 cm
5.
(a) Find the length of AE. (b) Find the area of the figure. 10. Given the following figure,
A 58c 9.4 cm
44c
36c 6.7 cm
6.
(a) Find the length of AC (b) Find the area of triangle ACD (c) Find the area of triangle ABC.
Chapter 6 Trigonometry
365
Solution
(a) From D XTO h 25 25 tan 47c = h 26.8 = h tan 47c = So the tower is 26.8 m high. (b) From DYTO 26.8 tan i = 15 ` i = tan  1 c 26.8 m 15 = 60c 46l
Use the full value of 26.80921775 for a more accurate answer to (b).
So the angle of elevation from Y is 60c 46l. 2. A cone has a base diameter of 18 cm and a slant height of 15 cm. Find the vertical angle at the top of the cone.
Solution
The radius of the base is 9 cm. 9 sin i = 15 9 ` i = sin  1 c m 15 = 36c 52l Vertical angle = 2i = 73c 44l
366
6.14
1.
Exercises
A gymnastics bar is supported by wires as shown below. (a) If one wire is inclined at an angle of 55c to the horizontal and is 1.4 m out from the base of the bar, find the height of the bar, to the nearest metre. (b) The second wire is inclined at an angle of 68c to the horizontal. How long is the wire (to 1 decimal place)? (c) The third wire is 2.2 m long. What is its angle of elevation?
4.
A cone has radius 7 cm and a slant height of 13 cm. Find the vertical angle at the top of the cone, in degrees and minutes. From a point 15 m due north of a tower, the angle of elevation of the tower is 32c (a) Find the height of the tower, to the nearest metre. (b) Find the angle of elevation of the tower at a point 20 m due east of the tower.
5.
2.
A pole has two supporting ropes, 2.5 m and 3.1 m long. (a) If the 3.1 m rope makes an angle of elevation of 38c , find the length of the pole, correct to 1 decimal place. (b) What angle of elevation does the other rope make?
6.
A pole is seen from two points A and B. The angle of elevation from A is 58c . If +CAB = 52c and +ABC = 34c , and A and B are 100 m apart, find: (a) how far A is from the foot of the pole, to the nearest metre. (b) the height of the pole, to 1 decimal place.
3.
A 25 cm #11 cm # 8 cm cardboard box contains an insert (the shaded area) made of foam. (a) Find the area of foam in the insert, to the nearest cm 2 . (b) Find the angle, i, the insert makes at the corner of the box.
Chapter 6 Trigonometry
367
7.
Two straight paths up to the top of a cliff are inclined at angles of 25c and 22c to the horizontal.
9.
A cylinder with radius 4 cm and perpendicular height 15 cm is tilted so that it will just fit inside a 12 cm high box. At what angle must it be tilted?
(a) If path 1 is 114 m long, find the height of the cliff, to the nearest metre. (b) Find the length of path 2, to 1 decimal place. (c) If the paths meet at 47c at the base of the cliff, find their distance apart at the top of the cliff, correct to 1 decimal place. 8. David walks along a straight road. At one point he notices a tower on a bearing of 053c with an angle of elevation of 21c. After walking 230 m, the tower is on a bearing of 342c , with an angle of elevation of 26c . Find the height of the tower correct to the nearest metre.
10. A hot air balloon flying at 950 m/h at a constant altitude of 3000 m is observed to have an angle of elevation of 78c . After 20 minutes, the angle of elevation is 73c . Calculate the angle through which the observer has turned during those 20 minutes.
368
Proof
By the distance formula: d 2 = _ x 2  x 1 i2 + _ y 2  y 1 i2 AB 2 = ^ cos x  cos y h2 + ^ sin x  sin y h2 = cos 2 x  2 cos x cos y + cos 2 y + sin 2 x  2 sin x sin y + sin 2 y = (cos 2 x + sin 2 x) + (cos 2 y + sin 2 y)  2 cos x cos y  2 sin x sin y = 2  2 (cos x cos y + sin x sin y) By the cosine rule: c 2 = a 2 + b 2  2ab cos C AB 2 = 1 2 + 1 2  2 (1) (1) cos (x  y) = 2  2 cos (x  y) From (1) and (2): 2  2 cos ^ x  y h = 2  2 ^ cos x cos y + sin x sin y h ` cos ^ x  y h = cos x cos y + sin x sin y
(1)
(2)
Proof
Substitute  y for y. cos (x  y) = cos x cos y + sin x sin y cos (x  ( y )) = cos x cos ( y ) + sin x sin ( y ) cos (x + y) = cos x cos y + sin x ( sin y ) cos (x + y) = cos x cos y  sin x sin y
Chapter 6 Trigonometry
369
Proof
Substitute 90c  x for x. cos (x  y) = cos x cos y + sin x sin y cos (90c  x  y) = cos (90c  x) cos y + sin (90c x) sin y cos (90c  (x + y)) = sin x cos y + cos x sin y sin (x + y) = sin x cos y + cos x sin y
Proof
Substitute  y for y. sin (x + y) = sin x cos y + cos x sin y sin (x + ( y)) = sin x cos ( y) + cos x sin ( y) sin (x  y) = sin x cos y + cos x ( sin y) sin (x  y) = sin x cos y  cos x sin y
tan ^ x + y h =
Proof
tan (x + y) = sin ^ x + y h cos ^ x + y h sin x cos y + cos x sin y = cos x cos y  sin x sin y sin x cos y + cos x sin y cos x cos y = cos x cos y  sin x sin y cos x cos y tan x + tan y tan (x + y) = 1  tan x tan y
tan ^ x  y h =
370
Proof
Substitute y for y. tan (x + y) = tan (x + ( y)) = tan (x  y) = tan x + tan y 1  tan x tan y tan x + tan ^  y h 1  tan x tan ^  y h tan x  tan y
EXAMPLES
1. Simplify sin 2i cos i  cos 2i sin i.
Solution
sin 2i cos i  cos 2i sin i = sin (2i  i) = sin i 2. Find the exact value of cos 75c .
Solution
cos 75c = cos (30c+ 45c) = cos 30c cos 45c  sin 30c sin 45c = = = 3 1 1 1 #  # 2 2 2 2 31 2 2 31 2 2
# 2 2 6 2 = 4
Solution
cos (i + 60c) + sin (i + 60c) = cos i cos 60c  sin i sin 60c + sin i cos 60c + cos i sin 60c 3 3 1 1  sin i # + sin i # + cos i # 2 2 2 2 3 3 1 1 n + sin i d = cos i d + + n 2 2 2 2 1+ 3n 1 3n = cos i d + sin i d 2 2 = cos i #
Chapter 6 Trigonometry
371
Proof
sin 2x = sin (x + x) = sin x cos x + cos x sin x = 2 sin x cos x
Proof
cos 2x = cos (x + x) = cos x cos x  sin x sin x = cos 2 x  sin 2 x = (1  sin 2 x)  sin 2 x = 1  2 sin 2 x = 1  2 (1  cos 2 x) = 2 cos 2 x  1
Remember: sin 2 x + cos 2 x = 1.
tan 2x =
2 tan x 1  tan 2 x
Proof
tan 2x = tan (x + x) tan x + tan x = 1  tan x tan x 2 tan x tan 2x = 1  tan 2 x
372
EXAMPLES
1. Simplify cos 2 2i  sin 2 2i.
Solution
cos 2 2i  sin 2 2i = cos 2 (2i) = cos 4i 2. If sin x = 4 , find the exact value of sin 2x. 7
Solution
AC 2 = 7 2  4 2 = 33 ` AC = 33 sin 2x = 2 sin x cos x 4 # 7 8 33 = 49 =2# 33 7
PROBLEM
Ulug Beg (13931449) used the relation sin 3 i = 1 ] 3 sin i  sin 3i g to 4 draw up a table of sine ratios. Can you prove this relation?
6.15
1.
Exercises
2. Simplify (a) sin a cos b + cos a sin b tan 36c + tan 29c (b) 1  tan 36c tan 29c (c) cos 28c cos 27c  sin 28c sin 27c (d) sin 2x cos 3y + cos 2x sin 3y tan 3i  tan i (e) 1 + tan 3i tan i (f) sin 74c cos 42c  cos 74c sin 42c (g) sin ] a + b g + sin ] a  b g (h) sin ^ x + y h  sin ^ x  y h (i) cos ^ x  y h  cos ^ x + y h (j) cos ] m + n g + cos ] m  n g
Expand (a) sin ] a  b g (b) (c) (d) (e) (f) (g) (h) (i) (j) cos ^ p + q h tan ^ a + b h sin (x + 20c) tan ] 48c + x g cos ] 2i  a g cos ( x + 75c) tan ^ 5x  7y h sin ^ 4a  b h tan ^ a  3b h
Chapter 6 Trigonometry
373
3.
Find the exact value of (a) sin 75c (b) cos 15c (c) tan 75c (d) tan 105c (e) cos 105c (f) sin 15c (g) sin 105c (h) tan 285c (i) sin (x + 30c) + cos (x + 30c) (j) cos ^ 45c  y h + cos ^ 45c + y h Simplify tan ^ x + y h + tan ^ x  y h 1  tan ^ x + y h tan ^ x  y h
11. If sin x =
3 5 and cos y = , find 5 13 the value of (a) cos x (b) sin y (c) sin ^ x  y h (d) tan y (e) tan ^ x + y h
4.
12. (a) Write an expression for cos ^ x + y h + cos ^ x  y h . (b) Hence write an expression for cos 50c cos 65c. 13. Find an expression for (a) sin ^ x + y h + sin ^ x  y h (b) (c) (d) (e) (f) cos ^ x + y h  cos ^ x  y h sin ^ x + y h  sin ^ x  y h cos ^ x + y h + sin ^ x  y h tan ^ x + y h + tan ^ x  y h tan ^ x + y h  tan ^ x  y h
5.
If sin x =
3 2 and cos y = , find 4 3 the exact value of (a) sin ^ x + y h (b) cos ^ x  y h (c) tan ^ x + y h
6.
By taking 2i = i + i, find an expression for (a) sin 2i (b) cos 2i (c) tan 2i By writing 3i as 2i + i, find an expression in terms of i for (a) sin 3i (b) cos 3i (c) tan 3i tan 7i  tan 3i . 1 + tan 7i tan 3i (b) Find an expression for sin 4i in terms of 7i and 3i. (a) Simplify
7.
14. Expand (a) sin 2b (b) tan 2i (c) cos 2i (d) sin (x + 2y) (e) cos (2a + b ) (f) tan (x + 2y) (g) sin (2i  d ) (h) cos (i  2c) (i) tan (x  2z) (j) sin (2x  2y)
15. Simplify (a) 2 cos 3x sin 3x (b) cos 2 7y  sin 2 7y 2 tan 5i (c) 1  tan 2 5i 9. Find an expression for cos 9x in (d) 1  2 sin 2 y terms of 2x and 7x. (e) sin 6i cos 6i 10. Find the exact value of (f) ] sin x + cos x g2 (a) cos 23c cos 22c  sin 23c sin 22c (g) 2 cos 2 3a  1 tan 85c  tan 25c (b) (h) 1  2 sin 2 40c 1 + tan 85c tan 25c 2 tan b (c) sin 180c cos 60c (i) 1  tan 2 b + cos 180c sin 60c (j) ] sin 3x  cos 3x g2 (d) cos 290c cos 80c 8. + sin 290c sin 80c tan 11c + tan 19c (e) 1  tan 11c tan 19c
374
16. Find the exact value of (a) cos 22.5c sin 22.5c (b) cos 2 30c  sin 2 30c 2 tan 15c (c) 1  tan 2 15c (d) 2 sin 75c cos 75c 2 tan 120c (e) 1  tan 2 120c (f) 1  2 sin 2 165c (g) 2 cos 2 22.5c  1 2 tan i (h) where i = 112.5c 1  tan 2 i (i) sin 67.5c cos 67.5c (j) 2 cos 105c sin 105c 17. If cos x = 5 , find the exact value 8 of cos 2x and sin 2x.
(b) Hence, find the exact value of tan 15c. 1 21. Find the exact value of tan 22 c 2 by using the expression for tan 2x. 22. Prove (a) sin 2 i = (b) tan 1 sin 2i tan i 2
i 1  cos i = 2 sin i
23. Show that sin 2 7i  sin 2 4i = sin 11i sin 3i. 24. Prove that cos 3i = 4 cos 3 i  3 cos i. 25. Find an expression for sin 3x in terms of sin x.
18. If sin a =
3 12 and tan b = , find 5 5 the exact values of (a) sin ^ a + b h (b) cos 2a (c) sin 2b (d) tan ^ a  b h
i 2
i 2t = t, then tan i = 2 1  t2
If tan
Proof
2 tan A 1  tan 2 A i 2 tan 2 ` tan i = where i = 2A i 1  tan 2 2 2t = 1  t2 tan 2A =
Chapter 6 Trigonometry
375
If tan
i 2t = t, then sin i = 2 1 + t2
Proof
tan i t =t= 2 1
i 2
If tan
i 1  t2 = t, then cos i = 2 1 + t2
Proof
cos 2A = cos 2 A  sin 2 A i i where i = 2A ` cos i = cos 2  sin 2 2 2 2 2 t 1 =e e o o 1 + t2 1 + t2 2 t 1 = 2 1+t 1 + t2 1  t2 = 1 + t2
i The ratios for cos and 2 i sin come from the 2 previous triangle.
376
EXAMPLES
1. Find the exact value of 2 tan 15c . 1 + tan 2 15c i 2
Solution
sin i = 2t 1 + t2
where t = tan
So
Solution
LHS = cot i  2 cot i 2 1 2 = i tan i tan 2 i 1 2 where t = tan = t 2t 2 1  t2 2 1 2^1  t h = t 2t 1 1  t2 = t t 1  1 + t2 = t t2 = t =t i 2 = RHS = tan ` cot i i  2 cot i = tan 2 2
There is also another expression that will help solve some further trigonometric equations.
Chapter 6 Trigonometry
377
Proof
If tan a = b , then the a
RHS = r sin (i + a ) a 2 + b 2 (sin i cos a + cos i sin a ) a = a 2 + b 2 e sin i # + cos i # 2 a + b2 = a sin i + b cos i = LHS ` a sin i + b cos i = r sin ] i + a g where r = b a 2 + b 2 and tan a = a = b a + b2
2
EXAMPLES
1. Write 3 sin x + cos x in the form r sin ] x + a g.
Solution
a sin i + b cos i = r sin ] i + a g where r = For 3 sin x + cos x: a = 3, b = 1 r= a2 + b2
2
b a 2 + b 2 and tan a = a
1 o 3
378
Solution
a sin i + b cos i = r sin (i + a ) where r = For 3 sin i + 2 cos i: a = 3, b = 2 r= = = = a2 + b2 32 + 22 9+4 13 b tan a = a 2 = 3 2 a = tan  1 c m 3 = 33 41l So 3 sin i + 2 cos i = 13 sin (i + 33c 41l) b a 2 + b 2 and tan a = a
Class Investigation
Can you find similar results for these? a sin i  b cos i a cos i + b cos i a cos i  b sin i
6.16
1.
Exercises
(e) 2 tan i 1 + tan 2 i 1  tan 2
Simplify 2t (a) 1  t2 1  t2 (b) 1 + t2 2 tan 10c (c) 1  tan 2 10c (d) 1  tan 25c 1 + tan 2 25c
2
i 2 (f) i 1 + tan 2 2 2. Find the exact value of 2 tan 30c (a) 1 + tan 2 30c
Chapter 6 Trigonometry
379
1  tan 2 22.5c 1 + tan 2 22.5c 1  tan 2 30c 1 + tan 2 30c 2 tan 90c 1  tan 2 90c
Write each expression in terms of i t where t = tan . 2 (a) cosec i (b) sec i (c) cot i (d) sin i + cos i (e) 1 + tan i i 2 (g) 3 cos i + 4 sin i (f) 1 + tan i tan (h) 1 + sin i + cos i 1 + sin i  cos i
(a) (b) (c) (d) (e) (f) (g) (h) (i) (j) 7.
2 sin i + cos i sin i + 3 cos i sin i + cos i 5 sin i + 2 cos i 4 sin i + cos i 3 sin i + cos i 2 sin i + 3 cos i 4 sin i + 7 cos i 5 sin i + 4 cos i 3 sin i + 5 cos i
Write each expression in the form r sin ] i  a g. (a) sin i  cos i (b) sin i  2 cos i (c) sin i  3 cos i (d) 3 sin i  cos i (e) 5 sin i  2 cos i Write the expression 3 cos i + sin i in the form r cos ] i  a g. Write the expression cos i  3 sin i in the form r cos ] i + a g.
8.
(i) tan i + sec i (j) sin 2i 4. 5. 6. Prove 1 + sin i  cos i = t. 1 + sin i + cos i 9.
Find an expression for sin 2i  cos 2i in terms of t. Write each expression in the form r sin ] i + a g.
10. Write the expression 9 sin i + 2 cos i in the form. (a) r sin ] i + a g (b) r cos ] i  a g
EXAMPLES
1. Solve 2 sin i = cos i for 0c # i # 360c .
Solution
2 sin i = cos i Dividing both sides by cos i: 2 sin i cos i = cos i cos i 2 tan i = 1 tan i = 0.5
CONTINUED
380
Since tan i is positive in the first and third quadrants: i = 26c 34l, 180c+ 26c 34l = 26c 34l, 206c 34l 2. Solve cos 2i = cos i for 0c # i # 360c.
Solution
cos 2i = cos i 2 cos i  1 = cos i 2 cos i  cos i  1 = 0 ] 2 cos i + 1 g ] cos i  1 g = 0
2 2
` 2 cos i + 1 = 0 or cos i  1 = 0 2 cos i = 1 cos i = 1 1 i = 0c, 360c cos i = 2 i = 120c, 240c ` solutions are i = 0c, 120c, 240c, 360c 3. Solve 3 sin x + cos x = 1 for 0c # x # 360c.
Solution (Method 1)
Use the result for a sin x + b cos x. For 3 sin x + cos x, a = 3 and b = 1 r= a2 + b2
2
Solving: 3 sin x + cos x = 1 2 sin ] x + 30c g = 1 1 sin ] x + 30c g = 2 ` for 0c # x # 360c for 30c # x + 30c # 390c
x + 30c = 30c , 180c  30c , 360c + 30c = 30c , 150c , 390c x = 0c , 120c , 360c
Chapter 6 Trigonometry
381
Solution (Method 2)
Use the results for t = tan i . 2
3 sin x + cos x = 1 2t 1  t2 3d + =1 n 1 + t2 1 + t2 2 3 t + 1  t2 =1 1 + t2 2 3 t + 1  t2 = 1 + t2 0 = 2t 2  2 3 t = 2t ^ t  3 h ` 2t = 0 or t  3 t=0 t x x tan = 0 tan 2 2 x x = 0c, 180c 2 2 ` x = 0c, 120c, 360c Test x = 180c separately: 3 sin 180c + cos 180c = 0 + ( 1) = 1 !1 ` x = 180c is not a solution Solutions are x = 0c , 120c , 360c . =0 = 3 = 3 for 0c # x # 180c 2
= 60c
EXAMPLE
Find all solutions for sin i = 3 . 2
Solution
CONTINUED
382
sin i = sin 60c i = 60c, 180c  60c, 360c + 60c, 360c + 180c  60c, 360c + 360c + 60cg = 60c, 180c  60c, 360c + 60c, 540c  60c, 720c + 60c, g If i can also be negative, i =  (180c + 60c),  (360c  60c),  [360c  (180c  60c)], g =  180c  60c,  360c + 60c,  540c  60c, g So the general solution for sin i = sin 60c is i = 180c # n + ]  1 g n 60c where n is an integer.
In general, the solution for sin i = sin a is given by i = 180n + (1) n a where n is an integer.
EXAMPLE
Find all solutions for cos i = 1 . 2
Solution
cos i = cos 45c i = 45c, 360c  45c, 360c + 45c, 360c + 360c  45c, 360c + 360c + 45c, f = 45c, 360c  45c, 360c + 45c, 720c  45c, 720c + 45c, f If i can also be negative, i =  45c,  (360c  45c),  (360c + 45c),  [360c + (360c  45c)], f =  45c,  360c + 45c,  360c  45c,  720c + 45c, f So the general solution for cos i = cos 45c is i = 360c # n ! 45c where n is an integer.
In general, the solution for cos i = cos a is given by i = 360n ! a where n is an integer.
Chapter 6 Trigonometry
383
EXAMPLE
Find all solutions for tan i = 1.
Solution
tan i = tan 45c i = 45c, 180c + 45c, 360c + 45c, 360c + 180c + 45c, 360c + 360c + 45c, f = 45c, 180c + 45c, 360c + 45c, 540c + 45c, 720c + 45c, f If i can also be negative, then i =  (180c  45c),  (360c  45c),  [360c + (180c  45c)], f = 180c + 45c,  360c + 45c,  540c + 45c, f The general solution for tan i = tan 45c is i = 180c # n + 45c where n is an integer.
In general, the solution for tan i = tan a is given by i = 180n + a where n is an integer.
6.17
1.
Exercises
2. Solve for 0c # i # 360c. (a) 3 sin i + 4 cos i = 0 (b) 5 cos i  12 sin i = 3 (c) sin i  3 cos i = 0 (d) sin i + cos i = 1 (e) 4 sin i  cos i + 3 = 0 (f) sin i  cos i = 1 (g) 2 cos i + sin i = 1 5 2
3 sin x
(f) 2 sin 2 x + 3 cos x  3 = 0 (g) sin x cot x  sin x = 0 (h) cos x  1 = 0 (i) 2 sin x tan x  tan x + 2 sin x  1 = 0 (j) 3 cos 2 x  7 cos x + 4 = 0
2
384
3.
Find the general solution for 1 (a) sin i = 2 (b) tan a = 3 (c) cos i = 3 2 (d) 2 sin x = 1 (e) tan i + 1 = 0 (f) 2 cos 2 b = 1 (g) 4 sin 2 c = 3 1 (h) tan i = 3 (i) cos i = 0.245 (j) sin a = 0.399 3 for 2
7.
Find the general solutions of (a) sin i = 0 (b) cos x = 1 (c) tan x = 0 (d) sin i = 1 (e) cos a = 0 For each question (i) solve for 0c # x # 360cand (ii) find the general solutions (a) 2 sin x  1 = 0 (b) 4 cos x  3 = 0 (c) sin x = 3 cos x (d) 3 sin x + cos x = 0 (e) sin x + cos x = 2 Find the general solutions of 2 sin 2 x + sin x 1 = 0.
8.
4.
9.
5. 6.
Find the general solutions of sin 2x = cos x. Solve sin 2 x = sin x for 180c # x # 180c .
10. (a) Solve cos 2x = cos x for 0c # x # 360c. (b) Find the general solutions of cos 2x = cos x.
Chapter 6 Trigonometry
385
Test Yourself 6
1. Find the exact value of cos i and sin i if 3 tan i = . 5 Simplify (a) sin x cot x cos 40c + sin 50c (b) cos 40c 1 + cot 2 A i 1  t2 (d) where t = tan 2 2 1+t (e) 1  2 sin 2 10i (c) 3. Evaluate to 2 decimal places. (a) sin 39c 54l (b) tan 61c 30l (c) cos 19c 2l Find i to the nearest minute if (a) sin i = 0.72 (b) cos i = 0.286 5 (c) tan i = 7 Prove that 2 cos i = 2 + 2 sin i. 1  sin i
2
2.
(b)
4.
5. 6. 7.
Find the value of b if sin b = cos ] 2b  30 g c . Find the exact value of (a) cos 315c (b) sin ]  60c g (c) tan 120c (d) 2 sin 105c cos 105c (e) sin ^ x  y h when sin x = cos y = 5 13 8 and 17 (c)
(b)
8. 9.
Solve 2 cos x = 1 for 0c # x # 360c. Sketch the graph of y = cos x, and hence solve cos x = 0 for 0c # x # 360c .
10. A ship sails on a bearing of 215c from port until it is 100 km due south of port. How far does it sail, to the nearest km?
386
(a) Find an expression for the length of AD. (b) Find the height of the pole, to 1 decimal place. 20. A plane flies from Orange for 1800 km on a bearing of 300c . It then turns and flies for 2500 km on a bearing of 205c . How far is the plane from Orange, to the nearest km? 21. Find the exact value of (a) sin 75c (b) cos 105c (c) sin 22c 30l cos 22c 30l. 22. Find the general solutions of (a) 2 cos x 1 = 0 (b) tan x = 1 3 (c) sin x = . 2 23. Solve 3 sin i + cos i = 1 for 0c # i # 360c . 24. Evaluate a in the figure below.
a
15. Solve for 180c # x # 180c . 3 (a) sin 2 x = 4 1 (b) tan 2x = 3 (c) 3 tan 2 x = tan x 5 16. If sec i =  and tan i 2 0, find sin i 4 and cot i. 17. Jacquie walks south from home for 3.2 km, then turns and walks west for 1.8 km. What is the bearing, to the nearest degree, of (a) Jacquie from her home? (b) her home from where Jacquie is now? 18. Find the general solution of 6 sin i  8 cos i = 5. 19. The angle of elevation from point B to the top of a pole is 39c , and the angle of elevation from D, on the other side of the pole, is 42c. B and D are 20 m apart.
10 mm
4 mm 12 mm
25. (a) Simplify cos x cos y sin x sin y. (b) Show that cos 2x = 1 sin2 x.
Chapter 6 Trigonometry
387
Challenge Exercise 6
1. Two cars leave an intersection at the same time, one travelling at 70 km/h along one road and the other car travelling at 80 km/h along the other road. After 2 hours they are 218 km apart. At what angle, to the nearest minute, do the roads meet at the intersection? A ship sails from port on a bearing of 055c , then turns and sails on a bearing of 153c for 29.1 km, when it is due east of port. How far, to 1 decimal place, is the ship from its starting point? Evaluate x correct to 3 significant figures. 6. 7. Simplify sin ] 360c  x g $ tan ] 90c x g . Find the exact area of D ABC.
2.
8. 9.
Find the exact value of cos (315c) . Solve tan 2x  1 = 0 for 0c # x # 360c .
3.
4.
(a) Find an exact expression for the length of AC. (b) Hence, or otherwise, find the value of h correct to 1 decimal place. 11. The angle of depression from the top of a 4.5 m mast of a boat down to a fish is 56c 28l . How far down, to 1 decimal place, does a pelican sitting at the top of the mast need to fly to catch the fish? 12. Solve 2 cos (i + 10c ) =  1 for 0c # i # 360c. 13. Two roads meet at an angle of 74c . Find the distance, correct to 3 significant figures, between two cars, one 6.3 km from the intersection along one road and the other 3.9 km along the other road.
5.
A man walks 3.8 km on a bearing of 134c from a house. He then walks 2.9 km on a bearing of 029c . How far is he from the house, to 1 decimal place?
388
14. Find the exact value of cos i, given 5 sin i = and cos i 1 0. 9 15. From the top of a vertical pole the angle of depression to a man standing at the foot of the pole is 43c . On the other side of the pole is another man, and the angle of depression from the top of the pole to this man is 52c . The men are standing 58 m apart. Find the height of the pole, to the nearest metre. 16. Show that cos i ] sin i + cos i g = 1 + tan i. ] 1 + sin i g ] 1  sin i g 17. If x = 3 sin i and y = 3 cos i  2, eliminate i to find an equation relating x and y. 18. From point A, 93 m due south of the base of a tower, the angle of elevation is 35c . Point B is 124 m due east of the tower. Find (a) the height of the tower, to the nearest metre (b) the angle of elevation of the tower from point B. 20. A cone has a base diameter of 14 cm and a perpendicular height of 26 cm. Find the vertical angle at the top of the cone. 21. Show that cos 6i cos 4i  sin 6i sin 4i = 2 cos 2 5i  1. 22. A cable car 100 m above the ground is seen to have an angle of elevation of 65c when it is on a bearing of 345c . After a minute, it has an angle of elevation of 69c and is on a bearing of 025c . Find how far it travels in that minute, and its speed in ms  1 . 23. Solve cos 2i  sin i = 0 for 0c # i # 360c .
19. ABCD is a triangular pyramid with 24. Find the general solutions of sin i = 1. BC = 7 m, CD = 10 m, BD = 8 m, AB = AC and +ACB = 67c . Calculate 25. Simplify cosec i ] cos i  1 g by expressing (a) +BCD i it in terms of t c tan m . (b) length AB, to the nearest metre. 2
Linear Functions
TERMINOLOGY
Collinear points: Two or more points that lie on the same straight line Concurrent lines: Two or more lines that intersect at a single point Gradient: The slope of a line measured by comparing the vertical rise over the horizontal run. The symbol for gradient is m Interval: A section of a straight line including the end points Midpoint: A point lying exactly halfway between two points Perpendicular distance: The shortest distance between a point and a line. The distance will be at right angles to the line
391
INTRODUCTION
IN CHAPTER 5, YOU STUDIED functions and their graphs. This chapter looks at the linear function, or straightline graph, in more detail. Here you will study the gradient and equation of a straight line, the intersection of two or more lines, parallel and perpendicular lines, the midpoint, distance and the perpendicular distance from a point to a line.
Class Assignment
Find as many examples as you can of straightline graphs in newspapers and magazines.
Distance
The distance between two points (or the length of the interval between two points) is easy to find when the points form a vertical or horizontal line.
392
EXAMPLES
Find the distance between 1. ^ 1, 4 h and ^ 1, 2 h
Solution
Solution
When the two points are not lined up horizontally or vertically, we use Pythagoras theorem to find the distance.
393
EXAMPLE
Find the distance between points ^ 3, 1 h and ^ 2, 5 h.
Solution
` AB = 61 Z 7.81
394
Proof
EXAMPLES
1. Find the distance between the points ^ 1, 3 h and ^ 3, 0 h.
Solution
Let ^ 1, 3 h be _ x 1, y 1 i and ^ 3, 0 h be _ x 2, y 2 i d=
2 2 _ x2  x1 i + _ y2  y1 i
= ] 3  1 g2 + ] 0  3 g2 = ] 4 g2 + ] 3 g2 = 16 + 9 = 25 =5 So the distance is 5 units. 2. Find the exact length of AB given that A = ^ 2, 4 h and B = ^ 1, 5 h .
Solution
Let ^ 2, 4 h be _ x 1, y 1 i and ^ 1, 5 h be _ x 2, y 2 i d= =
You would still get 82 if you used ( 2,  4) as (x 2 , y 2 ) and (1, 5) as (x 1 , y 1 ).
2 2 _ x2  x1 i + _ y2  y1 i
6 1  ^ 2 h @ 2 + 6 5  ^ 4 h @ 2
12 + 92 1 + 81 82
= = =
395
7.1 Exercises
1. Find the distance between points (a) ^ 0, 2 h and ^ 3, 6 h (b) ^ 2, 3 h and ^ 4, 5 h (c) ^ 2, 5 h and ^ 3, 7 h Find the exact length of the interval between points (a) ^ 2, 3 h and ^ 1, 1 h (b) ^ 5, 1 h and ^ 3, 0 h (c) ^  2, 3 h and ^  4, 6 h (d) ^ 1, 3 h and ^ 7, 7 h Find the distance, correct to 2 decimal places, between points (a) ^ 1, 4 h and ^ 5, 5 h (b) ^ 0, 4 h and ^ 3, 2 h (c) ^ 8, 1 h and ^ 7, 6 h Find the perimeter of D ABC with vertices A ^ 3, 1 h, B ^ 1, 1 h and C ^ 1, 2 h . Prove that the triangle with vertices ^ 3, 4 h, ^ 2, 7 h and ^ 6, 1 h is isosceles. Show that AB = BC, where A = ^ 2, 5 h, B = ^ 4, 2 h and C = ^ 3, 8 h . Show that points ^ 3, 4 h and ^ 8,1 h are equidistant from point ^ 7, 3 h . A circle with centre at the origin O passes through the point _ 2 , 7 i . Find the radius of the circle, and hence its equation. Prove that the points X _ 2 , 3 i, Y _ 1, 10 i and Z _  6 , 5 i all lie on a circle with centre at the origin. Find its equation. 12. Prove that A ^ 1, 4 h, B ^ 1, 2 h and C _ 1 + 3 , 3 i are the vertices of an equilateral triangle. 13. If the distance between ^ a, 3 h and ^ 4, 2 h is 37 , find the values of a. 14. The points M ^ 1, 2 h, N (3, 0), P ^ 4, 6 h and Q ^ 0, 4 h form a quadrilateral. Prove that MQ = NP and QP = MN. What type of quadrilateral is MNPQ? 15. Show that the diagonals of a square with vertices A ^ 2, 4 h, B ^ 5, 4 h, C ^ 5, 3 h and D ^ 2, 3 h are equal. 16. (a) Show that the triangle with vertices A ^ 0, 6 h, B ^ 2, 0 h and C ^ 2, 0 h is isosceles. (b) Show that perpendicular OA, where O is the origin, bisects BC. 17. Find the exact length of the diameter of a circle with centre ^ 3, 4 h if the circle passes through the point ^ 7, 5 h . 18. Find the exact length of the radius of the circle with centre (1, 3) if the circle passes through the point ^ 5, 2 h . 19. Show that the triangle with vertices A ^ 2, 1 h, B ^ 3, 3 h and C ^ 7, 7 h is right angled. 20. Show that the points X ^ 3, 3 h, Y ^ 7, 4 h and Z ^  4, 1 h form the vertices of an isosceles rightangled triangle.
2.
3.
4.
5.
6.
7. 8.
9.
10. If the distance between ^ a, 1 h and ^ 3, 4 h is 5, find the value of a. 11. If the distance between ^ 3, 2 h and ^ 4, a h is 7 , find the exact value of a.
396
Midpoint
The midpoint is the point halfway between two other points.
Proof
Find the midpoint of points A _ x 1, y 1 i and B _ x 2, y 2 i. Let M = ^ x, y h Then D APQ < ; D ABR AQ AP = AR AB x  x1 1 ` x x = 2 2 1 2 _ x  x1 i = x2  x1 2x  2x 1 = x 2  x 1 2x = x 1 + x 2 x1 + x2 ` x= 2 y1 + y2 Similarly, y = 2 `
EXAMPLES
1. Find the midpoint of ^ 1, 4 h and ^ 5, 2 h.
Solution
x= x1 + x2 2
397
1 + 5 2 4 = 2 =2 y1 + y2 y= 2 4+2 = 2 6 = 2 =3 So M = (2, 3) . = 2. Find the values of a and b if ^ 2, 3 h is the midpoint between ^ 7, 8 h and ^ a, b h.
Solution
2 7 + a 2= 2 4 = 7 + a 11 = a y1 + y2 y= 2 8 + b 3 = 2 6 = 8 + b 2=b So a = 11 and b = 2. x= x1 + x2
Note that the xcoordinate of the midpoint is the average of x 1 and x 2 . The same applies to the ycoordinate.
PROBLEM
A timekeeper worked out the average time for 8 finalists in a race. The average was 30.55, but the timekeeper lost one of the finalists times. The other 7 times were 30.3, 31.1, 30.9, 30.7, 29.9, 31.0 and 30.3. Can you find out the missing time?
398
7.2 Exercises
1. Find the midpoint of (a) ^ 0, 2 h and ^ 4, 6 h (b) ^ 2, 3 h and ^ 4, 5 h (c) ^ 2, 5 h and ^ 6, 7 h (d) ^ 2, 3 h and ^ 8, 1 h (e) ^ 5, 2 h and ^ 3, 0 h (f) ^ 2, 2 h and ^ 4, 6 h (g) ^ 1, 4 h and ^ 5, 5 h (h) ^ 0, 4 h and ^ 3, 2 h (i) ^ 8, 1 h and ^ 7, 6 h (j) ^ 3, 7 h and ^ 3, 4 h Find the values of a and b if (a) ^ 4, 1 h is the midpoint of ^ a, b h and ^ 1, 5 h (b) ^ 1, 0 h is the midpoint of ^ a, b h and ^ 3, 6 h (c) ^ a, 2 h is the midpoint of (3, b h and ^ 5, 6 h (d) ^ 2, 1 h is the midpoint of ^ a, 4 h and ^ 3, b h (e) ^ 3, b h is the midpoint of ^ a, 2 h and ^ 0, 0 h Prove that the origin is the midpoint of ^ 3, 4 h and ^ 3, 4 h . Show that P = Q where P is the midpoint of ^ 2, 3 h and ^ 6, 5 h and Q is the midpoint of ^ 7, 5 h and ^ 11, 3 h . Find the point that divides the interval between ^ 3, 2 h and ^ 5, 8 h in the ratio of 1:1. Show that the line x = 3 is the perpendicular bisector of the interval between the points ^ 1, 2 h and ^ 7, 2 h . 7. The points A ^ 1, 2 h, B ^ 1, 5 h, C ^ 6, 5 h and D ^ 4, 2 h form a parallelogram. Find the midpoints of the diagonals AC and BD. What property of a parallelogram does this show? The points A ^ 3, 5 h, B ^ 9, 3 h, C ^ 5, 6 h and D ^ 1, 2 h form a quadrilateral. Prove that the diagonals are equal and bisect one another. What type of quadrilateral is ABCD? A circle with centre ^ 2, 5 h has one end of a diameter at ^ 4, 3 h . Find the coordinates of the other end of the diameter.
8.
2.
9.
3. 4.
10. A triangle has vertices at A ^ 1, 3 h, B ^ 0, 4 h and C ^ 2, 2 h . (a) Find the midpoints X, Y and Z of sides AB, AC and BC respectively. 1 (b) Show that XY = BC, 2 1 1 XZ = AC and YZ = AB. 2 2 11. Point P ^ x, y h moves so that the midpoint between P and the origin is always a point on the circle x 2 + y 2 = 1. Find the equation of the locus of P. 12. Find the equation of the locus of the point P ^ x, y h that is the midpoint between all points on the circle x 2 + y 2 = 4 and the origin.
5.
The locus is the path that P (x, y) follows.
6.
Gradient
The gradient of a straight line measures its slope. The gradient compares the vertical rise with the horizontal run.
399
On the number plane, this is a measure of the rate of change of y with respect to x.
The rate of change of y with respect to x is a very important measure of their relationship. In later chapters you will use the gradient for many purposes, including sketching curves, finding the velocity and acceleration of objects, and finding maximum and minimum values of formulae.
EXAMPLES
Find the gradient of each interval. 1.
You will study the gradient at different points on a curve in the next chapter.
Solution
rise Gradient = run 2 = 3
CONTINUED
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2.
Solution
In this case, x is  3 (the run is measured towards the left). rise Gradient = run 2 = 3 2 =3
Proof
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EXAMPLES
1. Find the gradient of the line between points ^ 2, 3 h and ^ 3, 4 h .
Solution
y2  y1 Gradient: m = x  x 2 1 43 = 3  2 1 = 5 1 =5 2. Prove that points ^ 2, 3 h, ^ 2, 5 h and ^ 0, 1 h are collinear.
Collinear points lie on the same line, so they have the same gradients.
Solution
To prove points are collinear, we show that they have the same gradient (slope).
CONTINUED
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Gradient of the interval between ^ 2, 5 h and ^ 0, 1 h : y2  y1 m= x x 2 1 1  ] 5 g = 0  ] 2 g 1 + 5 = 2 4 = 2 =2 Gradient of the interval between ^ 0, 1 h and ^ 2, 3 h : y2  y1 m= x x 2 1 3  ] 1 g = 20 3+1 = 2 4 = 2 =2 Since the gradient of both intervals is the same, the points are collinear.
Proof
rise m = run opposite = adjacent = tan i
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Class Discussion
1. Which angles give a positive gradient? 2. Which angles give a negative gradient? Why? 3. What is the gradient of a horizontal line? What angle does it make with the xaxis? 4. What angle does a vertical line make with the xaxis? Can you find its gradient?
EXAMPLES
1. Find the gradient of the line that makes an angle of 135c with the xaxis in the positive direction.
Solution
m = tan i = tan 135c = 1 2. Find the angle, in degrees and minutes, that a straight line makes with the xaxis in the positive direction if its gradient is 0.5.
Solution
m = tan i ` tan i = 0.5 i = 26c34l
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7.3 Exercises
1. Find the gradient of the line between (a) ^ 3, 2 h and ^ 1, 2 h (b) ^ 0, 2 h and ^ 3, 6 h (c) ^ 2, 3 h and ^ 4, 5 h (d) ^ 2, 5 h and ^ 3, 7 h (e) ^ 2, 3 h and ^ 1, 1 h (f) ^  5, 1 h and ^ 3, 0 h (g) ^ 2, 3 h and ^ 4, 6 h (h) ^ 1, 3 h and ^ 7, 7 h (i) ^ 1, 4 h and ^ 5, 5 h (j) ^ 0, 4 h and ^ 3, 2 h If the gradient of _ 8, y 1 i and ^ 1, 3 h is 2, find the value of y 1 . The gradient of ^ 2, 1 h and ^ x, 0 h is 5. Find the value of x. 9. A triangle has vertices A ^ 3, 1 h, B ^ 1, 4 h and C ^ 11, 4 h . (a) By finding the lengths of all sides, prove that it is a rightangled triangle. (b) Find the gradients of sides AB and BC.
2. 3. 4.
10. (a) Find the midpoints F and G of sides AB and AC where ABC is a triangle with vertices A ^ 0, 3 h, B ^ 2, 7 h and C ^ 8, 2 h . (b) Find the gradients of FG and BC. 11. The gradient of the line between a moving point P ^ x, y h and the point A ^ 5, 3 h is equal to the gradient of line PB where B has coordinates ^ 2, 1 h . Find the equation of the locus of P. 12. Prove that the points ^ 3, 1 h, ^ 5, 5 h and ^ 2, 4 h are collinear. 13. Find the gradient of the straight line that makes an angle of 45c with the xaxis in the positive direction. 14. Find the gradient, to 2 significant figures, of the straight line that l with makes an angle of 42c51 the xaxis. 15. Find the gradient of the line that makes an angle of 87c14l with the xaxis, to 2 significant figures. 16. Find the angle, in degrees and minutes, that a line with gradient 1.2 makes with the xaxis. 17. What angle, in degrees and minutes does the line with gradient 3 make with the xaxis in the positive direction?
The gradient of a line is 1 and the line passes through the points ^ 4, 2 h and ^ x, 3 h . Find the value of x. 5. (a) Show that the gradient of the line through ^ 2, 1 h and ^ 3, 4 h is equal to the gradient of the line between the points ^ 2, 1 h and ^ 7,2 h . (b) Draw the two lines on the number plane. What can you say about the lines? Show that the points A ^ 1, 2 h, B ^ 1, 5 h, C ^ 6, 5 h and D ^ 4, 2 h form a parallelogram. Find the gradients of all sides. The points A ^ 3, 5 h, B ^ 9, 3 h, C ^ 5, 6 h and D ^ 1, 2 h form a rectangle. Find the gradients of all the sides and the diagonals. Find the gradients of the diagonals of the square with vertices A ^ 2, 1 h, B ^ 3, 1 h, C ^ 3, 6 h and D ^ 2, 6 h .
6.
7.
8.
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18. Find the exact gradient of the line that makes an angle with the xaxis in the positive direction of (a) 60c (b) 30c (c) 120c. 19. Show that the line passing through ^ 4, 2 h and ^ 7, 5 h
makes an angle of 135c with the xaxis in the positive direction. 20. Find the exact value of x with rational denominator if the line passing through ^ x, 3 h and ^ 2, 1 h makes an angle of 60c with the xaxis.
Investigation
1. (i) Draw the graph of each linear function. (ii) By selecting two points on the line, find its gradient. (a) y = x (b) y = 2x (c) y = 3x (d) y =  x (e) y =  2x Can you find a pattern for the gradient of each line? Can you predict what the gradient of y = 5x and y =  9x would be? 2. (i) Draw the graph of each linear function. (ii) Find the yintercept. (a) y = x (b) y = x + 1 (c) y = x + 2 (d) y = x  2 (e) y = x  3 Can you find a pattern for the yintercept of each line? Can you predict what the yintercept of y = x + 11 and y = x  6 would be?
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EXAMPLES
1. Find the gradient and yintercept of the linear function y = 7x  5.
Solution
The equation is in the form y = mx + b where m = 7 and b =  5. Gradient = 7 yintercept =  5 2. Find the gradient of the straight line with equation 2x + 3y  6 = 0.
Solution
First, we change the equation into the form y = mx + b. 2x + 3y  6 = 0 2x + 3y  6 + 6 = 0 + 6 2x + 3y = 6 2x  2x + 3y = 6  2x 3y = 6  2x =  2x + 6 3y  2x + 6 = 3 3  2x 6 y= + 3 3 2 =  x +2 3 2 m=3 2 So the gradient is  . 3
Proof
ax + by + c = 0 by =  ax  c ax c y=b b a ` m=b
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EXAMPLE
Find the gradient of 3x  y = 2.
Solution
3x  y = 2 3x  y  2 = 0 a = 3, b =  1 a m=b 3 =1 =3 ` gradient is 3
7.4 Exercises
1. Find (i) the gradient and (ii) the yintercept of each linear function. (a) y = 3x + 5 (b) f ] x g = 2x + 1 (c) y = 6x  7 (d) y =  x (e) y =  4x + 3 (f) y = x  2 (g) f ] x g = 6  2x (h) y = 1  x (i) y = 9x (j) y = 5x  2 Find (i) the gradient and (ii) the yintercept of each linear function. (a) 2x + y  3 = 0 (b) 5x + y + 6 = 0 (c) 6x  y  1 = 0 (d) x  y + 4 = 0 (e) 4x + 2y  1 = 0 (f) 6x  2y + 3 = 0 (g) x + 3y + 6 = 0 (h) 4x + 5y  10 = 0 (i) 7x  2y  1 = 0 (j) 5x  3y + 2 = 0 3. Find the gradient of the straight line. (a) y = 4x (b) y =  2x  1 (c) y = 2 (d) 2x + y  5 = 0 (e) x + y + 1 = 0 (f) 3x + y = 8 (g) 2x  y + 5 = 0 (h) x + 4y  12 = 0 (i) 3x  2y + 4 = 0 (j) 5x  4y = 15 2 (k) y = x + 3 3 x (l) y = 2 x (m) y =  1 5 2x (n) y = +5 7 3x 2 (o) y = 5 x 1 (p) 2y =  + 7 3 y (q) 3x  = 8 5 x y (r) + =1 2 3 2x (s)  4y  3 = 0 3 x 2y + +7=0 (t) 4 3
2.
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General form
ax + by + c = 0
Gradient form
y = mx + b where m = gradient and b = yintercept
Intercept form
Proof
b m =  a, b = b ` b y = ax + b y ` b y x = a + 1
x a+b =1
Pointgradient formula
There are two formulae for finding the equation of a straight line. One of these uses a point and the gradient of the line.
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Proof
Given point _ x 1, y 1 i on the line with gradient m Let P = ^ x, y h Then line AP has gradient y2  y1 m= x x 2 1 y  y1 ` m= xx 1 m _ x  x1 i = y  y1
Twopoint formula
The equation of a straight line is given by y  y1 y2  y1 = x  x1 x2  x1 where _ x 1, y 1 i and _ x 2, y 2 i are points on the line
This formula is optional as you can use the pointgradient formula for any question.
Proof
Let P = ^ x, y h D APQ < ; D ABR PQ BR So = AR AQ y  y1 y2  y1 i.e. x  x = x  x 1 2 1 The twopoint formula is not essential. The righthand side of it is the gradient of the line. Replacing this by m gives the pointgradient formula.
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EXAMPLES
1. Find the equation of the straight line with gradient 4 and passing through the point ^ 2, 3 h .
Solution
m = 4, x 1 = 2 and y 1 = 3 Equation: y  y 1 = m (x  x 1) y  3 =  4 [x  (2)] =  4 (x + 2) =  4x  8 ` y =  4x  5 or 4x + y + 5 = 0
2. Find the equation of the straight line that passes through the points ^ 2, 3 h and ^ 4, 7 h .
Solution
By twopoint formula: y  y1 y2  y1 = x  x1 x2  x1 y  ] 7 g 3  ] 7 g = x  ] 4 g 2  ] 4 g y+7 3 + 7 = x+4 2+4 y+7 2 = x+4 3 3 ^ y + 7 h = 2 ]x + 4 g 3y + 21 = 2x + 8 2x + 3y + 13 = 0 or 2x  3y  13 = 0 By pointgradient method: y2  y1 m= x x 2 1 3  ] 7 g = 2  ] 4 g 3 + 7 = 2+4 2 = 3 Use one of the points, say ^ 4, 7 h . 2 m = , x 1 = 4 and y 1 = 7 3 Equation: y  y 1 = m ( x  x 1) y  (7) = 2 6 x  (  4) @ 3
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y+7= 3^ y + 7h 3y + 21 ` 2x + 3y + 13 or 2x  3y  13
2 ( x + 4) 3 = 2 ]x + 4 g = 2x + 8 =0 =0
Solution
x y Intercept form is a + = 1, where a and b are the xintercept and b yintercept respectively. x y ` + =1 3 2 2x + 3y = 6 ` 2x + 3y  6 = 0 Again, the pointgradient formula can be used. The xintercept and yintercept are the points ^ 3, 0 h and ^ 0, 2 h .
7.5 Exercises
1. Find the equation of the straight line (a) with gradient 4 and yintercept 1 (b) with gradient 3 and passing through ^ 0, 4 h (c) passing through the origin with gradient 5 (d) with gradient 4 and xintercept 5 (e) with xintercept 1 and yintercept 3 (f) with xintercept 3, yintercept 4 (g) with yintercept 1 and making an angle of 45c with the xaxis in the positive direction (h) with yintercept 5 and making an angle of 45c with the xaxis in the positive direction. 2. Find the equation of the straight line that makes an angle of 135c with the xaxis and passes through the point ^ 2, 6 h . Find the equation of the straight line passing through (a) ^ 2, 5 h and ^ 1, 1 h (b) ^ 0, 1 h and ^ 4, 2 h (c) ^  2, 1 h and ^ 3, 5 h (d) ^ 3, 4 h and ^ 1, 7 h (e) ^ 4, 1 h and ^  2, 0 h . What is the equation of the line with xintercept 2 and passing through ^ 3, 4 h ? Find the equation of the line (a) parallel to the xaxis and passing through ^ 2, 3 h (b) parallel to the yaxis and passing through ^ 1, 2 h .
3.
4.
5.
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6.
A straight line passing through the origin has a gradient of  2. Find its equation. A straight line has xintercept 4 and passes through ^ 0, 3 h . Find its equation. Find the equation of the straight line with gradient 2 that passes through the midpoint of ^ 5, 2 h and ^ 3, 4 h .
9.
7.
What is the equation of the straight line through the point ^ 4, 5 h and the midpoint of ^ 1, 2 h and ^ 9, 4 h ?
8.
10. What is the equation of the straight line through the midpoint of ^ 0, 1 h and ^ 6, 5 h and the midpoint of ^ 2, 3 h and ^ 8, 3 h ?
Class Investigation
Sketch the following straight lines on the same number plane. 1. y = 2x 2. y = 2x + 1 3. y = 2x  3 4. y = 2x + 5 What do you notice about these lines?
If two lines are parallel, then they have the same gradient. That is, m1 = m2
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Proof
a b a ax + by + c 2 = 0 has gradient m 2 = b Since m 1 = m 2, the two lines are parallel. ax + by + c 1 = 0 has gradient m 1 = 
EXAMPLES
1. Prove that the straight lines 5x  2y  1 = 0 and 5x  2y + 7 = 0 are parallel.
Solution
5x  2y  1 = 0 5x  1 = 2y 5 1 x =y 2 2 5 ` m1 = 2 5x  2y + 7 = 0 5x + 7 = 2 y 5 7 x+ =y 2 2 5 ` m2 = 2 5 m1 = m2 = 2 ` the lines are parallel. 2. Find the equation of a straight line parallel to the line 2x  y  3 = 0 and passing through ^ 1, 5 h .
Solution
2x  y  3 = 0 2x  3 = y ` m1 = 2 For parallel lines m 1 = m 2 ` m2 = 2 Equation: y  y 1 = m (x  x 1) y  (5) = 2 (x  1) y + 5 = 2x  2 0 = 2x  y  7
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Perpendicular lines
Class Investigation
Sketch the following pairs of straight lines on the same number plane. 1. (a) 3x  4y + 12 = 0 2. (a) 2x + y + 4 = 0 (b) 4x + 3y  8 = 0 (b) x  2y + 2 = 0
If two lines with gradients m 1 and m 2 respectively are perpendicular, then m 1 m 2 = 1 1 i.e. m 2 =  m 1
Proof
Let line AB have gradient m 1 = tan a . Let line CD have gradient m 2 = tan b. EB EC +CBE = 180c  a EC tan ] 180c  a g = EB EB ` cot ] 180c  a g = EC tan b =
^ straight angle h
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So or
Proof
a b b bx  ay + c 2 = 0 has gradient m 2 =   a b =a a b m1 m2 =  # a b = 1 ax + by + c 1 = 0 has gradient m 1 = Since m 1 m 2 = 1, the two lines are perpendicular.
EXAMPLES
1. Show that the lines 3x + y  11 = 0 and x  3y + 1 = 0 are perpendicular.
Solution
3x + y  11 = 0 y = 3x + 11 m 1 = 3 ` x  3y + 1 = 0 x + 1 = 3y 1 1 x+ =y 3 3 1 ` m2 = 3 1 m 1 m 2 =  3# 3 = 1 ` the lines are perpendicular.
CONTINUED
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2. Find the equation of the straight line through ^ 2, 3 h perpendicular to the line that passes through ^ 1, 7 h and ^ 3, 3 h .
Solution
Line through ^ 1, 7 h and ^ 3, 3 h: y2  y1 m= x x 2 1 73 m1 = 1  3 4 = 4 = 1 For perpendicular lines, m 1 m 2 =  1 i.e. 1m 2 =  1 m2 = 1 Equation through ^ 2, 3 h: y  y 1 = m (x  x 1) y  3 = 1 (x  2 ) =x2 0=xy+1
7.6 Exercises
1. Find the gradient of the straight line (a) parallel to the line 3x + y  4 = 0 (b) perpendicular to the line 3x + y  4 = 0 (c) parallel to the line joining ^ 3, 5 h and ^ 1, 2 h (d) perpendicular to the line with xintercept 3 and yintercept 2 (e) perpendicular to the line making an angle of 135c with the xaxis in the positive direction (f) perpendicular to the line 6x  5y  4 = 0 (g) parallel to the line making an angle of 30c with the xaxis (h) parallel to the line x  3y  7 = 0 (i) perpendicular to the line making an angle of 120c with the xaxis in the positive direction (j) perpendicular to the line passing through ^ 4, 2 h and ^ 3, 3 h . 2. Find the equation of each straight line (a) passing through ^ 2, 3 h and parallel to the line y = x + 6 (b) through ^ 1, 5 h and parallel to the line x  3y  7 = 0 (c) with xintercept 5 and parallel to the line y = 4  x (d) through ^ 3, 4 h and perpendicular to the line y = 2x (e) through ^ 2, 1 h and perpendicular to the line 2x + y + 3 = 0
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(f) through ^ 7, 2 h and perpendicular to the line 3x  y  5 = 0 (g) through ^ 3, 1 h and perpendicular to the line 4x  3y + 2 = 0 . 3. Show that the straight lines y = 3x  2 and 6x  2y  9 = 0 are parallel. Show that lines x + 5y = 0 and y = 5x + 3 are perpendicular. Show that lines 6x  5y + 1 = 0 and 6x  5y  3 = 0 are parallel. Show that lines 7x + 3y + 2 = 0 and 3x  7y = 0 are perpendicular. If the lines 3x  2y + 5 = 0 and y = kx  1 are perpendicular, find the value of k. Show that the line joining ^ 3, 1 h and ^ 2, 5 h is parallel to the line 8x  2y  3 = 0. Show that the points A ^ 3, 2 h, B ^ 1, 4 h, C ^ 7, 1 h, and D ^ 5, 7 h are the vertices of a parallelogram.
4. 5. 6.
11. Find the equation of the straight line (a) passing through the origin and parallel to the line x+y+3=0 (b) through ^ 3, 7 h and parallel to the line 5x  y  2 = 0 (c) through ^ 0,  2 h and perpendicular to the line x  2y = 9 (d) perpendicular to the line 3x + 2y  1 = 0 and passing through the point ^ 2, 4 h . 12. Find the equation of the straight line passing through ^ 6, 3 h that is perpendicular to the line joining ^ 2, 1 h and ^ 5, 7 h . 13. Find the equation of the line through ^ 2, 1 h that is parallel to the line that makes an angle of 135c with the xaxis in the positive direction. 14. Find the equation of the perpendicular bisector of the line passing through ^ 6, 3 h and ^ 2, 1 h . 15. Find the equation of the straight line parallel to the line 2x  3y  1 = 0 and through the midpoint of ^ 1, 3 h and ^ 1, 9 h .
7.
8.
9.
10. The points A ^ 2, 0 h, B ^ 1, 4 h, C ^ 6, 4 h and D ^ 3, 0 h form a rhombus. Show that the diagonals are perpendicular.
Intersection of Lines
Two straight lines intersect at a single point ^ x, y h . The point satisfies the equations of both lines. We find this point by solving simultaneous equations.
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Concurrent lines meet at a single point. To show that lines are concurrent, solve two simultaneous equations to find the point of intersection. Then substitute this point of intersection into the third and subsequent lines to show that these lines also pass through the point.
EXAMPLES
1. Find the point of intersection between lines 2x  3y  3 = 0 and 5x  2y  13 = 0.
Solution
Solve simultaneous equations: 2x  3y  3 = 0 5x  2y  13 = 0 4x  6y  6 = 0 ^ 1 h # 2: 15x  6y  39 = 0 ^ 2 h # 3: + 33 = 0 ^ 3 h  ^ 4 h: 11x 33 = 11x 3=x Substitute x = 3 into ^ 1 h:
You could use a computer spreadsheet to solve these simultaneous equations.
2 ^ 3 h  3y  3 = 0  3y + 3 = 0 3 = 3y 1=y So the point of intersection is ^ 3, 1 h . 2. Show that the lines 3x  y + 1 = 0, x + 2y + 12 = 0 and 4x  3y  7 = 0 are concurrent.
Solution
Solve any two simultaneous equations: 3x  y + 1 = 0 x + 2y + 12 = 0 4x  3y  7 = 0 6x  2y + 2 = 0 ^ 1 h # 2: 2 + 4 : 7 x + 14 = 0 ^ h ^ h
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7x = 14 x = 2 Substitute x = 2 into ^ 1 h: 3 ^ 2 h  y + 1 = 0 y  5 = 0 5 = y So the point of intersection of (1) and (2) is ^ 2, 5 h . Substitute ^ 2, 5 h into (3): 4x  3y  7 = 0 LHS = 4 ^ 2 h  3 ^  5 h  7 = 8 + 15  7 =0 = RHS So the point lies on line (3) ` all three lines are concurrent.
If a 1 x + b 1 y + c 1 = 0 and a 2 x + b 2 y + c 2 = 0 are 2 given lines then the equation of a line through their intersection is given by the formula (a 1 x + b 1 y + c 1) + k (a 2 x + b 2 y + c 2) = 0 where k is a constant
Proof
Let l 1 have equation a 1 x + b 1 y + c 1 = 0. Let l 2 have equation a 2 x + b 2 y + c 2 = 0. Let the point of intersection of l 1 and l 2 be P ^ x 1, y 1 h . Then P satisfies l 1 i.e. a 1 x 1 + b 1 y 1 + c 1 = 0 P also satisfies l2 i.e. a 2 x 1 + b 2 y 1 + c 2 = 0 Substitute P into (a 1 x + b 1 y + c 1) + k (a 2 x + b 2 y + c 2) = 0 (a 1 x 1 + b 1 y 1 + c 1) + k (a 2 x 1 + b 2 y 1 + c 2) = 0 0 + k ^0h = 0 0=0 ` if point P satisfies both equations l 1 and l 2 then it satisfies l 1 + kl 2 = 0.
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EXAMPLE
Find the equation of the line through ^ 1, 2 h that passes through the intersection of lines 2x + y  5 = 0 and x  3y + 1 = 0.
Solution
Using the formula: a 1 = 2, b 1 = 1, c 1 = 5 a 2 = 1, b 2 = 3, c 2 = 1
^ a1 x + b1 y + c1 h + k ^ a2 x + b2 y + c2 h = 0 ^ 2x + y  5 h + k ^ x  3y + 1 h = 0 Since this line passes through ^ 1, 2 h, substitute the point into the equation: ^ 2 + 2  5 h + k ^ 1  6 + 1 h = 0 5  6k = 0 5 = 6k 5  =k 6 So the equation becomes: 5 ^ 2x + y  5 h  ^ x  3y + 1 h = 0 6 6 ^ 2x + y  5 h  5 ^ x  3 y + 1 h = 0 12x + 6y  30  5x + 15y  5 = 0 7x + 21y  35 = 0 x + 3y  5 = 0 Another way to do this example is to find the point of intersection, then use both points to find the equation.
7.7 Exercises
1. Find the point of intersection of straight lines (a) 3x + 4y + 10 = 0 and 2x  3y  16 = 0 (b) 5x + 2y + 11 = 0 and 3x + y + 6 = 0 (c) 7x  3y = 16 and 5x  2y = 12 (d) 2x  3y = 6 and 4x  5y = 10 (e) x  3y  8 = 0 and 4x + 7y  13 = 0 (f) y = 5x + 6 and y =  4x  3 (g) y = 2x + 1 and 5x  3y + 6 = 0 (h) 3x + 7y = 12 and 4x  y  1 6 = 0 (i) 3x  5y =  7 and 2x  3y = 4 (j) 8x  7y  3 = 0 and 5x  2y  1 = 0 2. Show that the lines x  2y  11 = 0 and 2x  y  10 = 0 intersect at the point ^ 3, 4 h . A triangle is formed by 3 straight lines with equations 2x  y + 1 = 0, 2x + y  9 = 0
3.
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and 2x  5y  3 = 0. Find the coordinates of its vertices. 4. Show that the lines x  5y  17 = 0, 3x  2y  12 = 0 and 5x + y  7 = 0 are concurrent. Show that the lines x + 4y + 5 = 0, 3x  7y + 15 = 0, 2x  y + 10 = 0 and 6x + 5y + 30 = 0 are concurrent. Find the equation of the straight line through the origin that passes through the intersection of the lines 5x  2y + 14 = 0 and 3x + 4y  7 = 0 . Find the equation of the straight line through ^ 3, 2 h that passes through the intersection of the lines 5x + 2y + 1 = 0 and 3x  y + 16 = 0. Find the equation of the straight line through ^ 4, 1 h that passes through the intersection of the lines 2x + y  1 = 0 and 3x + 5y + 16 = 0. Find the equation of the straight line through ^ 3, 4 h that passes through the intersection of the lines 2x + y  3 = 0 and 3x  2y  8 = 0 .
12. Find the equation of the straight line through ^ 1, 2 h that passes through the intersection of the lines 2x + y  6 = 0 and 3 x + 7 y  9 = 0. 13. Find the equation of the straight line through ^ 1, 2 h that passes through the intersection of the lines x + 2y + 10 = 0 and 2x  y + 5 = 0. 14. Find the equation of the straight line through ^ 2, 0 h that passes through the intersection of the lines 3x + 4y  7 = 0 and 3 x  2 y  1 = 0. 15. Find the equation of the straight line through ^ 3, 2 h that passes through the intersection of the lines 5x + 2y  13 = 0 and x  3y + 11 = 0. 16. Find the equation of the straight line through ^ 3, 2 h that passes through the intersection of the lines x + y + 1 = 0 and 3x + 2y = 0 . 17. Find the equation of the straight line through ^ 3, 1 h that passes through the intersection of the lines 3x  y + 4 = 0 and 2x  y + 12 = 0. 18. Find the equation of the straight line with gradient 3 that passes through the intersection of the lines 2x + y  1 = 0 and 3x + 5y + 16 = 0. 19. Find the equation of the straight line with gradient 2 that passes through the intersection of the lines 5x  2y  3 = 0 and 7x  3y  4 = 0 .
5.
6.
7.
8.
9.
10. Find the equation of the straight line through ^ 2, 2 h that passes through the intersection of the lines 2x + 3y  6 = 0 and 3x + 5y  10 = 0. 11. Find the equation of the straight line through ^ 3, 0 h that passes through the intersection of the lines x  y + 1 = 0 and 4x  y  2 = 0 .
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20. Find the equation of the straight line parallel to the line 3x  y  7 = 0 that passes through the intersection of the lines 3x  2y  10 = 0 and 4x + y  17 = 0.
21. Find the equation of the straight line perpendicular to the line x + 5y  1 = 0 that passes through the intersection of lines 3x  5y  3 = 0 and 2x + 3y + 17 = 0.
Perpendicular Distance
The distance formula d = _ x 2  x 1 i2 + _ y 2  y 1 i2 is used to find the distance between two points. Perpendicular distance is used to find the distance between a point and a line. If we look at the distance between a point and a line, there could be many distances.
given by d =
 ax 1 + by 1 + c  a2 + b2
Proof
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 ax 1  c
b ax 1 + by 1 + c b
Why?
All points on one side of the line ax + by + c = 0 make the numerator of this formula positive. Points on the other side make the numerator negative. Usually we take the absolute value of d. However, if we want to know if points are on the same side of a line or not, we look at the sign of d.
EXAMPLES
1. Find the perpendicular distance of ^ 4,  3 h from the line 3x  4y  1 = 0.
Solution
x 1 = 4, y 1 =  3, a = 3, b =  4, c =  1  ax 1 + by 1 + c  d= a2 + b2  3 ] 4 g + ]  4 g ] 3 g + ] 1 g  = 3 2 + ] 4 g2
CONTINUED
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25 23 = 5 = 4 .6 So the perpendicular distance is 4.6 units. 2. Prove that the line 6x + 8y + 20 = 0 is a tangent to the circle x 2 + y 2 = 4.
 12 + 12  1 
Solution
There are three possibilities for the intersection of a circle and a straight line.
The centre of the circle x 2 + y 2 = 4 is ^ 0, 0 h and its radius is 2 units. A tangent is perpendicular to the centre of the circle. So we prove that the perpendicular distance from the line to the point ^ 0, 0 h is 2 units (the radius).  ax 1 + by 1 + c  d= a2 + b2  6 (0) + 8 (0) + 20  = 62 + 82  20  = 100 20 = 10 =2 ` the line is a tangent to the circle. 3. Show that the points ^ 1, 3 h and ^ 2, 7 h lie on the same side of the line 2 x  3 y + 4 = 0.
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Solution
To show that points lie on the same side of a line, their perpendicular distance must have the same sign. We use the formula without the absolute value sign. d= ax 1 + by 1 + c a2 + b2
Since the perpendicular distance for both points has the same sign, the points lie on the same side of the line.
7.8 Exercises
1. Find the perpendicular distance between (a) ^ 1, 2 h and 3x + 4y + 2 = 0 (b) ^  3, 2 h and 5x + 12y + 7 = 0 (c) ^ 0, 4 h and 8x  6y  1 = 0 (d) ^  3,  2 h and 4x  3y  6 = 0 (e) the origin and 12x  5y + 8 = 0. Find, correct to 3 significant figures, the perpendicular distance between (a) ^ 1, 3 h and x + 3y + 1 = 0 (b) ^ 1, 1 h and 2x + 5y + 4 = 0 (c) ^ 3, 0 h and 5x  6y  12 = 0 (d) ^ 5,  3 h and 4x  y  2 = 0 (e) ^  6,  3 h and 2x  3y + 9 = 0. 3. Find as a surd with rational denominator the perpendicular distance between (a) the origin and the line 3x  2y + 7 = 0 (b) ^ 1, 4 h and 2x + y + 3 = 0 (c) ^ 3, 1 h and 3x + 14y + 1 = 0 (d) ^ 2,  6 h and 5x  y  6 = 0 (e) ^  4,  1 h and 3 x  2 y  4 = 0. Show that the origin is equidistant from the lines 7x + 24y + 25 = 0, 4x + 3y  5 = 0 and 12x + 5y  13 = 0.
2.
4.
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5.
Show that points A ^ 3,  5 h and B ^ 1, 4 h lie on opposite sides of 2x  y + 3 = 0. Show that the points ^ 2,  3 h and ^ 9, 2 h lie on the same side of the line x  3y + 2 = 0. Show that ^  3, 2 h and ^ 4, 1 h lie on opposite sides of the line 4 x  3 y  2 = 0. Show that ^ 0,  2 h is equidistant from the lines 3x + 4y  2 = 0 and 12x  5y + 16 = 0. Show that the points ^ 8,  3 h and ^ 1, 1 h lie on the same side of the line 6x  y + 4 = 0.
6.
14. Find the perpendicular distance between ^ 0, 5 h and the line through ^  3, 8 h parallel to 4x  3y  1 = 0. 15. The perpendicular distance between the point ^ x, 1 h and the line 3x  4y + 7 = 0 is 8 units. Find two possible values of x. 16. The perpendicular distance between the point ^ 3, b h and the line 5x  12y  2 = 0 is 2 units. Find the values of b. 17. Find m if the perpendicular distance between ^ m, 7 h and the line 9x + 12y + 6 = 0 is 5 units. 18. Prove that the line 3x  4y + 25 = 0 is a tangent to the circle with centre the origin and radius 5 units. 19. Show that the line 3x  4y + 12 = 0 does not cut the circle x 2 + y 2 = 1. 20. The sides of a triangle are formed by the lines with equations 2x  y  7 = 0, 3x + 5y  4 = 0 and x + 3y  4 = 0. (a) Find the vertices of the triangle. (b) Find the exact length of all the altitudes of the triangle.
7.
Equidistant means that two or more objects are the same distance away from another object.
8.
9.
10. Show that ^  3, 2 h and ^ 4, 1 h lie on opposite sides of the line 2x + y  2 = 0. 11. Show that the point ^ 3,  2 h is the same distance from the line 6x  8y + 6 = 0 as the point ^  4, 1 h is from the line 5x + 12y  20 = 0. 12. Find the exact perpendicular distance with rational denominator from the point ^ 4, 5 h to the line with xintercept 2 and yintercept 1. 13. Find the perpendicular distance from ^  2, 2 h to the line passing through ^ 3, 7 h and ^ 1, 4 h .
427
Proof
Let line l 1 have gradient m 1 and line l 2 have gradient m 2 . Then m 1 = tan b and m 2 = tan a b = a + i ^ exterior angle of DABC h ` i=ba tan i = tan (b  a ) tan b  tan a = 1 + tan b tan a m1  m2 = 1 + m1 m2 When tan i is positive, i is acute. When tan i is negative, i is obtuse. ` for the acute angle between lines l 1 and l 2, tan i = m1  m2 1 + m1 m2
Note: the denominator cannot be zero, so m 1 m 2 ! 1. So this formula doesnt work for perpendicular lines.
EXAMPLES
1. Find the acute angle between the lines 3x  2y + 1 = 0 and x  3 y = 0.
Solution
3x  2y + 1 = 0 3x + 1 = 2y 3 1 x+ =y 2 2 3 m1 = So 2 x  3y = 0 x = 3y 1 x=y 3 1 m2 = So 3 m1  m2 tan i = 1 + m1 m2
CONTINUED
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3 1 2 3 = 3 1 1+ # 2 3 7 = 9 7 i = tan 1 c m 9 = 37c 52l 2. Find the obtuse angle between the lines 5x  2y + 6 = 0 and 2x + y  4 = 0.
Solution
5x  2y + 6 = 0 5x + 6 = 2y 5 x+3=y 2 5 So m 1 = 2 2x + y  4 = 0 y =  2x + 4 So m 2 =  2 m1  m2 tan i = 1 + m1 m2 5 ]  2g 2 = 5 1 + # ]2 g 2 9 = 8 9 = 8 9 i = tan  1 c m 8 = 48 22l This gives the acute angle. Obtuse angle = 180c  48c 22l = 131c 38l 3. If the angle between the lines 2x  y  7 = 0 and y = mx + 3 is 25c, find two possible values of m, correct to 1 decimal place.
9 Notice that tan 1 d  n 8 gives  48c 22l so we need to find the obtuse angle by subtracting the acute angle from 180c.
Solution
2x  y  7 = 0 2x  7 = y ` m1 = 2 ( 1)
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y = mx + 3 ` m2 = m m1  m2 tan i = 1 + m1 m2 2m tan 25 = 1 + 2m There are two possibilities: (1) 2m 1 + 2m tan 25c (1 + 2m) = 2  m tan 25c + 2m tan 25c = 2  m 2m tan 25c + m = 2  tan 25c m (2 tan 25c + 1) = 2  tan 25c 2  tan 25c m= 2 tan 25c + 1 Z 0.8 tan 25c = 2m 1 + 2m  tan 25c (1 + 2m) = 2  m  tan 25c  2m tan 25c = 2  m  2m tan 25c + m = 2 + tan 25c m ( 2 tan 25c + 1) = 2 + tan 25c 2 + tan 25c m=  2 tan 25c + 1 Z 36.6  tan 25c =
(2 )
(2)
7.9 Exercises
1. Find the acute angle between the lines (a) 2x + y + 1 = 0 and x+y+4=0 (b) 3x  y  7 = 0 and 5x + y + 3 = 0 (c) x + 2y = 0 and 3x  2y + 1 = 0 (d) x + 3y + 2 = 0 and 4x + 4y  1 = 0 (e) 2x  5y  3 = 0 and x  5y = 0 (f) 3x + y + 1 = 0 and 4x + 7y + 2 = 0 (g) 2x  7y  1 = 0 and 3x + 2y  4 = 0 (h) 2x + 2y + 1 = 0 and x + 2y = 4 (i) 3x + 4y + 1 = 0 and 5x  2y  2 = 0 (j) x  2y  3 = 0 and 6 x  3 y + 4 = 0. 2. Find the obtuse angle between the lines (a) 4x + y + 2 = 0 and x+y1=0 (b) 2x  3y  9 = 0 and x + 2y + 4 = 0
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(c) x + 6y = 2 and 2x  4y + 3 = 0 (d) 5x + 2y + 1 = 0 and 4x + y  7 = 0 (e) 4x  2y  7 = 0 and x  3 y = 0. 3. Find the acute angle between the line 2x  5y + 1 = 0 and the line joining ^ 1, 2 h and ^ 5, 3 h . Find the acute angle between the line joining ^ 3, 2 h and ^ 1, 4 h and the line joining ^ 0, 5 h and ^ 2,  7 h . A ^ 2, 1 h, B ^  3, 4 h and C ^ 1,  5 h form the vertices of a triangle. Find the interior angles of the triangle. Find two possible values of m if the lines 2x + y  5 = 0 and y = mx + 1 intersect at an angle of 45c.
7.
Lines y = mx + 2 and y = 5x  9 intersect at an acute angle whose 2 tangent is . Find the possible 5 values of m. Find the values of k if the angle between the lines 6x  3y  4 = 0 and kx  y + 5 = 0 is 58c. A ^ 0, 0 h, B ^ 1, 2 h, C ^ 5, 2 h and D ^ 4, 0 h form the vertices of a parallelogram. (a) By finding all the interior angles, show that opposite angles are equal. (b) Find the obtuse angle between the diagonals of the parallelogram.
8.
4.
9.
5.
6.
10. By calculating the interior angles, show that D ABC with vertices A ^ 7, 1 h, B ^ 1, 1 h and C ^ 5, 7 h is an isosceles triangle.
Ratios
You have a formula for the midpoint which divides an interval in half. Sometimes we may want to divide an interval into a ratio that is not a half. Here is a formula that we can use to divide an interval into any internal or external ratio.
The coordinates of a point P that divides the interval between points _ x 1, y 1 i and _ x 2, y 2 i in the ratio m: n respectively are given by mx 2 + nx 1 my 2 + ny 1 x= and y = m+n m+n
Proof
431
Let P ^ x, y h be the point dividing the interval AB into the ratio m:n. Then m AP = n PB
Draw ADC parallel to the xaxis. Then AD = x  x 1 and DC = x 2  x. PD < BC AP AD ` = ^ intercepts have equal ratios h PB DC x  x1 m ` n = x2  x m _ x2  x i = n _ x  x1 i mx 2  mx = nx  nx 1 mx 2 + nx 1 = mx + nx = x ]m + n g mx 2 + nx 1 =x m+n Similarly, by drawing AEF perpendicular to the xaxis, we can show that my 2 + ny 1 y= . m+n If P divides the interval internally in the ratio m: n, then the ratio is positive and P lies on AB.
A ratio of 1:1 gives the midpoint x = x1 + x2 2 ,y = y1 + y2 2 .
If P divides the interval externally in the ratio m:n, then the ratio is negative and P lies outside AB.
m and n are measured in opposite directions so they have opposite signs.
EXAMPLES
1. Divide AB into the ratio 3:4 where A is ^ 6,  2 h and B is ^  7, 5 h .
Solution
CONTINUED
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x=
3 ` P = c ,1m 7 2. If A is ^  2, 1 h and B is ^ 1, 5 h, find the coordinates of the point P that divides AB externally in the ratio 2:5.
Solution
You could use  2: 5 instead and would still get the same answer for P.
Let the ratio be 2: 5. mx 2 + nx 1 x= m+n 2 (1) + [ 5 ( 2)] = 2 + (  5) 12 = 3 = 4 my 2 + ny 1 y= m+n 2 (5) + [ 5 (1)] = 2 + (  5) 15 = 3 = 5 ` P = ^  4,  5 h
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7.10
1.
Exercises
(a) Find the coordinates of point E, which divides AB internally in the ratio 2:1. (b) Find the coordinates of point F, which divides CB internally in the ratio 2:1. (c) Hence prove that AC = 3EF. 4. Divide the interval AB where A = ^ 3, 2 h and B = ^  1, 6 h into three equal parts. A has coordinates ^  2, 5 h and B has coordinates ^ 4, 3 h . Find the length of PQ if P divides AB internally in the ratio 3:2 and Q divides AB externally in the ratio 3:2. An interval AB is divided internally at P in the ratio 5:4. If A is ^  1, 2 h and P is ^ 5,  6 h, find the coordinates of B. The point ^ 5, 5 h divides the interval between ^  1, p h and ^ q, 6 h in the ratio 2:5. Find the value of p and q. A triangle is formed with vertices A ^ 5, 6 h, B ^ 0,  4 h and C ^  3, 3 h . (a) Find the point of intersection of its medians. (b) If D, E and F are the midpoints of AB, AC and BC, divide the intervals CD, BE and AF in the ratio 2:1. What property of medians does this show? If ^ 0, 0 h divides the interval AB where A = ^ a, b h and B = ^ 4, 9 h in the external ratio of 2:1, find the value of a and b.
Divide these intervals internally. (a) ^ 1, 5 h and ^ 0,  4 h in the ratio 2:3 (b) ^ 3,  2 h and ^ 2, 5 h in the ratio 4:1 (c) ^  3, 3 h and ^  2, 1 h in the ratio 5:4 (d) ^ 3, 1 h and ^ 7,  2 h in the ratio 2:5 (e) ^  2, 1 h and ^ 5,  4 h in the ratio 7:3 (f) ^  2, 0 h and ^  6, 3 h in the ratio 3:1 (g) ^ 4, 9 h and ^  4, 1 h in the ratio 1:6 (h) ^  3, 0 h and ^  5,  6 h in the ratio 2:9 (i) ^ 2, 5 h and ^  3, 1 h in the ratio 4:3 (j) ^ 1, 1 h and ^ 3,  7 h in the ratio 1:2. Divide these intervals externally. (a) ^  2, 3 h and ^ 6, 1 h in the ratio 1:5 (b) ^ 4, 0 h and ^  3,  5 h in the ratio 2:7 (c) ^  1, 1 h and ^ 4, 7 h in the ratio 4:3 (d) ^ 0,  2 h and ^ 8, 3 h in the ratio 3:1 (e) ^  5, 2 h and ^ 4, 4 h in the ratio 5:4 (f) ^ 7, 1 h and ^ 0, 1 h in the ratio 2:9 (g) ^  2, 2 h and ^ 6, 7 h in the ratio 1:3 (h) ^ 1, 3 h and ^ 7, 2 h in the ratio 4:1 (i) ^  4, 0 h and ^ 5,  5 h in the ratio 6:7 (j) ^ 2,  3 h and ^ 7, 7 h in the ratio 8:3. A ^ 0, 0 h, B ^ 1, 3 h and C ^ 3, 0 h are the vertices of a triangle.
5.
6.
2.
7.
8.
9.
3.
10. P divides the interval between the point ^ 2, 3 h and the intersection of lines 2x  3y + 19 = 0 and 5x + 2y = 0 in the ratio of 4:5. Find the coordinates of P.
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Test Yourself 7
1. 2. 3. Find the distance between points ^  1, 2 h and ^ 3, 7 h . What is the midpoint of the origin and the point ^ 5,  4 h ? Find the gradient of the straight line (a) passing through ^ 3, 1 h and ^  2, 5 h (b) with equation 2x  y + 1 = 0 (c) making an angle of 30c with the xaxis in the positive direction (d) perpendicular to the line 5 x + 3 y  8 = 0. Find the equation of the linear function (a) passing through ^ 2, 3 h and with gradient 7 (b) parallel to the line 5x + y  3 = 0 and passing through ^ 1, 1 h (c) through the origin, and perpendicular to the line 2x  3y + 6 = 0 (d) through ^ 3, 1 h and ^  2, 4 h (e) with xintercept 3 and yintercept 1. Find the perpendicular distance between ^ 2, 5 h and the line 2x  y + 7 = 0 in surd form with rational denominator. Prove that the line between ^ 1, 4 h and ^ 3, 3 h is perpendicular to the line 4x  y  6 = 0. Find the x and yintercepts of 2x  5y  10 = 0. (a) Find the equation of the straight line l that is perpendicular to the line 1 y = x  3 and passes through ^ 1, 1 h . 2 (b) Find the xintercept of l. (c) Find the exact distance from ^ 1, 1 h to the xintercept of l. Prove that lines y = 5x  7 and 10x  2y + 1 = 0 are parallel. 10. Find the equation of the straight line passing through the origin and parallel to the line with equation 3x  4y + 5 = 0. 11. Find the point of intersection between lines y = 2x + 3 and x  5y + 6 = 0. 12. The midpoint of ^ a, 3 h and ^  4, b h is ^ 1, 2 h . Find the values of a and b. 13. Find the acute angle between the lines 2x  5y + 1 = 0 and x + y  7 = 0 to the nearest minute. 14. Show that the lines x  y  4 = 0, 2x + y + 1 = 0, 5x  3y  14 = 0 and 3x  2y  9 = 0 are concurrent. 15. Divide the interval between points ^ 3,  4 h and ^ 2, 2 h in the ratio 4:5. 16. A straight line makes an angle of 153c 29l with the xaxis in the positive direction. What is its gradient, to 3 signicant gures? 17. The perpendicular distance from ^ 3,  2 h to the line 5x  12y + c = 0 is 2. Find 2 possible values of c. 18. Find the equation of the straight line through ^ 1, 3 h that passes through the intersection of the lines 2x  y + 5 = 0 and x + 2y  5 = 0. 19. Divide the interval between ^ 0, 5 h and ^  2, 4 h in the external ratio of 2:3. 20. The gradient of the line through ^ 3,  4 h and ^ x, 2 h is 5. Evaluate x. 21. Find the obtuse angle between the lines 3x  y + 3 = 0 and 2x + 5y  1 = 0.
4.
5.
6.
7. 8.
9.
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22. Show that the points ^  2, 1 h and ^ 6, 3 h are on opposite sides of the line 2 x  3 y  1 = 0. 23. Find the acute angle between the lines y = 3x  4 and y = 5  x.
24. Find the equation of the line with xintercept 4 that makes an angle of 45c with the xaxis. 25. Find the equation of the line with yintercept  2 and perpendicular to the line passing through ^ 3, 2 h and ^ 0, 5 h .
Challenge Exercise 7
1. If points ^  3k, 1 h, ^ k  1, k  3 h and ^ k  4, k  5 h are collinear, find the value of k. Find the equation, in exact form, of the line passing through _ 3 , 2 i that makes an angle of 30c with the positive xaxis. Find the equation of the circle whose centre is at the origin and with tangent x  3y + 9 = 0. ABCD is a rhombus where A = ^  3, 0 h, B = ^ 0, 4 h, C = ^ 5, 4 h and D = ^ 2, 0 h . Prove that the diagonals are perpendicular bisectors of one another. Prove that the points _ 1, 2 2 i, _ 3 ,  6 i and _  5 , 2 i all lie on a circle with centre the origin. What are the radius and equation of the circle? Find the exact distance between the parallel lines 3x + 2y  5 = 0 and 3x + 2y = 1. A straight line has xintercept A ^ a, 0 h and yintercept B ^ 0, b h, where a and b are positive integers. The gradient of line AB is 1. Find +OBA where O is the origin and hence prove that a = b. Find the exact perpendicular distance between the line 2x + 3y + 1 = 0 and the point of intersection of lines 3x  7y = 15 and 4x  y =  5. 9. Find the magnitude of the angle, in degrees and minutes, that the line joining ^ 1, 3 h and ^ 2,  4 h makes with the xaxis in the positive direction.
2.
3.
4.
10. Find the equation of the line that passes through the point of intersection of lines 2x + 5y + 19 = 0 and 4x  3y  1 = 0 that is perpendicular to the line 3x  2y + 1 = 0. 11. Prove A ^ 2, 5 h, B ^  4, 5 h and C ^ 1, 2 h are the vertices of a rightangled isosceles triangle. 12. Find the coordinates of the centre of a circle that passes through points ^ 7, 2 h, ^ 2, 3 h and ^ 4, 1 h . 13. If ax  y  2 = 0 and bx  5y + 11 = 0 intersect at the point ^ 3, 4 h, find the values of a and b. 14. Find the equation of the straight line through ^ 3, 4 h that is perpendicular to the line with xintercept and yintercept 2 and 5 respectively. 15. Find the acute angle between the straight lines with equations 3x  y = 5 and 2x  4y + 1 = 0.
5.
6.
7.
8.
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16. Find the exact equation of the straight line through the midpoint of ^ 0,  5 h, and ^ 4, 1 h that is perpendicular to the line that makes an angle of 30c with the xaxis. 17. Point P ^ x, y h moves so that it is equidistant from points A ^ 1, 4 h and B ^  2, 7 h . By nding the distances AP and BP, nd the equation of the locus of P. 18. Find the value of b if the lines 2x  y + 1 = 0 and bx  7y + 5 = 0 make an angle of 45c at their intersection. 19. Find the coordinates of trisection of the interval between ^ 3, 1 h and ^ 1,  5 h . 20. Prove that if two lines with gradients m 1 and m 2 meet at an angle of 45c, then m 1 m 2 = m 1  m 2  1 or m 1 m 2 = m 2  m 1  1. 21. A and B have coordinates ^ 1, 3 h and ^  4, 7 h respectively. If P divides AB in the external ratio of p:1, nd the coordinates of P in terms of p.
22. (a) Show that the point ^  7, 7 h lies on the line joining A ^  2, 0 h and B ^ 3,  7 h . (b) Find the ratio in which the point divides AB. 23. The interval AB where A = ^  5, 3 h and B = ^ x, y h is divided by point P in the ratio of 3:2. If the point P has coordinates ^ 8,  9 h, nd values for x and y. 24. The angle between straight lines l. 2x  3y = 0 and mx + 4y = 9 is 32c 51 Find the value of m correct to 2 signicant gures. 25. Given points A ^ 1, 0 h, B ^ 2, 5 h and C ^ 9, 0 h are the vertices of a triangle, (a) nd the coordinates of P that divide AB in the ratio 2:1 (b) nd the coordinates of Q that divide CB in the ratio 2:1 (c) prove PQ < AC (d) nd the coordinates of R that divide AC in the ratio 2:1 (e) prove PR < BC.
Introduction to Calculus
TERMINOLOGY
Composite function: A function of a function. One function, f (x), is a composite of one function to another function, for example g(x) Continuity: Describing a line or curve that is unbroken over its domain Continuous function: A function is continuous over an interval if it has no break in its graph. For every x value on the graph the limit exists and equals the function value Derivative at a point: This is the gradient of a curve at a particular point Derivative function: The gradient function of a curve obtained through differentiation Differentiable function: A function which is continuous and where the gradient exists at all points on the function Differentiation: The process of nding the gradient of a tangent to a curve which is called the derivative Differentiation from rst principles: The process of nding the gradient of a tangent to a curve by nding the gradient of the secant between two points and nding the limit as the secant becomes a tangent Gradient of a secant: The gradient (slope) of the line between two points that lies close together on a function Gradient of a tangent: The gradient (slope) of a line that is a tangent to the curve at a point on a function. It is the derivative of the function Rate of change: The rate at which the dependent variable changes as the independent variable changes
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INTRODUCTION
CALCULUS IS A VERY IMPORTANT part of mathematics and involves the
measurement of change. It can be applied to many areas such as science, economics, engineering, astronomy, Crude Oil Production (Mbbl/d) sociology and medicine. We also see articles Iran 7,000 in newspapers every day that involve change: the spread of infectious diseases, population 6,000 growth, ination, unemployment, lling of 5,000 our water reservoirs. For example, this graph shows the 4,000 change in crude oil production in Iran over 3,000 the years. Notice that while the graph shows that production is increasing over recent 2,000 years, the rate at which it is being produced 1,000 seems to be slowing down. Calculus is used to look at these trends and predict what will 0 73 75 77 79 81 83 85 87 89 91 93 95 97 99 01 03 05 07 happen in the future. 74 76 78 80 82 84 86 88 90 92 94 96 98 00 02 04 06 There are two main branches of January 1973May 2007 calculus. Differentiation is used to calculate the rate at which two variables change in relation to one another. You will learn about Antidifferentiation, or integration, is the inverse of differentiation and integration in the uses information about rates of change to go back and examine the original HSC Course. variables. Integration can also be used to nd areas of curved objects.
Thousand Barrels per Day
Isaac Newton
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In this chapter you will learn about differentiation, which measures the rate of change of one variable with respect to another.
Gradient
Gradient of a straight line
The gradient of a straight line measures its slope. You studied gradient in the last chapter. rise m = run
Class Discussion
Remember that an increasing line has a positive gradient and a decreasing line has a negative gradient.
positive
negative
Notice also that a horizontal line has zero gradient. Can you see why?
Gradient plays an important part, not just in mathematics, but in many areas including science, business, medicine and engineering. It is used everywhere we want to nd rates. On a graph, the gradient measures the rate of change of the dependent variable with respect to the change in the independent variable.
441
EXAMPLES
1. The graph shows the average distance travelled by a car over time. Find the gradient and describe it as a rate.
d
400
km
5 Hours
Solution
The line is increasing so it will have a positive gradient. rise m = run 400 = 5 80 = 1 = 80 This means that the car is travelling at the rate of 80 km/hour. 2. The graph shows the number of cases of flu reported in a town over several weeks.
N
15 Number of cases (100s)
Weeks
10
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Solution
The line is decreasing so it will have a negative gradient. rise m = run 1500 =10 150 =1 =  150 This means that the rate is 150 cases/week, or the number of cases reported is decreasing by 150 cases/week.
When nding the gradient of a straight line in the number plane, we think of a change in y values as x changes. The gradients in the examples above show rates of change. However, in most examples in real life, the rate of change will vary. For example, a car would speed up and slow down depending on where it is in relation to other cars, trafc light signals and changing speed limits.
Gradient of a curve
Class Discussion
The two graphs show the distance that a bicycle travels over time. One is a straight line and the other is a curve.
d d
20 15 km 10 5 t km
20 15 10 5 t
3 Hours
3 Hours
Is the average speed of the bicycle the same in both cases? What is different about the speed in the two graphs? How could you measure the speed in the second graph at any one time? Does it change? If so, how does it change?
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Here is a more general curve. What could you say about its gradient? How does it change along the curve?
y
Copy the graph and mark on it where the gradient is positive, negative and zero.
Using what we know about the gradient of a straight line, we can see where the gradient of a curve is positive, negative or zero by drawing tangents to the curve in different places around the curve.
y
+ x
Notice that when the curve increases it has a positive gradient, when it decreases it has a negative gradient and when it turns around the gradient is zero.
Investigation
There are some excellent computer programs that will draw tangents to a curve and then sketch the gradient curve. One of these is Geometer Sketchpad. Explore how to sketch gradient functions using this or a similar program as you look at the examples below.
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EXAMPLES
Describe the gradient of each curve. 1.
Solution
Where the curve increases, the gradient is positive. Where it decreases, it is negative. Where it turns around, it has a zero gradient.
2.
Solution
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Since we have a formula for finding the gradient of a straight line, we find the gradient of a curve by measuring the gradient of a tangent to the curve.
EXAMPLE
(a) Make an accurate sketch of y = x 2 on graph paper. (b) Draw tangents to this curve at the points where x =  3, x =  2, x =  1, x = 0, x = 1, x = 2 and x = 3. (c) Find the gradient of each of these tangents. (d) Draw the graph of the gradients (the gradient function) on a number plane.
Solution
(a) and (b)
y
9 8 7 6 5 4 3 2 1 3 2 1 2 3 x
There are computer programs that will draw these tangents.
(c) At x =  3, m =  6 At x =  2, m =  4 At x =  1, m =  2 At x = 0, m = 0 At x = 1, m = 2 At x = 2, m = 4 At x = 3, m = 6 (d)
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Drawing tangents to a curve is difcult. We can do a rough sketch of the gradient function of a curve without knowing the actual values of the gradients of the tangents. To do this, notice in the example above that where m is positive, the gradient function is above the xaxis, where m = 0, the gradient function is on the xaxis and where m is negative, the gradient function is below the xaxis.
EXAMPLES
Sketch the gradient function of each curve. 1.
Solution
First we mark in where the gradient is positive, negative and zero.
Now on the gradient graph, place the points where m = 0 on the xaxis. These are at x 1, x 2 and x 3 .
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To the left of x 1, the gradient is negative, so this part of the graph will be below the xaxis. Between x 1 and x 2, the gradient is positive, so the graph will be above the xaxis. Between x 2 and x 3, the gradient is negative, so the graph will be below the xaxis. To the right of x 3, the gradient is positive, so this part of the graph will be above the xaxis.
2.
Solution
First mark in where the gradient is positive, negative and zero.
CONTINUED
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The gradient is zero at x 1 and x 2 . These points will be on the xaxis. To the left of x 1, the gradient is positive, so this part of the graph will be above the xaxis. Between x 1 and x 2, the gradient is negative, so the graph will be below the xaxis. To the right of x 2, the gradient is positive, so this part of the graph will be above the xaxis.
8.1 Exercises
Sketch the gradient function for each graph. 1. 4.
2.
5.
3.
6.
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7.
9.
8.
10.
Differentiability
A function is called a differentiable function if the gradient of the tangent can be found. There are some graphs that are not differentiable in places. Most functions are continuous, which means that they have a smooth unbroken line or curve. However, some have a gap, or discontinuity, in the graph (e.g. hyperbola). This can be shown by an asymptote or a hole in the graph. We cannot find the gradient of a tangent to the curve at a point that doesnt exist! So the function is not differentiable at the point of discontinuity.
y
This function is not differentiable at a since the curve is discontinuous at this point.
450
A function may be continuous but not smooth. It may have a sharp corner. Can you see why curves are not differentiable at the point where there is a corner?
y
The curve is not differentiable at point c since it is not smooth at that point.
A function y = f (x) is differentiable at the point x = a if the derivative exists at that point. This can only happen if the function is continuous and smooth at x = a.
451
EXAMPLES
1. Find all points where the function below is not differentiable.
y
x C
Solution
The function is not differentiable at points A and B since there are sharp corners and the curve is not smooth at these points. It is not differentiable at point C since the function is discontinuous at this point. x2 3x  2 for x $ 1 differentiable at all points? for x 1 1
Solution
The functions f (x) = x 2 and f (x) = 3x  2 are both differentiable at all points. However, we need to look at where one nishes and the other starts, at f (1). For f (x) = x 2 f ] 1 g = 12 =1 For f (x) = 3x  2 f ]1 g = 3 ]1 g  2 =1 This means that both pieces of this function join up (the function is continuous). However, to be differentiable, the curve must be smooth at this point.
CONTINUED
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Sketching this function shows that it is not smooth (it has a sharp corner) so it is not differentiable at x = 1.
y
y = x2
1 1 2 y = 3x  2 x
8.2 Exercises
For each function, state whether it has any points at which it is not differentiable. 1.
y
3.
x1
2.
4.
x1
453
5.
10.
y 5 4 3 2
x1
x2
1 4 3 2 1 1 2 3 4 5 1 2 3 4 x
6. 7. 8. 9.
11. y = tan x for 0c # x # 360c x 12. f (x) = x 13. f (i) = 3 cos 2i 14. g (z) = sin 2 z 15. y = x3 x2  9
Limits
To differentiate from first principles, we need to look more closely at the concept of a limit. A limit is used when we want to move as close as we can to something. Often this is to find out where a function is near a gap or discontinuous point. You saw this in Chapter 5 when looking at discontinuous graphs. In this topic, it is used when we want to move from a gradient of a line between two points to a gradient of a tangent.
EXAMPLES
1. Find lim
x "2
x2  x  2 . x2
Solution
lim (x + 1) (x  2) x2  x  2 = lim x "2 x "2 x2 (x  2 ) = lim (x + 1) =2+1 =3
x "2
CONTINUED
454
2xh  h 2  3h . h
Solution
lim h (2 x  h  3) 2xh  h 2  3h = lim h "0 h "0 h h = lim (2x  h  3) = 2x  3 3. Find an expression in terms of x for lim 3x 2 dx + dx 2  5dx . dx
h "0
dx " 0
Solution
d x ( 3x 2 + d x  5 ) 3x 2 d x + d x 2  5 d x = lim dx " 0 dx " 0 dx dx 2 = lim (3x + dx  5) lim = 3x  5
dx " 0 2
8.3 Exercises
1. Evaluate (a) lim (b) (c) (d) (e) (f) (g) (h) (i) (j) x + 3x x x "0 5x 3  2x 2  7x lim x x "0 x 2  3x lim x "3 x  3 t 2  16 lim t "4 t4 g2  1 lim g "1 g  1 x2 + x  2 lim x " 2 x+2 h 5 + 2h lim h "0 h 2 x  7x + 12 lim x "3 x3 n 2  25 lim n "5 n  5 x 2 + 4x + 3 lim x " 1 x2  1
2
2.
Find as an expression in terms of x (a) lim (b) (c) (d) (e) (f) (g) (h) (i) (j) x 2 h  2xh  4h h "0 h 2x 3 h + xh  h lim h "0 h 3x 2 h 2  7xh + 4h 2  h lim h "0 h 4x 4 h  x 2 h  4xh 2 lim h "0 h x 2 h 2 + 3xh 2  4xh + 3h lim h "0 h 2x 2 h + 5xh 2 + 6h lim h "0 h x 2 dx 2  2xdx lim dx " 0 dx 4 x 2 dx  2 dx 2 lim dx " 0 dx x 3 dx 2 + 3xdx  dx lim dx " 0 dx x 2 dx  2xdx + 9dx lim dx " 0 dx
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Differentiation as a limit
y2  y1 The formula m = x  x is used to nd the gradient of a straight line when we 2 1 know two points on the line. However, when the line is a tangent to a curve, we only know one point on the linethe point of contact with the curve. To differentiate from rst principles, we rst use the point of contact and another point close to it on the curve (this line is called a secant) and then we move the second point closer and closer to the point of contact until they overlap and the line is at single point (the tangent). To do this, we use a limit. If you look at a close up of a graph, you can get some idea of this concept. When the curve is magnied, two points appear to be joined by a straight line. We say the curve is locally straight.
Investigation
Use a graphics calculator or a computer program to sketch a curve and then zoom in on a section of the curve to see that it is locally straight. For example, here is a parabola.
10 y
2 20
f 1(x) = x2 2
x 20
10
2.99
f 1(x) = x2
Use technology to sketch other curves and zoom in to show that they are locally straight.
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Before using limits to nd different formulae for differentiating from rst principles, here are some examples of how we can calculate an approximate value for the gradient of the tangent to a curve. By taking two points close together, as in the example below, we nd the gradient of the secant and then estimate the gradient of the tangent.
y
EXAMPLES
1. For the function f ] x g = x 3, nd the gradient of the secant PQ where P is the point on the function where x = 2 and Q is another point on the curve close to P. Choose different values for Q and use these results to estimate the gradient of the curve at P.
y Q P
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Solution
P = ^ 2, f (2) h Take different values of x for point Q, for example x = 2.1 Using different values of x for point Q gives the results in the table. Point Q
_ 2 .1 , f ] 2 .1 g i
Gradient of secant PQ f ( 2 . 1 )  f (2 ) m= 2 .1  2 2 .1 3  2 3 = 2 .1  2 = 12.61 m= f (2.01)  f (2) 2.01  2 2.01 3  2 3 = 2.01  2 = 12.0601 f (2.001)  f (2) 2.001  2 2.001 3  2 3 = 2.001  2 = 12.006001 f ( 1 . 9 )  f (2 ) 1 .9  2 1 .9 3  2 3 = 1 .9  2 = 11.41 f (1.99)  f (2) 1.99  2 1.99 3  2 3 = 1.99  2 = 11.9401 f (1.999)  f (2) 1.999  2 1.999 3  2 3 = 1.999  2 = 11.994001
_ 2.01, f ] 2.01 g i
_ 2.001, f ] 2.001 g i
m=
_ 1 .9 , f ] 1 .9 g i
m=
_ 1.99, f ] 1.99 g i
m=
_ 1.999, f ] 1.999 g i
m=
From these results, a good estimate for the gradient at P is 12. We can say that as x approaches 2, the gradient approaches 12. f (x)  f (2) We can write lim = 12. x "2 x2
CONTINUED
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2. For the curve y = x 2, nd the gradient of the secant AB where A is the point on the curve where x = 5 and point B is close to A. Find an estimate of the gradient of the curve at A by using three different values for B.
Solution
A = ^ 5, f (5) h Take three different values of x for point B, for example x = 4.9, x = 5.1 and x = 5.01. (a) B = ^ 4.9, f (4.9) h y2  y1 m= x x 2 1 f ( 4 . 9 )  f (5 ) = 4 .9  5 4 .9 2  5 2 = 4 .9  5 = 9 .9 (b) B = ^ 5.1, f (5.1) h y2  y1 m= x x 2 1 f ( 5 . 1 )  f (5 ) = 5 .1  5 5 .1 2  5 2 = 5 .1  5 = 10.1 (c) B = ^ 5.01, f (5.01) h y2  y1 m= x x 2 1 f (5.01)  f (5) = 5.01  5 5.01 2  5 2 = 5.01  5 = 10.01 From these results, a good estimate for the gradient at A is 10. We can say that as x approaches 5, the gradient approaches 10. We can write lim
x "5
We can nd a general formula for differentiating from rst principles by using c rather than any particular number. We use general points P ^ c, f (c) h and Q ^ x, f (x) h where x is close to c. The gradient of the secant PQ is given by y2  y1 m= x x 2 1 f (x)  f (c) = xc
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The gradient of the tangent at P is found when x approaches c. We call this f l (c) . f (x)  f (c) xc
There are other versions of this formula. We can call the points P ^ x, f (x) h and Q ^ x + h, f (x + h) h where h is small.
y
Q
(x + h, f (x + h ))
(x , f (x ))
x
Secant PQ has gradient y2  y1 m= x x 2 1 f (x + h)  f (x) = x+hx f (x + h)  f (x) = h To nd the gradient of the secant, we make h smaller as shown, so that Q becomes closer and closer to P.
y
Q Q Q P Q
(x + h, f (x + h ))
(x, f (x))
x
Search the Internet using keywords differentiation from rst principles, gradient of secant and tangent to nd mathematical websites that show this working.
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As h approaches 0, the gradient of the tangent becomes lim h "0 We call this f l (x).
f (x + h)  f (x) h
fl (x) = lim
h "0
f (x + h)  f (x) h
If we use P ^ x, y h and Q ^ x + dx, y + dy h close to P where dx and dy are small: Gradient of secant PQ y2  y1 m= x x 2 1 y + dy  y = x + dx  x dy = dx dy . We As dx approaches 0, the gradient of the tangent becomes lim dx " 0 d x dy call this . dx
dy dx
= lim
dy dx
dx " 0
All of these different notations stand for the derivative, or the gradient of the tangent: d d , (y), ^ f (x) h, f l(x), yl dx dx dx These occur because Newton, Leibniz and other mathematicians over the years have used different notation. dy
Investigation
Leibniz used dy dx where d stood for difference. Can you see why he would
have used this? Use the Internet to explore the different notations used in calculus and where they came from.
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The three formulae for differentiating from rst principles all work in a similar way.
EXAMPLE
Differentiate from rst principles to nd the gradient of the tangent to the curve y = x 2 + 3 at the point where x = 1.
Solution
Method 1: f (x)  f (c) xc 2 f ]x g = x + 3 f ] 1 g = 12 + 3 =4 f (x)  f (c) f l(c) = lim x "c xc f (x)  f (1) f l(1) = lim x "1 x1 (x 2 + 3)  4 = lim x "1 x1 x2  1 = lim x "1 x  1 (x + 1) (x  1) = lim x "1 x1 = lim (x + 1) f l(c) = lim x "c =1+1 =2 Method 2: f l(x) = lim
h "0 x "1
f (x + h )  f ( x ) h
f ] x g = x2 + 3 f ] 1 g = 12 + 3 =4
f ] x + h g = ] x + h g2 + 3 When x = 1 f ] 1 + h g = ] 1 + h g2 + 3 = 1 + 2h + h 2 + 3 = 2h + h 2 + 4
CONTINUED
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f l(x) = lim
h "0
f (x + h)  f (x) h f (1 + h)  f (1)
f l(1) = lim
h "0
Method 3: dy = lim dy
dx dx y = x2 + 3
dx " 0
When x = 1 y = 12 + 3 =4 So point ^ 1, 4 h lies on the curve. Substitute point (1 + dx, 4 + dy): 4 + dy = (1 + dx) 2 + 3 = 1 + 2d x + d x 2 + 3 = 2d x + d x 2 + 4 d y = 2d x + d x 2 dy 2d x + d x 2 = dx dx dx(2 + dx) = dx = 2 + dx dy dy = lim d x " 0 dx dx = lim (2 + dx) =2+0 =2
dx " 0
We can also use these formulae to find the derivative function generally.
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EXAMPLE
Differentiate f ] x g = 2x 2 + 7x  3 from rst principles.
Solution
f ] x g = 2x + 7x  3 f ] x + h g = 2 ] x + h g2 + 7 ] x + h g  3
2
f (x + h)  f (x)
8.4 Exercises
1. (a) Find the gradient of the secant between the point ^ 1, 2 h and the point where x = 1.01, on the curve y = x 4 + 1. (b) Find the gradient of the secant between ^ 1, 2 h and the point where x = 0.999 on the curve. (c) Use these results to nd the gradient of the tangent to the curve y = x 4 + 1 at the point ^ 1, 2 h . A function f ] x g = x 3 + x has a tangent at the point ^ 2, 10 h . f (x)  f (2) (a) Find the value of x2 when x = 2.1. (b) Find the value of f (x)  f (2) x2
when x = 2.01. f (x)  f (2) (c) Evaluate when x2 x = 1.99. (d) Hence nd the gradient of the tangent at the point ^ 2, 10 h . 3. For the function f ] x g = x 2  4, nd the derivative at point P where x = 3 by selecting points near P and nding the gradient of the secant. If f (x) = x 2, (a) nd f (x + h) (b) show that f (x + h)  f (x) = 2xh + h 2
2.
4.
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= 2x + h
(d) show that f l (x) = 2x . 5. A function is given by f (x) = 2x 2  7x + 3. (a) Show that f (x + h) = 2x 2 + 4xh + 2h 2  7x  7h + 3. (b) Show that f (x + h)  f (x) = 4xh + 2h 2  7h. (c) Show that f (x + h)  f (x) = 4x + 2h  7 . h (d) Find f l (x) . A function is given by f (x) = x 2 + x + 5. (a) Find f ] 2 g. (b) Find f ] 2 + h g. (c) Find f ] 2 + h g  f ] 2 g. (d) Show that f (2 + h)  f ( 2) = 5 + h. h (e) Find f l(2). Given the curve f (x) = 4x 3  3 (a) nd f ] 1 g (b) nd f ] 1 + h g  f ] 1 g (c) nd the gradient of the tangent to the curve at the point where x = 1. For the parabola y = x  1 (a) nd f ] 3 g (b) nd f ] 3 + h g  f ] 3 g (c) nd f l(3).
2
6.
11. Differentiate from rst principles to nd the gradient of the tangent to the curve (a) f ] x g = x 2 at the point where x=1 (b) y = x 2 + x at the point ^ 2, 6 h (c) f ] x g = 2x 2  5 at the point where x = 3 (d) y = 3x 2 + 3x + 1 at the point where x = 2 (e) f ] x g = x 2  7x  4 at the point ^ 1, 6 h . 12. Find the derivative function for each curve by differentiating from rst principles (a) f ] x g = x 2 (b) y = x 2 + 5x (c) f ] x g = 4x 2  4x  3 (d) y = 5x 2  x  1 (e) y = x 3 (f) f ] x g = 2x 3 + 5x (g) y = x 3  2x 2 + 3x  1 (h) f (x) = 2x 3. 13. The curve y = x has a tangent drawn at the point ^ 4, 2 h . (a) Evaluate f (x)  f (4) when x4
7.
8.
9.
Remember that 1 1 = x
For the function f (x) = 4  3x  5x 2 (a) nd f l(1) (b) similarly, nd the gradient of the tangent at the point ^ 2, 10 h .
x = 3 .9 . f (x)  f (4) (b) Evaluate when x4 x = 3.999. f (x)  f (4) when (c) Evaluate x4 x = 4.01. 14. For the function f (x) = x  1, f (x)  f (5) (a) evaluate when x5 x = 4.99.
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f (x)  f (5) (b) evaluate when x5 x = 5.01. (c) Use these results to find the derivative of the function at the point where x = 5.
15. Find the gradient of the tangent 4 to the curve y = 2 at point x P ^ 2, 1 h by finding the gradient of the secant between P and a point close to P.
y = mx + b
So if y = mx,
dy dx
=m
d ] g kx = k dx
y=k
So if y = k,
dy dx
=0 d ] g k =0 dx
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Investigation
Differentiate from rst principles: y = x2 y = x3 y = x4 Can you nd a pattern? Could you predict what the result would be for xn? Alternatively, you could nd an approximation to the derivative of a f (x + 0.01)  f (x) function at any point by drawing the graph of y = . 0.01 Use a graphics calculator or graphing computer software to sketch the derivative for these functions and nd the equation of the derivative.
Mathematicians working with differentiation from rst principles discovered this pattern that enabled them to shorten differentiation considerably! For example: When y = x 2, yl = 2x When y = x 3, yl = 3x 2 When y = x 4, yl = 4x 3
d ^ nh x = nx n  1 dx
Proof
You do not need to know this proof.
f (x) = x n f (x + h) = (x + h) n f (x + h)  f (x) = (x + h) n  x n = ^ (x + h)  x h [(x + h) n  1 + (x + h) n  2 x + (x + h) n  3 x 2 + (x + h) n  4 x 3 + . . . + (x + h) x n  2 + x n  1] = h [(x + h) n  1 + (x + h) n  2 x + (x + h) n  3 x 2 + (x + h) n  4 x 3 + . . . + (x + h) x n  2 + x n  1] f (x + h)  f (x) h h [(x + h) n  1 + (x + h) n  2 x + (x + h) n  3 x 2 + (x + h) n  4 x 3 + . . . + (x + h) x n  2 + x n  1] = lim h "0 h n1 n2 n3 2 = lim [(x + h) + (x + h ) x + (x + h) x + (x + h) n  4 x 3 + . . . + (x + h) x n  2 + x n  1]
h "0 h "0
f l(x) = lim
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EXAMPLE
Differentiate f (x) = x 7.
Solution
f l(x) = 7x 6
There are some more rules that give us short ways to differentiate functions. The rst one says that if there is a constant in front of the x (we call this a coefcient), then it is just multiplied with the derivative.
d ^ nh kx = knx n  1 dx
d ^ kf (x) h = kf l(x) dx
Proof
kf (x + h)  kf (x) d ^ kf (x) h = lim 0 h " dx h k [f (x + h)  f (x)] = lim h "0 h f (x + h)  f (x) = k lim h "0 h = kf l(x)
EXAMPLE
Find the derivative of 3x8.
Solution
If y = 3x 8 dy = 3 # 8x 7 dx = 24x 7
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Also, if there are several terms in an expression, we differentiate each one separately. We can write this as a rule:
Proof
You do not need to know this proof.
[f (x + h) + g (x + h)]  [f (x) + g (x)] d ^ f (x) + g (x) h = lim h "0 dx h f (x + h) + g (x + h)  f (x)  g (x) = lim h "0 h f (x + h)  f (x) + g (x + h)  g (x) = lim h "0 h f (x + h )  f ( x ) g ( x + h )  g ( x) G = lim = + h "0 h h f (x + h )  f ( x ) g ( x + h )  g ( x) = lim + lim 0 h "0 h " h h = f l(x) + gl(x)
EXAMPLE
Differentiate x 3 + x 4.
Solution
d 3 (x + x 4) = 3x 2 + 4x 3 dx
EXAMPLES
Differentiate 1. 7x
Solution
d ] g 7x = 7 dx
CONTINUED
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2. f (x) = x 4  x 3 + 5
Solution
f l(x) = 4x 3  3x 2 + 0 = 4x 3  3x 2 3. y = 4x 7
Solution
dy dx = 4 # 7x 6 = 28x 6 4. If f (x) = 2x 5  7x 3 + 5x  4, evaluate f l(1)
Solution
f l(x) = 10x 4  21x 2 + 5 f l(1) = 10(1) 4  21(1) 2 + 5 = 6 5. Differentiate 3x 2 + 5x 2x
Solution
Divide by 2x before differentiating. 3x 2 + 5x 3x 2 5x = + 2x 2x 2x 3 5 = x+ 2 2 dy 3 = 2 dx 1 =1 2 6. Differentiate S = 2rr 2 + 2rrh with respect to r.
Solution
We are differentiating with respect to r, so r is the variable and r and h are constants. dS = 2r(2r) + 2rh dr = 4r r + 2r h
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8.5 Exercises
1. Differentiate (a) x + 2 (b) 5x  9 (c) x 2 + 3x + 4 (d) 5x 2  x  8 (e) x 3 + 2x 2  7x  3 (f) 2x 3  7x 2 + 7x  1 (g) 3x 4  2x 2 + 5x (h) x 6  5x 5  2x 4 (i) 2x 5  4x 3 + x 2  2x + 4 (j) 4x 10  7x 9 Find the derivative of (a) x ] 2x + 1 g (b) ] 2x  3 g2 (c) ] x + 4 g ] x  4 g 2 (d) ^ 2x 2  3 h (e) ] 2x + 5 g ^ x 2  x + 1 h Differentiate (a) (b) (c)
Simplify by dividing before differentiating.
4.
5.
6.
7. 8. 9.
If s = 5t 2  20t , nd
2.
3.
12. If f (x) = 2x 3  3x + 4, evaluate f l(1). 13. Given f (x) = x 2  x + 5, evaluate (a) f l(3) (b) f l(2) (c) x when f l(x) = 7 14. If y = x 3  7, evaluate dy (a) when x = 2 dx dy (b) x when = 12 dx 15. Evaluate gl(2) when g (t) = 3t 3  4t 2  2t + 1.
x2 x 6 x4 x3 +4 2 3 1 6 2 x ( x  3) 3 2x 3 + 5x x x 2 + 2x 4x 2x 5  3x 4 + 6x 3  2x 2 3x 2
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However, a tangent to a curve could intersect the curve more than once.
So a tangent to a curve is best described as the limiting position of the secant PQ as Q approaches P.
Remember from earlier in the chapter that the derivative is the gradient of the tangent to a curve.
dy dx
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EXAMPLES
1. Find the gradient of the tangent to the parabola y = x 2 + 1 at the point ^ 1, 2 h .
Solution
dy dx At ^ 1, 2 h dy dx = 2x + 0 = 2x = 2 (1 ) =2
So the gradient of the tangent at ^ 1, 2 h is 2. 2. Find values of x for which the gradient of the tangent to the curve y = 2x 3  6x 2 + 1 is equal to 18.
Solution
dy dx dy dx = 6x 2  12x is the gradient of the tangent, so substitute dy dx = 18.
18 = 6x 2  12x 0 = 6x 2  12x  18 = x 2  2x  3 = ]x  3 g]x + 1 g x  3 = 0, x + 1 = 0 ` x = 3, x = 1 3. Find the equation of the tangent to the curve y = x 4  3x 3 + 7x  2 at the point ^ 2, 4 h .
Solution
dy At ^ 2, 4 h dx dy dx = 4x 3  9x 2 + 7 = 4 ] 2 g3  9 ] 2 g2 + 7
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= 3x  6 y = 3x  2 or 0 = 3x  y  2
The normal is a straight line perpendicular to the tangent at the same point of contact with the curve.
y
Tangent
Normal
EXAMPLES
1. Find the gradient of the normal to the curve y = 2x 2  3x + 5 at the point where x = 4.
Solution
dy dx is the gradient of the tangent. dy
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2. Find the equation of the normal to the curve y = x 3 + 3x 2  2x  1 at the point ^ 1, 3 h .
Solution
dy dx is the gradient of the tangent. dy
= 3x 2 + 6x  2 dx When x = 1 dy = 3 ] 1 g2 + 6 ] 1 g  2 dx = 5 So m 1 =  5 The normal is perpendicular to the tangent. So m 1 m 2 = 1 5m 2 = 1 1 m2 = 5 1 So the gradient of the normal is . 5 Equation of the normal: y  y1 = m _ x  x1 i 1 y  3 = ] x  ] 1 g g 5 5y  15 = x + 1 0 = x  5y + 16
8.6 Exercises
1. Find the gradient of the tangent to the curve (a) y = x 3  3x at the point where x=5 (b) f ] x g = x 2 + x  4 at the point ^ 7, 38 h (c) f ] x g = 5x 3  4x  1 at the point where x = 1 (d) y = 5x 2 + 2x + 3 at the point ^ 2, 19 h (e) y = 2x 9 at the point where x=1 (f) f ] x g = x 3  7 at the point where x = 3 (g) v = 2t 2 + 3t  5 at the point where t = 2 (h) Q = 3r 3  2r 2 + 8r  4 at the point where r = 4 (i) h = t 4  4t where t = 0 (j) f ] t g = 3t 5  8t 3 + 5t at the point where t = 2.
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2.
Find the gradient of the normal to the curve (a) f ] x g = 2x 3 + 2x  1 at the point where x = 2 (b) y = 3x 2 + 5x  2 at the point ^ 5, 48 h (c) f ] x g = x 2  2x  7 at the point where x =  9 (d) y = x 3 + x 2 + 3x  2 at the point ^ 4,  62 h (e) f ] x g = x 10 at the point where x = 1 (f) y = x 2 + 7x  5 at the point ^  7,  5 h (g) A = 2x 3 + 3x 2  x + 1 at the point where x = 3 (h) f ] a g = 3a 2  2a  6 at the point where a =  3 (i) V = h 3  4h + 9 at the point ^ 2, 9 h (j) g ] x g = x 4  2x 2 + 5x  3 at the point where x = 1. Find the gradient of the (i) tangent and (ii) normal to the curve (a) y = x 2 + 1 at the point ^ 3, 10 h (b) f ] x g = 5  x 2 at the point where x = 4 (c) y = 2x 5  7x 2 + 4 at the point where x = 1 (d) p ] x g = x 6  3x 4  2x + 8 where x = 1 (e) f ] x g = 4  x  x 2 at the point ^ 6, 26 h . Find the equation of the tangent to the curve (a) y = x 4  5x + 1 at the point ^ 2, 7 h (b) f (x) = 5x 3  3x 2  2x + 6 at the point ^ 1, 6 h (c) y = x 2 + 2x  8 at the point ^ 3, 5 h (d) y = 3x 3 + 1 at the point where x = 2 (e) v = 4t 4  7t 3  2 at the point where t = 2
5.
Find the equation of the normal to the curve (a) f ] x g = x 3  3x + 5 at the point ^ 3, 23 h (b) y = x 2  4x  5 at the point ^ 2, 7 h (c) f ] x g = 7x  2x 2 at the point where x = 6 (d) y = 7x 2  3x  2 at the point ^ 3, 70 h (e) y = x 4  2x 3 + 4x + 1 at the point where x = 1. Find the equation of the (i) tangent and (ii) normal to the curve (a) f ] x g = 4x 2  x + 8 at the point ^ 1, 11 h (b) y = x 3 + 2x 2  5x at the point ^ 3, 6 h (c) F ] x g = x 5  5x 3 at the point where x = 1 (d) y = x 2  8x + 7 at the point ^ 3,  8 h (e) y = x 4  2x 3 + 4x + 1 at the point where x = 1. For the curve y = x 3  27x  5, dy nd values of x for which = 0. dx Find the coordinates of the point at which the curve y = x 3 + 1 has a tangent with a gradient of 3. A function f (x) = x 2 + 4x  12 has a tangent with a gradient of 6 at point P on the curve. Find the coordinates of the point P.
6.
3.
7.
8.
9.
4.
10. The tangent at point P on the curve y = 4x 2 + 1 is parallel to the xaxis. Find the coordinates of P. 11. Find the coordinates of point Q where the tangent to the curve y = 5x 2  3x is parallel to the line 7x  y + 3 = 0 .
476
12. Find the coordinates of point S where the tangent to the curve y = x 2 + 4x  1 is perpendicular to the line 4x + 2y + 7 = 0. 13. The curve y = 3x  4 has a gradient of 6 at point A. (a) Find the coordinates of A. (b) Find the equation of the tangent to the curve at A.
2
14. A function h = 3t 2  2t + 5 has a tangent at the point where t = 2. Find the equation of the tangent. 15. A function f ] x g = 2x 2  8x + 3 has a tangent parallel to the line 4x  2y + 1 = 0 at point P. Find the equation of the tangent at P.
Investigation
1. (a) Show that h 1 1  = . x+h x x (x + h)
1 (b) Hence differentiate y = x from rst principles. (c) Differentiate y = x  1 using a short method. Do you get the same answer as 1(b)? 2. (a) Show that ( x + h  x ) ( x + h + x ) = h. (b) Hence differentiate y =
1 2
(c) Differentiate y = x and show that this gives the same answer as 2(b).
EXAMPLES
1. Differentiate 7 3 x .
Solution
7 3 x = 7x 3 dy 1 11 = 7$ x 3 3 dx 2 7 3 = x 3 7 1 = # 2 3 x3
1
477
= =
7 1 # 3 3 x2 7 3 3 x2
4 2. Find the equation of the tangent to the curve y = 2 at the point x where x = 2.
Solution
y= dy dx 4 x2 = 4x  2 =  8x  3 =8 x3
8.7 Exercises
1. Differentiate (a) x  3 (b) x 1.4 (c) 6x 0.2 (d) x 2 (e) 2x 2  3x  1 (f) 3x 3
3 1 1 1
2.
Find the derivative function, writing the answer without negative or fractional indices. 1 (a) x (b) 5 x (c) 6 x 2 (d) 5 x 5 (e)  3 x 1 (f) x
(g) 8x 4 (h)  2x

1 2
478
Note that
1 2x 6
1 1 # . 2 x6
(g)
1 2x 6
(h) x x 2 (i) 3x 3 1 (j) + 4x 2 x 4 3. Find the gradient of the tangent to the curve y = 3 x at the point where x = 27. If x = dx 12 , find when t = 2. t dt
10. Find the equation of the tangent to f (x) = 6 x at the point where x = 9. x 11. (a) Differentiate x . (b) Hence find the gradient of the x tangent to the curve y = x at the point where x = 4. 12. Find the equation of the tangent 4 to the curve y = x at the point 1 c 8, m. 2 13. If the gradient of the tangent to 1 y = x is at point A, find the 6 coordinates of A. 14. The function f (x) = 3 x has 3 f l(x) = . Evaluate x. 4 2 15. The hyperbola y = x has two 2 tangents with gradient  . Find 25 the coordinates of the points of contact of these tangents.
4. 5. 6.
A function is given by f (x) = 4 x . Evaluate f l(16) . Find the gradient of the tangent 3 to the curve y = at the point 2x 2 1 c 1, 1 m. 2 Find dy dx if y = ^ x + x h .
2
7. 8.
A function f (x) =
x has a 2 tangent at ^ 4, 1 h . Find the gradient of the tangent. Find the equation of the tangent 1 to the curve y = 3 at the point x 1 c 2, m. 8
9.
This rule is also called the function of a function rule or chain rule.
dy dx
dy du
du dx
479
Proof
Let dx, dy and du be small changes in x, y and u where dx " 0, dy " 0, du " 0. dy dy du = # Then dx du dx As dx " 0, du " 0 dy dy du = lim # lim So lim dx " 0 d x du " 0 d u dx " 0 d x Using the denition of the derivative from rst principles, this gives dy dx = dy du # du . dx
EXAMPLES
Differentiate 1. (5x + 4) 7
Solution
u = 5x + 4 du Then =5 dx y = u7 dy ` = 7u 6 du dy dy du = # dx du dx = 7u 6 # 5 = 35 (5x + 4) 6 Let 2. (3x 2 + 2x  1) 9
Solution
u = 3x 2 + 2x  1 du Then = 6x + 2 dx y = u9 dy ` = 9u 8 du dy dy du = # dx du dx 8 = 9u (6x + 2) = 9(6x + 2) (3x 2 + 2x  1) 8 Let
CONTINUED
480
3.
3x
Solution
3  x = (3  x) 2 Let u = 3  x du = 1 dx y = u2 dy 1 1 = u 2 2 du dy dy du = # dx du dx 1 1 2 = u (1) 2 1 1 =  (3  x) 2 2 1 =2 3x
1 1
The derivative of a composite function is the product of two derivatives. One is the derivative of the function inside the brackets. The other is the derivative of the whole function.
Proof
u = f (x) du = f l(x) Then dx y = un dy ` = nu n  1 du dy dy du = # dx du dx = nu n  1 # f l(x) = f l(x) n [ f (x)] n  1 Let
481
EXAMPLES
Differentiate 1. (8x 3  1) 5
Solution
dy dx = f l(x) $ n [ f (x)] n  1 = 24x 2 $ 5 (8x 3  1) 4 = 120x 2 (8x 3  1) 4
2. (3x + 8) 11
Solution
yl = f l(x) . n [ f (x)] n  1 = 3 # 11 (3x + 8) 10 = 33 (3x + 8) 10
3.
1 (6x + 1) 2
Solution
1 = (6x + 1)  2 (6x + 1) 2 yl = f l(x) $ n [ f (x)] n  1 = 6 # 2 (6x + 1)  3 = 12 (6x + 1)  3 12 =( 6 x + 1) 3
8.8 Exercises
1. Differentiate (a) (x + 3) 4 (b) (2x  1) 3 (c) (5x 2  4) 7 (d) (8x + 3) 6 (e) (1  x) 5 (f) (g) (h) (i) (j) 3 (5x + 9) 9 2 (x  4) 2 (2x 3 + 3x) 4 (x 2 + 5x  1) 8 (x 6  2x 2 + 3) 6
1
(k) (3x  1) 2
482
(l) (4  x)  2 (m) (x 2  9)  3 (n) (5x + 4) 3 3x + 4 1 (q) 5x  2 1 (r) (x 2 + 1) 4 (p) (s) (t) (u) (v) (w) (x) (y)
3 1 3
2.
Find the gradient of the tangent to the curve y = ] 3x  2 g3 at the point ^ 1, 1 h . If f (x) = 2 (x 2  3) 5, evaluate f l(2). The curve y = x  3 has a 1 tangent with gradient at point 2 N. Find the coordinates of N. For what values of x does the 1 function f (x) = have 4x  1 4 f l(x) = ? 49 Find the equation of the tangent to y = (2x + 1) 4 at the point where x =  1.
(o) (x 3  7x 2 + x) 4
3. 4.
5.
6.
Product Rule
Differentiating the product of two functions y = uv gives the result
dy dx
=u
dv du +v dx dx
Proof
y = uv Given that dy, du and dv are small changes in y, u and v. y + dy = (u + du) (v + dv) = uv + udv + vdu + dudv ` dy = udv + vdu + dudv ^ since y = uv h dy dv du dv =u +v + du dx dx dx dx
483
As dx " 0, du " 0 dy dv du dv F lim = lim < u +v + du dx " 0 d x dx " 0 dx dx dx dv du dv F + lim < v F + lim < du F = lim < u dx " 0 d x " 0 d x " 0 dx dx dx dy dv du =u +v dx dx dx It is easier to remember this rule as y l = uv l + vu l. We can also write this the other way around which helps when learning the quotient rule in the next section. If y = uv, y l = u lv + v lu
EXAMPLES
Differentiate 1. ] 3x + 1 g ] x  5 g
Solution
You could expand the brackets and then differentiate: ] 3x + 1 g ] x  5 g = 3x 2  15x + x  5 = 3x 2  14x  5 dy = 6x  14 dx Using the product rule: y = uv where u = 3x + 1 and v = x  5 ul = 3 vl = 1 y l = u lv + v l u = 3 ] x  5 g + 1 ] 3x + 1 g = 3x  15 + 3x + 1 = 6x  14 2. 2x 5 ] 5x + 3 g3
Solution
y = uv where u = 2x 5 and v = ] 5x + 3 g 3 u l = 10x 4 v l = 5.3 ] 5x + 3 g 2
CONTINUED
484
y l = u lv + v l u
We can simplify this further by factorising.
Solution
Remember 5  2x = ] 5  2x g 2
1
y = uv where u = 3x  4 and v = ] 5  2x g 2 1 1 ul = 3 v l =  2 $ (5  2 x ) 2 2 y l = u lv + v lu = 3 ] 5  2x g 2 + 2 $ =3 =3 =3 = = 3
1 1] 5  2x g 2 ] 3x  4 g 2 1 5  2x  (3x  4) ] 5  2x g 2 3x  4 5  2x 1 (5  2x) 2 3x  4 5  2x 5  2x 5  2x $ 5  2x  (3x  4) 1
5  2x 15  6x  3x + 4 = 5  2x 19  9x = 5  2x
8.9 Exercises
1. Differentiate (a) (b) (c) (d) (e) (f) x 3 ] 2x + 3 g ] 3x  2 g ] 2 x + 1 g 3x ] 5x + 7 g (g) (h) (i) (j) (k) 4x ] 3x  2 g5 3x 4 ] 4  x g3 ] x + 1 g ] 2x + 5 g4 ^ x 3 + 5x 2  3 h ^ x 2 + 1 h 5 x 2x 5x + 3 (l) 2x  1
4x 4 ^ 3x 2  1 h 2x ^ 3x 4  x h x 2 ] x + 1 g3
485
2.
Find the gradient of the tangent to the curve y = 2x ] 3x  2 g4 at the point ^ 1, 2 h . If f (x) = (2x + 3) (3x  1) 5, evaluate f l (1) . Find the exact gradient of the tangent to the curve y = x 2x + 5 at the point where x = 1. Find the gradient of the tangent where t = 3, given x = ] 2t  5 g ] t + 1 g3. Find the equation of the tangent to the curve y = x 2 ] 2x  1 g4 at the point ^ 1, 1 h .
7.
Find the equation of the tangent to h = (t + 1) 2 (t  1) 7at the point ^ 2, 9 h . Find exact values of x for which the gradient of the tangent to the curve y = 2x ] x + 3 g2 is 14. Given f (x) = (4x  1) (3x + 2) 2, find the equation of the tangent at the point where x = 1.
3. 4.
8.
9.
5.
6.
Quotient Rule
u Differentiating the quotient of two functions y = v gives the result.
dy dx
du dv u dx dx v2
Proof
u y= v Given that dy, du and dv are small changes in y, u and v. u + du y + dy = v + dv u + du u u ` dy =  v a since y = v k v + dv v (u + du) u (v + dv) = v (v + dv) v (v + dv) v (u + du)  u (v + dv) = v (v + dv) vu + vdu  uv  udv = v (v + dv) vdu  udv = v (v + dv) du dv v u dy dx dx = v (v + dv) dx As dx " 0, dv " 0
486
dx " 0
lim
dy dx dy dx
R S v du  u dv S dx dx = lim S dx " 0 v ( v + d v) T du dv v u dx dx = v2
V W W W X
u lv  v lu . v2
u u lv  v lu If y = v , y l = v2
EXAMPLES
Differentiate 1. 3x  5 5x + 2
Solution
u y = v where u = 3x  5 and v = 5x + 2 ul = 3 vl = 5 yl = = u lv  v lu v2 3 (5x + 2)  5 (3x  5)
Solution
u y = v where u = 4x 3  5x + 2 and v = x 3  1 u l = 12x 2  5 v l = 3x 2 u l v  v lu yl = v2 (12x 2  5) (x 3  1)  3x 2 (4x 3  5x + 2) = (x 3  1 ) 2 12x 5  12x 2  5x 3 + 5  12x 5 + 15x 3  6x 2 = (x 3  1 ) 2 10x 3  18x 2 + 5 = (x 3  1) 2
487
8.10
1.
Exercises
3 (s) (2x  9) 5x + 1 x1 (t) (7x + 2) 4 5 (u) (3x + 4)
Differentiate 1 2x  1 (b) 3x x+5 x3 (c) 2 x 4 (d) x  3 5x + 1 (e) x  7 x2 (f) 5x + 4 x+3 x (g) 2 2x  x (h) x + 4 x2 (i) 2x + 7 4x  3 (j) x + 5 3x + 1 (k) x + 1 3x 2  7 2x 2 (l) 2x  3 2 (m) x + 4 x2  5 3 (n) x x+4 3 (o) x + 2x  1 x+3 2 (p) x  2x  1 3x + 4 3 x +x (q) 2 x x1 2x (r) 1 (x + 5) 2 (a)
Find the gradient of the tangent to 2x the curve y = at the point 3x + 1 1 c 1, m. 2 If f (x) = 4x + 5 evaluate f l(2). 2x  1
3. 4.
Find any values of x for which the gradient of the tangent to the 4x  1 curve y = is equal to  2. 2x  1 Given f (x) = f l(x) = 1 . 6 2x find x if x+3
5.
6.
Find the equation of the tangent x to the curve y = at the x+2 2 point c 4, m. 3 Find the equation of the tangent x2  1 to the curve y = at the x+3 point where x = 2.
7.
488
tan i =
m1  m2 1 + m1 m2
EXAMPLE
Find the acute angle formed at the intersection of the curves y = x 2 and y = (x  2) 2 .
Solution
The curves intersect at the point (1,1) . For y = x 2 dy = 2x dx dy At (1, 1), = 2 (1 ) dx m1 = 2 ` For y = (x  2) 2 dy = 2 (x  2 ) dx dy At (1, 1), = 2 (1  2) dx m2 =  2 ` tan i = = m1  m2 1 + m1 m2
489
8.11
1.
Exercises
6. The curves y = 2x 2  4x and y = x 2  x + 4 intersect at two points X and Y. (a) Find the coordinates of X and Y. (b) Find the gradient of the tangent to each curve at X and Y. (c) Find the acute angle between the curves at X and Y. Find the acute angle between the curve f (x) = x 2  1 and the line g (x) = 3x  1 at their 2 points of intersection. (a) Find the points of intersection between y = x 3 and y = x 2 + 2x. (b) Find the acute angle between the curves at these points. Show that the acute angle between the curves y = x 2 and y = 4x  x 2 is the same at both the points of intersection.
(a) Sketch the curves y = x 2  4 and y = x 2  8x + 12 on the same set of axes. (b) Show that the curves intersect at the point Q (2, 0) . (c) Find the gradient of the tangent of each curve at point Q. (d) Find the acute angle at which the curves intersect at Q. (a) Sketch the curve y = x 2 and the line y = 6x  9 on the same set of axes. (b) Find the point P, their point of intersection. (c) Find the gradient of the curve y = x 2 at P. (d) Find the acute angle between the curve and the line at P. Find the acute angle between the curves y = x 2 and y = x 3 at point (1,1) . Find the acute angle between the curves y = x 3 and y = x 2  2x + 2 at their point of intersection. What is the obtuse angle between the curves f (x) = x 2  4x and g (x) = x 2  12 at the point where they meet?
2.
7.
8.
3.
9.
4.
5.
10. Find the obtuse angles between the curves y = x 3 + 2x and y = 5x  2x 2 at their points of intersection.
490
Test Yourself 8
1. Sketch the derivative function of each graph (a) 6. Find the gradient of the tangent to the curve y = x 3  3x 2 + x  5 at the point (1, 10) . dh If h = 60t  3t 2, nd when t = 3. dt Find all xvalues that are not differentiable on the following curves. (a)
7. 8.
(b)
(b)
5 4 3 2 1
2.
Differentiate y = 5x 2  3x + 2 from rst principles. Differentiate (a) 7x 6  3x 3 + x 2  8x  4 (b) 3x  4 2x + 1 (c) (x 2 + 4x  2) 9 (d) 5x(2x  1) 4 (e) x 2 x 5 (f) 2 x
3.
(c)
4 3 2 1 1 2 3 4 5 y 5 4 3 2 1 4 3 2 11
1 2 3 4
4. 5.
Find
dv if v = 2t 2  3t  4. dt 9.
2 3 4 5
491
15. Find the equation of the tangent to the curve y = x 2 + 2x  5 that is parallel to the line y = 4x  1. 16. Find the gradient of the tangent to the curve y = ] 3x  1 g3 ] 2x  1 g2 at the point where x = 2. 17. Find f l(4) when f ] x g = ] x  3 g9 .
x
18. Find the equation of the tangent to the 1 1 curve y = at the point where x = . 3x 6 19. Differentiate s = ut + 1 2 at with respect 2 to t and nd the value of t for which ds = 5, u = 7 and a =  10. dt
11. Find the equation of the tangent to the curve y = x 2 + 5x  3 at the point ^ 2, 11 h . 12. Find the point on the curve y = x 2  x + 1 at which the tangent has a gradient of 3. 13. Find dS if S = 4rr 2. dr
20. Find the xintercept of the tangent to 4x  3 the curve y = at the point where 2x + 1 x = 1. 21. Find the acute angle between the curve y = x 2 and the line y = 2x + 3 at each point of intersection. 22. Find the obtuse angle between the curve y = x 2 and the line y = 6x  8 at each point of intersection.
14. At which points on the curve y = 2x 3  9x 2  60x + 3 are the tangents horizontal?
Challenge Exercise 8
1. If f (x) = 3x 2 (1  2x) 5, nd the value of f (1) and f l(1) . If A = dA 5h + 3 , nd when h = 1. 7h  1 dh 4. Find the equations of the tangents to the curve y = x (x  1) (x + 2) at the points where the curve cuts the xaxis. Find the points on the curve y = x 3  6 where the tangents are parallel to the line y = 12x  1. Hence nd the equations of the normals to the curve at those points.
2. 3.
5.
492
6. 7. 8. 9.
3x  2 .
18. The function f (x) = 3x + 1 has a tangent that makes an angle of 30c with the xaxis. Find the coordinates of the point of contact for this tangent and nd its equation in exact form. 19. Find all x values of the function f (x) = (x 2  3) (2x  1) 8 for which f l(x) = 0. 20. (a) Find any points at which the graph below is not differentiable. (b) Sketch the derivative function for the graph.
y
10. Find the equation of the normal to the curve y = 3 x + 1 at the point where x = 8. 11. The tangent to the curve y = ax 3 + 2 at the point where x = 3 is inclined at 135c to the xaxis. Find the value of a. 12. The normal to the curve y = x 2 + 1 at the point where x = 2, cuts the curve again at point P. Find the coordinates of P. 13. Find the exact values of the x coordinates of the points on the curve y = (3x 2  2x  4) 3 where the tangent is horizontal. 14. Find the gradient of the normal to the curve y = 2x 5  x at the point (4, 8) . 15. Find the equation of the tangent to the curve y = x 3  x 2 + 2x + 6 at point P (1, 8) . Find the coordinates of point Q where this tangent meets the yaxis and calculate the exact length of PQ. 16. (a) Show that the curves y = ] 3x  2 g5 and 5x  3 y= intersect at ^ 1, 1 h x+1 (b) Find the acute angle between the curves at this point. 17. The equation of the tangent to the curve y = x 4  nx 2 + 3x  2 at the point where x =  2 is given by 3x  y  2 = 0. Evaluate n.
90c
180c 270c
360c
21. Find the point of intersection between the tangents to the curve y = x 3  2x 2  5x + 3 at the points where x = 2 and x =  1. 22. Find the equation of the tangent to the x2  3 parabola y = at the point where 2 the tangent is perpendicular to the line 3x + y  3 = 0. 23. Differentiate 3x  2 . 2x 3
24. (a) Find the equations of the tangents to the parabola y = 2x 2 at the points where the line 6x  8y + 1 = 0 intersects with the parabola. (b) Show that the tangents are perpendicular.
493
25. Find any x values of the function 2 f (x ) = 3 where it is not x  8x 2 + 12x differentiable. 26. The equation of the tangent to the curve y = x 3 + 7x 2  6x  9 is y = ax + b at the point where x = 4. Evaluate a and b. 27. Find the exact gradient with rational denominator of the tangent to the curve y = x 2  3 at the point where x = 5. p 28. The tangent to the curve y = x has a 1 gradient of  at the point where x = 3. 6 Evaluate p. 29. Find 2r dV when r = and h = 6 given 3 dr 1 V = rr 3 h. 3
33. Find f l (7) as a fraction, given 1 . f (x) = 3 x+1 34. For the function f (x) = ax 2 + bx + c, f (2) = 4, fl (1) = 0 and f l (x) = 8 when x = 3. Evaluate a, b and c. 35. Find the equation of the tangent to the curve S = 2rr 2 + 2rrh at the point where r = 2 (h is a constant). 36. Differentiate (a) 2x 3  x ] 3x  5 g4 2x + 1 (b) (x  3) 3 37. The tangents to the curve y = x 3  2x 2 + 3 at points A and B are perpendicular to the tangent at ^ 2, 3 h . Find the exact values of x at A and B. 38. (a) Find the equation of the normal to the curve y = x 2 + x  1 at the point P where x = 3. (b) Find the coordinates of Q , the point where the normal intersects the parabola again.
30. Evaluate k if the function f (x) = 2x 3  kx 2 + 1 has f l(2) = 8. 31. Find the equation of the chord joining the points of contact of the tangents to the curve y = x 2  x  4 with gradients 3 and 1. 32. Find the equation of the straight line passing through ^ 4, 3 h and parallel to the tangent to the curve y = x 4 at the point ^ 1, 1 h .
499
INTRODUCTION
IN CHAPTER 4, YOU STUDIED the geometry of angles, triangles, quadrilaterals
and other polygons. This chapter shows you some properties of the circle.
Parts of a Circle
An arc is a part of the circumference.
500
501
Proof
Let two equal arcs have lengths l 1 and l 2, and subtend angles of a and b at the centre of the circle. Using l = ri , l 1 = ra and l 2 = rb But l 1 = l 2 ` ra = rb ` a=b The converse is also true:
You will study the formula l = r i in Chapter 5 of the HSC Course book.
If two arcs subtend equal angles at the centre of the circle, then the arcs are equal.
EXAMPLE
AB is a diameter of the circle with centre O. Arc CB = arc BD. Prove +AOC = +AOD.
Solution
Since arc CB = arc BD,+COB = +DOB Let +COB = +DOB = x Then +AOC = 180c  +COB = 180c  x Also +AOD = 180c  +DOB = 180c  x ` +AOC = +AOD (+AOB is a straight angle) (similarly)
502
Proof
OA = OC OB = OD AB = CD ` by SSS, DOAB / DOCD ` +AOB = +COD The converse in also true: (equal radii) (similarly) (given) (corresponding +s in congruent D s)
Equal angles subtended at the centre of the circle cut off equal chords.
EXAMPLE
AD is a diameter of the circle with centre O, where AB = CD. Prove that BC < AD.
503
Solution
Since AB = CD, +AOB = +COD Let +AOB = +COD = x Then +BOC = 180c  (x + x) = 180c  2x OB = OC ` D OBC is isosceles with +OBC = +OCB +OBC + +OCB + 180c  2x = 180c +OBC + +OCB = 2x ` +OBC = +OCB = x ` +OBC = +AOB But these are equal alternate angles ` BC < AD
The angle at the centre of a circle is twice the angle at the circumference subtended by the same arc.
These figures show that this property can look quite different in different situations.
Proof
(equal radii)
504
` +OBA = x = +BAO OA = OC ` +OCA = y = +CAO +BOD = x + x = 2x +COD = y + y = 2y +BOC = +BOD + +COD = 2x + 2y = 2 (x + y ) = 2+BAC
(base +s of isosceles D) (equal radii) (base +s of isosceles D) (exterior + of DOBA) (exterior + of DOCA)
EXAMPLES
1. Find the values of x and y.
Solution
x = 40 (+ at centre is twice the + at the circumference) Reflex +BOC = 360c  80c (+ of revolution) = 280c ` y = 140 (+ at centre is twice the + at the circumference) 2. Prove +BOC is twice the size of +OCA.
505
Solution
Let +OAC = x +BOC = 2+OAC = 2x ` ` (+ at centre is twice the + at the circumference)
Proof
Join A and D to centre O +AOD = 2+ABD +AOD = 2+ACD ` +ABD = +ACD (+ at centre is twice the + at the circumference)
506
EXAMPLE
Prove D ABC and D DEC are similar. Hence nd the value of y correct to 1 decimal place.
Solution
+ABC = +DEC +BCA = +ECD (+s in same segment) (vertically opposite +s)
Proof
507
EXAMPLE
AB is a diameter of the circle below. If BC = 2 m and AB = 9 m, nd the exact length of AC.
Solution
+ACB = 90c ` AB 2 = AC 2 + BC 2 9 2 = AC 2 + 2 2 81 = AC 2 + 4 77 = AC 2 ` AC = 77 m
9.1 Exercises
1. Find values of all pronumerals (O is the centre of each circle). (a) (b)
508
(c)
3.
(d)
(b)
(e) (c)
(f) (d)
2.
The circumference of a circle is 16r cm. Find the length of the arc that subtends an angle of 40c at the centre of the circle.
(e)
509
(f)
4.
(g)
(b)
(h)
(c)
(i)
(d)
(j)
510
(e)
(j)
(f)
5.
(a) Prove D ABC  D DEC. (b) Hence nd the value of x correct to 1 decimal place.
(g)
6.
(h)
7.
(i)
511
8.
9.
O y A x 38c B
10. AB = 6 cm and BC = 3 cm. O is the centre of the circle. Show that the radius of the circle is 3 5 cm. 2
(a) Evaluate x and y. (b) Show that AD = BC. 13. Show that AD < BC in the circle below.
A
33c
114c
512
(a) Show that triangles AOB and ABC are similar. (b) Show that BC = 2 r.
Chord Properties
A perpendicular line from the centre of a circle to a chord bisects the chord.
Proof
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+ADO = +BDO = 90c OA = OB OD is common ` by RHS DOAD / DOBD ` AD = BD So OD bisects AB The converse is also true:
A line from the centre of a circle that bisects a chord is perpendicular to the chord.
EXAMPLES
1. Line OC is perpendicular to chord AB. If the radius of the circle is 6 cm and the chord is 11 cm long, nd the length of OC, correct to 1 decimal place.
Solution
AB = 11 ` AC = 5.5 Also OA = 6 OA = AC + OC 6 2 = 5.5 2 + OC 2 36 = 30.25 + OC 2 5.75 = OC 2
2 2 2
OC = 5.75 = 2.4 cm
CONTINUED
514
Solution
+OYX = 90c +XOY = 180c  (90c + 54c) = 36c (OY bisects XZ) (+ sum of DOXY)
Proof
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` ` `
Class Exercise
Prove that chords that are equidistant from the centre are equal.
EXAMPLE
In the circle below, with centre O, OE = 35 mm, DE = 56 mm and OC = 21 mm. Show that AB = DE.
Solution
EF = 28 mm OE = EF + OF 35 2 = 28 2 + OF 2 35 2  28 2 = OF 2 441 = OF 2
2 2 2
` ` So
OF = 441 = 21 mm OF = OC AB = DE.
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AE: EB = DE: EC
Proof
+AED = +CEB +DAE = +ECB +ADE = +EBC ; D CEB D AED < AE DE ` = EB EC ` AE: EB = DE: EC `
EXAMPLE
Given chord AB = 12.3 cm, EB = 2.7 cm and DE = 10.6 cm, nd the length of EC, correct to 1 decimal place.
517
Solution
AE = AB  EB = 12.3  2.7 = 9 .6 AE: EB = DE: EC 9.6 # 2.7 = 10.6 # EC 9 .6 # 2 .7 ` EC = 10.6 = 2.4 cm
9.2 Exercises
1. Find the values of all pronumerals (O is the centre of each circle). (a) (d)
(e)
(b)
(f)
(c)
518
(g)
3.
A circle with radius 89 mm has a chord drawn 52 mm from the centre. How long, to the nearest millimetre, is the chord? O and P are the centres of intersecting circles with radii 20 cm and 8 cm respectively. If AB = 10 cm, find the distance OP, correct to 1 decimal place.
4.
(h)
(i)
5.
Show AB = CD.
2.
Find the exact radius of a circle with a chord that is 8 cm long and 5 cm from the centre.
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7.
9.
8.
Show that CD =
2r + 4r 2  x 2 . 2
A
E C D B
(a) Prove that triangles ABC and CDE are similar. (b) Show that AC : CD = BC : CE.
Concyclic Points
Concyclic points are points that lie on the circumference of a circle.
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Any 3 noncollinear points are concyclic. They lie on a unique circle, with centre at the point of intersection of the perpendicular bisectors of the intervals joining these points.
Cyclic quadrilaterals
A cyclic quadrilateral is a gure whose 4 vertices are concyclic points.
521
Proof
Join B and D to O. Obtuse +DOB = 2+A Reflex +DOB = 2+C Obtuse +DOB + reflex +DOB = 360c ` 2+A + 2+C = 360c ` +A + +C = 180c The converse is also true: (+ at centre is doubl e +at circumference) (+ of revolution)
If the opposite angles of a quadrilateral are supplementary, then the quadrilateral is cyclic.
The property of opposite angles being supplementary in a cyclic quadrilateral can also be used to prove the following property:
The exterior angle at a vertex of a cyclic quadrilateral is equal to the interior opposite angle.
522
Proof
Let Then ` `
+A = x +BCD = 180c  x
EXAMPLE
Evaluate a, b and c.
Solution
OB = OD ` +ODB = 20c a + 20c + 20c = 180c ` a = 180c  40c = 140c b = 70c c = 180c  70c = 110c (equal radii) (base + s of isosceles D equal) (+ sum of D)
523
9.3 Exercises
1. Find the values of all pronumerals. (a) (e)
(f) (b)
(g) (c)
(h)
(d)
(i)
524
(j)
118c xc
(e)
yc O 46c 111c xc
2.
(g)
(b)
(h)
(c)
(i)
(d)
(j)
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3.
(c)
B 58c
58c C
C
i A
(b)
Tangent Properties
The tangent to a circle is perpendicular to the radius drawn from the point of contact.
The perpendicular distance is the shortest distance any other distance would be greater than the radius.
The converse is also true: The line perpendicular to the radius at the point where it meets the circle is a tangent to the circle at that point.
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Here is another property of tangents to a circle: Tangents to a circle from an exterior point are equal.
Proof
Join OB +A = +C = 90c OB is common OA = OC ` by RHS, DOAB / DOCB ` AB = CB (tangent = radius) (equal radii) (corresponding sides in congruent Ds)
EXAMPLE
A circle with centre O and radius 10 cm has a tangent AB drawn to it where OB = 26 cm. Find the length of AB.
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Solution
OA = 10 +OAB = 90c ` OB 2 = OA 2 + AB 2 26 2 = 10 2 + AB 2 676 = 100 + AB 2 576 = AB 2 ` AB = 576 = 24 cm (radius) (tangent = radius)
When two circles touch, the line through their centres passes through their point of contact.
Proof
You could also prove this result for when circles touch internally.
AB is a tangent to circle with centre O ` +OCB = 90c AB is a tangent to circle with centre P ` +PCB = 90c +OCB + +PCB = 90c + 90c = 180c ` OCP is a straight line.
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EXAMPLE
Two circles touch at A and the larger circle has centre O. Prove (a) TABC and TAOD are similar (b) CB < DO (c) BC = 2DO.
Solution
(a) OA is a diameter of small circle (line through centres passes through point of contact) (+ in semicircle)
` +ODA = 90c Since AB is a diameter of the larger circle, +BCA = 90c (similarly) ` +BCA = +ODA +A is common ` D ABC ; ; ; D AOD (b) +BCA = +ODA These are equal corresponding angles. ` CB < DO (c) AB AB ` OA AB ` OA ` BC = 2 OA =2 AC BC = =2 AD DO = 2DO = [from (a)]
(OA radius)
The angle between a tangent and a chord through the point of contact is equal to the angle in the alternate segment.
529
Proof
Draw in diameter CF and join EF. Let +ECB = x. +FCB = 90c ` +FCE = 90c  x +FEC = 90c (tangent = radius) (+ in semicircle)
` +EFC = 180c  (90c + 90c  x) (angle sum of D ) =x +EFC = +EDC (angles in same segment) ` +EDC = +ECB
EXAMPLE
Evaluate x and y.
CONTINUED
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Solution
+ABC = 180c  (95c + 50c) = 35c ` x = 35c y = 35c (+ sum of D ) (+ s in alternate segment) ( y and +ABC in same segment)
The square of the length of the tangent from an external point is equal to the product of the intercepts of the secant passing through this point.
Proof
531
EXAMPLE
AB is a tangent to the circle and CD = 1.3 cm, BC = 1.7 cm. Find the length of AB, correct to 1 decimal place.
Solution
BD = 1.3 + 1.7 =3 AB 2 = BC: BD = 1 .7 # 3 = 5 .1 AB = 5.1 = 2.3 cm correct to 1 decimal place.
9.4 Exercises
1. Find the values of all pronumerals. (a) (b)
532
(c)
(h)
(d)
y x O 38c
(i)
(e) (j)
(f)
2. (g)
Find the values of all pronumerals (all external lines are tangents to the circles). (a)
533
(b)
(g)
(h) (c)
(i) (d)
63c
xc O
yc
(j) (e)
9 cm O
13 cm
15
cm
y
P
(f)
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3.
Find the values of all pronumerals, giving reasons for each step of your working (O is the centre of circle, AB is a tangent).
6.
Find the values of all pronumerals (O is the centre of each circle; all external lines are tangents). (a)
4.
AB, BC and AC are tangents, with AB = 24 cm, BC = 27 cm and BM = 15 cm. Find the length of AC.
(b)
(c)
5.
AB = 6.5 m, AC = 3.9 m and BC = 5.2 m. Prove A lies on a diameter of the circle, given BC is a tangent to the circle. (d)
535
(e)
(i)
(f)
(j)
(g)
7.
(h)
(b)
536
(c)
(h)
(d)
(i)
(e) (j)
(g)
537
Test Yourself 9
1. O is the centre of the circle. Evaluate i. 5. Evaluate x, y and z, giving reasons for each step of your working.
2.
Evaluate y to 1 decimal place. 6. O is the centre of the larger circle. Find the value of x.
3.
AB is a tangent to the circle. Find the value of x to 1 decimal place. 7. AB is a tangent to the circle. Evaluate a, b and c.
4.
O is the centre of the circle. Find the length of tangents x and y. 8. O is the centre of the circle, and AB is a tangent. Evaluate a, b, c and d, giving reasons for each step of your working.
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9.
13. Calculate the length of AB to 3 significant figures, given that A and B are the centres of the circles.
10. Find the length of tangent AB. 14. Find the value of x to 1 decimal place.
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20. O is the centre of the circle. (a) Prove that DOAC and DOBC are congruent. (b) Show that OC bisects AB.
Challenge Exercise 9
1. Find the length of the radius, to the nearest centimetre, if AC = 10 cm and BD = 3 cm. 2. In the circle below with centre O, OD = DC. Prove +AOE = 3+DCB.
540
3.
Two circles meet at points A and B. A tangent to each circle is drawn from A to meet the circles at D and C. Prove +DAC = 90c.
5.
The triangles below have +BDE = 2+BAD and +CDE = 2+CAD. Prove that a circle can be drawn through A, B and C with centre D.
4.
Three equal circles touch each other, as in the figure. (a) Prove that the triangle with vertices the centres of the circles is equilateral. (b) Find the perimeter of the curved figure DEF in terms of the radius r of the circles. (c) Find the exact area of the shaded region.
6.
Two chords AB and CD intersect at 90c Prove, for obtuse +AOD,+AOD + +COB = 180c where O is the centre of the circle.
7.
Prove that any kite ABCD with +ADC = +ABC = 90c is a cyclic quadrilateral with diameter AC.
541
8.
A large circle with radius R is surrounded by 7 smaller circles with radius r. A circle is drawn through the centres of the smaller circles. If R = area in terms of r. 3r , find the shaded 2
9.
Prove that if an interval subtends equal angles at two points on the same side of it, then the endpoints of the interval and the two points are concyclic.
10. Prove that if both pairs of opposite angles in a quadrilateral are supplementary, then the quadrilateral is cyclic.
10
TERMINOLOGY
543
INTRODUCTION
THE SOLUTION OF QUADRATIC equations is important in many fields,
such as engineering, architecture and astronomy. In this chapter you will study quadratic equations in detail, and look at the relationship between quadratic equations and the graphs of quadratic functions (the parabola). You will study the axis of symmetry and maximum and minimum values of the quadratic function. You will also look at the quadratic formula in detail, and at the relationships between the roots (solutions) of quadratic equations, the formula and the quadratic function.
Solution
(a) For the yintercept, x = 0 i.e. y = 0 2  4 (0) =0 For the xintercept, y = 0 i.e. 0 = x 2  4x = x (x  4) ` x = 0 or x  4 = 0 x=4
CONTINUED
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(b) The axis of symmetry has equation x = 2. (c) Since the parabola is symmetrical about the line x = 2, the minimum value is on this line. Substitute x = 2 into the equation of the parabola i.e. y = 2 2  4 (2) = 4 So the minimum value is  4.
Class Investigation
1. How would you find the axis of symmetry for a graph with no xintercepts?
2. How would you find the axis of symmetry of a graph where the xintercepts are irrational numbers?
The axis of symmetry of the quadratic function y = ax 2 + bx + c has the equation b x=2a
545
Proof
The axis of symmetry lies midway between the xintercepts. For the xintercepts, y = 0 i.e. ax 2 + bx + c = 0 x=  b ! b 2  4ac 2a
The xcoordinate of the axis of symmetry is the average of the xintercepts.  b  b 2  4ac  b + b 2  4ac + 2a 2a x= 2  2b 2a = 2  2b = 4a b =2a
i.e.
The parabola has a minimum value if a 2 0. The shape of the parabola is concave upwards.
Minimum value
The parabola has a maximum value if a 1 0. The shape of the parabola is concave downwards.
Maximum value
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b m 2a
EXAMPLES
1. Find the equation of the axis of symmetry and the minimum value of the quadratic function y = x 2  5x + 1.
Solution
The equation of the axis of symmetry is given by b 2a ( 5 ) x=i.e. 2 ( 1) 5 = 2 1 ` Equation is x = 2 2 5 2 5 Minimum value: y = c m  5 c m + 1 2 2 25 25 = +1 4 2 1 = 5 4 x=1 So minimum value is  5 . 4 2. Find the equation of the axis of symmetry and the maximum value of the quadratic function y =  3x 2 + x  5.
Solution
The equation of the axis of symmetry is given by b 2a 1 x=i.e. 2 ( 3 ) 1 = 6 1 ` Equation is x = 6 1 2 1 Maximum value: y =  3 c m + c m  5 6 6 1 1 =+ 5 12 6 11 = 4 12 x=So maximum value is  4 11 . 12
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Class Investigation
Examine the graph of y =  3x 2 + x  5 from the above example. Are there any solutions for the quadratic equation  3x 2 + x  5 = 0?
EXAMPLE
(a) Find the equation of the axis of symmetry and the coordinates of the vertex of the parabola y = 2x 2  12x + 7. (b) Find the yintercept and sketch the graph.
Solution
(a) Axis of symmetry: b x=2a  12 =2#2 =3 When x = 3 y = 2 ] 3 g 2  12 ] 3 g + 7 =  11 So the vertex is (3, 11) . (b) For yintercept, x = 0 y = 2 ] 0 g 2  12 ] 0 g + 7 =7
 11 (3,  11) 3 x y
10.1 Exercises
1. By finding the intercepts on the axes, sketch the parabola y = x 2 + 2x. Find the equation of its axis of symmetry, and the minimum value. Find the equation of the axis of symmetry and the minimum value of the parabola y = 2x 2 + 6x  3. 3. Find the equation of the axis of symmetry and the minimum value of the parabola y = x 2 + 3x + 2. Find the equation of the axis of symmetry and the minimum value of the parabola y = x 2  4.
4.
2.
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5.
Find the equation of the axis of symmetry and the minimum point of the parabola y = 4x 2  3x + 1. Find the equation of the axis of symmetry and the maximum value of the parabola y =  x 2 + 2x  7. Find the equation of the axis of symmetry and the maximum point of the parabola y =  2x 2  4x + 5. Find the minimum value of y = x 2 + 4x + 3. How many solutions does the equation x 2 + 4x + 3 = 0 have? Find the minimum value of y = x 2 + x + 4. How many solutions does the equation x 2 + x + 4 = 0 have?
6.
f ] x g = x 2 + 4x  3 y = x 2  2x f ] x g = x 2  4x  7 f ] x g = 2x 2 + x  3 y =  x 2  2x + 5 y =  2x 2 + 8x + 3 f ] x g =  3x 2 + 3x + 7 f ] x g =  x 2 + 2x  4
7.
8.
9.
10. Find the minimum value of y = x 2 + 4x + 4. How many solutions does the equation x 2 + 4x + 4 = 0 have? 11. Find the equation of the axis of symmetry and the coordinates of the vertex for each parabola. (a) y = x 2 + 6x  3 (b) y =  x 2  8x + 1 (c) y =  2x 2 + 5x (d) y = 4x 2 + 10x  7 (e) y = 3x 2 + 18x + 4 12. Find (i) the equation of the axis of symmetry (ii) the minimum or maximum value and (iii) the vertex of the parabola. (a) y = x 2 + 2x  2 (b) y =  2x 2 + 4x  1 13. Find the maximum or minimum point for each function. (a) y = x 2 + 2x + 1 (b) y = x 2  8x  7
14. For each quadratic function (i) find any xintercepts using the quadratic formula. (ii) state whether the function has a maximum or minimum value and find this value. (iii) sketch the function on a number plane. (a) f ] x g = x 2 + 4x + 4 (b) f ] x g = x 2  2x  3 (c) y = x 2  6x + 1 (d) f ] x g = x 2 + 2x (e) y = 2x 2  18 (f) y = 3x 2 + x  2 (g) f ] x g =  x 2  2x + 6 (h) f ] x g =  x 2  x + 3 (i) y =  x 2  3x + 2 (j) y =  2x 2 + 4x + 5 15. (a) Find the minimum value of the parabola y = x 2  2x + 5. (b) How many solutions does the quadratic equation x 2  2x + 5 = 0 have? (c) Sketch the parabola. 16. (a) How many xintercepts has the quadratic function f ] x g = x 2  3x + 9 ? (b) Find the minimum point of the function. (c) Sketch the function. 17. (a) Find the maximum value of the quadratic function f ] x g =  2x 2 + x  4 . (b) How many solutions has the quadratic equation  2x 2 + x  4 = 0 ? (c) Sketch the graph of the quadratic function.
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18. (a) Sketch the parabola y = x 2  5x + 6. (b) From the graph, find values of x for which x 2  5x + 6 2 0. (c) Find the domain over which x 2  5x + 6 # 0 . 19. Sketch y = 3x 2  2x + 4 and hence show that 3x 2  2x + 4 2 0 for all x.
20. By sketching f ] x g = x 2 + x + 2, show that x 2 + x + 2 2 0 for all x. 21. Show by a sketch that  x 2 + 2x  7 1 0 for all x. 22. Sketch y =  5x 2 + 4x  1 and show that 5x 2 + 4x  1 1 0 for all x.
Investigation
Could you tell without sketching the function y = x 2  x + 5 if x 2  x + 5 2 0 for all x? How could you do this? How could you know that  x 2 + 2x  7 1 0 for all x without sketching the graph of f ] x g =  x 2 + 2x  7?
You will look at this later on in the chapter.
Quadratic Inequalities
You looked at solving quadratic inequations in Chapter 3 using the number line. You can also solve them using the graph of a parabola.
For any curve on a number plane y = 0 is on the xaxis (all values of y are zero on the xaxis) y 2 0 is above the xaxis (all positive values of y lie above the xaxis) y 1 0 is below the xaxis (all negative values of y lie below the xaxis)
For the parabola y = ax 2 + bx + c ax 2 + bx + c = 0 on the xaxis ax 2 + bx + c 2 0 above the xaxis ax 2 + bx + c 1 0 below the xaxis
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y
a20
ax2 + bx + c 2 0
ax 2 + bx + c = 0
ax 2 + bx + c 1 0
y
a10
ax 2 + bx + c 2 0
ax 2 + bx + c = 0
ax 2 + bx + c 1 0
EXAMPLES
1. Solve x 2  3x + 2 $ 0.
Solution
First sketch y = x 2  3x + 2 showing xintercepts (a 2 0 so it is concave upwards). For xintercepts, y = 0 0 = x 2  3x + 2 = ]x  2g]x  1g x  2 = 0, x  1 = 0 x = 2, x=1
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Solution
First sketch y = 4x  x 2 showing xintercepts (a 1 0 so it is concave downwards). For xintercepts, y = 0 0 = 4x  x 2 = x ]4  x g x = 0, 4x=0 x = 0, 4=x
y
CONTINUED
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3. Solve x 2  25 1 0.
Solution
First sketch y = x 2  25 showing xintercepts (a 2 0 so it is concave upwards). For xintercepts, y = 0 0 = x 2  25 = ]x + 5 g]x  5 g x + 5 = 0, x  5 = 0 x =  5, x=5
y
5
Further inequations
You learned how to solve inequations involving the pronumeral in the denominator by using the number line in Chapter 3. Here we use quadratic inequalities to solve them.
553
EXAMPLES
1. Solve 1 $ 2. x+1
Solution
x ! 1 We dont know whether x + 1 is positive or negative, but ] x + 1 g 2 is always positive. We can multiply both sides of the inequation by ] x + 1 g 2 without changing the inequality sign. 1 $2 x+1 1 # ]x + 1 g2 $ 2 # ]x + 1 g 2 x+1 x + 1 $ 2 ]x + 1 g2 0 $ 2 ]x + 1 g2  ]x + 1 g $ ]x + 1 g62 ]x + 1 g  1 @ $ ] x + 1 g ] 2x + 2  1 g $ ] x + 1 g ] 2x + 1 g We solve this by sketching the parabola y = ] x + 1 g ] 2x + 1 g. For xintercepts: y = 0 0 = ] x + 1 g ] 2x + 1 g x + 1 = 0, 2x + 1 = 0 x =  1, 2x =  1 1 x=2
y
1
1 2
Solution
x!2 We multiply both sides of the inequation by ] x  2 g 2.
CONTINUED
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4x 15 x2
10
10.2 Exercises
Solve 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. x2  9 2 0 n2 + n # 0 a 2  2a $ 0 4  x2 1 0 y 2  6y # 0 6. 7. 8. 9. 2t  t 2 2 0 x 2 + 2x  8 2 0 p 2 + 4p + 3 $ 0 m 2  6m + 8 2 0
10. 6  x  x 2 # 0
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11. 2h 2  7h + 6 1 0 12. x 2  x  20 # 0 13. 35 + 9k  2k 2 $ 0 14. q 2  9q + 18 2 0 15. ] x + 2 g2 $ 0 16. 12  n  n 2 # 0 17. x 2  2x 1 15 18.  t 2 $ 4t  12 19. 3y 2 2 14y + 5 20. ] x  3 g ] x + 1 g $ 5 1 21. x 1  2 1 22. x 2 3
1 23. x $ 1 1 24.  x $ 2 25. 26. 27. 28. 29. 30. 1 23 x 1 1 #1 x+2 2 $5 x2 3 2 1 x+3 1 #3 x1 x $4 x+2
Solve the inequations in Chapter 3 using these methods for extra practice.
The Discriminant
The values of x that satisfy a quadratic equation are called the roots of the equation. The roots of ax 2 + bx + c = 0 are the xintercepts of the graph y = ax 2 + bx + c
a20 x
a10 x
Since the graph can be both positive and negative, it is called an indefinite function.
556
a20 x
a10 x
a20 x
a10 x
Investigation
1. Solve the following quadratic equations using the quadratic formula (a) x 2  3x + 2 = 0 (b) x 2 + 4x  7 = 0 (c) x 2 + x + 5 = 0 (d) x 2  6x + 9 = 0 2. Without solving a quadratic equation, can you predict how many roots it has by looking at the quadratic formula?
557
b 2  4ac , the expression b 2  4ac is called 2a the discriminant. It gives us information about the roots of the quadratic equation ax 2 + bx + x = 0. In the quadratic formula x =
b !
EXAMPLES
Use the quadratic formula to find how many real roots each quadratic equation has. 1. x 2 + 5x  3 = 0
Solution
 b ! b 2  4ac 2a  5 ! 5 2  4 #1#  3 = 2 #1  5 ! 25 + 12 = 2  5 ! 37 = 2 There are 2 real roots: x= x=  5 + 37  5  37 , 2 2
2. x 2  x + 4 = 0
Solution
x=  b ! b 2  4ac 2a  (1) ! (1) 2  4 #1# 4 = 2 #1 1 ! 15 = 2 15 has no real value.
Solution
x=  b ! b 2  4ac 2a  ( 2) ! ( 2) 2  4 #1#1 = 2 #1 2! 0 = 2
CONTINUED
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Notice that when there are 2 real roots, the discriminant b 2  4ac 2 0. When there are 2 equal roots (or just 1 real root), b 2  4ac = 0. When there are no real roots, b 2  4ac 1 0. We often use D = b 2  4ac.
a20 x
a10 x
If T is a perfect square, the roots are rational. If T is not a perfect square, the roots are irrational. 2. If T = 0, then the quadratic equation ax 2 + bx + c = 0 has 1 real root or 2 equal roots.
y y
a20 x
a10 x
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a20 x
a10 x
We can examine the roots of the quadratic equation by using the discriminant rather than the whole quadratic formula.
EXAMPLES
1. Show that the equation 2x 2 + x + 4 = 0 has no real roots.
Solution
T = b 2  4ac = 12  4 ] 2 g ] 4 g = 1  32 =  31 10 So the equation has no real roots. 2. Find the values of k for which the quadratic equation 5x 2  2x + k = 0 has real roots.
Solution
For real unequal roots, T 2 0. For real equal roots, T = 0. So for real roots, T $ 0.
CONTINUED
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T $0 b  4ac $ 0
2
] 2 g 2  4 ] 5 g ] k g $ 0
Solution
If a 2 0 and T1 0, then ax 2 + bx + c 2 0 for all x.
y
a20 x
a =1 20 T = b 2  4ac = ] 2 g 2  4 ] 1 g ] 4 g = 4  16 = 12 10 Since a 2 0 and T1 0, x 2  2x + 4 2 0 for all x. 4. Show that the line 4x + y + 4 = 0 is a tangent to the parabola y = x 2.
Solution
For the line to be a tangent, it must intersect with the curve in only 1 point.
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y 5 4 3 2 1 x 4 3 2 1 2 3 4 5 6 1 2 3 4 5
It is too hard to tell from the graph if the line is a tangent, so we solve simultaneous equations to find any points of intersection. y = x2 4x + y + 4 = 0 Substitute (1) into (2): 4x + x 2 + 4 = 0 x 2 + 4x + 4 = 0 We dont need to find the roots of the equation as the question only asks how many roots there are. We find the discriminant. D = b 2  4ac = 42  4 ] 1 g ] 4 g = 16  16 =0 ` the equation has 1 real root (equal roots) so there is only one point of intersection. So the line is a tangent to the parabola.
]1 g ]2 g
10.3 Exercises
1. Find the discriminant of each quadratic equation. (a) x 2  4x  1 = 0 (b) 2x 2 + 3x + 7 = 0 (c)  4x 2 + 2x  1 = 0 (d) 6x 2  x  2 = 0 (e)  x 2  3x = 0 (f) x 2 + 4 = 0 (g) x 2  2x + 1 = 0 (h) 3x 2  2x + 5 = 0 (i)  2x 2 + x + 2 = 0 (j)  x 2 + 4x  4 = 0 2. Find the discriminant and state whether the roots of the quadratic equation are real or imaginary (not real), and if they are real, whether they are equal or unequal, rational or irrational.
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(a) (b) (c) (d) (e) (f) (g) (h) (i) (j) 3.
x2  x  4 = 0 2x 2 + 3x + 6 = 0 x 2  9x + 20 = 0 x 2 + 6x + 9 = 0 2x 2  5x  1 = 0  x 2 + 2x  5 = 0  2x 2  5x + 3 = 0  5x 2 + 2x  6 = 0 x2 + x = 0  2x 2 + 8x  2 = 0
12. If x 2  2kx + 1 = 0 has real roots, evaluate k. 13. Find exact values of p if px 2  2x + 3p = 0 is negative definite. 14. Evaluate b if ] b  2 g x 2  2bx + 5b = 0 has real roots. 15. Find values of p for which the quadratic equation x 2 + px + p + 3 = 0 has real roots. 16. Show that the line y = 2x + 6 cuts the parabola y = x 2 + 3 in 2 points. 17. Show that the line 3x + y  4 = 0 cuts the parabola y = x 2 + 5x + 3 in 2 points. 18. Show that the line y =  x  4 does not touch the parabola y = x 2. 19. Show that the line y = 5x  2 is a tangent to the parabola y = x 2 + 3x  1 . 20. The line y = 3x  p + 1 is a tangent to the parabola y = x 2. Evaluate p. 21. Which of these lines is a tangent to the circle x 2 + y 2 = 4? (a) 3x  y  1 = 0 (b) 5x + y  3 = 0 (c) 4x + 3y  10 = 0 (d) 5x  12y + 26 = 0 (e) 2x + y  7 = 0
Find the value of p for which the quadratic equation x 2 + 2x + p = 0 has equal roots. Find any values of k for which the quadratic equation x 2 + kx + 1 = 0 has equal roots. Find all the values of b for which 2x 2 + x + b + 1 = 0 has real roots. Evaluate p if px 2 + 4x + 2 = 0 has no real roots. Find all values of k for which ] k + 2 g x 2 + x  3 = 0 has 2 real unequal roots. Prove that 3x 2  x + 7 2 0 for all real x. Find the values of k for which x 2 + ] k + 1 g x + 4 = 0 has real roots.
4.
5. 6. 7.
8. 9.
10. Find values of k for which the expression kx 2 + 3kx + 9 is positive definite. 11. Find the values of m for which the quadratic equation x 2  2mx + 9 = 0 has real and different roots.
Quadratic Identities
When you use the quadratic formula to solve an equation, you compare a quadratic, say, 3x 2  2x + 5 = 0 with the general quadratic ax 2 + bx + c = 0.
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You are assuming when you do this that 3x 2  2x + 5 and ax 2 + bx + c are equivalent expressions. We can state this as a general rule: If two quadratic expressions are equivalent to each other then the corresponding coefficients must be equal.
Proof
If a 1 x 2 + b 1 x + c 1 = a 2 x 2 + b 2 x + c 2 for more than two values of x, then (a 1  a 2) x 2 + (b 1  b 2) x + (c 1  c 2) = 0. That is, a 1 = a 2, b 1 = b 2 and c 1 = c 2 .
EXAMPLES
1. Write 2x 2  3x + 5 in the form A (x  1)2 + B (x  1) + C.
Solution
A ] x  1 g2 + B (x  1) + C = A (x 2  2x + 1) + Bx  B + C = Ax 2  2Ax + A + Bx  B + C = Ax 2 + ( 2A + B) x + A  B + C For 2x 2  3x + 5 / Ax 2 + ( 2A + B) x + A  B + C A=2  2A + B =  3 AB+C=5 Substitute (1) into (2):  2 ( 2) + B =  3  4 + B = 3 B=1 Substitute A = 2 and B = 1 into (3): 21+C=5 1+C=5 C=4 ` 2x 2  3x + 5 / 2 (x  1) 2 + (x  1) + 4
( 1) (2) ( 3)
CONTINUED
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Solution
a ] x + 3 g2 + bx + c  1 = a (x 2 + 6x + 9) + bx + c  1 = ax 2 + 6ax + 9a + bx + c  1 = ax 2 + (6a + b) x + 9a + c  1 2 For x  x / ax 2 + (6a + b) x + 9a + c  1 a =1 6a + b = 1 9a + c  1 = 0 Substitute (1) into (2): 6 (1) + b = 1 6 + b = 1 b = 7 Substitute (1) into (3): 9 (1) + c  1 = 0 8+c=0 c = 8 ` a = 1, b = 7, c =  8 3. Find the equation of the parabola that passes through the points (1, 3), (0, 3) and (2, 21) .
( 1) ( 2) ( 3)
Solution
The parabola has equation in the form y = ax 2 + bx + c. Substitute the points into the equation: ^ 1, 3 h: 3 = a ] 1 g 2 + b ] 1 g + c =ab+c ` a  b + c = 3 ^ 0, 3 h : 3 = a ]0 g2 + b ]0 g + c =c `
^ 2, 21 h:
]1 g
c =3 21 = a ] 2 g 2 + b ] 2 g + c = 4a + 2b + c
]2 g
]3 g
( 4)
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Substitute (2) into (3): 4a + 2b + 3 = 21 4a + 2b = 18 (4) # 2: 2a  2b = 12 (6) + (5): 2a  2b = 12 4a + 2b = 18 6a =6 a=1 Substitute a = 1 into (5): 4 (1) + 2b = 18 4 + 2b = 18 2b = 14 b=7 ` a = 1, b = 7, c = 3 Thus the parabola has equation y = x 2 + 7x + 3.
(5 ) (6 )
10.4 Exercises
1. Find values of a, b and c for which (a) x 2 + 4x  3 / a ]x + 1 g 2 + b ]x + 1 g + c (b) 2x 2  3x + 1 / a ]x + 2 g2 + b ]x + 2 g + c (c) x 2  x  2 / a ]x  1 g2 + b ]x  1 g + c (d) x 2 + x + 6 / a ]x  3 g2 + b ]x  3 g + c (e) 3x 2  5x  2 / a ]x + 1 g2 + b ]x  1 g + c (f) 4x 2 + x  7 / a ]x  2 g2 + b ]x  2 g + c (g) 2x 2 + 4x  1 / a ]x + 4 g2 + b ]x + 2 g + c (h) 3x 2  2x + 5 / a ] x + 1 g 2 + bx + c (i)  x 2 + 4x  3 / a ]x + 3 g2 + b ]x + 3 g + c (j)  2x 2 + 4x  3 / a ]x  1 g2 + b ]x + 1 g + c 2. Find values of m, p and q for which 2x 2  x  1 / m ] x + 1 g 2 + p ] x + 1 g + q. Express x 2  4x + 5 in the form Ax ] x  2 g + B ] x + 1 g + C + 4. Show that x 2 + 2x + 9 can be written in the form a ]x  2g]x + 3g + b ]x  2g + c where a = 1, b = 1 and c = 17. Find values of A, B and C if x 2 + x  2 / A ] x  2 g 2 + Bx + C. Find values of a, b and c for which 3x 2 + 5x  1 / ax ] x + 3 g + bx 2 + c ] x + 1 g . Evaluate K, L and M if x 2 / K ] x  3 g 2 + L ] x + 1 g  2M.
3. 4.
5. 6.
7.
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8. 9.
10. Find the equation of the parabola that passes through the points (a) (0, 5), (2, 3) and (3, 7) Find the values of a, b and c if (b) (1, 2), (3, 0) and (2, 10) 20x  17 / a ] x  4 g 2  b ] 5x + 1 g + c. (c) (2, 21), (1, 6) and (1, 12) (d) (2, 3), (1, 4) and (1, 12) (e) (0, 1), (2, 1) and (2, 7)
EXAMPLE
(a) Solve x 2  9x + 20 = 0. (b) Find the sum of the roots. (c) Find the product of the roots.
Solution
(a) x 2  9x + 20 = 0 (x  4) (x  5) = 0 x  4 = 0, x  5 = 0 ` x = 4, x=5
This relationship with the sum and product of the roots works for any quadratic equation.
The general quadratic equation can be written in the form x 2  (a + b) x + ab = 0 where a and b are the roots of the equation.
Proof
Suppose the general quadratic equation ax 2 + bx + c = 0 has roots a and b. Then this equation can be written in the form
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(x  a ) (x  b) = 0 i.e. x  bx  a x + ab = 0 x 2  (a + b) x + ab = 0
2
EXAMPLES
1. Find the quadratic equation that has roots 6 and  1.
Solution
Method 1: Using the general formula x 2  (a + b) x + ab = 0 where a = 6 and b = 1 a + b = 6 + 1 =5 ab = 6 # 1 = 6 Substituting into x 2  (a + b ) x + ab = 0 gives x 2  5x  6 = 0 Method 2: If 6 and 1 are the roots of the equation then it can be written as ]x  6 g]x + 1 g = 0 x 2 + x  6x  6 = 0 x 2  5x  6 = 0 2. Find the quadratic equation that has roots 3 + 2 and 3  2 .
It doesnt matter which way around we name these roots.
Solution
Method 1: Using the general formula a+b=3+ 2+3 2 =6 ab = (3 + 2 ) # (3  2 ) = 3 2  ( 2 )2 =92 =7 Substituting into x 2  (a + b ) x + ab = 0 gives x 2  6x + 7 = 0 Method 2: If 3 + 2 and 3  2 are the roots of the equation then it can be written as _x  "3 + 2 ,i_x  "3  2 ,i = 0 ^x  3  2 h^x  3 + 2 h = 0 x 2  3x + 2 x  3x + 9  3 2  2 x + 3 2  2 = 0 x 2  6x + 7 = 0
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We can find a more general relationship between the sum and product of roots of a quadratic equation.
If a and b are the roots of the quadratic equation ax 2 + bx + c = 0: b Sum of roots: a + b =  a c Product of roots: ab = a
Proof
If an equation has roots a and b, it can be written as x 2  (a + b )x + ab = 0. But we know that a and b are the roots of the quadratic equation ax 2 + bx + c = 0. Using quadratic identities, we can compare the two forms of the equation. ax 2 + bx + c = 0 ax 2 bx c 0 a + a +a=a c b x2 + a x + a = 0
c b For x 2  (a + b ) x + ab / x 2 + a x + a b  (a + b ) = a b ` a + b = a c Also ab = a
EXAMPLES
1. Find (a) a + b (b) ab (c) a2 + b2 if a and b are the roots of 2x 2  6x + 1 = 0.
Solution
b (a) a + b =  a ==3 (6) 2
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c (b) ab = a 1 = 2 (c) a 2 + b 2 ! (a + b ) 2
^ a + b h2 = a 2 + 2ab + b2 ^ a + b h2  2ab = a 2 + b2
] 3 g 2  2 c 1 m = a2 + b2 2 9  1 = a 2 + b2
Solution
If  2 is a root of the equation then x = 2 satisfies the equation. Substitute x =  2 into the equation: k ] 2 g 2  7 ] 2 g + k + 1 = 0 4k + 14 + k + 1 = 0 5k + 15 = 0 5k =  15 k = 3 3. Evaluate p if one root of x 2 + 2x  5p = 0 is double the other root.
Solution
If one root is a then the other root is 2a . Sum of roots: b a + b = a a + 2a = 2 1 3a =  2 2 a=3
CONTINUED
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Product of roots: c ab = a  5p a # 2a = 1 2 2a =  5p 2 2 2 c  m =  5p 3 4 2 c m =  5p 9 8 =  5p 9 8 =p 45
10.5 Exercises
1. Find a + b and ab if a and b are the roots of (a) x 2 + 2x + 1 = 0 (b) 2x 2  3x  6 = 0 (c) 5x 2  x  9 = 0 (d) x 2 + 7x + 1 = 0 (e) 3y 2  8y + 3 = 0 If a and b are the roots of the quadratic equation x 2  3x  6 = 0, find the value of (a) a + b (b) ab 1 1 + (c) a b (d) a2 + b2 3. Find the quadratic equation whose roots are (a) 2 and  5 (b)  3 and 7 (c)  1 and  4 (d) 4 + 5 and 4  5 (e) 1 + 2 7 and 1  2 7 8. 4. Find the value of m in x 2 + 2mx  6 = 0 if one of the roots is 2. If one of the roots of the quadratic equation 2x 2  5x + k  1 = 0 is  3, find the value of k. One root of 3x 2  2 (3b + 1) x + 4b = 0 is 8. Find the value of b. In the quadratic equation 2x 2  3x + k = 0, one root is double the other. Find the value of k. In the quadratic equation x 2  8x + p  1 = 0, one root is triple the other. Find the value of p. In the quadratic equation (k  2) x 2 + 50x + 2k + 3 = 0, the roots are reciprocals of each other. Find the value of k.
5.
2.
6.
7.
9.
1 . n
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10. In the quadratic equation x 2 + mx + 2 = 0, the roots are consecutive. Find the values of m. 11. In the quadratic equation  3x 2  (k + 1) x + 5 = 0, the roots are equal in magnitude but opposite in sign. Find the value of k. 12. Find values of n in the equation 2x 2  5(n  1) x + 12 = 0 if the two roots are consecutive. 13. If the sum of the roots of x 2 + px + r = 0 is  2 and the product of roots is  7, find the values of p and r. 14. One root of the quadratic equation x 2 + bx + c = 0 is 4 and the product of the roots is 8. Find the values of b and c. 15. The roots of the quadratic equation x 2 + 4x  a = 0 are b + 1 and b  3. Find the values of a and b. 16. Show that the roots of the quadratic equation 3mx 2 + 2x + 3m = 0 are always reciprocals of one another.
17. Find values of k in the equation k +1 m = 0 if: x 2 + (k + 1 ) x + c 4 (a) roots are equal in magnitude but opposite in sign (b) roots are equal (c) one root is 1 (d) roots are reciprocals of one another (e) roots are real. 18. Find exact values of p in the equation x 2 + px + 3 = 0 if (a) the roots are equal (b) it has real roots (c) one root is double the other. 19. Find values of k in the equation x 2 + kx + k  1 = 0 if (a) the roots are equal (b) one root is 4 (c) the roots are reciprocals of one another. 20. Find values of m in the equation mx 2 + x + m  3 = 0 if (a) one root is 2 (b) it has no real roots (c) the product of the roots is 2.
Consecutive numbers are numbers that follow each other in order, such as 3 and 4.
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EXAMPLES
1. Solve ] x + 2 g 2  3 ] x + 2 g  4 = 0.
Solution
Let
2
u=x+2 =0 =0 =0 = 1
x + 2 = 1 x = 3
2 2. Solve x + x = 3 where x ! 0.
Solution
2 x+ x =3 2 x#x+x#x =3#x x 2 + 2 = 3x x 2  3x + 2 = 0 ]x  2 g]x  1 g = 0 x  2 = 0, x  1 = 0 x = 2, x=1 3. Solve 9 x  4.3 x + 3 = 0.
Solution
x 2 9x = ^ 32 h = ^ 3x h So 9 x  4.3 x + 3 = 0 can be written as ^ 3 x h2  4.3 x + 3 = 0 Let k = 3x
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Solution
Let
2
sin x = u
Then 2u + u  1 = 0 ] 2u  1 g ] u + 1 g = 0 2u  1 = 0 or u + 1 = 0 u = 1 2u = 1 u= 1 2
30c 2 3
But u = sin x 1 So sin x = or sin x = 1 2 1 sin x = has solutions in the 1st and 2nd quadrants 2 1 sin 30c = 2 So x = 30c, 180c  30c = 30c, 150c For sin x =  1, we use the graph of y = sin x
y
60 0 c
90c 1
180c
270c
360c
From the graph: x = 270c So solutions to 2 sin 2 x + sin x  1 = 0 are x = 30c, 150c, 270c
CONTINUED
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10.6 Exercises
1. Solve (a) ] x  1 g 2 + 7 ] x  1 g + 10 = 0 (b) ^ y  3 h 2  ^ y  3 h  2 = 0 (c) ] x + 2 g 2  2 ] x + 2 g  8 = 0 (d) ] n  5 g 2 + 7 ] n  5 g + 6 = 0 (e) ] a  4 g 2 + 6 ] a  4 g  7 = 0 (f) ^ p + 1 h 2  9 ^ p + 1 h + 20 = 0 (g) ] x + 3 g 2  4 ] x + 3 g  5 = 0 (h) ] k  8 g 2  ] k  8 g  12 = 0 (i) ] t  2 g 2 + 2 ] t  2 g  24 = 0 (j) ] b + 9 g 2  2 ] b + 9 g  15 = 0 Solve (x ! 0) . 6 (a) x  x = 1 6 (b) x + x = 5 20 (c) x + x  9 = 0 15 (d) x + x = 8 12 (e) 2x + x = 11 (c) 5 2x  5 x  20 = 0 (d) 9 x + 3 x  12 = 0 (e) 4 x  10.2 x + 16 = 0 5. Solve x 2 + 4 = 5 ( x ! 0) . x2
6.
2.
7.
d x2 +
8.
3.
Solve (a) x 4  7x 2  18 = 0 9. (b) y 4  6y 2 + 8 = 0, giving exact values 2 (c) ^ x 2  x h + ^ x 2  x h  2 = 0 giving exact values (d) ^ x 2 + 3x 1 h2  7 ^ x 2 + 3x 1 h +10 = 0 correct to 2 decimal places 10. 2 (e) ^ a 2 + 4a h + 2 ^ a 2 + 4a h  8 = 0 giving exact values. Solve (a) 2 2x  9.2 x + 8 = 0 (b) 3 2p + 3 p  12 = 0
Solve for 0c # x # 360c. (a) sin 2 x  sin x = 0 (b) cos 2 x + cos x = 0 (c) 2 sin 2 x  sin x  1 = 0 (d) 2 cos 2 x = cos x (e) sin x = cos 2 x  1 Solve for 0c # x # 360c. (a) tan 2 x  tan x = 0 (b) cos 2 x  1 = 0 (c) 2 sin 2 x  sin x = 0 (d) 8 sin 4 x  10 sin 2 x + 3 = 0 (e) 3 tan 4 x  10 tan 2 x + 3 = 0 Show that the equation 2 x+3+ = 5 has 2 real x+3 irrational roots (x !  3) .
4.
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Test Yourself 10
1. Solve (a) x 2  3x # 0 (b) n 2  9 2 0 (c) 4  y 2 $ 0 Evaluate a, b and c if 2x 2  5x + 7 = 2a(x + 1) 2 + b (x + 1) + c. Find (a) the equation of the axis of symmetry and (b) the minimum value of the parabola y = x 2  4x + 1. Show that y = x 2  2x + 7 is a positive definite quadratic function. If a and b are roots of the quadratic equation x 2  6x + 3 = 0, find (a) a + b (b) ab 1 1 + (c) a b (d) ab2 + a 2 b (e) a 2 + b2 Solve (3x  2) 2  2 (3x  2)  3 = 0. Describe the roots of each quadratic equation as (i) real, different and rational (ii) real, different and irrational (iii) equal or (iv) unreal. (a) 2x 2  x + 3 = 0 (b) x 2  10x  25 = 0 (c) x 2  10x + 25 = 0 (d) 3x 2 + 7x  2 = 0 (e) 6x 2  x  2 = 0 Show that  4 + 3x  x 2 1 0 for all x. 9. Find (a) the equation of the axis of symmetry and (b) the maximum value of the quadratic function y =  2x 2  x + 6.
2. 3.
10. Write 3x 2 + 7 in the form a (x  2) 2 + b (x + 3) + c. 11. Solve 2 sin 2 x + sin x  1 = 0 for 0c # x # 360c. 12. Find the value of k in x 2 + 3x + k  1 = 0 if the quadratic equation has (a) equal roots (b) one root  3 (c) one root double the other (d) consecutive roots (e) reciprocal roots. 3 13. Solve 2x = 5 + x (x ! 0) .
4. 5.
14. Find values of m such that mx 2 + 3x  4 1 0 for all x. 15. Solve 5 2x  26.5 x + 25 = 0. 16. For each set of graphs, state whether they have (i) 2 points (ii) 1 point (iii) no points of intersection. (a) xy = 7 and 3x  5y  1 = 0 (b) x 2 + y 2 = 9 and y = 3x  3 (c) x 2 + y 2 = 1 and x  2y  3 = 0 2 (d) y = x and y = 3x + 1 (e) y = x 2 and y = 4x  4
6. 7.
8.
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17. State if each quadratic function is (i) indefinite (ii) positive definite or (iii) negative definite. (a)
(d)
18. Show that kx 2  px + k = 0 has reciprocal roots for all x. (b) 19. Find the quadratic equation that has roots (a) 4 and  7 (b) 5 + 7 and 5  7 20. Solve 2 2x  10.2 x + 16 = 0. 21. Solve (c) (a) (b) (c) (d) (e) 3 17 x+1 2n $1 n3 2 23 5y  1 3x #2 2x + 5 2x + 1 $5 x4
Challenge Exercise 10
1. Show that the quadratic equation 2x 2  kx + k  2 = 0 has real rational roots. Find the equation of a quadratic function that passes through the points ( 2, 18), (3,  2) and (1, 0) . Find the value of a, b and c if x 2 + 5x  3 / ax (x + 1) + b (x + 1)2 + cx. 4. 5. 6. Solve x 2 + 1 + 25 = 10. x2 + 1
2.
Find the maximum value of the function f (x) =  2x 2  4x + 9. Find the value of n for which the equation (n + 2) x 2 + 3x  5 = 0 has one root triple the other.
3.
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7. 8. 9.
Find the values of p for which x 2  x + 3p  2 2 0 for all x. Show that the quadratic equation x 2  2px + p 2 = 0 has equal roots. Solve 2 2x + 1  5.2 x + 2 = 0.
12. Find exact values of k for which x 2 + 2kx + k + 5 = 0 has real roots. 13. Solve 3  2 cos 2 x  3 sin x = 0 for 0c # x # 360c. 1 2 1 14. Solve b x + x l  5 b x + x l + 6 = 0. 15. Solve 2 sin 2 x + cos x  2 = 0 for 0c # x # 360c. 16. If a and b are the roots of the quadratic equation 2x 2 + 4x  5 = 0, evaluate a 3 + b 3.
10. Find values of A, B and C if 4x 2  3x + 7 / (Ax + 4)2 + B (x + 4) + C. 11. Express 4x + 1 in the form x x2 a b + . x2 x+1
2
11
TERMINOLOGY
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INTRODUCTION
THIS CHAPTER EXPANDS THE work on functions that you have already learned.
It shows a method of finding the equation of a locus. In particular, you will study the circle and the parabola, defined as a locus. A parabola can also be defined as a set of parametric equations, and you will study these in this chapter.
Locus
A relation can be described in two different ways. It can be a set of points that obey certain conditions, or a single point that moves along a path according to certain conditions. A locus is the term used to describe the path of a single moving point that obeys certain conditions.
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EXAMPLES
Describe the locus of the following. 1. A pencil on the end of compasses.
Solution
The path of the pencil is a circle with centre at the point of the compasses. 2. A person going up an escalator (standing still on one step).
Solution
The body travels along a straight line parallel to the escalator. 3. A doorknob on a closing door.
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Solution
If the door could swing right around it would follow a circle. So a door closing swings through an arc of a circle. 4. A point on the number line that is 3 units from 0.
Solution
The locus is !3. 5. A point in the number plane that moves so that it is always 3 units from the yaxis.
Solution
The locus is 2 vertical lines with equations x = !3.
Class Discussion
Describe the path of a person abseiling down a cliff.
11.1 Exercises
Describe the locus of the following: 1. 2. 3. a racing car driving around a track a person climbing a ladder a child on a swing 4. 5. a balls flight when thrown a person driving up to the 5th floor of a car park
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6.
a point that moves along the number line such that it is always less than 2 units from 0 a point on the number plane that moves so that it is always 2 units from the origin a point that moves so that it is always 1 unit from the xaxis a point that moves so that it is always 5 units from the yaxis
13. a point that is always 5 units below the xaxis 14. a point that is always 3 units away from the point (1, 1) 15. a point that is always 7 units to the left of the yaxis 16. a point that is always 3 units to the right of the yaxis 17. a point that is always 8 units from the xaxis 18. a point that is always 4 units from the yaxis 19. a point that is always 6 units from the point ( 2, 4) 20. a point that is always 1 unit from the point ( 4, 5).
7.
8. 9.
10. a point that moves so that it is always 2 units above the xaxis 11. a point that moves so that it is always 1 unit from the origin 12. a point that moves so that it is always 4 units from the point ^ 1,  2 h
A locus describes a single point P ^ x, y h that moves along a certain path. The equation of a locus can often be found by using P ^ x, y h together with the information given about the locus.
EXAMPLES
1. Find the equation of the locus of a point P ^ x, y h that moves so that it is always 3 units from the origin.
Solution
You may recognise this locus as a circle, centre ^ 0, 0 h radius 3 units. Its equation is given by x 2 + y 2 = 9. Alternatively, use the distance formula. d=
2 2 _ x2  x1 i + _ y2  y1 i
You studied this formula in 2 Chapter 7. It is easier to use d than d to find the equation of the locus.
or d 2 = _ x 2  x 1 i2 + _ y 2  y 1 i2
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Let P ^ x, y h be a point of the locus. We want PO = 3 i.e. PO 2 = 9 ^x  0h2+ ^y  0h2 = 9 x2 + y2 = 9 2. Find the equation of the locus of point P ^ x, y h that moves so that distance PA to distance PB is in the ratio 2:1 where A = ^  3, 1 h and B = ^ 2,  2 h .
Solution
Let P ^ x, y h be a point of the locus. PA : PB = 2:1 i.e. ` i.e. 2 PA = PB 1 PA = 2PB PA 2 = ] 2PB g 2 = 4PB 2
Use the distance formula as in Example 1.
3. Find the equation of the locus of a point P ^ x, y h that moves so that the line PA is perpendicular to line PB, where A = ^ 1, 2 h and B = ^  3, 1 h .
CONTINUED
584
Solution
Let P ^ x, y h be a point of the locus. For perpendicular lines, m 1 m 2 = 1 y2  y1 Using m = x  x 2 1 y2 PA: m 1 = x 1 y  ] 1 g PB: m 2 = x  ]3g y +1 = x+3 For PA perpendicular to PB y  2 y +1 # = 1 x 1 x + 3 y2  y  2 = 1 x 2 + 2x  3 y 2  y  2 =  ^ x 2 + 2x  3 h =  x 2  2x + 3 i.e. x 2 + 2x + y 2  y  5 = 0 4. Find the equation of the locus of point P ^ x, y h that is equidistant from fixed point A ^ 1,  2 h and fixed line with equation y = 5.
Solution
Let P ^ x, y h be a point of the locus. B has coordinates ^ x, 5 h . We want PA = PB PA 2 = PB 2 ^ x  1 h + [ y  ^  2 h] 2 = ^ x  x h 2 + ^ y  5 h 2 ^x  1h2+ ^y + 2h2 = ^y  5h2 x 2  2x + 1 + y 2 + 4y + 4 = y 2  10y + 25 x 2  2x + 14y  20 = 0 i.e.
2
This is the equation of a parabola. Can you see where the parabola lies?
585
11.2 Exercises
1. Find the equation of the locus of point P ^ x, y h that moves so that it is always 1 unit from the origin. Find the equation of the locus of point P ^ x, y h that moves so that it is always 9 units from the point ^ 1, 1 h . Find the equation of the locus of a point that moves so that it is always 2 units from the point ^ 5,  2 h . Find the equation of the locus of point P ^ x, y h that moves so that it is equidistant from the points ^ 3, 2 h and ^ 1, 5 h . Find the equation of the locus of a point that moves so that it is equidistant from the points ^  4, 6 h and ^ 2, 7 h . Find the equation of the locus of point P ^ x, y h that moves so that it is equidistant from the xaxis and the yaxis. Find the equation of the locus of a point P that moves so that PA is twice the distance of PB where A = ^ 0, 3 h and B = ^ 4, 7 h . Find the equation of the locus of point P ^ x, y h that moves so that the ratio of PA to PB is 3:2 where A = ^  6, 5 h and B = ^ 3, 1 h . Find the equation of the locus of a point that moves so that it is equidistant from the point ^ 2,  3 h and the line y = 7. 11. Find the equation of the locus of a point that moves so that it is equidistant from the point ^ 2, 0 h and the line x = 6. 12. Find the equation of the locus of a point that moves so that it is equidistant from the point ^ 1, 1 h and the line y = 3. 13. Find the equation of the locus of a point that moves so that it is equidistant from the point ^ 0,  3 h and the line y = 3. 14. Find the equation of the locus of a point P ^ x, y h that moves so that the line PA is perpendicular to line PB where A = ^ 1,  3 h and B = ^ 4, 5 h . 15. Find the equation of the locus of a point P ^ x, y h that moves so that the line PA is perpendicular to line PB, where A = ^  4, 0 h and B = ^ 1, 1 h . 16. Find the equation of the locus of a point P ^ x, y h that moves so that the line PA is perpendicular to line PB where A = ^ 1, 5 h and B = ^  2,  3 h . 17. Point P moves so that PA 2 + PB 2 = 4 where A = ^ 3, 1 h and B = ^  5, 4 h . Find the equation of the locus of P. 18. Point P moves so that PA 2 + PB 2 = 12 where A = ^  2,  5 h and B = ^ 1, 3 h . Find the equation of the locus of P. 19. Find the equation of the locus of a point that moves so that its distance from the line 3x + 4y + 5 = 0 is always 4 units.
2.
3.
4.
5.
6.
7.
8.
9.
10. Find the equation of the locus of a point that moves so that it is equidistant from the point ^ 0, 5 h and the line y =  5.
586
20. Find the equation of the locus of a point that moves so that its distance from the line 12x  5y  1 = 0 is always 1 unit. 21. Find the equation, in exact form, of the locus of a point that moves so that its distance from the line x  2y  3 = 0 is always 5 units. 22. Find the equation of the locus of a point that moves so that it is equidistant from the line 4x  3y + 2 = 0 and the line 3x + 4y  7 = 0.
23. Find the equation of the locus of a point that moves so that it is equidistant from the line 3x + 4y  5 = 0 and the line 5x + 12y  1 = 0. 24. Given two points A ^ 3,  2 h and B ^ 1, 7 h, find the equation of the locus of P ^ x, y h if the gradient of PA is twice the gradient of PB. 25. If R is the fixed point ^ 3, 2 h and P is a movable point ^ x, y h, find the equation of the locus of P if the distance PR is twice the distance from P to the line y = 1.
PROBLEM
Can you see 2 mistakes in the solution to this question? Find the locus of point P ^ x, y h that moves so that its perpendicular distance from the line 12x + 5y  1 = 0 is always 3 units.
Solution
Let P ^ x, y h be a point of the locus. d= 3= = =  ax 1 + by 1 + c  a2 + b2  5x + 12y  1 5 2 + 12 2  5x + 12y  1 25 + 144  5x + 12y  1
169  5x + 12y  1 = 13 ` 39 = 5x + 12y  1 0 = 5x + 12y  40 Can you find the correct locus?
587
Circle as a Locus
The locus of point P (x, y) that is always a constant distance from a fixed point is a circle.
Proof
Find the equation of the locus of point P ^ x, y h that is always r units from the origin.
Let P ^ x, y h be a point of the locus. OP = r i.e. OP 2 = r 2 2 ^ x  0 h + ^ y  0 h 2 = r2 x2 + y2 = r2 So x 2 + y 2 = r 2 is the equation of the locus. It describes a circle with radius r and centre ^ 0, 0 h .
Proof
Find the equation of the locus of point P ^ x, y h that is always r units from point A ^ a, b h .
588
Let P ^ x, y h be a point of the locus. AP = r i.e. AP 2 = r 2 ^ x  a h 2 + ^ y  b h 2 = r2 So ] x  a g2 + ^ y  b h2 = r 2 is the equation of the locus. It describes a circle with radius r and centre ^ a, b h .
EXAMPLES
1. Find the equation of the locus of a point that is always 2 units from the point ^ 1, 0 h .
Solution
This is a circle with radius 2 and centre ^ 1, 0 h . Its equation is in the form ^ x  a h 2 + ^ y  b h 2 = r2 i.e. [x  ^ 1 h] 2 + ^ y  0 h 2 = 2 2 ^ x + 1 h 2 + y2 = 4 x 2 + 2x + 1 + y 2 = 4 x 2 + 2x + y 2  3 = 0 2. Find the radius and the coordinates of the centre of the circle x 2 + 2x + y 2  6y  15 = 0.
You could find this equation by using P (x, y) and treating the question as a locus problem.
Solution
You learned how to complete the square in Chapter 3.
We put the equation into the form ^ x  a h 2 + ^ y  b h 2 = r 2 . To do this we complete the square. b 2 In general, to complete the square on x 2 + bx, add c m to give: 2 b 2 b 2 x 2 + bx + c m = c x + m 2 2 First we move any constants to the other side of the equation, then complete the square. 2 2 To complete the square on x 2 + 2x, we add c m = 1. 2
589
6 2 To complete the square on y 2  6y, we add c m = 9. 2 x 2 + 2x + y 2  6y  15 = 0 x 2 + 2x + y 2  6y = 15 2 x + 2x + 1 + y 2  6y + 9 = 15 + 1 + 9 ^ x + 1 h 2 + ^ y  3 h 2 = 25 ^ x  ]  1 g h 2 + ^ y  3 h 2 = 52 The equation is in the form ^ x  a h 2 + ^ y  b h 2 = r 2 . This is a circle, centre ^ 1, 3 h and radius 5.
11.3 Exercises
1. Find the length of the radius and the coordinates of the centre of each circle. (a) x 2 + y 2 = 100 (b) x 2 + y 2 = 5 (c) ^ x  4 h 2 + ^ y  5 h 2 = 16 (d) ^ x  5 h 2 + ^ y + 6 h 2 = 49 (e) x 2 + ^ y  3 h2 = 81 Find the equation of each circle in expanded form (without grouping symbols). (a) Centre (0, 0) and radius 4 (b) Centre (3, 2) and radius 5 (c) Centre ^ 1, 5 h and radius 3 (d) Centre (2, 3) and radius 6 (e) Centre ^  4, 2 h and radius 5 (f) Centre ^ 0,  2 h and radius 1 (g) Centre (4, 2) and radius 7 (h) Centre ^  3,  4 h and radius 9 (i) Centre ^  2, 0 h and radius 5 (j) Centre ^  4, 7 h and radius 3 . Find the equation of the locus of a point moving so that it is 1 unit from the point ^ 9,  4 h . Find the equation of the locus of a point moving so that it is 4 units from the point ^  2,  2 h . 5. Find the equation of the locus of a point moving so that it is 7 units from the point ^ 1, 0 h . Find the equation of the locus of a point moving so that it is 2 units from the point ^  3, 8 h . Find the equation of the locus of a point moving so that it is 2 units from the point ^ 5,  2 h . Find the equation of a circle with centre ^ 0, 0 h and radius 3 units. Find the equation of a circle with centre ^ 1, 5 h and radius 1 unit.
6.
7.
2.
8. 9.
10. Find the equation of a circle with centre ^  6, 1 h and radius 6 units. 11. Find the equation of a circle with centre ^ 4, 3 h and radius 3 units. 12. Find the equation of a circle with centre ^ 0,  3 h and radius 2 2 units. 13. Find the coordinates of the centre and the length of the radius of each circle. (a) x 2  4x + y 2  2y  4 = 0 (b) x 2 + 8x + y 2  4y  5 = 0 (c) x 2 + y 2  2y = 0
3.
4.
590
x2 x2 + x2 x2 + x2 + x2 x2 +
23. Find the exact length of the tangent from ^ 4,  5 h to the circle x 2 + 4x + y 2  2y  11 = 0. 24. Find the exact length of AB where A and B are the centres of the circles x 2  6x + y 2 = 0 and x 2 + 4x + y 2 + 6y  3 = 0 respectively. 25. (a) Find the length of XY where X and Y are the centres of the circles x 2 + 6x + y 2  2y + 1 = 0 and x 2  4x + y 2  2y + 1 = 0 respectively. (b) Find the radius of each circle. (c) What conclusion can you draw from the results for (a) and (b)? 26. Show that the circles x 2 + y 2 = 4 and x 2 + 2x + y 2  4y  4 = 0 both have 3x + 4y + 10 = 0 as a tangent. 27. A circle has centre C ^ 1, 3 h and radius 5 units. (a) Find the equation of the circle. (b) The line 3x  y + 1 = 0 meets the circle at two points. Find their coordinates. (c) Let the coordinates be X and Y, where Y is the coordinate directly below the centre C. Find the coordinates of point Z, where YZ is a diameter of the circle. (d) Hence show +ZXY = 90c. 28. (a) Find the perpendicular distance from P ^ 2,  5 h to the line 5x + 12y  2 = 0. (b) Hence find the equation of the circle with centre P and tangent 5x + 12y  2 = 0.
14. Find the centre and radius of the circle with equation given by x 2  6x + y 2 + 2y  6 = 0. 15. Find the centre and radius of the circle with equation given by x 2  4x + y 2  10y + 4 = 0. 16. Find the centre and radius of the circle with equation given by x 2 + 2x + y 2 + 12y  12 = 0. 17. Find the centre and radius of the circle with equation given by x 2  8x + y 2  14y + 1 = 0. 18. Find the centre and radius of the circle with equation given by x 2 + 3x + y 2  2y  3 = 0. 19. Sketch the circle whose equation is given by x 2 + 4x + y 2  2y + 1 = 0. 20. Prove that the line 3x + 4y + 21 = 0 is a tangent to the circle x 2  8x + y 2 + 4y  5 = 0. 21. (a) Show that x 2  2x + y 2 + 4y + 1 = 0 and x 2  2x + y 2 + 4y  4 = 0 are concentric. (b) Find the difference between their radii. 22. Given two points A ^ 2,  5 h and B ^  4, 3 h, find the equation of the circle with diameter AB.
591
Parabola as a Locus
The locus of a point that is equidistant from a fixed point and a fixed line is always a parabola. The fixed point is called the focus and the fixed line is called the directrix.
Work on the parabola as a locus is very important, as the properties of the parabola are useful to us. The parabola is used in lenses of glasses and cameras, in car headlights, and for bridges and radio telescope dishes.
592
The locus of a point that is equidistant from a fixed point and a fixed line is always in the shape of a parabola. If the fixed point is (0, a) and the fixed line is y =  a (where a 2 0), then one of the equidistant points is the origin (0, 0). The distance between the points (0, 0) and (0, a) is a units. The point on y =  a directly below the origin is ^ 0,  a h and the distance from (0, 0) to ^ 0,  a h is also a units.
y
(0, a) a x a (0,  a) y = a
To find the equation of the parabola, we use the general process to find the equation of any locus. The features of the parabola have special names.
A parabola is equidistant from a fixed point and a fixed line. The fixed point is called the focus. The fixed line is called the directrix. The turning point of the parabola is called the vertex. The axis of symmetry of the parabola is called its axis. The distance between the vertex and the focus is called the focal length. An interval joining any two points on the parabola is called a chord. A chord that passes through the focus is called a focal chord. The focal chord that is perpendicular to the axis is called the latus rectum. A tangent is a straight line that touches the parabola at a single point.
593
PARABOLA x 2 = 4 ay The locus of point P ^ x, y h moving so that it is equidistant from the point ^ 0, a h and the line y =  a is a parabola with equation x 2 = 4ay
Proof
Let P ^ x, y h be a point of the locus. Taking the perpendicular distance from P to the line y =  a, point B = ^ x,  a h . PA = PB ` PA 2 = PB 2 ^ x  0 h 2 + ^ y  a h 2 = ^ x  x h 2 + [y  ^  a h] 2 x2 + ^ y  a h 2 = ^ y + a h 2 x 2 + y 2  2ay + a 2 = y 2 + 2ay + a 2 x 2 = 4ay
The parabola x 2 = 4ay has focus at ^ 0, a h directrix with equation y =  a vertex at ^ 0, 0 h axis with equation x = 0 focal length the distance from the vertex to the focus with length a latus rectum that is a horizontal focal chord with length 4a
Class Investigation
Find the equation of the locus if point P ^ x, y h is equidistant from ^ 0,  a h and y = a.
594
EXAMPLES
1. Find the equation of the parabola whose focus has coordinates ^ 0, 2 h and whose directrix has equation y =  2.
Solution
The focus has coordinates in the form ^ 0, a h and the directrix has equation in the form y =  a, where a = 2. ` the parabola is in the form x 2 = 4ay where a = 2 i.e. x 2 = 4 (2) y x 2 = 8y 2. (a) Find the coordinates of the focus and the equation of the directrix of the parabola x 2 = 20y. (b) Find the points on the parabola at the endpoints of the latus rectum and find its length.
Solution
(a) The parabola x 2 = 20y is in the form x 2 = 4ay 4a = 20 ` a=5 The focal length is 5 units. We can find the coordinates of the focus and the equation of the directrix in two ways. Method 1: Draw the graph x 2 = 20y and count 5 units up and down from the origin as shown.
y x2 = 20y (0, 5) 5 x 5 (0, 5) y = 5
595
Method 2: The focus is in the form (0, a) where a = 5. So the focus is (0, 5). The directrix is in the form y =  a where a = 5. So the directrix is y =  5. (b) The latus rectum is a focal chord that is perpendicular to the axis of the parabola as shown
y x2 = 20 y
(0, 5) x
The endpoints of the latus rectum will be where the line y = 5 and the parabola intersect. Substitute y = 5 into the parabola. x 2 = 20y = 20 ] 5 g = 100 x = ! 100 = !10 So the endpoints are (10, 5) and (10, 5).
y x2 = 20 y
(10, 5)
(0, 5)
(10, 5) x
The latus rectum is 4a units long which gives 20 units.
CONTINUED
596
3. Find the equation of the focal chord to the parabola x 2 = 4y that passes through ( 4, 4).
Solution
The parabola x 2 = 4y is in the form x 2 = 4ay. 4a = 4 `a=1 The focal length is 1 unit. The focus is 1 unit up from the origin at (0, 1) and the focal chord also passes through ( 4, 4).
y ( 4, 4) x2 = 4y
(0, 1) x
We can find the equation of the line between (0, 1) and ( 4, 4) by using either formula y  y1 y2  y1 y  y 1 = m _ x  x 1 i or x  x = x  x 1 2 1 y  y1 y2  y1 x  x1 = x2  x1 y 1 4 1 = x0 4  0 y 1 3 x = 4  4 ^ y  1 h = 3x  4y + 4 = 3x 0 = 3x + 4y  4
As you saw in the previous chapter, a parabola can be concave downwards. Can you guess what the equation of this parabola might be? PARABOLA x 2 =  4 ay The locus of a point P(x, y) moving so that it is equidistant from the point ^ 0,  a h and the line y = a is a parabola with equation x 2 =  4ay
597
Proof
y
B(x, a)
y=a
Let P(x, y) be a point of the locus. Taking the perpendicular distance from P to the line y = a, point B = ^ x, a h . PA = PB ` PA 2 = PB 2
2 ^ x  0 h 2 + 7 y  ^  a h A = ^ x  x h 2 + ^ y  a h2 x 2 + ^ y + a h2 = ^ y  a h2 2 x + y 2 + 2ay + a 2 = y 2  2ay + a 2 x 2 =  4ay
The parabola x 2 =  4ay has focus at ^ 0,  a h directrix with equation y = a vertex at (0, 0) axis with equation x = 0 focal length a latus rectum a horizontal focal chord with length 4a
598
EXAMPLES
1. Find the equation of the parabola with focus ^ 0,  4 h and directrix y = 4.
Solution
If we draw this information, the focus is below the directrix as shown. So the parabola will be concave downwards (the parabola always turns away from the directrix).
y
The focal length is 4 so a = 4. The parabola is in the form x 2 =  4ay where a = 4. x 2 =  4ay = 4]4gy =  16y 2. Find the coordinates of the vertex, the coordinates of the focus and the equation of the directrix of the parabola x 2 =  12y.
Solution
The parabola x 2 = 12y is in the form x 2 =  4ay. 4a = 12 `a=3 The focal length is 3 units. The vertex is (0, 0). We can find the coordinates of the focus and the equation of the directrix in two ways. Method 1: Draw the graph x 2 = 12y and count 3 units up and down from the origin as shown. (The parabola is concave downward.)
599
Counting down 3 units, the focus is ^ 0,  3 h . Counting up 3 units, the directrix has equation y = 3. Method 2: The focus is in the form ^ 0,  a h where a = 3. So the focus is ^ 0,  3 h . The directrix is in the form y = a where a = 3. So the directrix is y = 3. 3. Find the equation of the parabola with focal length 5 and whose vertex is ^ 0, 0 h and equation of the axis is x = 0.
Solution
Vertex ^ 0, 0 h and axis given by x = 0 give a parabola in the form x 2 = !4ay, since there is not enough information to tell whether it is concave upwards or downwards. This gives two possible parabolas.
CONTINUED
600
11.4 Exercises
1. Find the equation of each parabola. (a) focus (0, 5), directrix y =  5 (b) focus (0, 9), directrix y =  9 (c) focus (0, 1), directrix y = 1 (d) focus (0, 4), directrix y =  4 (e) focus (0, 10), directrix y = 10 (f) focus (0, 3), directrix y =  3 (g) focus (0, 6), directrix y =  6 (h) focus (0, 11), directrix y = 11 (i) focus (0, 2), directrix y =  2 (j) focus (0, 12), directrix y = 12 Find the equation of each parabola. (a) focus (0,  1), directrix y = 1 (b) focus (0,  3), directrix y = 3 (c) focus (0,  4), directrix y = 4 (d) focus (0,  7), directrix y = 7 (e) focus (0,  6), directrix y = 6 (f) focus (0,  9), directrix y = 9 (g) focus (0,  8), directrix y = 8 (h) focus (0,  2), directrix y = 2 (i) focus (0, 15), directrix y = 15 (j) focus (0, 13), directrix y = 13 Find (i) the coordinates of the focus and (ii) the equation of the directrix of (a) x 2 = 4y (b) x 2 = 28y (c) x 2 = 16y (d) (e) (f) (g) (h) (i) (j) 4. x 2 = 36y x 2 = 40y x 2 = 44y x 2 = 12y x 2 = 6y x 2 = 10y x 2 = 15y
2.
Find (i) the coordinates of the focus and (ii) the equation of the directrix of (a) x 2 =  4y (b) x 2 =  24y (c) x 2 =  8y (d) x 2 =  48y (e) x 2 =  20y (f) x 2 =  16y (g) x 2 =  32y (h) x 2 =  40y (i) x 2 =  2y (j) x 2 =  22y Find the equation of the parabola with (a) coordinates of the focus ^ 0, 7 h and equation of the directrix y = 7 (b) coordinates of the focus ^ 0, 11 h and equation of the directrix y = 11 (c) coordinates of the focus ^ 0,  6 h and equation of the directrix y = 6 (d) coordinates of the focus ^ 0, 2 h and coordinates of the vertex ^ 0, 0 h .
5.
3.
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(e) coordinates of the vertex ^ 0, 0 h, equation of the axis x = 0 and focal length 3 (f) coordinates of the vertex ^ 0, 0 h, equation of the axis x = 0 and focal length 8 (g) coordinates of the vertex ^ 0, 0 h and equation of the axis x = 0, and passing through the point ^  8, 2 h (h) coordinates of the vertex ^ 0, 0 h and equation of the axis x = 0, and passing through the point ^ 1, 7 h . 6. Find the coordinates of the focus, the equation of the directrix and the focal length of the parabola (a) x 2 = 8y (b) x 2 = 24y (c) x 2 = 12y (d) x 2 = 2y (e) x 2 =  7y (f) 2x 2 = y Find the equation of the focal chord that cuts the curve x 2 = 8y at ^  4, 2 h . The tangent with equation 2x  y  4 = 0 touches the parabola x 2 = 4y at A. Find the coordinates of A. The focal chord that cuts the parabola x 2 =  6y at ^ 6,  6 h cuts the parabola again at X. Find the coordinates of X.
11. The equation of the latus rectum of a parabola is given by y =  3. The axis of the parabola is x = 0, and its vertex is ^ 0, 0 h . (a) Find the equation of the parabola. (b) Find the equation of the directrix. (c) Find the length of the focal chord that meets the parabola at 1 c 2,  m . 3 12. (a) Show that the point ^  3, 3 h lies on the parabola with equation x 2 = 3y. (b) Find the equation of the line passing through P and the focus F of the parabola. (c) Find the coordinates of the point R where the line PF meets the directrix. 13. (a) Find the equation of chord 1 PQ where P c 1, m and Q ^ 2, 1 h 4 lie on the parabola x 2 = 4y. (b) Show that PQ is not a focal chord. (c) Find the equation of the circle with centre Q and radius 2 units. (d) Show that this circle passes through the focus of the parabola. 14. (a) Show that Q _ 2aq, aq 2 i lies on the parabola x 2 = 4ay. (b) Find the equation of the focal chord through Q. (c) Prove that the length of the latus rectum is 4a.
7.
8.
9.
10. Find the coordinates of the endpoints of the latus rectum of the parabola x 2 =  8y. What is the length of the latus rectum?
602
Investigation
Sketch the parabola x = y 2. You may like to complete the table below to help you with its sketch. x y 3 2 1 0 1 2 3
The parabola that has y2 rather than x2 in its equation is a sideways parabola. It still has the same properties, but generally the x and y values are swapped around. PARABOLA y 2 = 4 ax The locus of point P ^ x, y h moving so that it is equidistant from the point ^ a, 0 h and the line x =  a is a parabola with equation y 2 = 4ax
Proof
Find the equation of the locus of point P ^ x, y h, which moves so that it is equidistant from the point ^ a, 0 h and the line x =  a.
603
The parabola y 2 = 4ax has focus at ^ a, 0 h equation of directrix x =  a vertex at ^ 0, 0 h axis with equation y = 0 focal length the distance from the vertex to the focus with length a latus rectum that is a vertical focal chord with length 4a
EXAMPLES
1. Find the equation of the parabola with focus (7, 0) and directrix x =  7.
Solution
If we draw this information, the focus is to the right of the directrix as shown (the parabola always turns away from the directrix). So the parabola turns to the right.
y x=7
7 (7, 0) x
CONTINUED
604
The focal length is 7 so a = 7. The parabola is in the form y 2 = 4ax where a = 7. y 2 = 4ax = 4^7hx = 28x. 2. Find the coordinates of the focus and the equation of the directrix of the parabola y 2 = 32x.
Solution
The parabola y 2 = 32x is in the form y 2 = 4ax. 4a = 32 ` a=8 The focal length is 8 units. Method 1: Draw the graph y 2 = 32x and count 8 units to the left and right from the origin as shown. (The parabola turns to the right.)
y
x=8
8 (8, 0)
x
y2 = 32 2x
Counting 8 units to the right, the focus is (8, 0). Counting 8 units to the left, the directrix has equation x =  8. Method 2: The focus is in the form (a, 0) where a = 8. So the focus is (8, 0). The directrix is in the form x =  a where a = 8. So the directrix is x =  8.
605
PARABOLA y 2 =  4 ax The locus of a point P(x, y) moving so that it is equidistant from the point ^  a, 0 h and the line x = a is a parabola with equation y 2 =  4ax
Proof
y P (x, y) B (a, y)
A (  a, 0)
x=a
Let P(x, y) be a point of the locus. Taking the perpendicular distance from P to the line x = a, point B = ^ a, y h . PA = PB `
2
PA 2 = PB 2
7 x  ^  a h A + ^ y  0 h2 = ^ x  a h 2 + ^ y  y h 2 ^ x + a h 2 + y2 = ^ x  a h 2
606
The parabola y 2 =  4ax has focus at ( a, 0) directrix with equation x = a vertex at (0, 0) axis with equation y = 0 focal length a latus rectum a vertical focal chord with length 4a
EXAMPLES
1. Find the equation of the parabola with focus ( 4, 0) and directrix x = 4.
Solution
Drawing this information shows that the parabola turns to the left.
y
4 (  4, 0)
4 x
x=4
The focal length is 4 so a = 4. The parabola is in the form y 2 =  4ax where a = 4. y 2 =  4ax = 4^ 4h x = 16x. 2. Find the coordinates of the focus and the equation of the directrix of the parabola y 2 =  2x.
Solution
The parabola y 2 =  2x is in the form y 2 =  4ax. 4a = 2 ` a= 1 2 1 unit. 2
607
Method 1: 1 Draw the graph y 2 =  2x and count unit to the left and right from the 2 origin as shown. (The parabola turns to the left.)
y
1 2
1 2
x
 1, 0 2
)
x= 1 2
Counting
1 1 units to the left, the focus is c  , 0 m . 2 2 1 1 Counting units to the right, the directrix has equation x = . 2 2
Method 2: 1 The focus is in the form ( a, 0) where a = . 2 1 So the focus is c  , 0 m . 2 1 The directrix is in the form x = a where a = . 2 1 So the directrix is x = . 2
11.5 Exercises
1. Find the equation of each parabola. (a) focus (2, 0), directrix x =  2 (b) focus (5, 0), directrix x =  5 (c) focus (14, 0), directrix x = 14 (d) focus (9, 0), directrix x =  9 (e) focus (8, 0), directrix x =  8 (f) focus (6, 0), directrix x =  6 (g) focus (7, 0), directrix x =  7 (h) focus (3, 0), directrix x =  3 (i) focus (4, 0), directrix x =  4 (j) focus (1, 0), directrix x = 1 2. Find the equation of each parabola. (a) focus ( 9, 0), directrix x = 9 (b) focus ( 4, 0), directrix x = 4 (c) focus (10, 0), directrix x = 10 (d) focus ( 6, 0), directrix x = 6 (e) focus ( 2, 0), directrix x = 2 (f) focus (12, 0), directrix x = 12 (g) focus (11, 0), directrix x = 11 (h) focus ( 5, 0), directrix x = 5 (i) focus ( 3, 0), directrix x = 3 (j) focus ( 7, 0), directrix x = 7
608
3.
Find (i) the coordinates of the focus and (ii) the equation of the directrix of (a) y 2 = 8x (b) y 2 = 12x (c) y 2 = 16x (d) y 2 = 4x (e) y 2 = 28x (f) y 2 = 32x (g) y 2 = 24x (h) y 2 = 36x (i) y 2 = x (j) y 2 = 18x Find (i) the coordinates of the focus and (ii) the equation of the directrix of (a) y 2 =  8x (b) y 2 = 12x (c) y 2 =  28x (d) y 2 =  4x (e) y 2 =  24x (f) y 2 =  52x (g) y 2 =  60x (h) y 2 =  2x (i) y 2 =  26x (j) y 2 =  5x Find the equation of the parabola with (a) coordinates of the focus ^ 5, 0 h and equation of the directrix x = 5 (b) coordinates of the focus ^ 1, 0 h and equation of the directrix x = 1 (c) coordinates of the focus ^  4, 0 h and equation of the directrix x = 4 (d) coordinates of the focus ^ 3, 0 h and coordinates of the vertex ^ 0, 0 h (e) coordinates of the vertex ^ 0, 0 h equation of the axis y = 0 and focal length 9
(f) coordinates of the vertex ^ 0, 0 h, equation of the axis y = 0 and focal length 2 (g) coordinates of the vertex ^ 0, 0 h and equation of the axis y = 0 and passing through the point ^ 3, 6 h (h) coordinates of the vertex ^ 0, 0 h and equation of the axis y = 0 and passing through the point ^ 2, 1 h . 6. Find the coordinates of the focus, the equation of the directrix and the focal length of the parabola (a) y 2 = 8x (b) y 2 = 4x (c) y 2 = 12x (d) y 2 = 6x (e) y 2 =  5x (f) 3y 2 = x Find the equation of the focal chord that cuts the curve y 2 = 16x at ^ 4, 8 h . Find the length of the latus rectum of the parabola y 2 = 12x. What are the coordinates of its endpoints? The line with equation x  3y  27 = 0 meets the parabola y 2 = 4x at two points. Find their coordinates.
4.
7.
8.
9.
5.
1 10. Let R c ,  2 m be a point on the 5 parabola y 2 = 20x. (a) Find the equation of the focal chord passing through R. (b) Find the coordinates of the point Q where this chord cuts the directrix. (c) Find the area of DOFQ where O is the origin and F is the focus. (d) Find the perpendicular distance from the chord to the point P ^ 1, 7 h . (e) Hence nd the area of DPQR.
609
Application
A parabolic satellite dish receives its signals through the focus. If the dish has height 12 m and a span of 20 m, find where the focus should be placed, to the nearest mm.
SOLUTION
The parabola is of the form x 2 = 4ay and passes through (10, 12) and (10, 12) Substituting (10, 12) gives
2 10 = 4a (12)
100 = 48a 2.083 = a So the focus should be placed 2.083 m from the vertex.
This is 2083 mm to the nearest millimetre.
Here is a summary of the 4 different types of parabola with the vertex at the origin.
1. x 2 = 4ay
y
Directrix y = a
610
2. x 2 =  4ay
y
3. y 2 = 4ax
y
Directrix x = a
Focus (a, 0)
y 2 = 4a x
4. y 2 =  4ax
y
Directrix x=a
General Parabola
When the parabola does not have its vertex at the origin, there is a more general formula. Since we use a to mean the focal length, we cannot use (a, b) as the vertex. We use (h, k) instead.
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PARABOLA (x  h)2 = 4a(y  k) The concave upwards parabola with vertex (h, k) and focal length a has equation ^ x  h h 2 = 4a ^ y  k h
Proof
Find the equation of the parabola with vertex ^ h, k h and focal length a.
Counting up a units from vertex V gives the focus F = ^ h, k + a h . Counting down a units from V gives the point on the directrix D = ^ h, k  a h . So the equation of the directrix is given by y = k  a. We find the equation of the locus of P ^ x, y h that is equidistant from point F ^ h, k + a h and line y = k  a.
B has coordinates ^ x, k  a h . We want PF = PB i.e. PF 2 = PB 2 ^ x  h h 2 + [ y  ^ k + a h] 2 = ^ x  x h 2 + [ y  ^ k + a h] 2 ^x  hh2 + ^ y  k  ah2 = ^ y  k + ah2 ^x  hh2 = ^ y  k + ah2 ^ y  k  ah2 = [^ y  k + a h + ^ y  k  a h ] # [^ y  k + a h  ^ y  k  a h ] ^ difference of two squares h = ^ 2y  2k h ^ 2a h = 4ay  4ak = 4a ^ y  k h
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The parabola ^ x  h h2 = 4a ^ y  k h has axis parallel to the yaxis vertex at ^ h, k h focus at ^ h, k + a h directrix with equation y = k  a
EXAMPLES
1. Find the equation of the parabola with focus ^ 2, 3 h and directrix with equation y =  7.
Solution
Coordinates of B are ^ 2, 7 h . The vertex is the midpoint of ^ 2, 3 h and ^ 2, 7 h . ` vertex = ^ 2,  2 h Focal length is the distance from the focus to the vertex. ` a=5 From the diagram the parabola is concave upwards. The equation is in the form ^ x  h h 2 = 4a ^ y  k h i.e. ^ x  2 h 2 = 4 ^ 5 h [ y  ^  2 h] = 20 ^ y + 2 h x 2  4x + 4 = 20y + 40 x 2  4x  20y  36 = 0 2. Find the coordinates of the vertex and the focus, and the equation of the directrix, of the parabola with equation x 2 + 6x  12y  3 = 0.
613
Solution
Complete the square on x. x 2 + 6x  12y  3 = 0 x 2 + 6x = 12y + 3 x 2 + 6x + 9 = 12y + 3 + 9 ^ x + 3 h2 = 12y + 12 = 12 (y + 1) So the parabola has equation ^ x + 3 h2 = 12 ^ y + 1 h . Its vertex has coordinates ^  3, 1 h . 4a = 12 ` a=3 The parabola is concave upwards as it is in the form ^ x  h h 2 = 4a ^ y  k h .
Count up 3 units to the focus ` focus = ^  3, 2 h Count down 3 units to the directrix ` directrix has equation y =  4.
It is easy to find the focus and the directrix by counting along the yaxis.
PARABOLA (x  h)2 =  4a(y  k) The concave downwards parabola with vertex (h, k) and focal length a has equation ^ x  h h 2 =  4a ^ y  k h
Proof
Find the equation of the concave downwards parabola with vertex (h, k) and focal length a.
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Counting down a units from the vertex V gives the focus F = ^ h, k  a h . Counting up a units from the vertex V gives the point on the directrix D = ^ h, k + a h . So the equation of the directrix is given by y = k + a. We find the equation of the locus of P(x, y) that is equidistant from point F ^ h, k  a h and line y = k + a.
y B y=k+a
P (x, y)
F (h , k  a)
615
The parabola ^ x  h h 2 =  4a ^ y  k h has axis parallel to the yaxis vertex at (h, k) focus at ^ h, k  a h directrix with equation y = k + a
EXAMPLES
1. Find the equation of the parabola with focus ( 2, 1) and directrix y = 3.
Solution
y
1 1
( 2, 1) 2 1
3 2 1
y=3
Coordinates of B are ( 2, 3). The vertex is the midpoint of ( 2, 1) and ( 2, 3). ` vertex = ( 2, 2) Focal length a = 1. From the diagram the curve is concave downwards. The equation is in the form ^ x  h h 2 =  4a ^ y  k h i.e.
2 7x  ^ 2 h A = 4 ]1 g^ y  2 h ^ x + 2h 2 = 4^ y  2h
x 2 + 4x + 4 =  4y + 8 x 2 + 4x + 4y  4 = 0. 2. Find the coordinates of the vertex and focus, and the equation of the directrix of the parabola x 2  8x + 8y  16 = 0.
CONTINUED
616
Solution
Complete the square on x. x 2  8x + 8y  16 = 0 x 2  8x =  8y + 16 x 2  8x + 16 =  8y + 16 + 16 ^ x  4 h2 =  8y + 32 = 8^ y  4h So the parabola has equation ^ x  4 h 2 =  8 ^ y  4 h . Its vertex has coordinates (4, 4). 4a = 8 `a=2 The parabola is concave downwards as it is in the form ^ x  h h 2 =  4a ^ y  k h .
y y=6
5 4 3 2
1 1 2
(4, 4)
2 (4, 2)
Count down 2 units to the focus ` focus = ^ 4, 2 h Count up 2 units to the directrix ` directrix has equation y = 6.
PARABOLA ( y  k)2 = 4a(x  h) The parabola with vertex (h, k) and focal length a that turns to the right has equation ^ y  k h 2 = 4a ^ x  h h
Proof
Find the equation of the parabola that turns to the right with vertex (h, k) and focal length a.
617
Counting a units to the right from the vertex V gives the focus F = ^ h + a, k h . Counting a units to the left from the vertex V gives the point on the directrix D = ^ h  a, k h . So the equation of the directrix is given by x = h  a. We find the equation of the locus of P(x, y) that is equidistant from point F ^ h + a, k h and line x = h  a.
y x=ha
P (x, y)
F (h + a, k)
618
The parabola ^ y  k h 2 = 4a ^ x  h h has axis parallel to the xaxis vertex at ^ h, k h focus at ^ h + a, k h directrix with equation x = h  a
EXAMPLES
1. Find the equation of the parabola with focus (1, 1) and directrix x =  5.
Solution
y x = 5
5 4 3 2
1
5 4 3 2 1 B
1 2 3 4 5 (1, 1) 3
2 3
Coordinates of B are ( 5, 1). The vertex is the midpoint of ( 5, 1) and (1, 1). ` vertex = ^  2, 1 h Focal length a = 3 From the diagram the parabola curves to the right. The equation is in the form ^ y  k h 2 = 4a ] x  h g i.e.
2 7 y  ^ 1 h A = 4 ] 3 g 7 x  ^  2 h A ^ y + 1 h 2 = 12 ] x + 2 g
y 2 + 2y + 1 = 12x + 24 y 2 + 2y  12x  23 = 0
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2. Find the coordinates of the vertex and focus, and the equation of the directrix of the parabola y 2 + 12y  4x  8 = 0.
Solution
Complete the square on y. y 2 + 12y  4x  8 = 0 y 2 + 12y = 4x + 8 y 2 + 12y + 36 = 4x + 8 + 36 ^ y + 6 h 2 = 4x + 44 = 4 ^ x + 11 h So the parabola has equation ^ y + 6 h2 = 4 ^ x + 11 h or 7 y  ]  6 g A 2 = 4 6 x  ] 11 g @ . Its vertex has coordinates (11,  6). 4a = 4 ` a=1 The parabola turns to the right as it is in the form ^ y  k h 2 = 4a ^ x  h h .
y x = 12 x (11, 6) 1 1 (10, 6)
Count 1 unit to the right for the focus ` focus = ^ 10,  6 h . Count 1 unit to the left for the directrix ` directrix has equation x = 12.
PARABOLA (y k)2 = 4a(x h) The parabola with vertex (h, k) and focal length a that turns to the left has equation ^ y  k h 2 =  4a ^ x  h h
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Proof
Find the equation of the parabola that turns to the left with vertex (h, k) and focal length a.
Counting a units to the left from the vertex V gives the focus F = ^ h  a, k h. Counting a units to the right from the vertex V gives the point on the directrix D = ^ h + a, k h. So the equation of the directrix is given by x = h + a. We find the equation of the locus of P(x, y) that is equidistant from point F ^ h  a, k h and line x = h + a.
y x=h+a P (x, y) B
F (h a, k)
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The parabola ^ y  k h 2 =  4a ] x  h g has axis parallel to the xaxis vertex at (h, k) focus at ^ h  a, k h directrix with equation x = h + a
EXAMPLES
1. Find the equation of the parabola with focus (2, 1) and directrix x = 3.
Solution
y x=3 1 1 2 2 1 (2, 1) 1 2
(2 2x, 1)
Coordinates of B are (3, 1). The vertex is the midpoint of (3, 1) and (2, 1). 1 ` vertex = c 2 , 1 m 2 1 Focal length a = 2 From the diagram the parabola curves to the left. The equation is in the form
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Solution
Complete the square on y. y 2 + 4y + 8x  4 = 0 y 2 + 4y =  8 x + 4 y 2 + 4y + 4 =  8x + 4 + 4 ^ y + 2 h 2 =  8x + 8 = 8 ]x  1 g So the parabola has equation ^ y + 2 h2 =  8 ] x  1 g or 7 y  ]  2 g A 2 =  8 ] x  1 g . Its vertex has coordinates ^ 1,  2 h . 4a = 8 ` a=2 The parabola turns to the left as it is in the form ^ y  k h 2 =  4a ^ x  h h
y x=3
Count 2 units to the left for the focus ` focus = ^ 1,  2 h . Count 2 units to the right for the directrix ` directrix has equation x = 3.
11.6 Exercises
1. Complete the square on x to write each equation in the form ] x  h g2 = !4a ^ y  k h . (a) x 2  6x  8y  15 = 0 (b) x 2  10x  4y + 1 = 0 (c) x 2  2x  4y  11 = 0 (d) x 2  8x + 12y  20 = 0 (e) (f) (g) (h) (i) (j) x 2  12x  8y  20 = 0 x 2 + 14x + 16y + 1 = 0 x 2  4x + 4y  16 = 0 x 2 + 18x  12y + 9 = 0 x 2 + 2x  8y  7 = 0 x 2  6 x + 4y + 1 = 0
623
2.
Complete the square on y to write each equation in the form ^ y  k h2 = !4a ] x  h g (a) (b) (c) (d) (e) (f) (g) (h) (i) (j) y 2  8y  4x = 0 y 2  2y  8x  15 = 0 y 2 + 4y  12x  8 = 0 y 2  20y + 4x  16 = 0 y 2 + 6y + 16x  7 = 0 y 2  12y  8x + 4 = 0 y 2 + 10y + 24x  23 = 0 y 2 + 24y  4x = 0 y 2  4y + 20x  16 = 0 y 2 + 8y + 8x = 0 5.
x2 x2 x2 x2
+ 2x + 8y  15 = 0  4 x + 4y = 0  8x + 12y + 4 = 0 + 4x + 16y  12 = 0
3.
Find the equation of each parabola (a) focus ^ 1, 3 h, directrix y =  1 (b) focus ^  4, 1 h, directrix y = 1 (c) focus (2, 0), directrix y =  4 (d) focus (3, 6), directrix y = 2 (e) focus ^  2, 5 h, directrix y = 3 (f) focus ^ 1,  4 h, directrix y = 4 (g) focus ( 4,  3), directrix y = 7 (h) focus ^  5, 1 h, directrix y = 5 (i) focus ^  3,  6 h, directrix y = 0 (j) focus ^ 0, 7 h, directrix y =  5 (k) focus (2, 3), directrix x =  4 (l) focus ^ 1, 4 h, directrix x =  3 (m) focus (6, 0), directrix x = 2 (n) focus ( 3,  2 ), directrix x = 5 (o) focus ^ 1, 1 h, directrix x =  3 (p) focus ^  2,  4 h, directrix x = 4 (q) focus (2, 1), directrix x = 4 (r) focus ^  5, 3 h, directrix x = 3 (s) focus ^  1, 2 h, directrix x = 0 (t) focus (3, 1), directrix x = 4 Find (i) the coordinates of the focus and (ii) the equation of the directrix of (a) x 2  6x  4y  3 = 0 (b) x 2  2x  8y  7 = 0 (c) x 2 + 4x  4y = 0 (d) x 2  8x  12y + 4 = 0 (e) x 2 + 10x  8y + 1 = 0 (f) x 2  6x + 4y + 1 = 0
Find (i) the coordinates of the focus and (ii) the equation of the directrix of (a) y 2 + 2y  4x  3 = 0 (b) y 2  8y  12x + 4 = 0 (c) y 2  6y  8x  7 = 0 (d) y 2 + 4y  16x  12 = 0 (e) y 2  2y  24x + 25 = 0 (f) y 2 + 10y + 8x + 1 = 0 (g) y 2 + 14y + 4x + 1 = 0 (h) y 2  12y + 20x  4 = 0 (i) y 2  4y + 32x  28 = 0 (j) y 2 + 6y + 40x + 29 = 0 Find the equation of the parabola with vertex ^ 0, 3 h if it is concave upwards and a = 3. Find the equation of the parabola with vertex ^  2, 1 h, focal length 2, and axis parallel to the yaxis. A parabola has its vertex at ^ 1,  5 h and its focal length as 1. If the parabola is concave upwards, find its equation. A parabola has its axis parallel to the xaxis. If its vertex has coordinates ^ 2, 6 h and a = 3, find its equation if it turns to the left.
6.
7.
8.
9.
4.
10. Find the equation of the parabola with vertex at ^ 1, 0 h and focus at ^ 1, 4 h . 11. Find the equation of the parabola that has vertex ^ 1, 1 h and focus ^ 1, 8 h . 12. A parabola has its vertex at ^ 2,  2 h and focus at ^  4,  2 h . Find its equation.
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13. Find the equation of the parabola with vertex ^ 0, 3 h and focus ^ 8, 3 h . 14. Find the equation of the parabola with vertex ^ 3, 3 h and equation of directrix y = 5. 15. Find the equation of the parabola with vertex ^ 3, 1 h and directrix x = 1. 16. A parabola has directrix y = 5 and focus ^  3, 3 h . Find its equation. 17. Find the equation of the locus of a point moving so that it is equidistant from the point ^ 2, 2 h and the line y =  4. 18. Find the equation of the parabola with focus ^ 2, 1 h and directrix x = 10. 19. Find the coordinates of the vertex and focus and the equation of the directrix for the parabola (a) x 2 + 4x  8y + 12 = 0 (b) x 2  6x  12y + 33 = 0 (c) x 2  2x + 4y + 5 = 0 (d) y 2  8y  16x + 64 = 0 (e) y 2 + 4y  24x + 4 = 0 (f) y 2 + 8x + 40 = 0. 20. For the parabola x 2 + 2x + 28y  111 = 0, find the coordinates of its vertex and focus, and the equations of its directrix and axis. What is its maximum value?
21. The latus rectum of a parabola has endpoints ^  2, 3 h and ^ 6, 3 h . Find two possible equations for the parabola. 22.
(a) Find the equation of the arch above. (b) Find the coordinates of its focus and the equation of its directrix. 23. (a) Sketch y = x 2 + 2x  8, showing intercepts and the minimum point. (b) Find the coordinates of the focus and the equation of the directrix of the parabola. 24. Find the equation of the parabola with vertex ^  2, 3 h that also passes through ^ 2, 1 h and is concave downwards. 25. A parabolic satellite dish has a diameter of 4 m at a depth of 0.4 m. Find the depth at which its diameter is 3.5 m, correct to 1 decimal place.
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De Witt was well known as the Grand Pensionary of Holland. He took part in the politics and wars of his time, opposing Louis XIV. When the French invaded Holland in 1672, De Witt was seized and killed.
EXAMPLES
1. Find the gradient of the tangent to the parabola x 2 = 8y at the point ^ 4, 2 h .
Solution
x 2 = 8y x2 y= 8 dy 2x = 8 dx x = 4
CONTINUED
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4 4 =1 So the gradient of the tangent at ^ 4, 2 h is 1. At ^ 4, 2 h, dx = 2. Find the equation of the normal to the parabola x 2 = 4y at the point ^  8, 16 h .
dy
Solution
x 2 = 4y So y= dy dx x2 4 2x = 4 x = 2 8 = 2 = 4 =  4.
At ( 8, 16):
dy dx
m2 =
1 4
11.7 Exercises
1. Find the gradient of the tangent to the parabola x 2 = 12y at the point where x = 2. Find the gradient of the tangent to the parabola x 2 =  3y at the point ^ 6, 12 h . 3. Find the gradient of the normal to the parabola x 2 = 4y at the point where x = 2. Find the gradient of the tangent to the parabola x 2 = 16y at the point ^ 4, 1 h .
2.
4.
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5.
Show that the gradient of the tangent to the curve x 2 = 2y at any point is its xcoordinate. Find the equation of the tangent to the curve x 2 = 8y at the point ^ 4, 2 h . Find the equation of the normal to the curve x 2 = 4y at the point where x =  4. Find the equations of the tangent and normal to the parabola x 2 =  24y at the point ^ 12,  6 h . Find the equations of the tangent and normal to the parabola x 2 = 16y at the point where x = 4.
6.
12. The normal of the parabola x 2 = 18y at ^  6, 2 h cuts the parabola again at Q. Find the coordinates of Q. 13. Find the equations of the normals to the curve x 2 =  8y at the 1 points ^ 16,  32 h and c  2,  m . 2 Find their point of intersection and show that this point lies on the parabola. 14. Find the equation of the tangent at ^ 8, 4 h on the parabola x 2 = 16y. This tangent meets the tangent at the vertex of the parabola at point R. Find the coordinates of R. 15. (a) Show that the point P _ 2p, p 2 i lies on the parabola x 2 = 4y. (b) Find the equation of the normal to the parabola at P. (c) Show that p 2 + 1 = 0 if the normal passes through the focus of the parabola ^ p ! 0 h .
7.
8.
9.
10. Find the equation of the tangent to the curve x 2 =  2y at the point ^ 4,  8 h . This tangent meets the directrix at point M. Find the coordinates of M. 11. Find the equation of the normal to the curve x 2 = 12y at the point ^ 6, 3 h . This normal meets the parabola again at point P. Find the coordinates of P.
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EXAMPLE
Write y = 3x + 1 in parametric form.
Solution
There are many different ways this can be done. For example: Given parameter p (a) Let x = p Then y = 3x + 1 = 3p + 1 So parametric equations are x = p, y = 3p + 1. (b) Let x = p  5 Then y = 3x + 1 = 3^ p  5h + 1 = 3p  15 + 1 = 3p  14 So parametric equations are x = p  5, y = 3p  14.
There are many different ways to write parametric equations. Can you find some more for the example above? We can also change parametric equations back into Cartesian form.
EXAMPLES
1. Find the Cartesian equation of x = 3t + 1, y = 2t  3.
Solution
We use the process for solving simultaneous equations to eliminate the parameter. ]1 g x = 3t + 1 ]2 g y = 2t  3 From (1) x  1 = 3t x 1 =t 3 Substitute in (2) y = 2t  3 x 1 m3 3 3y = 2 ] x  1 g  9 = 2x  2  9 = 2x  11 0 = 2x  3y  11 = 2c
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Solution
x = 2q y=q 3
2
]1 g ]2 g
Proof
Substitute x = 2at into x 2 = 4ay
Class Investigation
1. How would you write x 2 =  4ay in parametric form? 2. How would you write y 2 = 4ax in parametric form? 3. How would you write y 2 =  4ax in parametric form?
630
Proof
Substitute x = 2at into x 2 =  4ay ^ 2at h2 =  4ay 4a 2 t 2 =  4ay at 2 =  y  at 2 = y ` x = 2at and y =  at 2 satisfy the equation x 2 =  4ay.
Proof
Substitute y = 2at into y 2 ] 2at g2 4a 2 t 2 at 2 = 4ax = 4ax = 4ax =x
Proof
Substitute y = 2at into y 2 ] 2at g2 4a 2 t 2 at 2  at 2 =  4ax =  4ax =  4ax = x =x
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EXAMPLES
1. Given the parabola x = 4t and y = 2t 2, find (a) its Cartesian equation (b) the points on the parabola when t = !2.
Solution
(a) x = 4t x ` 4 =t Substitute into y = 2t 2: x 2 y = 2c m 4 2x 2 = 16 x2 = 8 8y = x 2 (b) When t = 2 x = 4^2h =8 y = 2 ^ 2 h2 =8 When t =  2 x = 4^2h = 8 y = 2 ^  2 h2 =8
When t = !k, the points are symmetrical about the yaxis.
Solution
Method 1: We can find the Cartesian equation. x = 12t y =  6t From ] 1 g x = 12t x =t 12
2
]1g ]2g
CONTINUED
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Substitute in (2) y =  6t 2 x 2 m 12 x2 = 6c m 144 x2 =24  24y = x 2 = 6c This is in the form x 2 =  4ay (concave downwards parabola with vertex at the origin). 4a = 24 a=6 So focal length is 6 units.
y
y=6 6 x 6 (0,  6)
Method 2: The equations x = 12t, y =  6t 2 are in the form x =  2at, y =  at 2 . ` a=6 The equations satisfy x 2 =  4ay x2 =  4 ] 6 g y =  24y This is a concave downward parabola with focus ^ 0,  a h and directrix y = a. So focus = ^ 0,  6 h and directrix has equation y = 6. 3. Write x 2 = 32y as a set of parametric equations.
Solution
4a = 32 So a = 8 Equations are in the form x = 2at, y = at 2 . So x = 2 ] 8 g t, y = 8t 2 x = 16t, y = 8t 2
633
Solution
4a = 12 a=3 Equations are in the form x = at 2, y = 2at So x = 3t 2, y = 2 ] 3 g t x = 3t 2, y = 6t
11.8 Exercises
1. Sketch the graph of (a) x = t  2, y = t 2 (b) x = t  2, y = 3t  1 (c) x = 2t, y = 4t  3 (d) x = t + 1, y = t 2 (e) x = 2t, y = 2t 2  3 (f) x = 6t, y = 3t 2 Find the Cartesian equation of (a) x = 4t, y = 2t  1 (b) x = t + 3, y = 2t  5 (c) x = t  1, y = t 2 + t t (d) x = , y = 4t 2  1 2 1 (e) x = , y = 2t t Write as a set of parametric equations (a) x 2 = 4y (b) x 2 = 12y (c) x 2 =  8y (d) x 2 = 16y (e) x 2 =  36y (f) x 2 = 20y (g) x 2 =  6y (h) x 2 = y (i) 2x 2 = y (j) x 2 = 10y 4. Find the Cartesian equation for each parabola (a) x = 8t, y = 4t 2 (b) x = 10t, y = 5t 2 (c) x = 2t, y = t 2 (d) x = 14t, y =  7t 2 (e) x = 4t, y =  2t 2 (f) x = 2at, y = at 2 (g) x = 2m, y =  m 2 (h) x = 12p, y = 6p 2 1 (i) x =  t, y =  t 2 2 (j) x = 2aq, y = aq 2 5. (a) Show that _ 6t,  3t 2 i lies on the parabola x 2 = 12y for all values of t. (b) Find the coordinates of point P where t =  2. (c) Find the equation of the tangent to the parabola at P. (a) Find the coordinates of Q on the parabola x = 8t, y = 4t 2 at the point where t =  1. (b) Find the equation of the normal to the parabola at Q.
2.
3.
6.
634
7.
A parabola has equations x = 4t 2, y = 8t. Find the coordinates of its focus and the equation of its directrix. Find the coordinates of point P on the parabola x = t 2, y =  2t where t = 2. Find the equation of line PS where S is the focus of the parabola.
9.
(a) Find the Cartesian equation of the parabola x = 12t, y = 6t 2 . (b) The point c 3, 3 m lies on the 8 parabola. What is the value of t at this point?
8.
10. Find the equation of the tangent to the parabola x = 4t, y = 2t 2 at the point where t = 3.
Proof
y2  y1 m= x x 2 1 = = = ap 2  aq 2 2ap  2aq a _ p2  q2 i 2a ^ p  q h a ^ p + qh^ p  qh
635
Proof
x 2 = 4ay has focus (0, a). 1 PQ has equation y  ^ p + q h x + apq = 0. 2 For PQ to be a focal chord, it passes through (0, a). 1 i.e. a  (p + q) $ 0 + apq = 0 2 a + apq = 0 apq =  a pq = 1 The tangent to the parabola x 2 = 4ay at the point P(2ap, ap2) has gradient p and equation given by y  px + ap 2 = 0
Proof
x 2 = 4ay x2 ` y= 4a dy 2x = 4 a dx x = 2a At P ^ 2ap, ap 2 h dy 2ap = 2a dx =p The equation formula is y  y1 = m _ x  x1 i ` y  ap 2 = p ^ x  2ap h = px  2ap 2 ` y  px + ap 2 = 0
The tangents to the parabola x 2 = 4ay at points P _ 2ap, ap 2 i and Q _ 2aq, aq 2 i intersect at the point [a ^ p + q h , apq @
Proof
Equation of tangent at P is Equation of tangent at Q is y  px + ap 2 = 0 y  qx + aq 2 = 0 (1) ( 2)
636
(1) (2).  px + qx + ap 2  aq 2 = 0 x ( q  p ) = a (q 2  p 2 ) = a (q + p) (q  p) x = a (q + p) Substitute in (1): y  p $ a (q + p) + ap 2 = 0 y  apq  ap 2 + ap 2 = 0 y = apq ` point of intersection is [a ^ p + q h , apq @ 1 The normal to the curve x 2 = 4ay at point P _ 2ap, ap 2 i has gradient p and equation given by x + py = ap 3 + 2ap
Proof
Tangent at P has gradient p. For perpendicular lines, m 1 m 2 =  1 1 ` normal has gradient  . p The equation formula is y  y1 = m _ x  x1 i 1 ` y  ap 2 =  ^ x  2ap h p p (y  ap 2) =  (x  2ap) py  ap 3 =  x + 2ap x + py = ap 3 + 2ap
The normals to the parabola x 2 = 4ay at P _ 2ap, ap 2 i and Q _ 2aq, aq 2 i intersect at [ apq ^ p + q h, a _ p 2 + pq + q 2 + 2 i]
Proof
Equation of normal at P is Equation of normal at Q is (1)  (2): x + py = ap 3 + 2ap x + qy = aq 3 + 2aq py  qy = ap 3  aq 3 + 2ap  2aq y ^ p  q h = a _ p 3  q 3 i + 2a ^ p  q h = a ^ p  q h _ p 2 + pq + q 2 i + 2a ^ p  q h y = a _ p 2 + pq + q 2 i + 2a = a _ p 2 + pq + q 2 + 2 i ( 1) (2 )
637
Solution
When t = 3 x = 2a ^ 3 h = 6a When t = 2 x = 2a ^  2 h x =  4a y = a ^ 3 h2 = 9a y = a ^  2 h2 = 4a
` points are (6a, 9a) and ^ 4a, 4a h y2  y1 Gradient m = x  x 2 1 4a  9a =  4a  6a  5a = 10a 1 = 2 The equation formula is y  y1 = m _ x  x1 i 1 ` y  4a = ^ x + 4a h 2 2y  8a = x + 4a 0 = x  2y + 12a 2. Find the equation of the tangent to the parabola x 2 = 8y at the point _ 4t, 2t 2 i .
Solution
x 2 = 8y x2 ` y= 8
638
dy dx
2x 8 x = 4 =
The equations of the tangent, normal and chord can also be derived from points in Cartesian form rather than parametric form.
If point A(x1, y1) lies on the parabola x 2 = 4ay, then the equation of the tangent at A is given by xx 1 = 2a _ y + y 1 i
Proof
x2 4a dy 2x = 4a dx x = 2a y= At (x1, y1) dy dx = x1 2a
The equation formula is y  y1 = m ^ x  x1 h x1 = ^ x  x1 h 2a 2a (y  y 1) = x 1 ^ x  x 1 h 2ay  2ay 1 = xx 1  x 12 = xx 1  4ay 1 2ay + 2ay 1 = xx 1 2a (y + y 1) = xx 1 (since x 12 = 4ay 1)
639
If point A (x1, y1) lies on the parabola x 2 = 4ay, then the equation of the normal at A is given by 2a y  y1 =  x _ x  x1 i 1
Proof
x2 4a dy 2x = 4a dx x = 2a y= At (x1, y1) dy dx = x1 2a
The equation of the chord of contact XY of tangents drawn from external point (x1, y1) to the parabola x 2 = 4ay is given by xx 1 = 2a _ y + y 1 i
Proof
640
Now the tangents at X and Y intersect at P _ x 1, y 1 i . But the intersection of tangents is [a ^ p + q h , apq @ ` x1 = a ^ p + q h and y 1 = apq From (1): x1 p+q= a Substituting (2) and (3) into the equation of chord XY gives 1 d x1 n x + y1 = 0 2 a 2ay  x 1 x + 2ay 1 = 0 2a (y + y 1)  x 1 x = 0 2a (y + y 1) = x 1 x y(1) (2)
(3)
EXAMPLE
1 1 Tangents are drawn from the point c ,  m to the points P and Q on the 2 2 parabola x 2 = 4y. Find the equation of the chord of contact PQ and the coordinates of P and Q.
Solution
x 2 = 4y ` 4a = 4 a=1 PQ has equation xx 1 = 2a _ y + y 1 i where x 1 = 1 1 and y 1 =  . 2 2
1 1 x = 2cy  m 2 2 = 2y  1 x = 4y  2 ` x  4y + 2 = 0 is the equation of the chord of contact. To find P and Q, solve simultaneous equations. x 2 = 4y x  4y + 2 = 0 From (2): x + 2 = 4y Substitute into (1): x2 = x + 2 x x2=0 (x  2) (x + 1) = 0 ` x = 2, 1
2
(1) (2) ( 3)
641
Substitute x = 2 into (3): 2  4y + 2 = 0 4 = 4y 1=y Substitute x = 1 into (3): 1  4y + 2 = 0 1 = 4y 1 =y 4 So P and Q are points (2, 1) and c 1, 1 m. 4
11.9 Exercises
1. Find the (i) gradient and (ii) equation of chord AB on the parabola (a) x 2 = 16y where A = _ 8t, 4t 2 i and B = _ 8n , 4n 2 i (b) x 2 = 8y where A = _ 4p, 2p 2 i and B = _ 4q , 2q 2 i (c) x 2 = 12y where A = _ 6m, 3m 2 i and B = _ 6n , 3n 2 i (d) x 2 = 20y where A = _ 10p, 5p 2 i and B = _ 10q, 5q 2 i (e) x 2 = 4y where A = _ 2a, a 2 i and B = _ 2b, b 2 i (f) x 2 =  8y where A = _ 4p,  2p 2 i and B = _ 4 q ,  2q 2 i (g) x 2 =  24y where A = _ 12a,  6a 2 i and B = _ 12b,  6b 2 i (h) x 2 = 16y where A = _  8p,  4p 2 i and B = _  8q,  4 q 2 i (i) x 2 =  4y where A = _ 2s,  s 2 i and B = _ 2t ,  t 2 i (j) x 2 =  28y where A = _  14p, 7p 2 i and B = _ 14q, 7q 2 i 2. Find (i) the gradient of the tangent, (ii) the gradient of the normal, (iii) the equation of the tangent and (iv) the equation of the normal to the curve (a) x 2 = 4y at the point (2p, p2) (b) x 2 = 12y at the point (6q, 3q2) (c) x 2 = 8y at the point (4t, 2t2) (d) x 2 = 20y at the point (10n, 5n2) (e) x 2 = 24y at the point (12p, 6p2) (f) x 2 = 16y at the point (8k,  4k2) (g) x 2 =  4y at the point ( 2q,  q 2) (h) x 2 =  8y at the point (4t,  2t 2) (i) x 2 =  12y at the point ( 6m,  3m 2) (j) x 2 =  32y at the point (16a,  8a2)
642
3.
Find the point of intersection between the (i) tangents and (ii) normals to the curve (a) x 2 = 4y at the points (2p, p2) and (2q, q2) (b) x 2 = 16y at the points (8p, 4p2) and (8q, 4q2) (c) x 2 = 8y at the points (4a, 2a2) and (4b, 2b2) (d) x 2 = 12y at the points (6s, 3s2) and (6t, 3t2) (e) x 2 = 20y at the points (10t, 5t2) and (10w, 5w2) (f) x 2 =  24y at the points (12p,  6p2) and (12q,  6q2) (g) x 2 =  16y at the points (8m,  4m2) and (8n,  4n2) (h) x 2 =  40y at the points (20p, 10p2) and (20q, 10q2) (i) x 2 =  20y at the points (10h,  5h2) and (10k,  5k2) (j) x 2 =  12y at the points ( 6p,  3p2) and ( 6q,  3q2) Find the equation of the (i) tangent and (ii) normal at the point (x1, y1) to the parabola (a) x 2 = 8y (b) x 2 = 12y (c) x 2 = 16y (d) x 2 = 4y (e) x 2 = 20y (f) x 2 =  4y (g) x 2 =  8y (h) x 2 =  24y (i) x 2 =  44y (j) x 2 =  28y Find the equation of the chord of contact AB of tangents drawn from an external point (x1, y1) to the parabola (a) x 2 = 16y (b) x 2 = 4y (c) x 2 = 8y
Derive the equation of the tangent to the curve x 2 = 4ay at the point (a) _ 2ap, ap 2 i (b) _ x 0, y 0 i Find the equation of chord XY on the parabola x 2 = 8y where X = _ 4t, 2t 2 i and Y = _ 4r, 2 r 2 i . Find the equation of chord PQ on the parabola x = 6t, y = 3t 2, given that t = 2 at P and t = 3 at Q. Show that the equation of the normal to the parabola x 2 = 18y at the point d  9t, 9t 2 n is given 2
7.
8.
9.
4.
by 2x + 2ty + 9t 3 + 18t = 0. 10. Derive the equation of the normal to the parabola x 2 = 4ay at the point _ 2at, at 2 i . 11. Find the equation of the chord of contact of tangents drawn from the external point ^ 3, 1 h to the parabola x 2 = 8y. 12. Show that 3x + 4y + 4 = 0 is a focal chord of the parabola x 2 =  4 y. 13. Show that if PQ is a focal chord of x 2 = 4ay where P is the point _ 2ap, ap 2 i and Q is the point _ 2aq, aq 2 i then pq = 1. 14. Find the point of intersection of the tangents to the curve 1 x 2 = 12y at ^  6, 3 h and c 2, m . 3
5.
643
15. Show that the tangents to the curve x 2 = 4ay at P _ 2ap, ap 2 i and Q _ 2aq, aq 2 i intersect at the point [a ^ p + q h , apq @ . 16. (a) Find the equation of the chord joining P ^ 8, 8 h and 1 Q c 2, m where P and Q are points 2 on the parabola x 2 = 8y. (b) Show that PQ is a focal chord. 17. Points P _ 2ap, ap 2 i and Q _ 2aq, aq 2 i lie on the parabola x 2 = 4ay. (a) Show that the normal at P is given by x + py = ap 3 + 2ap. (b) Find the point N where this normal meets the axis of the parabola. 18. Point M ^ 4,  8 h lies on the parabola x 2 =  2y. (a) Find the equation of the focal chord through M. (b) Find point N where this chord cuts the parabola again. 19. Tangents are drawn from an external point P ^  2, 1 h to the parabola x 2 = 12y. (a) Find the equation of the chord of contact of the tangents. (b) Find the coordinates of the points where the tangents meet the parabola. 20. (a) Find the coordinates of the focus F of the parabola x = 12t, y = 6t 2 .
(b) Find the equation of the focal chord PF where P is the point 1 c 6, 1 m on the parabola. 2 (c) Find Q where this chord cuts the parabola again. (d) Find the equations of the tangents to the parabola at P and Q. (e) Prove that the tangents are perpendicular. (f) Find the point of intersection R of these tangents. (g) Show that R lies on the directrix. 21. The chord of contact of two tangents drawn from an external point P to the parabola x 2 = 8y has equation x + 2y  3 = 0. Find the coordinates of P. 22. Find the equation of the normal to the parabola x = 6t, y = 3t 2 at the point where t =  1. 23. Prove that the tangents at the end of a focal chord are perpendicular. 24. Show that the tangents at the ends of a focal chord intersect on the directrix. 25. Show that the equation of the tangent at the point P _ x 0, y 0 i on the parabola x 2 = 4ay is given by xx 0 = 2a _ y + y 0 i .
The tangents at the end of a focal chord intersect at right angles on the directrix.
644
Proof
Let PQ be a focal chord of x 2 = 4ay where P = _ 2ap, ap 2 i and Q = _ 2aq, aq 2 i . Then pq = 1 Tangent at P has gradient m 1 = p Tangent at Q has gradient m 2 = q pq = 1 i.e. m 1 m 2 = 1 ` the tangents are perpendicular Tangents intersect at [a ^ p + q h , apq @ i.e. y = apq But pq =  1 ` y = a This is the equation of the directrix. ` tangents intersect on the directrix
EXAMPLE
Points P c 2, 1 m and Q ^  8,  8 h lie on the parabola x 2 =  8y. 2 (a) Find the equation of line PQ. (b) Show that PQ is a focal chord. (c) Prove that the tangents at P and Q intersect at right angles on the directrix.
Solution
(a) Equation of PQ y  y1 y2  y1 x  x1 = x2  x1 1  +8 y+8 2 = x+8 2+8 3 = 4 4y + 32 = 3x + 24 0 = 3x  4y  8
(1)
645
(b)
Substitute (0,  2) into (1) RHS = 3 (0)  4 ( 2)  8 =0 = LHS ` PQ is a focal chord (c) x2 8 dy x =4 dx dy 2 =At P, 4 dx 1 =2 y=
` the tangents are perpendicular Solve simultaneous equations to find the point of intersection. x + 2y  1 = 0 2x  y + 8 = 0 (1) # 2: 2x + 4y  2 = 0 (2)  (3):  5y + 10 = 0
CONTINUED
]1 g ]2 g
]3 g
646
` point of intersection is ^  3, 2 h The directrix has equation y = a i.e. y=2 The point ^  3, 2 h lies on the line y = 2 ` the tangents meet on the directrix.
The tangent at point P on a parabola is equally inclined to the axis of the parabola and the focal chord through P.
Proof
647
At Q , x = 0 y  0 + ap 2 = 0 y =  ap 2 ` Q = _ 0,  ap 2 i FQ = FO + OQ = a + ap 2 = FP ` +FQP = +FPQ ] base+s of isosceles D g ` tangent is equally inclined to the axis and the focal chord.
Application
This property of the parabolathat is, that the tangent at P is equally inclined to the axis of the parabola and the focal chord through Pis used in many practical applications, including telescopes, headlights and radar.
Class Investigation
Explore the use of the parabola in everyday life. You could go on an excursion to the Observatory, the physics section of a university, an optics manufacturer, an engineering company or a camera manufacturer. Write about the use of the parabola in any of the above applications, or any others you can think of.
648
Locus Problems
EXAMPLES
1. Find the locus of the midpoints of the chords in the parabola x 2 = 4ay that pass through (0, 2).
Solution
Equation of chord PQ where P = _ 2ap, ap 2 i and Q = _ 2aq, aq 2 i is given by 1 y  ^ p + q h x + apq = 0. 2 If PQ passes through (0, 2): 21 (p + q) 0 + apq = 0 2 apq =  2
]1 g
For midpoint M(x, y) 2ap + 2aq 2 = a ^ p + qh x `p + q = a ap 2 + aq 2 y= 2 1 = a _ p2 + q2 i 2 1 = a 7 ^ p + q h2  2pq A 2 Substitute (2) into (3) x= 1 ; b x l2 a a  2pq E 2 x2 2y = a  2apq x2 = a +4 2ay = x 2 + 4a x 2 = 2ay  4a = 2a ( y  2) y= ` locus is a parabola with vertex (0, 2) and focal length a . 2
]2 g
]3 g
6 from ] 1 g @
2. Points P(2ap, ap2) and Q(2aq, aq2) lie on the parabola x 2 = 4ay and chord PQ passes through ^ 0,  4a h. Find the locus of the intersection of the normals drawn from P and Q.
649
Solution
1 ^ p + q h x + apq = 0. 2 PQ passes through ^ 0,  4a h 1 `  4a  (p + q) 0 + apq = 0 2 apq = 4a pq = 4 PQ has equation y Normals intersect at [ apq ^ p + q h, a ^ p 2 + pq + q 2 + 2 h] . i.e. x =  apq ^ p + q h =  4a ^ p + q h x =p+q  4a y = a ^ p 2 + pq + q 2 + 2 h = a ^ p2 + 4 + q2 + 2 h = a _ p2 + q2 + 6 i y 2 2 a =p +q +6 = ^ p + q h2  2pq + 6 = ^ p + q h2  8 + 6 = ^ p + q h2  2 x2 = 2 16a 2 y x2 a + 2 = 16a 2 16ay + 32a 2 = x 2 16a ^ y + 2a h = x 2 [from (1)] (2)
( 1)
[from (2)]
This is the equation of a parabola with vertex (0,  2a) and focal length 4a.
11.10 Exercises
1. (a) Find the equation of the focal chord PF on the parabola x 2 = 8y where P = ^  8, 8 h and F is the focus. (b) Find the coordinates of Q where the focal chord intersects the parabola again. (c) Find the point of intersection of the tangents at P and Q. (d) Show that the tangents at P and Q are perpendicular. (a) Find the equation of the tangent to the parabola x 2 = 4y at the point P(2p, p2). (b) Find the length of PF where F is the focus. (c) Show that PF = FR where R is the yintercept of the tangent. 3. (a) Find the equation of the tangent to the parabola x 2 = 12y at the point T(6t, 3t 2). (b) Find the coordinates of Y, the yintercept of the tangent. (c) Show that TF = FY where F is the focus. (a) Find the equation of the tangent to the parabola x 2 =  20y at the point Q(10q,  5q2).
2.
4.
650
(b) Find the coordinates of R, the yintercept of the tangent. (c) Show that +FQR = +FRQ where F is the focus. 5. (a) Find the equation of chord AB on the parabola x 2 = 12y where 1 A = c 2, m and B = ^  18, 27 h . 3 (b) Show that AB is a focal chord. (c) Show that the tangents at A and B are perpendicular. (d) Show that the tangents intersect on the directrix. Find the equation of the locus of the midpoint M of all chords PQ where P(2ap, ap2) and Q(2aq, aq2) lie on the parabola x 2 = 4ay and PQ passes through (0, 2a). Find the equations of the tangents to the curve x 2 = 8y at the points P(4p, 2p2) and Q(4q, 2q2). Find the equation of the locus of their point of intersection if PQ is a focal chord. Find the equation of the locus of point R that is the intersection of the normals at P(2p, p2) and Q(2q, q2) on the parabola x 2 = 4y, given that pq =  4. The chord PQ is a focal chord of the parabola x 2 = 4ay where P = ^ 2ap, ap 2 h and Q = ^ 2aq, aq 2 h . Find the equation of the locus of the midpoint of PQ.
11. The normal at any point P _  8p,  4p 2 i on the parabola x 2 = 16y cuts the yaxis at point M. Find the equation of the locus of the midpoint of PM. 12. Given that P(2ap, ap2) and Q(2aq, aq2) lie on the parabola x 2 = 4ay, chord PQ subtends a right angle at the origin.
6.
7.
(a) Show pq = 4. (b) Find the equation of the locus of the midpoint of PQ. (c) Show that this locus is a parabola, and find its vertex and focal length. 13. Find the locus of the midpoint of PF where P is the point (2ap, ap2) on the parabola x 2 = 4ay and F is its focus. 14. (a) Find the point of intersection T of the tangents at P(2ap, ap2) and Q(2aq, aq2) on the parabola x 2 = 4ay. (b) Given that PQ passes through (0, 6a), find the equation of the locus of T. 15. Normals to the parabola x = 2at, y = at 2 from points P(2ap, ap2) and Q(2aq, aq2) intersect at N. Find the equation of the locus of N if PQ passes through the point (0, 3a).
8.
9.
10. Tangents to the parabola x 2 = 4ay drawn from points P(2ap, ap2) and Q(2aq, aq2) intersect at right angles at point R. Find the equation of the locus of (a) point R (b) the midpoint of PQ.
651
Class Investigation
Can you spot 6 mistakes in the solution to this question? Find the equation of the normal to the parabola x 2 = 4ay at the point P(2ap, ap2). SOLUTION x 2 = 4ay x2 y= ` 4a dy x =4a dx dy ap 2 At P, = 4a dx p2 m1 = ` 4 For normal, m 1 m 2 =  1 p2 m = 1 4 2 4 m2 = 2 p if y  y 1 = m _ x  x 1 i 4 y  2ap = 2 _ x  ap 2 i p p 2 y  2ap 2 = 4 _ x  ap 2 i = 4x  4ap 2 ` p 2 y = 4x + 2ap 2 i.e.
652
Test Yourself 11
1. Find the equation of the locus of a point moving so that it is equidistant from A ^  1, 2 h and B ^ 3, 5 h. Find the equation of the parabola with focus ^ 2, 1 h and directrix y =  3. Find the radius and centre of the circle x 2  6x + y 2  2y  6 = 0. Find the coordinates of (a) the vertex and (b) the focus of the parabola (y + 3) 2 = 12 ] x  1 g . (a) Find the coordinates of P on the parabola x = 4t, y = 2t 2, where t = 2. (b) Find the equation of the tangent at P. Find the equation of the locus of a point that is always 5 units from the origin. Find (a) the equation of the directrix and (b) the coordinates of the focus of the parabola x 2 =  8y. A point P ^ x, y h moves so that AP and BP are perpendicular, given A = ^ 3, 2 h and B = ^  4, 1 h . Find the equation of the locus of P. Point P ^ x, y h is equidistant from the point A ^ 4,  2 h and the line y = 6. Find the equation of the locus. 12. Find the length of the diameter of the circle x 2 + 8x + y 2  12y + 3 = 0. 13. Find the equation of the parabola with directrix x = 6 and focus ^  6, 0 h . 14. A parabola has a focus at ^ 0, 4 h and its vertex is at ^ 0, 2 h. Find the equation of the parabola. 15. Find the equation of the locus of a point that is always 3 units from the line 4x  3y  1 = 0 . 16. A point is equidistant from the x and yaxis. Find the equation of its locus. 17. Find the equation of the parabola with vertex at the origin, axis y = 0 and 1 passing through the point c 1 , 5 m . 4 18. Find the gradient of (a) the tangent and (b) the normal to the parabola x 2 =  12y at the point where x = 3. 19. Find the Cartesian equation of (a) x = 6t, y = 3t 2 (b) x =  8t 2, y =  16t. 20. (a) Find the equation of the normal to the parabola x 2 = 4y at the point ^  8, 16 h . (b) This normal cuts the parabola again at Q. Find the coordinates of Q. 21. Show that 7x  3y + 12 = 0 is a focal chord of the parabola x 2 = 16y. 22. Find the point of intersection of the normals to the parabola x 2 = 12y at the 1 1 points c 4, 1 m and c  2,  m . 3 3
2. 3. 4.
5.
6. 7.
8.
9.
10. Find (a) the coordinates of the (i) vertex and (ii) focus and (b) the equation of the directrix of the parabola x 2  2x  4y + 5 = 0. 11. Find the equation of the tangent to the parabola x 2 = 18y at the point ^  6, 2 h .
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23. Find the equation of the chord PQ on the parabola x = 4t, y = 2t 2 if t = 5 at P and t = 2 at Q. 24. Points P (10p, 5p2) and Q (10q, 5q2) lie on the parabola x 2 = 20y. Find the equation of the locus of the midpoint of PQ if pq =  2. 25. Find the equation of the tangent to the parabola x = 2at, y = at 2 the point where t = 3. 26. (a) Find the equation of the tangent to the parabola x 2 = 12y at the point P (6, 3). (b) Find R, the yintercept of the tangent. (c) Show that FP = FR where F is the focus. 27. (a) Find the equation of the chord PQ given that P(2ap, ap2) and
Q(2aq, aq2) are points on the parabola x 2 = 4ay. (b) If PQ is a focal chord show that pq =  1. 28. Find the equation of the normal to the parabola x = 8t, y = 4t 2 at the point where t =  2. 29. Tangents are drawn from an external point P ^ 2,  3 h to the parabola x 2 = 4y. (a) Find the equation of the chord of contact of the tangents. (b) Find the coordinates of the points at which each tangent meets the parabola. 30. Chord PQ is a focal chord of x 2 = 4ay where P = ^ 2ap, ap 2 h and Q = ^ 2aq, aq 2 h . Find the equation of the locus of the points of intersection of the tangents at P and Q.
Challenge Exercise 11
1. (a) Find the equation of the locus of point P, which is equidistant from fixed points A ^ 3, 5 h and B ^ 1, 2 h . (b) Show that this locus is the perpendicular bisector of line AB. (a) Find the equation of the circle with centre ^ 1, 3 h and radius 5 units. (b) Show that the circle cuts the xaxis at the points ^ 5, 0 h and ^  3, 0 h . Write in Cartesian form the equation x = sin i, y = cos 2i. The line with equation 5x  12y + 36 = 0 is a chord of the parabola x 2 = 12y. Find the point of intersection of the tangents to the parabola from the endpoints of the chord. 6. 7. 5. (a) Find the equation of the normals to the parabola x 2 = 8y at the points 1 M c  2, m and N ^ 8, 8 h . 2 (b) Show that these normals are perpendicular. (c) Find the point of intersection X of the normals. (d) Find the equation of line MN and show that it is a focal chord. From which point on the parabola x 2 = 4ay does the normal pass through the focus? (a) Find the equation of the tangents to the parabola x 2 = 4y at the points 1 A c 1, m and B ^  4, 4 h . 4 (b) Show that the point of intersection of these tangents lies on the directrix.
2.
3. 4.
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8.
Find the equation of the parabola with axis parallel to the yaxis and passing through points ^ 0,  2 h, ^ 1, 0 h and ^ 3,  8 h . Find the equation of the straight line through the centres of the circles with equations x 2 + 4x + y 2  8y  5 = 0 and x 2  2x + y 2 + 10y + 10 = 0.
16. A satellite dish is to be 3.5 m wide and 1.1 m deep. Find the position of the focus in millimetres, correct to the nearest millimetre.
1.1 m 3.5 m
9.
10. Sketch the region x 2 + 2x + y 2  4y  4 # 0. 11. (a) Find the equation of the locus of a point P moving so that PA is perpendicular to PB where A = ^  4, 3 h and B = ^ 0, 7 h . (b) Show that this locus is a circle with centre ^  2, 5 h and radius 2 2 . 12. Find the exact gradient, with rational denominator, of the normal to the parabola y 2 = 12x at the point where x = 4 in the first quadrant. 13. (a) Find the equation of the parabola with vertex ^ 3,  2 h and focus ^ 7,  2 h . (b) Find the equation of the tangent to the parabola at the point where x = 4 in the first quadrant. 14. Find the exact length of the line from ^ 2, 7 h to the centre of the circle x 2 + 4x + y 2  6y  3 = 0 . 15. Find the equation of the locus of midpoints of all chords of length 2 units in the circle with equation x 2 + y 2  2 y  3 = 0.
17. Find the equation of the locus of point P that moves such that the distance from P to the lines 3x  4y + 1 = 0 and 12x + 5y + 3 = 0 is in the ratio 3:1. 18. PQ is a chord of x 2 = 4ay where P = (2ap, ap 2) and Q = _ 2aq, aq 2 i . (a) Find the coordinates of point N that divides PQ in the ratio 2:3. (b) Find the locus of the midpoint of PQ if pq = 2. 19. The chord of contact of the tangents to the parabola x 2 = 4ay from an external point R(x1, y1) passes through the point N(0, 2a). Find the equation of the locus of the midpoint of RN. 20. (a) Find the coordinates of T where T is the point of intersection of the tangents at the points t =  2 and t = 5 on the parabola x = 4t, y = 2t 2. (b) Find the coordinates of P where P is the point of intersection of the tangents at the points X(2at, at2) and Y(2as, as2) on the parabola x 2 = 4ay. (c) The tangents from X and Y meet at s1 s+1 45c. Show that t = or t = . s+1 1s
12
TERMINOLOGY
Polynomials 1
Coefcient: A constant multiplied by a pronumeral in an algebraic term e.g. in ax3 the a is the coefficient Degree: The value of the highest power of x in a polynomial Dividend: The number, algebraic expression or polynomial that is being divided by another of the same type Divisor: A number, algebraic expression or polynomial that divides another of the same type Factor theorem: If P(x) is divided by x  a and P (a) = 0 then x  a is a factor of P(x) Leading term: The term with the highest power of x. e.g. 5x 3  2x 2 + 3 has a leading term of 5x 3 Long division: A division of one polynomial into another polynomial using a method similar to long division of numbers Monic polynomial: A polynomial where the leading coefficient is 1 Polynomial: A sum or difference of terms involving integral powers of a variable, usually x. A function of the form P (x) = a0 + a1 x + a2 x 2 + f + an x n where a0, a1, ... are real numbers and n is a positive integer or zero Quotient: The result when two numbers, algebraic expressions or polynomials are divided Remainder theorem: If P(x) is divided by x  a then the remainder is given by P(a) Root of a polynomial equation: The solution of polynomial equation P (x) = 0. Graphically it is where the polynomial crosses the xaxis. Zeros: The zeros of a polynomial are the roots of the polynomial equation P (x) = 0. They are the values that make P(x) zero.
Chapter 12 Polynomials 1
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INTRODUCTION
POLYNOMIALS ARE AN IMPORTANT part of algebra and are used in many branches of mathematics. Some examples of polynomials that you have already studied are linear and quadratic functions. In this chapter you will study some properties of polynomials in general, and relate polynomial expressions to equations and graphs.
Definition of a Polynomial
A polynomial is a function defined for all real x involving positive powers of x in the form:
P(x) is a continuous and differentiable function. Although the definition has the term pnxn last, we generally write polynomials from the highest order down to the lowest. e.g. f ] x g = x 2  5x + 4. We can describe various aspects of polynomial as follows:
p n x n + p n  1 x n  1 + p n  2 x n  2 + f + p 2 x 2 + p 1 x + p 0 is called a polynomial expression P ] x g = p n x n + p n  1 x n  1 + p n  2 x n  2 + f + p 2 x 2 + p 1 x + p 0 has degree n where p n ! 0 p n, p n  1, p n  2, f p 0 are called coefficients pnxn is called the leading term and pn is the leading coefficient p0 is called the constant term If p n = 1, P ] x g is called a monic polynomial If p 0 = p 1 = p 2 = f = p n = 0 then P(x) is the zero polynomial
Coefficients can be any real number but we generally use integers in this course for convenience.
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EXAMPLES
1. Which of the following are polynomial expressions? (a) 4  x + 3x 2 (b) 3x 4  x 2 + 5x  1 (c) x 2  3x + x 1
Solution
(a) and (b) are polynomials but (c) is not, since it has a term x 1 that is not a positive power of x. 2. For the polynomial P ] x g = x 6  2x 4 + 3x 3 + x 2  7x  3 (a) Find the degree. (b) Is the polynomial monic? (c) State the leading term. (d) What is the constant term? (e) Find the coefficient of x4.
Solution
(a) (b) (c) (d) (e) Degree is 6 since x6 is the highest power. Yes, the polynomial is monic since the coefficient of x6 is 1. The leading term is x6. The constant term is 3. The coefficient of x4 is 2.
Polynomial equation
P ] x g = 0 is a polynomial equation of degree n The real values of x that satisfy the equation are called the real roots of the equation or the real zeros of the polynomial.
EXAMPLES
1. Find the zeros of the polynomial P ] x g = x 2  5x.
Solution
To find the zeros of the polynomial, we solve P ] x g = 0. x 2  5x = 0 x ]x  5 g = 0
Chapter 12 Polynomials 1
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x = 0, x  5 = 0 x=5 So the zeros are 0, 5. 2. Find the roots of the polynomial equation x 3  2x 2  3x = 0.
Solution
x 3  2x 2  3x = 0 x ^ x 2  2x  3 h = 0 x ]x  3 g]x + 1 g = 0 x = 0, x  3 = 0, x + 1 = 0 x = 3, x = 1 The roots are x = 0, 3, 1. 3. Show that the polynomial p ] x g = x 2  x + 4 has no real zeros.
Solution
We look at the polynomial equation p ] x g = 0. x2  x + 4 = 0 The discriminant will show whether the polynomial has real zeros. b 2  4ac = ] 1 g2  4 ] 1 g ] 4 g = 1  16 = 15 10 So the polynomial has no real zeros. 4. For the polynomial P ] x g = ax 5  3x 4 + x 3  7x + 1 (a) Evaluate a if the polynomial is monic. (b) Find the degree of the derivative P l(x) .
Solution
(a) For a monic polynomial, a = 1 (b) P l^ x h = 5ax 4  12x 3 + 3x 2  7 P l(x) has degree 4 (highest power).
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12.1
1.
Exercises
7. Which of the following are not polynomials? 1 (a) 5x 4  3x 2 + x + x (b) (c) (d) (e) (f) x2 + 3x x 2 + 3x  7 3x + 5 0 1 3x 2  x + 1 2 3 (g) 4x + 7x 2 + 5
Write down the degree of each polynomial. (a) 5x 7  3x 5 + 2x 3  3x + 1 (b) 3 + x + x 2  x 3 + 2x 4 (c) 3x + 5 (d) x 11  5x 8 + 4 (e) 2  x  5x 2 + 3x 3 (f) 3 (g) 2x 4  x For the polynomial P(x) = x 3  7x 2 + x  1, find (a) P(2) (b) P(1) (c) P(0) Given P (x) = x + 5 and Q (x) = 2x  1, find (a) P (11) (b) Q (3) (c) P (2) + Q (2) (d) the degree of P (x) + Q (x) (e) the degree of P (x) $ Q (x) For the polynomial P (x) = x 5  3x 4  5x + 4, find (a) the degree of P (x) (b) the constant term (c) the coefficient of x 4 (d) the coefficient of x 2 Find the zeros of the following polynomials. (a) P (x) = x 2  9 (b) p (x) = x + 5 (c) f (x) = x 2 + x  2 (d) P (x) = x2  8x + 16 (e) g (x) = x 3  2x 2 + 5x Find the derivative of each polynomial P (x) and state the degree of P l(x) (a) P (x) = 3x 4  2x 3  x 2 + 4x  5 (b) P (x) = 5x 2 + 3 (c) P (x) = 9x 12  7x 5 + 8x (d) P (x) = x 7  3x 3 + x 2  7x  3 (e) P (x) = 8x + 5
2.
8.
3.
For the polynomial P (x) = (a + 1) x 3 + (b  7) x 2 + c + 5, find values for a, b or c if (a) P (x) is monic (b) the coefficient of x 2 is 3 (c) the constant term is 1 (d) P (x) has degree 2 (e) the leading term has a coefficient of 5 Given P (x) = 2x + 5, Q (x) = x 2  x  2 and R (x) = x 3 + 9x, find (a) any zeros of P (x) (b) the roots of Q (x) = 0 (c) the degree of P (x) + R (x) (d) the degree of P (x) $ Q (x) (e) the leading term of Q (x) $ R (x)
9.
4.
5.
6.
10. Given f (x) = 3x 2  2x + 1 and g (x) = 3x  3, (a) show f (x) has no zeros (b) find the leading term of f (x) $ g (x) (c) find the constant term of f (x) + g (x) (d) find the coefficient of x in f (x) $ g (x) (e) find the roots of f (x) + g (x) = 0 11. State how many real roots there are for each polynomial equation P ] x g = 0. (a) P ] x g = x 2  9 (b) P ] x g = x 2 + 4 (c) P ] x g = x 2  3x  7
Chapter 12 Polynomials 1
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13. If P ] x g = 3x 4  4x 3  1, find the zeros of P l(x) . 14. Show that P l(x) = 0 has no real roots if P ] x g = x 3  x 2 + 9x. 15. Show that Ql(x) = 0 has equal roots given Q ] x g = x 3  3x 2 + 3x + 5.
12. For the polynomial P ] x g = 2x 3 + 3x 2  36x + 17, find the roots of the derivative polynomial equation P l(x) = 0.
Division of Polynomials
You would have learned how to do long division in primary school, but have probably forgotten how to do it! We use this method to divide polynomials.
Class Investigation
Here are two examples of long division. 1. Divide 5715 by 48. 119 r3 48 g 5715 48 91 48 435 432 3 This means 3 5715 = 119 + 48 48
The number 5715 is called the dividend, the 48 is the divisor, 119 is the quotient and 3 is the remainder. 2. Divide 4871 by 35. 139 r6 35 g 4871 35 137 105 321 315 6
CONTINUED
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This means or
The number 4871 is called the dividend, the 35 is the divisor, 139 is the quotient and 6 is the remainder. Use long division to divide other numbers and write them in the form above. For example: 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 2048 ' 5876 ' 3546 ' 2992 ' 8914 ' 15 17 21 33 19
A polynomial P(x) can be written as P ] x g = A ] x g $ Q ] x g + R ] x g where P(x) is the dividend, A(x) is the divisor, Q(x) is the quotient and R(x) is the remainder.
Proof
If we divide a polynomial P(x) by A(x), we can write P(x) in the form of P (x) R (x) = Q (x) + where Q(x) is the quotient and R(x) is the remainder. A (x) A (x) P (x) R (x ) # A (x ) = Q ( x ) # A ( x ) + # A ( x) A (x ) A (x ) P ]x g = A ]x g $ Q ]x g + R ]x g The division continues until the remainder can no longer be broken down further by division. The degree of remainder R(x) is always less than the degree of the divisor A(x).
Proof
Suppose the degree of R(x) is higher than the degree of A(x). This means that R(x) can be divided by A(x). R 1(x) R (x ) = Q 1 (x) + A (x ) A (x ) R ] x g = A ] x g $ Q1] x g + R1] x g So = R2] x g This gives P ] x g = A ] x g $ Q ] x g + R 2 ] x g .
Chapter 12 Polynomials 1
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EXAMPLES
1. (a) Divide P (x) = 3x 4  x 3 + 7x 2  2x + 3 by x  2. (b) Hence write P (x) in the form P (x) = A (x) Q (x) + R (x) . (c) Show that P (2) is equal to the remainder.
Solution
(a) Step 1: Divide the leading term by x. i.e. 3x 4 ' x = 3x 3 3x 3 x  2 g 3 x 4  x 3 + 7x 2  2x + 3 Step 2: Multiply 3x 3 by (x  2) and find the remainder by subtraction. i.e. 3x 3 (x  2) = 3x 4  6x 3 3x 3 x  2 g 3x 4  x 3 + 7x 2  2x + 3 3x 4  6x 3 5x 3 Step 3: Bring down the 7x 2 and divide 5x 3 by x. 3x 3 + 5x 2 x  2 g 3x 4  x 3 + 7x 2  2 x + 3 3x 4  6x 3 5x 3 + 7x 2 Step 4: Multiply 5x 2 by (x  2) and find the remainder by subtraction. i.e. 5x 2 ] x  2 g = 5x 3  10x 2 3x 3 + 5x 2 x  2 g 3x 4  x 3 + 7 x 2  2 x + 3 3x 4  6x 3 5x 3 + 7x 2 5x 3  10x 2 17x 2
CONTINUED x  2 is called the divisor.
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Continuing this way until we have finished, we will have 3x 3 + 5x 2 + 17x + 32 x  2 g 3x 4  x 3 + 7 x 2  2 x + 3 3x 4  6x 3 5x 3 + 7x 2 5x 3  10x 2 17x 2  2x 17x 2  34x 32x + 3 32x  64 67 (b) This means that (3x 4  x 3 + 7x 2  2x + 3) ' (x  2) = (3x 3 + 5x 2 + 17x + 32), remainder 67 i.e. 3x 4  x 3 + 7x 2  2x + 3 67 = 3x 3 + 5x 2 + 17x + 32 + x2 x2 or 3x 4  x 3 + 7x 2  2x + 3 = (x  2) (3x 3 + 5x 2 + 17x + 32) + 67
i.e. P (x) = A (x) Q (x) + R (x) where A (x) is the divisor, Q (x) is the quotient and R (x) is the remainder. (c) P (2) = 3 (2) 4  2 3 + 7 (2) 2  2 (2) + 3 = 48  8 + 28  4 + 3 = 67 ` P (2) is equal to the remainder. 2. Divide x 3  3x 2 + x + 4 by x 2  x.
Solution
x2 x 2  x g x 3  3x 2 + x + 4 x3  x2  2x 2 + x  2x 2 + 2x x + 4 This means that (x 3  3x 2 + x + 4) ' (x 2  x) = (x  2), remainder  x + 4 x 3  3x 2 + x + 4 x + 4 =x2+ 2 i.e. 2 x x x x or x 3  3x 2 + x + 4 = (x  2) (x 2  x) + ( x + 4)
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3. Divide x 5 + x 3 + 5x 2  6x + 15 by x 2 + 3.
Solution
x 3  2x + 5 x + 3 g x 5 + x 3 + 5x 2  6 x + x 5 + 3x 3  2x 3 + 5x 2  6x  2x 3  6x 2 5x + 2 5x +
2
15
15 15 0
12.2
Exercises
11. (6x 2  3x + 1) ' (3x  2) 12. (x 4  2x 3  x 2  2) ' (x 2  x) 13. (3x 5  2x 4  3x 3 + x 2  x  1) ' (x + 2 ) 14. (x 2 + 5x  2) ' (x + 1) 15. (x 4  2x 2 + 5x + 4) ' (x  3) 16. (2x 4  x 3 + 5) ' (x 2  2x) 17. (x 3  3x 2 + 3x  1) ' (x 2 + 5) 18. (2x 3 + 4x 2  x + 8) ' (x 2 + 3x + 2) 19. (x 4  2x 3 + 4x 2 + 2x + 5) ' (x 2 + 2x  1) 20. (3x 5  2x 3 + x  1) ' (x + 1)
Divide the following polynomials and put them in the form P (x) = A (x) Q (x) + R (x) . 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. 8. 9. (3x 2 + 2x + 5) ' (x + 4) (x 2  7x + 4) ' (x  1) (x + x + 2 x  1 ) ' (x  3 )
3 2
(x  5x + x + 2) ' (x + 3x)
3 2 2
(x + x  x  3) ' (x  2)
3 2
(5x  2x + 3x + 1) ' (x + x)
3 2 2
(x  x  2x + x  3) ' (x + 4)
4 3 2
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Remainder theorem
If a polynomial P(x) is divided by x  a, then the remainder is P(a)
Proof
The degree of R(x) is less than the degree of A(x).
P ] x g = A ] x g $ Q ] x g + R ] x g where A ] x g = x  a P ]x g = ]x  a gQ ]x g + R ]x g The degree of A(x) is 1, so the degree of R(x) must be 0. So R ] x g = k where k is a constant ` P ]x g = ]x  a gQ ]x g + k Substituting x = a: P ]a g = ]a  a gQ ]a g + k = 0 $ Q ]x g + k =k So P ] a g is the remainder.
EXAMPLES
1. Find the remainder when 3x 4  2x 2 + 5x + 1 is divided by x  2.
Solution
The remainder when P(x) is divided by x  a is P(a). The remainder when P(x) is divided by x  2 is P(2). P ] 2 g = 3 ] 2 g4  2 ] 2 g2 + 5 ] 2 g + 1 = 51 So the remainder is 51. 2. Evaluate m if the remainder is 4 when dividing 2x 4 + mx + 5 by x + 3.
Solution
x + 3 = x  ( 3) .
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Factor theorem
The factor theorem is a direct result of the remainder theorem.
Proof
P ] x g = A ] x g $ Q ] x g + R ] x g where A ] x g = x  a P ]x g = ]x  a gQ ]x g + R ]x g The remainder when P(x) is divided by x  a is P(a). So P ] x g = ] x  a g Q ] x g + P ] a g But if P ] a g = 0: P ]x g = ]x  a gQ ]x g + 0 = ]x  a gQ ]x g So x  a is a factor of P(x). The converse is also true: For a polynomial P(x), if x  a is a factor of the polynomial, then P ] a g = 0
Proof
If x  a is a factor of P(x), then we can write: P ]x g = ]x  a gQ ]x g This means that when P(x) is divided by x  a, the quotient is Q(x) and there is no remainder. So P ] a g = 0
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EXAMPLE
(a) Show that x  1 is a factor of P ] x g = x 3  7x 2 + 8x  2. (b) Divide P(x) by x  1 and write P(x) in the form P ] x g = ] x  1 g Q ] x g.
Solution
(a) The remainder when dividing the polynomial by x  1 is P(1) P ] 1 g = 1 3  7 ] 1 g2 + 8 ] 1 g  2 =0 So x  1 is a factor of P(x). (b) x 2  6x + x  1 g x 3  7x 2 + x3  x2  6x 2 +  6x 2 + 2 8x  2
8x 6x 2x  2 2x  2 0 3 2 ] g So P x = x  7x + 8x  2 = ] x  1 g ^ x 2  6x + 2 h
If polynomial P(x) has k distinct zeros a 1, a 2, a 3, ... a k, then (x  a 1) (x  a 2) (x  a 3) ... (x  a k) is a factor of P(x)
Proof
If a1 is a zero of P(x) then (x  a 1) is a factor of P(x). If a2 is a zero of P(x) then (x  a 2) is a factor of P(x). If a3 is a zero of P(x) then (x  a 3) is a factor of P(x). Similarly, if a k is a zero of P(x) then (x  a k) is a factor of P(x). ` P ] x g = (x  a 1) (x  a 2) (x  a 3) ... (x  a k) g ] x g So (x  a 1) (x  a 2) (x  a 3) ... (x  a k) is a factor of P ] x g . If polynomial P(x) has degree n and n distinct zeros a 1, a 2, a 3, ... a n, then P ] x g = p n (x  a 1) (x  a 2) (x  a 3) ... (x  a n)
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Proof
Since a 1, a 2, a 3, ... a n are zeros of P(x), (x  a 1) (x  a 2) (x  a 3) ... (x  a n) is a factor of the polynomial. So P ] x g = (x  a 1) (x  a 2) (x  a 3) ... (x  a n)Q(x) But (x  a 1) (x  a 2) (x  a 3) ... (x  a n) has degree n and P(x) has degree n so Q(x) must be a constant. ` P ] x g = p n (x  a 1) (x  a 2) (x  a 3) ... (x  a n)
Proof
P(x) has degree n So P ] x g = p n x n + p n  1 x n  1 + p n  2 x n  2 + f + p 2 x 2 + p 1 x + p 0 where p n ! 0 Suppose P(x) has more than n distinct zeros, say n + 1 Then (x  a 1) (x  a 2) (x  a 3) ... (x  a n + 1) is a factor of P(x). So P ] x g = (x  a 1) (x  a 2) (x  a 3) ... (x  a n + 1) Q ] x g. But this gives P(x) at least degree n + 1, and P(x) only has degree n. So the polynomial cannot have more than n distinct real zeros. This also means that the polynomial equation cannot have more than n real roots.
EXAMPLE
If a polynomial has degree 2, show that it cannot have 3 zeros.
Solution
Let P ] x g = p 2 x 2 + p 1 x + p 0 where p 2 ! 0 Assume P(x) has 3 zeros, a1, a2 and a3 Then _ x  a 1 i _ x  a 2 i _ x  a 3 i is a factor of the polynomial. ` P (x) = (x  a 1) (x  a 2) (x  a 3) Q (x) But this polynomial has degree 3 and P(x) only has degree 2. So P(x) cannot have 3 zeros.
A polynomial of degree n with more than n distinct real zeros is the zero polynomial P ] x g = 0 ( p 0 = p 1 = p 2 = ... = p n = 0)
Proof
Let P(x) be a polynomial of degree n with zeros a 1, a 2, a 3, ... a n Then P ] x g = (x  a 1) (x  a 2) (x  a 3) ... (x  a n) k
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Suppose P(x) has another distinct zero a n + 1 Then P _ a n + 1 i = 0 `(a n + 1  a 1) (a n + 1  a 2) (a n + 1  a 3) ... (a n + 1  a n) k = 0 But a n + 1 ! a 1, a 2, a 3, ... a n since all zeros are distinct. So k = 0 `P ] x g = 0
If two polynomials of degree n are equal for more than n distinct values of x, then the coefficients of like powers of x are equal. That is, if a 0 + a 1 x + a 2 x 2 + ... + a n x n / b 0 + b 1 x + b 2 x 2 + ... + b n x n then a 0 = b 0, a 1 = b 1, a 2 = b 2, ... a n = b n
Proof
Let A ] x g = a 0 + a 1 x + a 2 x 2 + ... + a n x n and B ] x g = b 0 + b 1 x + b 2 x 2 + ... + b n x n where A ] x g = B ] x g for more than n distinct x values. Let P ] x g = A ] x g  B ] x g Then P ] x g = (a 0  b 0) + (a 1  b 1) x + (a 2  b 2) x 2 + ... + (a n  b n) x n and P(x) has degree n. If A ] x g = B ] x g for more than n distinct x values, then A ] x g  B ] x g = 0 for more than n distinct x values. This means P ] x g = 0 for more than n distinct x values. This means that P(x) has more than n zeros. ` P(x) is the zero polynomial P ]xg = 0 (a 0  b 0) + (a 1  b 1) x + (a 2  b 2) x 2 + ... + (a n  b n) x n = 0 So a 0  b 0 = 0, a 1  b 1 = 0, a 2  b 2 = 0, ..., a n  b n = 0 ` a 0 = b 0, a 1 = b 1, a 2 = b 2, ..., a n = b n
You learned a special case of this result in Chapter 10 under quadratic identities. This is a more general result for all polynomials.
EXAMPLE
Write x 3  2x 2 + 5 in the form ax 3 + b ] x + 3 g2 + c ] x + 3 g + d.
Solution
ax 3 + b ] x + 3 g2 + c (x + 3) + d = ax 3 + b ^ x 2 + 6x + 9 h + c ] x + 3 g + d = ax 3 + bx 2 + 6bx + 9b + cx + 3c + d = ax 3 + bx 2 + ] 6b + c g x + 9b + 3c + d For x 3  2x 2 + 5 / ax 3 + b ] x + 3 g2 + c ] x + 3 g + d
Chapter 12 Polynomials 1
677
a=1 b = 2 6b + c = 0 9b + 3c + d = 5 Substitute (2) into (3): 6 ] 2 g + c = 0  12 + c = 0 c = 12 Substitute b =  2 and c = 12 into (4): 9 ]  2 g + 3 ] 12 g + d 18 + 36 + d 18 + d d =5 =5 =5 = 13
]1 g ]2 g
]3 g
]4 g
` x 3  2x 2 + 5 / x 3  2 ] x + 3 g2 + 12 ] x + 3 g  13.
If x  a is a factor of polynomial P(x), then a is a factor of the constant term of the polynomial.
Proof
Let P ] x g = p n x n + p n  1 x n  1 + p n  2 x n  2 + f + p 2 x 2 + p 1 x + p 0 where p n ! 0 If x  a is a factor of P(x) we can write P ] x g = ] x  a g Q ] x g where Q(x) has degree n  1. P ] x g = ] x  a g _ q n  1 x n  1 + q n  2 x n  2 + g + q 2 x 2 + q 1 x + q 0 i where q n  1 ! 0 = xq n  1 x n  1 + xq n  2 x n  2 + g + xq 1 x + xq 0  aq n  1 x n  1  aq n  2 x n  2  g  aq 2 x 2  aq 1 x  aq 0 = q n  1 x n + q n  2 x n  1 + g + q 1 x 2 + q 0 x  aq n  1 x n  1  aq n  2 x n  2  g  aq 2 x 2  aq 1 x  aq 0 = q n  1 x n + _ q n  2  a i x n  1 + g + _ q 1  a i x 2 + _ q 0  a i x  aq 0 ` p 0 =  aq 0 So a is a factor of p0.
We already use this when factorising a trinomial. This is a more general result for all polynomials.
678
EXAMPLE
Factorise x 2 + 2x  15.
Solution
Factors of 15 are  3# 5, 3#  5, 1#15, 1# 15. We choose  3# 5 since  3x + 5x = 2x, the middle term. So x 2 + 2x  15 = ] x  3 g ] x + 5 g.
To factorise polynomials in general, we also look for factors of the constant term.
Class Investigation
Why are factors of the polynomial factors of the constant term? Use the knowledge you have of trinomials to help you in your discussion.
EXAMPLES
1. Find all factors of f (x) = x 3 + 3x 2  4x  12.
Solution
Try factors of  12 (i.e. !1, !2, !3, !4, !6, !12) . e.g. f (1) = 1 3 + 3 (1) 2  4 (1)  12 = 12 !0 ` x  1 is not a factor of f (x) f (2) = 2 3 + 3 (2) 2  4 (2)  12 =0 Since f (2) = 0, the remainder when f (x) is divided by x  2 is 0. ` x  2 is a factor of f (x) . We divide f (x) by x  2 to nd other factors: x 2 + 5x + 6 x  2 g x 3 + 3x 2  4x  12 x 3  2x 2 5x 2  4x 5x 2  10x 6x  12 6x  12 0
Chapter 12 Polynomials 1
679
Solution
Try factors of 15 (i.e. !1, !3, !5, !15) . e.g. P ( 3) = ( 3) 3 + 3 ( 3) 2 + 5 ( 3) + 15 =0 ` x + 3 is a factor of f (x) We divide P (x) by x + 3 to find other factors: x + 3 g x + 3x + 5x + 15 x 3 + 3x 2 0 + 5x + 15 5x + 15
3 2
x2
+5
0 ` P (x) = (x + 3) (x + 5)
2
12.3 Exercises
1. Use the remainder theorem to find the remainder in each question. (a) (x 3  2x 2 + x + 5) ' (x  4) (b) (x 2 + 5x + 3) ' (x + 2) (c) (2x 3  4x  1) ' (x + 3) (d) (3x 5 + 2x 2  x + 4) ' (x  5) (e) (5x 3 + 2x 2 + 2x  9) ' (x  1) (f) (x  x + 3x  x  1) ' (x + 2)
4 3 2
(c) the remainder is 0 when 2x 5 + 7x 2 + 1 + k is divided by x + 6. (d) 2x 4  kx 3 + 3x 2 + x is divisible by x  3. (e) the remainder is 25 when 2x 4  3x 2 + 5 is divided by x  k. 3. (a) Find the remainder when f (x) = x 3  4x 2 + x + 6 is divided by x  2. (b) Is x  2 a factor of f (x) ? (c) Divide x 3  4x 2 + x + 6 by x  2. (d) Factorise f (x) fully and write f (x) as a product of its factors. (a) Show that x + 3 is a factor of P (x) = x 4 + 3x 3  9x 2  27x. (b) Divide P (x) by x + 3 and write P (x) as a product of its factors.
(g) (2x 2 + 7x  2) ' (x + 7) (h) (x 7 + 5x 3  1) ' (x  3) (i) (2x 6  3x 2 + x + 4) ' (x + 5) (j) (3x 4  x 3  x 2  x  7) ' (x + 1) 2. Find the value of k if (a) the remainder is 3 when 5x 2  10x + k is divided by x  1. (b) the remainder is  4 when x 3  (k  1) x 2 + 5kx + 4 is divided by x + 2.
4.
680
5.
The remainder is 5 when P (x) = ax 3  4bx 2 + x  4 is divided by x  3 and the remainder is 2 when P (x) is divided by x + 1. Find the values of a and b. When f (x) = ax 2  3x + 1 and g (x) = x 3  3x 2 + 2 are divided by x + 1 they leave the same remainder. Find the value of a. (a) Show that x  3 is not a factor of P (x) = x 5  2x 4 + 7x 2  3x + 5. (b) Find a value of k such that x  3 is a factor of Q (x) = 2x 3  5x + k. The polynomial P (x) = x 3 + ax 2 + bx + 2 has factors x + 1 and x  2. Find the values of a and b. (a) The remainder, when f (x) = ax 4 + bx 3 + 15x 2 + 9x + 2 is divided by x  2, is 216, and x + 1 is a factor of f (x) . Find a and b. (b) Divide f (x) by x + 1 and write the polynomial in the form f (x) = (x + 1) g (x) . (c) Show that x + 1 is a factor of g (x) . (d) Write f (x) as a product of its factors.
11. (a) Write P (x) = x 3  7x + 6 as a product of its factors. (b) What are the zeros of P (x) ? (c) Is (x  2) (x + 3) a factor of P (x) ? 12. If f (x) = x 4 + 10x 3 + 23x 2  34x  120 has zeros  5 and 2 (a) show (x + 5) (x  2) is a factor of f (x) (b) write f (x) as a product of its linear factors. 13. If P (x) = x 4 + 3x 3  13x 2  51x  36 has zeros  3 and 4, write P (x) as a product of its linear factors. 14. (a) Show that P (x) = x 3  3x 2  34x + 120 has zeros  6 and 5. (b) Write P (x) as a product of its linear factors. 15. (a) Write the polynomial P ] u g = u 3  4u 2 + 5u  2 as a product of its factors. (b) Hence or otherwise, solve ] x  1 g3  4 ] x  1 g2 + 5 ] x  1 g  2 = 0. 16. (a) Write the polynomial f ^ p h = p 3  2p 2  5p + 6 as a product of its factors. (b) Hence or otherwise, solve ] 2x + 1 g3  2 ] 2x + 1 g2  5 ] 2x + 1 g + 6 = 0. 17. (a) Write P ] k g = 2k 3 + 3k 2  1 as a product of its factors. (b) Hence or otherwise, solve 2 sin 3 x + 3 sin 2 x  1 = 0 for 0c # x # 360c. 18. (a) Write f ] u g = u 3  13u 2 + 39u  27 as a product of its factors. (b) Hence or otherwise, solve 3 3x  13.3 2x + 39.3 x  27 = 0. 19. Solve ] x + 4 g4  ] x + 4 g3  2 ] x + 4 g2 = 0.
6.
7.
8.
9.
10. Write each polynomial as a product of its factors. (a) x 2  2x  8 (b) x 3 + x 2  2x (c) x 3 + x 2  10x + 8 (d) x 3 + 4x 2  11x  30 (e) x 3  11x 2 + 31x  21 (f) x  12x + 17x + 90
3 2
Chapter 12 Polynomials 1
681
20. Solve 2 cos 3 i  cos 2 i  cos i = 0 for 0c# x # 360c. 21. Evaluate a, b, c and d if (a) x 3 + 3x 2  2x + 1 / ax 3 + b ] x  1 g2 + cx + d (b) x 3  x 2 + 4x / ax 3 + b ] x + 2 g2 + c ] x + 2 g + d (c) 2x 3  x + 7 / ax 3 + b ] x + 1 g2 + c ] x + 1 g + d + 2 (d) x 3 + x 2 + 5x  3 / ax 3 + b ] x  3 g2 + cx + d (e) 4x 3  x + 3 / ] a + 1 g x 3 + b ] x + 4 g2 + c ]x + 4 g + d  1 (f) x 3 + x 2  8x  6 / ax 3 + b ] x  2 g2 + cx + d  3 (g) 3x 3  2x 2 + x / ] a  2 g x 3 + b ] x  5 g2 + c ]x  5g + d  2 (h)  x 3 + x 2  4x  2 / a ] x + 1 g3 + bx 2 + cx + d
(i)  2x 3 + 3x 2  1 / 2ax 3 + b ] x  1 g2 + cx + d (j)  x 3  4x 2 + x + 3 / a ] x  2 g3 + b ] x  2 g2 + c ]x  2 g + d + 1 22. A monic polynomial of degree 3 has zeros  3, 0 and 4. Find the polynomial. 23. Polynomial P ] x g = ax 3  bx 2 + cx  8 has zeros 2 and  1 and P ] 3 g = 28. Evaluate a, b and c. 24. A polynomial with leading term 2x4 has zeros  2, 0, 1 and 3. Find the polynomial. 25. Show that a polynomial of degree 3 cannot have 4 zeros.
Graph of a Polynomial
We can use the graphing techniques that you have learned to sketch the graph of a polynomial.
Using intercepts
Finding the zeros of a polynomial or the roots of the polynomial equation helps us to sketch its graph.
EXAMPLES
1. (a) Write the polynomial P ] x g = x 3 + x 2  6x as a product of its factors. (b) Sketch the graph of the polynomial.
Solution
(a) P ] x g = x 3 + x 2  6x = x ^ x2 + x  6 h = x ]x + 3 g]x  2 g (b) For the graph of P ] x g = x 3 + x 2  6x For xintercepts: y = 0
CONTINUED
682
We look at which parts of the graphs are above and which are below the xaxis between the xintercepts. Test x 1  3, say x =  4: P ] x g = x 3 + x 2  6x = x ]x + 3 g]x  2 g P ]4 g = 4 ]4 + 3 g]4  2 g = 4 ]1 g]6 g =  24 10 So the curve is below the xaxis. Test  3 1 x 1 0, say x =  1: P ]  1 g =  1 ]  1 + 3 g ] 1  2 g = 1 ]2 g]3 g =6 20 So the curve is above the xaxis.
Chapter 12 Polynomials 1
683
Test 0 1 x1 2, say x = 1: P ]1g = 1]1 + 3g]1  2g = 1]4g]1g = 4 10 So the curve is below the xaxis. Test x 2 2, say x = 3: P ]3g = 3]3 + 3g]3  2g = 3]6g]1g = 18 20 So the curve is above the xaxis. We can sketch the polynomial as shown.
y
4 3 2 1 4 3 2 1 0 1 2 3 4 1 2 3 4
Later on, in a class investigation in this chapter you will learn how to make the graph more accurate by finding the maximum and minimum points. This is a topic in the HSC Course.
2. (a) Write the polynomial P ] x g = x 3  x 2  5x  3 as a product of its factors. (b) Sketch the graph of the polynomial.
Solution
(a) Factors of  3 are ! 1 and ! 3. P ] 1 g = ] 1 g3  ] 1 g2  5 ] 1 g  3 =0
CONTINUED
684
(b) For the graph of P ] x g = x 3  x 2  5x  3 For xintercepts: y = 0 0 = x 3  x 2  5x  3 = ] x + 1 g2 ] x  3 g ] x + 1 g2 = 0, x3=0 x+1=0 x=3 x = 1 So xintercepts are  1 and 3. For yintercepts: x = 0 P ] 0 g = 0 3  ] 0 g2  5 ] 0 g  3 = 3 So yintercept is  3.
We look at which parts of the graphs are above and which are below the xaxis between the xintercepts. Test x 1 1, say x =  2: P ] x g = x 3  3x 2  x + 3 = ] x + 1 g2 ] x  3 g P ]  2 g = ]  2 + 1 g2 ]  2  3 g = ]  1 g2 ]  5 g = 5 10 So the curve is below the xaxis. Test 11 x 1 3, say x = 0: P ] 0 g = ] 0 + 1 g2 ] 0  3 g = ] 1 g2 ]  3 g = 3 10
Chapter 12 Polynomials 1
685
So the curve is below the xaxis. Test x 2 3, say x = 4: P ] 4 g = ] 4 + 1 g2 ] 4  3 g = ] 5 g2 ] 1 g = 25 20 So the curve is above the xaxis. We can sketch the polynomial as shown.
y
4 3 2 1 4 3 2 1 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 1 2 3 4
12.4 Exercises
1. Sketch the graph of each polynomial by nding its zeros and showing the x and yintercepts. (a) f ] x g = ] x + 1 g ] x  2 g ] x  3 g (b) P ] x g = x ] x + 4 g ] x  2 g (c) p ] x g =  x ] x  1 g ] x  3 g (d) f ] x g = x ] x + 2 g2 (e) g ] x g = ] 5  x g ] x + 2 g ] x + 5 g 2. (i) Write each polynomial as a product of its factors (ii) Sketch the graph of the polynomial (a) P ] x g = x 3  2x 2  8x (b) f ] x g =  x 3  4x 2 + 5x (c) P ] x g = x 4 + 3x 3 + 2x 2 (d) A ] x g = 2x 3 + x 2  15x (e) P ] x g =  x 4 + 2x 3 + 3x 2
686
3.
(a) Find the xintercepts of the polynomial P ] x g = x 4 + 3x 3  4x. (b) Sketch the graph of the polynomial. (a) Show that x  2 is a factor of P ] x g = x 3  3x 2  4x + 12. (b) Write P(x) as a product of its factors. (c) Sketch the graph of the polynomial. Sketch the graph of each polynomial, showing all x and yintercepts.
(a) P ] x g = x 3 + 3x 2  10x  24 (b) P ] x g = x 3 + x 2  9x  9 (c) P ] x g = 12  19x + 8x 2  x 3 (d) P ] x g = x 3  13x + 12 (e) P ] x g =  x 3 + 2x 2 + 9x  18 (f) P ] x g = x 3 + 2x 2  4x  8 (g) P ] x g = x 3  5x 2 + 8x  4 (h) P ] x g = x 3 + x 2  5x + 3 (i) f (x) = 16x + 12x 2  x 4 (j) P ] x g = x 4  2x 2 + 1
4.
5.
Class Investigation
The graphs in the examples above are not very accurate, as we dont know where they turn around. We can use calculus to help find these points.
You will look at the applications of calculus in sketching graphs in the HSC Course.
You used the axis of symmetry to find the minimum and maximum values of quadratic functions in Chapter 10. You can also use calculus to find the minimum or maximum turning points of functions. Notice that the graph below has both a maximum and minimum turning point. We can find these by looking at the gradient of the tangents dy around the curve, or . dx
y
Chapter 12 Polynomials 1
687
dy dx
= 0.
We can also examine each type of turning point more closely. Maximum turning point:
The maximum turning point has a zero gradient at the point itself but notice that it has a positive gradient on the lefthand side and a negative gradient on the righthand side. dy dy So 2 0 on the LHS and 1 0 on the RHS. dx dx Minimum turning point:
The minimum turning point has a zero gradient at the point itself but it has a negative gradient on the lefthand side and a positive gradient on the righthand side. dy dy So 1 0 on the LHS and 2 0 on the RHS. dx dx
CONTINUED
688
There is also another type of point that you see in graphs such as f ] x g = x 3.
dy dx
= 0.
However, the gradient has the same sign on both the LHS and RHS. These three types of points are called stationary points. We can use them to sketch the graph of a polynomial. Here is an example. Sketch the polynomial P ] x g = 2x 3 + 3x 2  12x  7 showing any stationary points. dy dx = 6x 2 + 6x  12 dy dx = 0:
P ] 1 g = 2 ] 1 g3 + 3 ] 1 g2  12 ] 1 g  7 = 14 So there is a stationary point at ^ 1, 14 h. We can check the gradient on the LHS and RHS of this point to determine if it is a maximum or minimum turning point. When x = 0 dy = 6 (0) 2 + 6 (0)  12 dx = 12 When x = 2 dy = 6 (2) 2 + 6 (2)  12 dx = 24
Chapter 12 Polynomials 1
689
x dy dx Since dy
0 12
1 0
2 24 dy dx
dx turning point.
] 2 g When x =  2
P ]  2 g = 2 ]  2 g3 + 3 ]  2 g2  12 ]  2 g  7 = 13 So there is a stationary point at ^  2, 13 h. Check the gradient on the LHS and RHS of this point. When x =  3 dy = 6 ( 3) 2 + 6 ( 3)  12 dx = 24 When x = 1 dy = 6 (1) 2 + 6 (1)  12 dx = 12 x dy dx Since dy dx 3 24 2 0 1 2 dy dx
turning point. Now we look for intercepts. For xintercepts: y = 0 0 = 2x 3 + 3x 2  12x  7 The expression 2x 3 + 3x 2  12x  7 will not factorise so we cannot find the xintercepts. For yintercept: x = 0 P ] x g = 2 ] 0 g3 + 3 ] 0 g2  12 ] 0 g  7 = 7 So the yintercept is  7.
CONTINUED Factors of  7 are !1 and !7 and none of these factors will satisfy the polynomial equation.
690
x
7
(1, 14)
Can you sketch the following polynomials using calculus to find their stationary points? 1. P ] x g = x 2 + 6x  3 2. P ] x g =  x 2 + 4x + 1 3. p ] x g = x 3  5 4. f ] x g = x 4 + 2 5. g ] x g = 2x 3 + 3x 2  1 6. P ] x g = 2x 3  21x 2 + 72x  12 7. f ] x g =  2x 3 + 9x 2  12x + 4 8. P ] x g = x 3  3x 2 + 3x  5 9. A ] x g = x 4 + 8x 3  18x 2  7 10. Q ] x g =  3x 4 + 20x 3  48x 2 + 48x  3
You may have noticed some of these properties while sketching the graphs of polynomials.
Chapter 12 Polynomials 1
691
Investigation
Use a graphics calculator or graphing computer software to explore the behaviour of polynomials as x becomes large (both negative and positive values). For example, sketch f ] x g = 2x 5 + 3x 2  7x  1 and f ] x g = 2x 5 together. What do you notice at both ends of the graphs where x is large? Zoom out on these graphs and watch the graph of the polynomial and the graph of the leading term come together. Try sketching other polynomials along with their leading term as different graphs. Do you find the same results?
So the leading term shows us what its limiting behaviour will be. If the degree of a polynomial P(x) is even and the leading coefficient is positive, then the polynomial will be positive as x becomes large. This means that for any polynomial with a positive leading coefficient and even degree, P ] x g " 3 as x " !3. On the graph, both ends of the graph will go up as shown by the examples below.
y
692
If the degree of a polynomial P(x) is even and the leading coefficient is negative, then the polynomial will be negative as x becomes large. This means that for any polynomial with a negative leading coefficient and even degree, P ] x g "  3 as x " ! 3. On the graph, both ends of the graph will go down as shown by the examples below.
y
Chapter 12 Polynomials 1
693
If P(x) is an odd degree polynomial with positive leading coefficient, then as x becomes a very large positive value, P(x) will also be positive. As x becomes a very large negative value, P(x) will also be negative. This means that P ] x g "  3 as x "  3 and P ] x g " 3 as x " 3. On the graph, the end of the graph on the LHS will go down and the end on the RHS will go up as shown in the examples.
y
694
If P(x) is an odd degree polynomial with negative leading coefficient, then as x becomes a very large positive value, P(x) will be negative. As x becomes a very large negative value, P(x) will be positive. This means that P ] x g " 3 as x "  3 and P ] x g "  3 as x " 3. On the graph, the end of the graph on the LHS will go up and the end on the RHS will go down as shown in the examples.
y
Chapter 12 Polynomials 1
695
696
If P(x) has even degree, the ends of the graph both go the same way.
y
Leading coefficient 2 0
y
Leading coefficient 1 0
If P(x) has odd degree, the ends of the graph both go different ways.
y
Leading coefficient 2 0
y
Leading coefficient 1 0
This comes from the results above. A polynomial with odd degree will go up at one end and down the other as x becomes large. This means that it must cross the xaxis at least once. ` the polynomial must have at least one real zero.
At least one maximum or minimum value of P(x) occurs between any two distinct real zeros.
You can see this on a graph. If there are two distinct real zeros of a polynomial, then they will show up on the graph as two xintercepts since the zeros make P ] x g = 0.
Chapter 12 Polynomials 1
697
When the graph passes through one xintercept, say x1, it must turn around again to pass through the other xintercept x2 as shown in the examples below. So there must be at least one maximum or minimum value between the zeros.
y
x1
x2
x1
x2
x1
x2
Multiple roots
In quadratic functions, you saw that if a quadratic expression is a perfect square, it has equal roots (and the discriminant is zero).
698
EXAMPLE
Solve x 2  2x + 1 = 0.
Solution
x 2  2x + 1 = 0 ]x  1g]x  1g = 0 ] x  1 g2 = 0 x  1 = 0, x = 1, x 1= 0 x =1
The solution is x = 1 but we say that there are two equal roots.
If P(x) has two equal roots at x = a then we can write P ] x g = ] x  a g2 Q ] x g We say that the polynomial has a double root at x = a. If P ] x g = ] x  a g3 Q ] x g, the polynomial has a triple root at x = a. There are three equal roots at x = a.
EXAMPLES
1. Sketch the graph of f ] x g = ] x + 2 g2.
Solution
This graph is f ] x g = x 2 translated 2 units to the left.
y
5 4 3 2 1 4 3 2 1 0 1 2 3 4
See class investigations on pages 686690.
Chapter 12 Polynomials 1
699
Solution
This is the graph of F ] x g = x 3 translated 1 unit to the right.
y
8 6 4 2 4 3 2 1 0 2 4 6 8 1 2 3 4
Generally, a graph cuts the xaxis at a single root but touches the xaxis at a multiple root in a special way.
EXAMPLE
(a) Examine the polynomial P ] x g = ] x + 2 g2 ] x  1 g close to the roots. (b) Describe the behaviour of the polynomial as x becomes very large. (c) Draw a sketch of the polynomial showing its roots.
Solution
(a) P ] x g = ] x + 2 g2 ] x  1 g has roots when P ] x g = 0.
] x + 2 g2 ] x  1 g = 0 x + 2 = 0, x  1 = 0
x =  2,
x=1
Notice that there is a double root at x =  2. Look at the sign of P(x) close to x = 1: When x = 0.9 P ] 0.9 g = ] 0.9 + 2 g2 ] 0.9  1 g = +#=So the curve is below the xaxis on the LHS.
CONTINUED
700
When x = 1.1 P ] 1.1 g = ] 1.1 + 2 g2 ] 1.1  1 g = +#+ =+ So the curve is above the xaxis on the RHS. Look at the sign of P(x) close to x =  2: When x =  2.1 P ]  2.1 g = ]  2.1 + 2 g2 ]  2.1  1 g = +#=So the curve is below the xaxis on the LHS. When x =  1.9 P ]  1.9 g = ]  1.9 + 2 g2 ]  1.9  1 g = +#=So the curve is below the xaxis on the RHS. At the single root x = 1, the curve passes through the root from below the xaxis to above the xaxis. At the double root x =  2, the curve touches the xaxis from below and turns around and continues to be below the xaxis. (b) Expanding P ] x g = ] x + 2 g2 ] x  1 g gives x3 as the leading term. P ] x g = ] x + 2 g2 ] x  1 g = ^ x 2 + 4x + 4 h ] x  1 g
There is no need to expand the brackets fully as we only need the leading term.
= x 3  x 2 + 4x 2  4x + 4 x  4 So the polynomial has degree 3 since the highest power is x3. Also the leading coefficient is 1. Since P(x) has odd degree and a positive leading coefficient, as x becomes a larger positive number, P ] x g " 3 and as x becomes a larger negative number, P ] x g " 3. (c)
y
2
Chapter 12 Polynomials 1
701
Investigation
Use a graphics calculator or graphing computer software to draw graphs with multiple roots. (a) Examine values close to the roots. (b) Look at the relationship between the degree of the polynomial, the leading coefficient and its graph. Here are some examples of polynomials but you could choose others to examine. 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. 8. 9. 10. P ]xg = ]x + 1g]x  3g P ]xg = ]x + 1g2]x  3g P ]xg = ]x + 1g3]x  3g P ]xg = ]x + 1g4]x  3g P ]xg = ]x + 1g]x  3g2 P ]xg = ]x + 1g]x  3g3 P ]xg = ]x + 1g]x  3g4 P ]xg = ]x + 1g2]x  3g2 P ]xg = ]x + 1g2]x  3g3 P ]xg = ]x + 1g3]x  3g2
See class investigation on pages 686690.
Where there is a multiple root, there is always a stationary point (maximum, minimum or point of inflexion). This means that dy dx = 0 at that point.
If P ] x g = ] x  a gn Q ] x g has a multiple root at x = a then P (a) = P l(a) = 0 There is a stationary point at x = a: If n is even, there is a maximum or minimum turning point at x = a If n is odd, there is a point of inflexion at x = a
Proof
P ] x g = ] x  a gn Q ] x g P ] a g = ] a  a gn Q ] a g = 0n $ Q ] x g =0
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P l (x) = u lv + v lu = n (x  a) n  1 $ 1 $ Q (x) + Ql(x) $ (x  a) n = n (x  a) n  1 Q (x) + (x  a) n Ql(x) P l (a) = n (a  a) n  1 Q (a) + (a  a) n Ql(a) = n $ 0 n  1 $ Q (a) + 0 n $ Ql(a) =0 ` P (a) = P l (a) = 0
EXAMPLES
1. Draw a sketch of P ] x g =  x ] x  3 g3 .
Solution
Roots of the polynomial equation P ] x g = 0:  x ] x  3 g3 = 0 x = 0, x  3 = 0 x=3 There is a single root at x = 0 so the curve crosses the xaxis at this point. There is a triple root at x = 3. Since n is odd, there is a point of inflexion at x = 3. P ] x g =  x ] x  3 g3
There is no need to fully expand the polynomial as we only want to find the leading term.
=  x ^ x 3  9x 2 + 27x  27 h =  x4 f Since x 4 is the leading term, P(x) has degree 4 and the leading coefficient is negative. So as x becomes large (both negative and positive) the value of P ] x g " 3.
y
Chapter 12 Polynomials 1
703
2. A polynomial has a double root at x = 5. (a) Write an expression for the polynomial. (b) Prove that P ] 5 g = P l (5) = 0.
Solution
(a) If P(x) has a double root at x = 5, then ] x  5 g 2 is a factor So P ] x g = ] x  5 g 2Q ] x g (b) P ] x g = ] x  5 g 2Q ] x g P ] 5 g = ] 5  5 g 2Q ] 5 g = 02 #Q ] 5 g =0 To find P l (5), first we differentiate P(x) using the product rule. P l (x) = u lv + v lu = 2 (x  5) 1 $ 1 $ Q (x) + Q l (x) $ (x  5) 2 = 2 ( x  5 ) Q ( x ) + ( x  5 ) 2 Q l (x ) 2 P l ( 5 ) = 2 (5  5 ) Q ( 5 ) + (5  5 ) Q l ( 5 ) 2 = 2 # 0 # Q (5 ) + 0 # Q l ( 5 ) =0 3. A monic polynomial has degree 5 and has a double root at a1 and a triple root at a2. Draw a sketch of the polynomial where a 1 1 a 2 .
Solution
Since P(x) is monic and has degree 5, the leading term is x5. We could write P ] x g = _ x  a 1 i 2 _ x  a 2 i 3. Since the polynomial has odd degree and a positive leading coefficient, as x becomes a positive large value, P ] x g " 3 and as x becomes a negative large value, P ] x g "  3. The double root at x = a 1 gives a maximum or minimum turning point and the triple root at x = a 2 means a point of inflexion. Putting all this information together gives the graph below.
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a1
a2
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12.5 Exercises
1. Find the roots of each polynomial equation P (x) = 0 and state if they are multiple roots. (a) P ] x g = x 2  6x + 9 (b) P ] x g = x 3  9x 2 + 14x (c) P ] x g = x 3  3x 2 (d) f ] x g = x 3  2x 2  4x + 8 (e) P ] x g = x 3  6x 2 + 12x  8 (f) A ] x g = x 4  4x 3 + 5x 2  2x (g) P ] x g = x 4  4x 3  2x 2 + 12x + 9 (h) Q ] x g = x 5  8x 4 + 16x 3 (i) P ] x g = x 4 + 2x 3  12x 2 + 14x  5 (j) f ] x g = 8x 3  36x 2 + 54x  27 For each graph, state if (i) the leading coefficient is positive or negative and (ii) the degree of the polynomial is even or odd. (a)
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(c)
(d)
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(e)
(b)
(f)
x x
Chapter 12 Polynomials 1
705
(g)
(h)
Polynomial P ] x g = x 3  7x 2 + 8x + 16 has a double root at x = 4. (a) Show that ] x  4 g 2 is a factor of P(x). (b) Write P(x) as a product of its factors. (c) Prove P ] 4 g = P l(4) = 0. Polynomial f ] x g = x 4 + 7x 3 + 9x 2  27x  54 has a triple root at x =  3. (a) Show that ] x + 3 g3 is a factor of f(x). (b) Write f (x) as a product of its factors. (c) Prove f ]  3 g = f l( 3) = 0 . A polynomial has a triple root at x = k and degree n. (a) Write an expression for the polynomial. (b) Prove that P (k) = P l (k) = 0. Draw an example of a polynomial with leading term (a) x3 (b)  2x 5 (c) 3x2 (d)  x 4 (e)  2x 3 Draw an example of a polynomial with a double root at x = 2 and a leading term of 2x3.
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A monic polynomial of degree 2 has a double root at x =  4. Write down an expression for the polynomial P(x). Is this a unique expression? A polynomial of degree 3 has a triple root at x = 1. (a) Write down an expression for the polynomial. Is this unique?
10. Draw an example of a polynomial with a double root at x = 1 and leading term  x 3. 11. Sketch an example of a polynomial with a double root at x = 2 and a leading term of x4. 12. Draw an example of a polynomial with a double root at x =  3 and leading term x 6 .
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13. A polynomial has a triple root at x = 1 and it has a leading term of x3. Draw an example of a graph showing this information. 14. Given a polynomial with a triple root at x = 0 and leading term  x 4, sketch a polynomial on a number plane that fits this information. 15. If a polynomial has a triple root at x =  2 and a leading term of x8 sketch a polynomial fitting this information. 16. A polynomial has a triple root at x = 4 and its leading term is  4x 3 . Show this on a number plane. 17. A monic polynomial has degree 3 and a double root at x = 1. Show on a sketch that the polynomial has another root in the domain x 2 1.
18. A polynomial with leading term  x 8 has a triple root at x =  2. Show by a sketch that the polynomial has at least one other root in the domain x 2  2. 19. A polynomial has a double root at x = 2 and a double root at x =  3. Its leading term is 2x5. By drawing a sketch, show that the polynomial has another root in the domain x 2 2. 20. Show that a polynomial with leading term  x 3 and a double root at x = 1 has another root at a point where x 21.
Quadratic equation
The quadratic equation ax 2 + bx + c = 0 can be written in monic form as c b x2 + a x + a = 0 If the quadratic equation has roots a and b, then the equation can be written in monic form as ( x  a ) (x  b ) = 0 x 2  bx  a x + ab = 0 x 2  (a + b ) x + ab = 0 i.e. c b x 2 + a x + a / x 2  (a + b) x + ab
Chapter 12 Polynomials 1
707
Cubic equation
The cubic equation ax 3 + bx 2 + cx + d = 0 can be written in monic form as d c b x 3 + a x 2 + a x + a = 0. If the cubic equation has roots a, b and c then the equation can be written in monic form as (x  a ) (x  b ) (x  c) = 0 (x 2  bx  a x + ab ) (x  c) = 0 x 3  cx 2  bx 2 + bcx  a x 2 + acx + abx  abc = 0 x 3  (a + b + c) x 2 + (ab + bc + ac) x  abc = 0 d c b x 3 + a x 2 + a x + a / x 3  (a + b + c) x 2 + (ab + bc + ac) x  abc This gives the results below:
For the cubic equation ax 3 + bx 2 + cx + d = 0: Sum of roots 1 at a time: b a + b + c = a Sum of roots 2 at a time: c ab + ac + bc = a Product of roots (sum of roots 3 at a time) d abc =  a
Quartic equation
The quartic equation ax 4 + bx 3 + cx 2 + dx + e = 0 can be written in monic form d c e b as x 4 + a x 3 + a x 2 + a x + a = 0.
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If the quartic equation has roots a, b, c and d then the equation can be written in monic form as (x  a ) (x  b) (x  c) (x  d) = 0 [x  (a + b + c) x + (ab + bc + ac) x  abc] (x  d) = 0 x  dx  (a + b + c) x 3 + d (a + b + c) x 2 + (ab + bc + ac) x 2  d (ab + bc + ac) x  abcx + abcd = 0 x 4  (a + b + c + d) x 3 + (ad + db + dc + ab + bc + ac) x 2 (abd + bdc + adc + abc) x + abcd = 0 e b 3 c 2 d 4 ` x + ax + ax + ax + a
3 2 4 3
/ x 4  (a + b + c + d) x 3 + (ad + db + dc + ab + bc + ac) x 2  (abd + bdc + adc + abc) x + abcd This gives the results below:
For the quartic equation ax 4 + bx 3 + cx 2 + dx + e = 0: Sum of roots 1 at a time: b a + b + c + d = a Sum of roots 2 at a time: c ab + ac + ad + bc + bd + cd = a Sum of roots 3 at a time: d abc + abd + acd + bcd =  a Product of roots (sum of roots 4 at a time): e abcd = a
Class Investigation
Can you find results for sums and products of roots for equations of degree 5, 6 and so on?
Chapter 12 Polynomials 1
709
EXAMPLES
1. If a, b, c are the roots of 2x 3  5x 2 + x  1 = 0, find (a ) (a + b + c) 2 (b) (a + 1) ( b + 1) (c + 1) (c) 1 1 1 + + . a b c
Solution
b a + b + c = a =5 2 c ab + ac + bc = a 1 = 2 = d abc =  a == 1 2 (1) 2
( 5) 2
CONTINUED
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2. If one root of x 3  x 2 + 2x  3 = 0 is 4, find the sum and product of the other two roots.
Solution
Roots are a, b, c where, say, c = 4. b a + b + c = a
Solution
Let the roots be a, a and b. b a + a + b = a ` 2a + b = 32 12 (1) c aa + ab + ab = a 15 ` a 2 + 2ab = 12 d aab =  a 9 ` a2 b = 12 From (1): b=32  2a 12 (4)
(2)
(3)
Substitute in (2): 32 15 a 2 + 2a c  2a m = 12 12 32 2 12a + 24a c  2a m = 15 12 12a 2  64a  48a 2 = 15 0 = 36a 2 + 64a + 15 = (2a + 3) (18a + 5) 2a + 3 = 0 18a + 5 = 0 2a =  3 18a =  5 5 1 a = 1 a= 2 18
Chapter 12 Polynomials 1
711
Substitute in (4): 32 1 1 a = 1 : b =  2 c 1 m 12 2 2 1 = 3 32 5 5 a= :b= 2cm 12 18 18 1 = 2 9 Substitute in (3): 9 1 1 1 2 1 a =  1 , b = : c 1 m c m = 2 3 2 3 12 3 3 = 4 4 5 5 2 9 1 1 a =  , b =  2 : cm c 2 m = 18 9 18 9 12 This is impossible as LHS is negative and RHS is positive. ` the roots are 1 1 1 and 2 3
12.6 Exercises
1. Given that a and b are the roots of the equation, find (i) a + b and (ii) ab for the following quadratic equations. (a) x 2  2x + 8 = 0 (b) 3x 2 + 6x  2 = 0 (c) x 2 + 7x + 1 = 0 (d) 4x 2  9x  12 = 0 (e) 5x 2 + 15x = 0 Find (i) a + b + c, (ii) ab + ac + bc, and (iii) abc, where a, b and c are the roots of the equation, for the following cubic equations. (a) x 3 + x 2  2x + 8 = 0 (b) x 3  3x 2 + 5x  2 = 0 (c) 2x 3  x 2 + 6x + 2 = 0 (d)  x 3  3x 2  11 = 0 (e) x 3 + 7x  3 = 0 3. For the following quartic equations, where a, b, c and d are the roots of the equation, find (i) a + b + c + d, (ii) ab + ac + ad + bc + bd + cd, (iii) abc + abd + acd + bcd and (iv) abcd (a) x 4 + 2x 3  x 2  x + 5 = 0 (b) x 4  x 3  3x 2 + 2x  7 = 0 (c)  x 4 + x 3 + 3x 2  2x + 4 = 0 (d) 2x 4  2x 3  4x 2 + 3x  2 = 0 (e) 2x 4  12x 3 + 7 = 0 If a and b are the roots of x 2  5x  5 = 0, find (a) a + b (b) ab 1 1 (c) + a b (d) a2 + b2 (e) a3 + b3
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If a , b and c are the roots of 2x 3 + 5x 2  x  3 = 0, nd (a) abc (b) ab + ac + bc (c) a + b + c 1 1 1 (d) + + a b c (e) (a + 1) ( b + 1) (c + 1) If a, b, c and d are the roots of x 4  2x 3 + 5x  3 = 0, nd (a) abcd (b) abc + abd + acd + bcd 1 1 1 1 (c) + + + a b c d One root of x 2  3x + k  2 = 0 is  4. Find the value of k. One root of x 3  5x 2  x + 21 = 0 is 3. Find the sum a + b and the product ab of the other two roots. Given P (x) = 2x 3  7x 2 + 4x + 1, if the equation P (x) = 0 has a root at x = 1, nd the sum and product of its other roots.
12. Two roots of x 3 + ax 2 + bx  5 = 0 are equal to 4 and  2. Find the values of a and b. 13. (a) Show that 1 is a zero of the polynomial P (x) = x 4  2x 3 + 7x  6. (b) If a, b and c are the other 3 zeros, nd the value of a + b + c and abc. 14. If x = 2 is a double root of ax 4  2x 3  8x + 16 = 0, nd the value of a and the sum of the other two roots. 15. Two of the roots of x 3  px 2  qx  4 = 0 are 3 and 5. (a) Find the other root. (b) Find p and q. 16. The product of two of the roots of x 4 + 2x 3  18x  5 = 0 is  5. Find the product of the other two roots. 17. The sum of two of the roots of x 4 + x 3 + 7x 2 + 14x  1 = 0 is 4. Find the sum of the other two roots. 18. Find the roots of 8x 3  20x 2 + 6x + 9 = 0, given that two of the roots are equal. 19. Solve 12x 3  4x 3  3x + 1 = 0 if the sum of two of its roots is 0. 20. Solve 6x 4 + 5x 3  24x 2  15x + 18 = 0 if the sum of two of its roots is zero.
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10. Find the value(s) of k if the quadratic equation x 2  (k + 2) x + k + 1 = 0 has (a) equal roots (b) one root equal to 5 (c) consecutive roots (d) one root double the other (e) reciprocal roots 11. Two roots of x 3 + mx 2 + 15x  7 = 0 are equal and rational. Find m.
Chapter 12 Polynomials 1
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Test Yourself 12
1. 2. Write p (x) = x 4 + 4x 3  14x 2  36x + 45 as a product of its factors. If a, b and c are the roots of x 3  3x 2 + x  9 = 0, find (a) a + b + c (b) abc (c) ab + ac + bc 1 1 1 (d) + + a b c A monic polynomial P (x) of degree 3 has zeros  2,1 and 6. Write down the polynomial. (a) Divide P (x) = x 4 + x 3  19x 2  49x  30 by x 2  2x  15. (b) Hence, write P (x) as a product of its factors. For the polynomial P (x) = x 3 + 2x 2  3x, find (a) the degree (b) the coefficient of x (c) the zeros (d) the leading term. Sketch f (x) = (x  2) (x + 3)2 showing the intercepts. If ax 4 + 3x 3  48x 2 + 60x = 0 has a double root at x = 2, find (a) the value of a (b) the sum of the other two roots. Show that x + 7 is not a factor of x 3  7x 2 + 5x  4. If the sum of two roots of x 4 + 2x 3  8x 2  18x  9 = 0 is 0, find the roots of the equation. 11. Find the x and yintercepts of the curve y = x 3  3x 2  10x + 24. 12. Divide p (x) = 3x 5  7x 3 + 8x 2  5 by x  2, and write p (x) in the form p (x) = (x  2) a (x) + b (x) . 13. Solve 2 cos 3 x + cos 2 x  cos x = 0 for 0c# x # 360c. 14. When 8x 3  5kx + 9 is divided by x  2, the remainder is 1. Evaluate k. 15. Find the zeros of g (x) =  x 2 + 9x  20. 16. Sketch P (x) = 2x (x  3) (x + 5), showing intercepts. 17. Find the value of k if the remainder is  4 when x 3 + 2x 2  3x + k is divided by x  2. 18. The sum of 2 roots of x 4  7x 3 + 5x 2  x + 3 = 0 is 3. Find the sum of the other 2 roots. 19. A polynomial is given by P (x) = A (x) (x  a) 3 . Show that P (a) = Pl(a) = 0. 20. Show that x  5 is a factor of f (x) = x 3  6x 2 + 12x  35. 21. (a) Show that x  5 is a factor of f ] x g = x 3  7x 2  5x + 75. (b) Show that f ] 5 g = f l(5) = 0 . (c) What can you say about the root at x = 5? (d) Write f (x) as a product of its factors. 22. The leading term of a polynomial is 3x 3 and there is a double root at x = 3. Draw an example of a graph of the polynomial.
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8. 9.
10. The polynomial f (x) = ax 2 + bx + c has zeros 4 and 5, and f (1) = 60. Evaluate a, b and c.
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23. A polynomial P(x) has a triple root at x =  6. (a) Write an expression for P(x). (b) If P(x) has leading coefcient 3 and degree 4, draw a sketch showing this information.
24. Draw an example of a polynomial with leading term 3x 5 . 25. If P ] x g = ax 3 + bx 2 + cx + d has a remainder of 8 when divided by x  1, P ] 2 g = 17, P ] 1 g =  4 and P ] 0 g = 5, evaluate a, b, c and d.
Challenge Exercise 12
1. Write P (x) = x 5 + 2x 4 + x 3  x 2  2x  1 as a product of its factors. A polynomial P (x) = (x  b) 7 Q (x) . (a) Show that P (b) = P l(b) = 0. (b) Hence nd a and b, if (x  1) 7 is a factor of P (x) = x 7 + 3x 6 + ax 5 + x 4 + 3x 3 + bx 2 x +1. Solve tan 4 i  tan 3 i  3 tan 2 i + 3 tan i = 0 for 0c# i # 360c. (a) Find the equation of the tangent to the curve y = x 3 at the point where x = 1. (b) Find the point where this tangent cuts the curve again. (a) Find the remainder when p (x) = 2x 4  7x 3 + ax 2 + 3x  9 is divided by 2x  1. (b) If the remainder, when p (x) is divided by x + 2, is 17, nd the value of a. If a, b and c are roots of the cubic equation 2x 3 + 8x 2  x + 6 = 0, nd (a) abc (b) a2 + b2 + c2 Solve 4 sin 3 i  3 sin i  1 = 0 for 0c# i # 360c.
1
8.
Find the value of a if (x + 1) (x  2) is a factor of 2x 3  x 2 + ax  2. Prove that if x  a is a factor of polynomial P (x), then P (a) = 0.
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10. Find the points of intersection between the polynomial P ] x g = x 3 + 5x 2 + 4x  1 and the line 3x + y + 4 = 0. 11. Write down an example of a polynomial with the graph below.
y
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12. Sketch an example of a polynomial with a double root at x = a 1 and a double root at x = a 2, if the polynomial is monic and has even degree _ a 2 2 a 1 i .
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TERMINOLOGY
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INTRODUCTION
THIS CHAPTER IS AN introduction to some of the concepts you will meet in probability in the HSC Course. Probability is the study of how likely it is that something will happen. It is used to make predictions in different areas, ranging from games of chance to business decisionmaking. In this chapter you will study general counting techniques based on the fundamental counting principle. These will lead on to the study of permutations and combinations. These have applications in finding the size of the sample space, or the ways that certain events can happen in probability. It can also tell us the number of postcodes a state can have, the number of telephone numbers that is possible in a city and the number of combinations making up serial numbers for appliances.
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The sum of all probabilities is 1. Complementary events: P ] not E g = 1 P ] E g or P^L E h = 1  P (E) where L E is the complement of E P ]Eg + P ^ L Eh = 1
EXAMPLES
1. Alison buys 5 raffle tickets and 100 are sold altogether. What is the probability that Alison (a) wins (b) doesnt win first prize in the raffle?
Solution
(a) The size of the sample space, or total number of outcomes is 100, since there are 100 tickets altogether. Alison has 5 tickets so has 5 different ways of winning the raffle. 5 100 1 = 20 (b) There are 100  5 or 95 other tickets that could win if Alison loses. P (Win) = 95 100 19 = 20 Or, if we know that the sum of all probabilities is 1, we could say P (Loss) = P (Loss) = 1  P (Win) =1= 19 20 1 20
2. There are 56 books on music at the school library and there are 2000 books altogether. If Anthony selects a book at random, find the probability that it will be a book on music.
Solution
The size of the sample space is 2000 and there are 56 ways that Anthony could select a music book. 56 P (Music book) = 2000 7 = 250
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13.1 Exercises
1. A lottery is held in which 20 000 tickets are sold. If I buy 2 tickets, what is the probability of my winning the prize in the lottery? The probability of a bus arriving 17 on time is estimated at . What 33 is the probability that the bus will not arrive on time? The probability of a seed producing a pink flower is 7 . 9 Find the probability that the seed will produce a different coloured flower. 9. 7. A shoe shop orders in 20 pairs of black, 14 pairs of navy and 3 pairs of brown school shoes. If the boxes are all mixed up, find the probability that one box selected at random will contain brown shoes. A biased coin is weighted so that heads comes up twice as often as tails. Find the probability of tossing a tail. A die has the centre dot painted white on the 5 so that it appears as a 4. Find the probability of rolling (a) a 2 (b) a 4 (c) a number less than 5.
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In a lottery, 200 000 tickets are sold. If Lucia buys 10 tickets, what is the probability of her winning first prize? A machine has a 1.5% chance of breaking down at any given time. What is the probability of the machine not breaking down? A bag contains 6 red balls and 8 white balls. If one ball is drawn out at random, find the probability that it will be (a) white (b) red.
10. A book has 124 pages. If the book is opened at any page at random, find the probability of the page number being (a) either 80 or 90 (b) a multiple of 10 (c) an odd number (d) less than 100. 11. In the game of pool, there are 15 balls, each with the number 1 to 15 on it. In Kelly Pool, each person chooses a number at random from a container and has to try and sink the ball with the corresponding number. If Tracey chooses a number, find the probability that her ball will be (a) the eight ball (b) an odd number (c) a number less than 10.
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12. A box containing a light globe 1 has a probability of holding 20 a defective globe. If 160 boxes are checked, how many globes would be expected to be defective? 13. There are 29 red, 17 blue, 21 yellow and 19 green jelly beans in a packet. If Kate chooses one at random, find the probability that it will be (a) red (b) blue or yellow (c) not green. 14. The probability of breeding a 2 white budgie is . If Mr Seed 15 breeds 240 budgies over the year, how many would be expected to be white? 15. A die is rolled. Calculate the probability of rolling (a) a 6 (b) an even number (c) a number less than 3 (d) 4 or more (e) a multiple of 2. 16. The probability that an arrow will 13 . hit a target is 18 (a) Find the probability that it will miss the target. (b) If 126 arrows are fired, how many would be expected to hit a target? 17. A dog can catch a ball in its mouth 8 times out of 10. (a) What is the probability of the dog catching a ball? (b) If the ball is thrown to the dog 45 times, how many times would the dog be expected to catch it?
18. In a bag there are 21 lollies with pink wrappers and 23 with blue wrappers. If Leila chooses a lolly at random from the bag, find the probability that she selects a lolly with (a) a blue wrapper (b) a pink wrapper. 19. In a survey, it was found that 18 people preferred Brand A of soft drink while 39 people preferred Brand B. What is the probability that a person chosen at random prefers Brand A? 20. A school has 653 junior and 329 senior students. If a student is chosen at random, what is the probability that it will be a senior student? 21. A class has 12 girls and 19 boys. Eight of the girls and 12 of the boys play a sport. If a student is chosen at random, find the probability that the person chosen (a) is a boy (b) plays a sport (c) is a girl who doesnt play a sport (d) doesnt play a sport. 22. Amies CD collection includes 21 R&B, 14 rock and 24 jazz albums. If she selects one CD to play at random, find the probability that the CD is (a) rock (b) R&B or rock (c) jazz (d) not R&B.
721
23. The probability of winning a 3 game of chance is and the 8 5 probability of losing is . What 12 is the probability of a draw? 24. In a poll, 39% said they would vote Labor, 34% said they would vote Liberal and 8% said they would vote for independents or small parties.
What percentage would vote for Greens? 25. An arrow has a 0.37 probability of hitting a target outside the bullseye zone and 0.12 probability of missing the target altogether. What is the probability of the arrow hitting the bullseye area?
Counting techniques
In the HSC Course you will learn about multistage events (events where there are two or more events such as rolling two dice or tossing two coins). The counting can become quite difficult, which is why we introduce counting techniques in the Preliminary Course.
Class Discussion
Break up into pairs and try these experiments with one doing the activity and one recording the results. 1. Toss two coins as many times as you can in a 5minute period and record the results in the table: Result Tally Compare your results with others in the class. What do you notice? Is this surprising? 2. Roll two dice as many times as you can in a 5minute period, find the total of the two uppermost numbers on the dice and record the results in the table: Total Tally Compare your results with others in the class. What do you notice? Is this surprising? Why dont these results appear to be equally likely? 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 Two heads One head and one tail Two tails
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There are many examples of where counting techniques are useful, in probability and in areas such as manufacturing, business, biology and economics. For example, in genetics, the number of molecules on DNA strands can be difficult to find.
Investigation
1. To travel to work, Cassie needs to catch a bus and a train. She lives near a bus stop and there are three different buses she could catch into town. When she arrives in town, she needs to catch one of four trains to work. If there are three buses and four trains possible for Cassie to catch, in how many ways is it possible for her to travel to work?
Buses Trains
Cassies house
A B C
1 2 3 4
2. At a restaurant, there are three entrees, four main meals and two desserts. Every time Rick eats at the restaurant he chooses to eat a different combination of courses. How many times would he need to go to the restaurant to cover all possible combinations?
FUNDAMENTAL COUNTING PRINCIPLE If one event can happen in a different ways, a second event can happen in b different ways, a third in c different ways and so on, then these successive events can happen in abc different ways.
EXAMPLES
1. A personal identification number (PIN) has 4 letters followed by 3 numbers. How many different PINs of this type are possible?
Solution
There are 26 letters and 10 numbers (0 9) possible for the positions in the PIN.
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Total number = 26 # 26 # 26 # 26 #10 #10 #10 = 26 4 #10 3 = 456 976 000 So 456 976 000 PINs are possible. 2. A restaurant serves 5 different types of entree, 12 main courses and 6 desserts. (a) If I order any combination of entree, main course and dessert at random, how many different combinations are possible? (b) If my friend makes 3 guesses at which combination I will order, what is the probability that she will guess correctly?
Solution
(a) Total number of combinations = 5#12 # 6 = 360 (b) P ^ correct guess h = 3 360 1 = 120
EXAMPLES
1. To win a trifecta in a race, a person has to pick the horses that come first, second and third in the race. If a race has 9 horses, how many different combinations could be a trifecta?
Solution
Any of the 9 horses could come first. Any of the remaining 8 could come second. Any of the remaining 7 horses could come third. Total ways = 9 # 8 # 7 = 504
CONTINUED The probabilities will be different for where each horse will come in the race, but the number of possible different trifecta combinations will be the same.
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2. A group of 15 people attend a concert and 3 of them are randomly given a free backstage pass. The first person receives a gold pass, the second one a silver pass and the third one a bronze pass. In how many different ways can the passes be given out?
Solution
Any of the 15 people can receive the first pass. There are 14 people left who could receive the second pass. Similarly there are 13 people that could receive the third pass. Total number of possibilities = 15#14 #13 = 2 730 3. In Lotto, a machine contains 45 balls, each with a different number from 1 to 45. (a) In how many ways can 6 balls be randomly drawn? (b) To win first prize in Lotto, a person must choose all 6 numbers correctly. Lisa has 3 tickets in the same draw of Lotto. What is the probability that she will win first prize?
Solution
(a) The first ball could be any of the 45 balls. The second could be any of the remaining 44 balls and so on. The number of ways = 45# 44 # 43# 42 # 41# 40 = 5 864 443 200 3 (b) P ^ first prize h = 5 864 443 200 1 = 1 954 814 400
13.2 Exercises
1. 2. A password has 4 letters. How many combinations are possible? A motorcycle numberplate is made up of 2 letters followed by 2 numbers. How many numberplates of this type are available? 3. A password can have up to 5 letters followed by 4 numbers on it. If I could use any letter of the alphabet or number, how many different passwords could be formed? Leave your answer in index form.
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4.
A witness saw most of the numberplate on a getaway car except for the first letter and the last number. How many different cars do the police need to check in order to find this car? A certain brand of computer has a serial number made up of 10 letters then 15 numbers. How many computers with this type of serial number can be made? Leave your answer in index form. Victoria has postcodes starting with 3. How many different postcodes are available in Victoria? A country town has telephone numbers starting with 63 followed by any 6 other numbers from 0 to 9. How many telephone numbers are possible in this town? Yasmin has 12 tops, 5 pairs of jeans and 5 pairs of shoes in her wardrobe. If she randomly chooses a top, pair of jeans and shoes, how many combinations are possible? A car manufacturer produces cars in 8 different colours, with either manual or automatic gear transmission, and 4 different types of wheels. How many different combinations can it produce?
course, dessert and coffee are possible? (b) Find the probability that I randomly pick the combination voted most favourite. 12. A telephone number in a capital city can start with a 9 and has 8 digits altogether. (a) How many telephone numbers are possible? (b) If I forget the last 3 digits of my friends telephone number, how many numbers would I have to try for the correct number? 13. A company manufactures 20 000 000 computer chips. If it uses a serial number on each one consisting of 10 letters, will there be enough combinations for all these chips? 14. A password consists of 2 letters followed by 5 numbers. What is the probability that I randomly guess the correct password? 15. A city has a population of 3 500 000. How many digits should its telephone numbers have so that every person can have one? 16. A manufacturer of computer parts puts a serial number on each part, consisting of 3 letters, 4 numbers then 4 letters. The number of parts sold is estimated as 5 million. Will there be enough combinations on this serial number to cope with these sales? 17. A bridal shop carries 12 different types of bridal dresses, 18 types of veils and 24 different types of shoes. If Kate chooses a combination of dress, veil and
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10. A PIN has 4 numbers. If I forget my PIN I am allowed 3 tries to get it right. Find the probability that I get it within the 3 tries. 11. A restaurant offers 7 main courses and 4 desserts, as well as 3 different types of coffee. (a) How many different combinations of main
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shoes at random, what is the probability that she chooses the same combination as her friend Jane? 18. Kate chooses a different coloured dress for each of her 3 bridesmaids. If the colours are randomly given to each bridesmaid, how many different possibilities are there? 19. In a computer car race game, the cars that come rst, second and third are randomly awarded. If there are 20 cars, how many possible combinations of rst, second and third are there? 20. Jacquie only has 4 chocolates left and decides to randomly choose which of her 6 friends will receive one each. How many possible ways are there in which can she give the chocolates away? 21. Three prizes are given away at a concert by taping them underneath random seats. If there are 200 people in the audience, in how many ways can these prizes be won? 22. There are 7 clients at a hairdressing salon. If there are
3 free haircuts randomly given away, in how many ways could this be done? 23. A ock of 28 pelicans is fed 6 sh carcasses. If each carcass is given to a different pelican, in how many ways can this happen?
24. A set of cards is numbered 1 to 100 and 2 chosen at random. (a) How many different arrangements of ordered pairs are possible? (b) What is the probability that a particular ordered pair is chosen? 25. Each of 10 cards has a letter written on it from A to J. If 3 cards are selected in order at random, nd the probability that they spell out CAB.
Factorial notation
Counting outcomes when repetition or replacement is allowed is quite straightforward, even when the numbers become very large.
EXAMPLE
A card is drawn randomly from a set of 25 cards numbered 1 to 25 in turn and then replaced before the next is selected. How many possible outcomes are there if 25 cards are chosen this way? Answer in scientic notation, correct to 3 signicant gures.
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Solution
Each time there is a card drawn, there are 25 possibilities. Total number = 25# 25# 25#. . .# 25 = 25 = 8.88 #10 34
25
] 25 times g
EXAMPLE
A card is drawn randomly from a set of 25 cards numbered 1 to 25 in turn without replacing it before the next is drawn. How many possible outcomes are there if all 25 cards are drawn out? Answer in scientific notation, correct to 3 significant figures.
Solution
First card: there are 25 possibilities. Second card: there are only 24 possibilities since one card has already been drawn out. Third card: there are 23 possibilities and so on. Total number = 25# 24 # 23## 3# 2 #1 = 1.55#10 25
This calculation is quite tedious!
Factorial notation allows us to easily calculate the number of possible outcomes when selecting all objects in order with no replacement or repetition.
You can nd a x!
n! = n ] n  1 g ] n  2 g ] n  3 g ] n  4 g . . . 3# 2 #1
Since the sequence of numbers multiplied doesnt go further than 1, then by convention we say that
Check 0! on your calculator.
0! = 1
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EXAMPLES
1. Evaluate (a) 4! (b) 7! (c) 25! (answer in scientific notation correct to 3 significant figures.)
Solution
4! = 4 # 3 # 2 #1 = 24 (b) 7! = 7 # 6 # 5 # 4 # 3 # 2 # 1 = 5040 (c) 25! = 1.55#10 25 (a) 2. A group of 9 teenagers is waiting to be served in a caf. They are each randomly assigned a number from 1 to 9. (a) In how many ways is it possible for the numbers to be assigned? (b) One of the group needs to be served quickly as he has to leave. If he is given the first number, in how many ways is it possible for the numbers to be assigned?
Solution
(a) The first number could be assigned 9 ways. The second number could be assigned 8 ways and so on. Total ways = 9! = 362 880 (b) One of the group is given the first ticket (this can only happen in one way) The second number could be assigned 8 ways and so on. Total ways = 1# 8! = 40 320
13.3 Exercises
1. Evaluate (a) 6! (b) 10! (c) 0! (d) 8!  7! (e) 5# 4! 7! (f) 4! 12! 5! 13! (h) 4!9! 8! (i) 3!5! 11! (j) 4!7! (g)
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2.
A group of 9 jockeys are each given a set of riding colours to wear. If these are given out in order randomly, how many different arrangements are possible?
8.
A group of 7 people line up to do karaoke. If they are each randomly given a song to sing, how many possible outcomes are there? A kindergarten class has a rabbit, a mouse and a parrot. Three children are selected to take these pets home for the holidays. If the pets are randomly given out to these children, how many different ways are possible?
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10. A PIN consists of 6 numbers, with no repetition of any numbers allowed. How many different PINs are possible? 3. Each of 6 people at a restaurant is given a different coloured glass. How many possible combinations are there? A mountain trail only has room for one person at a time. If 12 people are waiting at the bottom of the trail and are randomly picked to start out, in how many ways can this happen? A dog walker has 5 dogs and 5 leashes. In how many different ways is it possible to put a leash on each dog? There are 11 people in a choir and each receives a musical score. (a) In how many different ways could the scores be handed out? (b) Russell, the musical director, also needs a musical score. In how many ways could the scores be handed out for the choir and the musical director? A row of seats in a theatre seats 8 people. In how many ways could a group of 8 friends be randomly seated in this row? 11. In a chorus for a school musical, 7 students each wear a different mask. In how many different ways can the masks be worn by these students? 12. If 15 people play a game of Kelly pool, each person in turn chooses a number at random between 1 and 15. In how many different ways can this occur? Answer in scientific notation, correct to one decimal place. 13. (a) A school talent quest has 11 performers and each one is randomly given the order in which to perform. In how many ways can the order of performances be arranged? (b) If one performer is chosen to perform first, in how many ways can the others be arranged? 14. A group of 6 friends sit in the same row at a concert. (a) In how many different ways can they arrange themselves? (b) If one friend must sit on the aisle, in how many ways can they be arranged?
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15. A group of 8 friends go to a restaurant and sit at a round table. If the first person can sit anywhere, in how many ways can the others be arranged around the table? 16. In a pack of cards, the 4 aces are taken out and shuffled. (a) What is the probability of picking out the Ace of Hearts at random? (b) If all the aces are arranged in order, what is the probability of guessing the correct order?
(b) What is the probability that the bride will have a pink rose at her table? 18. In a maths exam, a student has to arrange 5 decimals in the correct order. If he has no idea how to do this and arranges them randomly, what is the probability that he makes the right guess for all the decimals? 19. In a car race, the fastest car is given pole position and the other cars are randomly given their starting positions. If there are 14 cars altogether, in how many ways can this be arranged? 20. Show that 8! (a) = 8 #7 # 6 # 5 4! (b) (c) 11! = 11#10 # 9 # 8 #7 6!
17. At a wedding, each of the 12 tables is to have a centrepiece with a different coloured rose. (a) In how many different ways can the roses be arranged at random?
(d)
Permutations
Factorial notation is useful for finding the number of possible outcomes when arranging all objects in order without replacement. However, sometimes we need to find the number of possible outcomes when arranging only some of the objects in order without replacement. It is easy to arrange objects with replacement.
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EXAMPLE
In how many ways can 5 cards be selected from a total of 20 cards if each one is replaced before selecting the next one?
Solution
Each selection can be made in 20 possible ways. Total = 20 # 20 # 20 # 20 # 20 = 20 5 = 3 200 000 ways.
For r selections from n objects (with repetitions), the number of possible outcomes is n # n # n # n f (r times) or nr
However, when arranging r objects from n objects in order without replacement, it is not so easy.
EXAMPLE
In how many ways can 5 cards be selected from a total of 20 cards if there is no replacement?
Solution
The 1st card can be selected in 20 different ways. The 2nd card can be selected in 19 different ways as the first card is no longer being used. The 3rd card can be selected in 18 different ways, and so on. Total = 20 #19 #18 #17 #16 = 1 860 480 ways
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EXAMPLE
If there are 20 cards and 13 cards are chosen in order at random without replacement, find the possible number of ways the cards can be chosen in scientific notation correct to 1 decimal place.
Solution
The first card can be any of the 20 numbers. The second card can be any of the remaining 19 numbers. The third can be any of the remaining 18 numbers. The number of ways the cards can be chosen = 20 #19 #18 #17 #f# 8 = 4.8 #1014
For r ordered selections from n objects without replacement, the number of possible outcomes is n # ] n  1 g # ] n  2 g # ] n  3 g f ] r times g or n ]n  1 g]n  2 g]n  3 g f ]n  r + 1 g
A permutation describes an arrangement of r objects from a total of n objects in a certain order without replacement or repetition.
Permutation n Pr is the number of ways of making ordered selections of r objects from a total of n objects. n! n Pr = ]n  r g!
Proof
n Pr = n ] n  1 g ] n  2 g ] n  3 g f ] n  r + 1 g = n ]n  1g]n  2g]n  3g f ]n  r + 1g #
]n  r g]n  r  1g]n  r  2gf 3 $ 2 $ 1 ]n  r g]n  r  1g]n  r  2g f 3 $ 2 $ 1 n ]n  1g]n  2g]n  3g f ]n  r + 1g]n  r g]n  r  1g]n  r  2g f 3 $ 2 $ 1 = ]n  r g]n  r  1g]n  r  2g f 3 $ 2 $ 1
= n!
]n  r g!
Pn = n!
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Proof
n! ]n  r g! n! ` n Pn = ]n  n g! n! = 0! n! = 1 = n!
n
Pr =
EXAMPLES
1. Evaluate 9 P4
You can evaluate this on a calculator.
Solution
9
P4 =
2. (a) Find the number of arrangements of 3 digits that can be formed using the digits 0 to 9 if each digit can only be used once. (b) How many 3 digit numbers greater than 700 can be formed?
Solution
(a) There are 10 digits from 0 to 9. The 1st digit can be any of the 10 digits. The 2nd digit can be any of the remaining 9 digits. The 3rd digit can be any of the remaining 8 digits. Total permutations = 10 # 9 # 8 = 720 10! or 10P3 = ] 10  3 g ! 10! = 7! = 720
CONTINUED
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(b) The 1st digit must be 7 or 8 or 9 (3 possible digits). The 2nd digit can be any of the remaining 9 digits. The 3rd digit can be any of the remaining 8 digits. Total arrangements = 3# 9#8 = 216 Another method: There are 3 ways to get the 1st digit. The possible arrangements of the remaining 2 digits is 9 P2 Total arrangements = 3# 9 P2 = 3#72 = 216
There are some special examples that need very careful counting, such as arrangements around a circle. Others involve counting when there are identical objects.
EXAMPLES
1. (a) In how many ways can 6 people sit around a circular table? (b) If seating is random, find the probability that 3 particular people will sit together.
Solution
(a) The 1st person can sit anywhere around the table so we only need to arrange the other 5 people.
The 2nd person can sit in any of the 5 remaining seats. The 3rd person can sit in any of the remaining 4 seats and so on. Total arrangements = 5! = 120
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(b) The 3 people can sit anywhere around the table together in 3# 2 #1 or 3! ways. The remaining 3 people can sit together in 3! ways. Total arrangements = 3!# 3! = 36 36 P (3 sit together) = 120 3 . = 10 2. In how many ways can the letters of the word EXCEPTIONAL be arranged?
Solution
EXCEPTIONAL has 11 letters with the letter E repeated. If each E was different, i.e. E1 and E2, then there would be 11! arrangements. However, we cannot tell the difference between the 2 Es. Since there are 2! ways of arranging the Es, then there are 2! arrangements of the word EXCEPTIONAL that are identical. We need to divide by 2! to eliminate these identical arrangements. 11! Total arrangements = 2! = 19 958 400.
The number of different ways of arranging n objects in which a of the objects are of one kind, b objects are of another n! kind, c of another kind and so on, is given by where a!b!c!f a + b + c +f# n
EXAMPLE
Find the number of ways that the word ANAETHEMA can be arranged.
Solution
There are 9 letters, including 3 As and 2 Es. There are 9! ways of arranging the letters, with 3! ways of arranging the As and 2! ways of arranging the Es. 9! Total arrangements = 3!2! = 30 240
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Some questions involving counting need different approaches and sometimes it is just a matter of logically working it out.
EXAMPLES
A bag contains 5 balls of different coloursred, yellow, blue, green and white. In how many ways can these 5 balls be arranged (a) with no restrictions (b) if the yellow ball must be first (c) if the first ball must not be red or white (d) if blue and green must be together (e) if red, blue and green must be together?
Solution
(a) The 1st can be any of the 5 balls. The 2nd can be any of the remaining 4 balls and so on. Total arrangements = 5! = 120 (b) The 1st ball must be yellow, so there is only 1 way of arranging this. The 2nd ball can be any of the remaining 4 balls. The 3rd ball can be any of the remaining 3 balls and so on. Total arrangements = 4! = 24 (c) The 1st ball could be yellow, blue or green so there are 3 possible arrangements. The 2nd ball could be any of the remaining 4 balls and so on. Total arrangements = 3# 4! = 72 (d) When two objects must be together, we treat them as a single object with 2! possible arrangements. So we arrange 4 balls in 4! ways: R, Y, BG and W. But there are 2! ways in which to arrange the blue and green balls. Total arrangements = 4!# 2! = 48 (e) When three objects are together, we treat them as a single object with 3! possible arrangements. We are then arranging 3 balls in 3! ways: RBG, Y, W. But there are 3! ways in which to arrange the red, blue and green balls. Total arrangements = 3!# 3! = 36
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13.4 Exercises
1. Write each permutation in factorial notation and then evaluate. (a) 6 P3 (b) 5 P2 (c) 8 P3 (d)
10 9 7 8
(c) of odd numbers (d) of even numbers. 5. (a) How many arrangements of the letters A, B, C and D are possible if no letter can be used twice? (b) How many arrangements of any 3 of these letters are possible? A 4 digit number is to be selected at random from the numbers 0 to 9 with no repetition of digits. (a) How many arrangements can there be? (b) How many arrangements of numbers over 6000 are there? (c) How many arrangements of numbers less than 8000 are there? The numbers 1, 2, 3, 4 and 5 are arranged in a line. How many arrangements are possible if (a) there is no restriction (b) the number is less than 30 000 (c) the number is greater than 20 000 (d) the number is odd (e) any 3 numbers are selected at random? There are 12 swimmers in a race. (a) In how many ways could they finish? (b) In how many ways could they come in first, second and third? How many different ordered arrangements can be made from the word COMPUTER with (a) 2 letters (b) 3 letters (c) 4 letters?
P7
6.
P1 P6
A set of 26 cards, each with a different letter of the alphabet, is placed into a hat and cards drawn out at random. Find the number of words possible if selecting (a) 2 cards (b) 3 cards (c) 4 cards (d) 5 cards. A 3 digit number is randomly made from cards containing the numbers 0 to 9. (a) In how many ways can this be done if the cards cannot be used more than once and zero cannot be the first number? (b) How many numbers over 400 can be made? (c) How many numbers less than 300 can be made? A set of 5 cards, each with a number from 1 to 5 on it, is placed in a box and 2 drawn out at random. Find the possible number of combinations (a) altogether (b) of numbers greater than 50 possible
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10. How many different ordered arrangements can be made from these words? (a) CENTIPEDE (b) ALGEBRA (c) TELEVISION (d) ANTARCTICA (e) DONOR (f) BASKETBALL (g) GREEDY (h) DUTIFUL (i) MANUFACTURER (j) AEROPLANE 11. A group of friends queue outside a restaurant in a straight line. Find how many ways the friends can be arranged if there are (a) 4 friends (b) 7 friends (c) 8 friends (d) 10 friends (e) 11 friends. 12. A group of friends go into a restaurant and are seated around a circular table. Find how many arrangements are possible if there are (a) 4 friends (b) 7 friends (c) 8 friends (d) 10 friends (e) 11 friends. 13. A string of beads looks the same if turned over. Find the number of different arrangements possible with (a) 10 beads (b) 12 beads (c) 9 beads (d) 11 beads (e) 13 beads. 14. In how many ways can a group of 6 people be arranged (a) in a line (b) in a circle?
15. Find how many different ways a group of 9 people can be arranged in (a) a line (b) a circle. 16. In how many ways can a set of 10 beads be arranged (a) in a line (b) in a circle around the edge of a poster (c) on a bracelet? 17. (a) How many different arrangements can be made from the playing cards Jack, Queen, King and Ace? (b) If I choose 2 of these cards randomly, how many different arrangements could I make? (c) If I choose 3 of these cards randomly, how many different arrangements could I make? 18. A group of 7 people sit around a table. In how many ways can they be arranged (a) with no restrictions (b) if 2 people want to sit together (c) if 2 people cannot sit together (d) if 3 people sit together? 19. A group of 5 boys and 5 girls line up outside a cinema. In how many ways can they be arranged (a) with no restriction? (b) If a particular girl stands in line first? (c) If they alternate between boys and girls (with either a girl or boy in first place)? 20. Find the probability that if 10 people sit around a table, 2 particular people will be seated together at random.
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21. A bookshelf is to hold 5 mathematics books, 8 novels and 7 cookbooks. (a) In how many different ways could they be arranged? (Leave answer in factorial notation.) (b) If the books are grouped in categories, in how many ways can they be arranged? (Answer in factorial notation.) (c) If one book is chosen at random, find the probability that it is a cookbook.
25. A minbus has 6 forward facing and 2 backward facing seats. If 8 people use the bus, in how many ways can they be seated (a) with no restrictions (b) if one person must sit in a forward facing seat (c) if 2 people must sit in a forward facing seat? 26. If 3 letters of the word VALUED are selected at random, find the number of possible arrangements if (a) the first letter is D. (b) the first letter is a vowel. 27. The letters of the word THEORY are arranged randomly. Find the number of arrangements. (a) with no restrictions. (b) if the E is at the beginning. (c) if the first letter is a consonant and the last letter is a vowel.
Vowels are letters a, e, i, o and u while consonants are all other letters.
22. (a) How many different arrangements can be made from the numbers 3, 4, 4, 5 and 6? (b) How many arrangements form numbers greater than 4000? (c) How many form numbers less than 5000? (d) If an arrangement is made at random, find the probability that it is less than 4000. 23. Find the probability that an arrangement of the word LAPTOP will start with T. 24. What is the probability that if a 3 letter word is formed randomly from the letters of PHYSICAL, it will be CAL?
28. Find the number of arrangements possible if x people are (a) in a straight line (b) in a circle (c) in a circle with 2 people together (d) in a straight line with 3 people together (e) in a circle with 2 people not together. 29. (a) Use factorial notation to 8 8 P3 P5 show that = 3! 5! n n Pn  r Pr (b) Prove that = ] r! n  r g! 30. Prove that n + 1 Pr = n Pr + r nPr  1
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Combinations
The permutation n Pr is the number of arrangements possible for an ordered selection of r objects from a total of n objects. When the order is not important, for example when AB is the same as BA, the number of arrangements is called a combination.
EXAMPLES
1. A committee of 2 is chosen from Scott, Rachel and Kate. In how many ways can this be done?
Solution
Number of ordered arrangements = 3 P2 =6 However, a committee of Scott and Rachel is the same as a committee of Rachel and Scott. This is the same for all other arrangements of the committee. There are 2! ways of arranging each committee of two people. To get the number of unordered arrangements, we divide the number of ordered arrangements by 2! 3 P2 Total arrangements = 2! =3 2. There are 3 vacancies on a school council and 8 people who are available. If the vacancies are filled randomly, in how many ways can this happen?
Solution
Number of orderedarrangements = 8 P3 However, order is not necessary here, since the 3 vacancies filled by, say, Hamish, Amie and Marcus, would be the same in any order. There are 3! different ways of arranging Hamish, Amie and Marcus. 8 P3 So total arrangements = 3! = 56
objects from n is
Pr
r!
n! ] n  r g ! r!
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Proof
Pr is the ordered selection of r objects from n objects. There are r! ways of arranging r objects. If order is unimportant, the unordered selection of r objects from n is given n Pr by . r! n! n Pr ]n  r g! = r! r! n! 1 # = ] n  r g! r! n! = ] n  r g !r !
n
n Combination n Cr or a r k is the number of ways of making unordered selections of r objects from a total of n objects. n! n Cr = ] n  r! g r !
EXAMPLES
1. A bag contains 3 white and 2 black counters labelled W1, W2, W3 and B1, B2. If two counters are drawn out of the bag, in how many ways can this happen if order is not important?
Solution
Possible arrangements (unordered) are: W1 W2 W1 W3 W1 B1 W1 B2 W2 W3 W2 B1 W2 B2 W3 B1 W3 B2 B1 B2
There are 10 different combinations. Using combinations, the number of different arrangements of choosing 2 counters from 5 is 5 C 2 . 5! 5 C2 = (5  2)!2! 5! = 3!2! = 10
CONTINUED
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Solution
The order is not important. There are 12 C7 ways of tossing 7 tails from 12 coins
12
C7 =
3. (a) A committee of 5 people is formed randomly from a group of 15 students. In how many different ways can the committee be formed? (b) If the group consists of 9 senior and 6 junior students, in how many ways can the committee be formed if it is to have 3 senior and 2 junior students in it?
Solution
(a) The order of the committee is not important. l Number of arrangements = b 15 5 = 3003 l (b) 3 senior students can be chosen in b 9 3 or 84 ways. l 2 junior students can be chosen in b 6 2 or 15 ways. 9 6 Total number of arrangements = c m # c m 3 2 = 84 #15 = 1260 4. A team of 6 men and 5 women is chosen at random from a group of 10 men and 9 women. If Kaye and Greg both hope to be chosen in the team, find the probability that (a) both will be chosen (b) neither will be chosen.
Solution
The number of possible teams = 10 C 6 # 9 C 5 = 210 #126 = 26 460 (a) For Kaye to be chosen, then 4 out of the other 8 women will be chosen i.e. 8 C 4 For Greg to be chosen, 5 out of the other 9 men will be chosen i.e. 9 C5
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(b) For Kaye and Greg not to be included, then 5 out of the other 8 women and 6 out of the other 9 men will be chosen. Number of combinations = 8 C5 # 9 C6 = 56 #84 = 4704 4704 Probability = 26 460 8 = 45
13.5 Exercises
1. Write in factorial notation and evaluate. l (a) b 9 5 l (b) b 12 7 l (c) b 8 3 (d) (e) 2.
10 11
people can be made randomly from a group of (a) 8 people (b) 9 people (c) 11 people (d) 15 people (e) 20 people. 4. (a) A set of 3 red cards and 3 blue cards are placed in a box. By naming the red cards R1, R2 and R3 and the blue cards B1, B2 and B3, list the number of different arrangements possible when 2 cards are drawn out at random, with order not important. How many arrangements are possible? (b) If there are 10 red and 10 blue cards and 7 are drawn out at random, how many different combinations are possible? A coin is tossed 20 times. How many different arrangements are there for tossing 5 heads?
C4 C5
C0
l (iii) b 14 0
(iv) (v)
C9
(ii) 3.
Cn =
5.
744
6.
A set of 10 marbles are placed in a bag and 6 selected at random. In how many different ways can this happen? In poker, 5 cards are dealt from a pack of 52 playing cards. How many different arrangements are possible? Three cards are drawn randomly from a set of 10 cards with the numbers 0 to 9 on them. How many different arrangements are possible if order is (a) important (b) unimportant? A debating team of 3 is chosen from a class of 14 students. In how many ways can the team be selected if order is (a) important (b) unimportant?
7.
(b) Find the probability that Erik is selected as one of the team members. (c) Find the probability that Erik and Jens are both selected. 15. A committee of 6 people is to be selected randomly from a group of 11 men and 12 women. Find the number of possible committees if (a) there is no restriction on who is on the committee (b) all committee members are to be male (c) all members are to be female (d) there are to be 3 men and 3 women (e) a particular woman is included (f) a particular man is not included (g) there are to be 4 women and 2 men. 16. A horse race has 15 horses competing and at the TAB, a quinella pays out on the horses that come in first and second, in either order. Ryan decides to bet on all possible combinations of quinellas. If it costs him $1 a bet, how much does he pay? 17. A group of 25 students consist of 11 who play a musical instrument and 14 who dont. Find the number of different arrangements possible if a group of 9 students is selected at random (a) with no restriction (b) who all play musical instruments (c) where 5 play musical instruments (d) where 2 dont play musical instruments.
8.
9.
10. A bag contains 12 different lollies with blue wrappers and 15 different lollies with red wrappers. If I take 6 lollies out of the bag, how many different combinations are possible? 11. A team of 4 players is chosen at random from a group of 20 tennis players to play an exhibition match. In how many ways could the team be chosen? 12. A group of 3 students to go on a student representative council is chosen at random from a class of 27. In how many different ways could this be done? 13. A board of 8 people is chosen from a membership of 35. How many different combinations are possible? 14. A basketball team of 5 players is selected at random from a group of 12 PE students. (a) In how many ways can the team be selected?
745
18. A set of cards consists of 8 yellow and 7 red cards. (a) If 10 cards are selected at random, find the number of different arrangements possible. (b) If 8 cards are selected, find the number of arrangements of selecting (i) 4 yellow cards (ii) 6 yellow cards (iii) 7 yellow cards (iv) 5 red cards. 19. Ten cards are selected randomly from a set of 52 playing cards. Find the number of combinations selected if (a) there are no restrictions (answer in scientific notation correct to 3 significant figures) (b) they are all hearts (c) there are 7 hearts (d) they are all red cards (e) there are 4 aces. 20. An animal refuge has 17 dogs and 21 cats. If a nursing home orders 12 animals at random, find the number of ways that the order would have (a) 7 dogs (b) 9 dogs (c) 10 dogs (d) 4 cats (e) 6 cats. 21. There are 8 white, 9 red and 5 blue marbles in a bag and 7 are drawn out at random. Find the number of arrangements possible (a) with no restriction (b) if all marbles are red (c) if there are 3 white and 2 red marbles (d) if there are 4 red and 1 blue marbles (e) if there are 4 white and 2 blue marbles.
22. Out of a group of 25 students, 7 walk to school, 12 catch a train and 6 catch a bus. If 6 students are selected, find the number of combinations if (a) all walk to school (b) none catch a bus (c) 3 walk to school and 1 catches a bus (d) 1 walks to school and 4 catch a train (e) 3 catch a train and 1 catches a bus. 23. At a karaoke night, a group of 14 friends decide that 4 of them will sing a song together. Of the friends, 5 have previously sung this song before. In how many ways can they do this if they select (a) friends who have all sung the song previously (b) 2 of the friends who sang the song previously (c) none of the friends who sang the song previously? 24. (a) Evaluate 12 C 5 (b) Evaluate 12 C 7 (c) By using factorial notation, show why 12 C 5 = 12 C 7 25. By evaluating both sides, show that 9 C 6 = 8 C 6 + 8 C 5
746
Test yourself 13
1. Find the number of ways of arranging 7 people (a) in a straight line (b) in a circle. A bag contains 8 red, 5 green and 9 yellow marbles. If a marble is chosen at random, find the probability that it is (a) red (b) green or red (c) not green. A carriage has 2 seats facing forwards and 2 seats facing backwards. Find the number of ways of seating 4 people in the carriage if (a) there are no restrictions (b) one person must sit facing forwards. A set of 10 cards, numbered 1 to 10, is placed into a box and 3 drawn out at random. Find the number of arrangements possible if order is (a) important (b) unimportant. A group of 10 boys and 16 girls are on a school excursion. Five of them are chosen at random to help the teacher check the rolls. Find the number of ways these students could be selected if (a) there is no restriction (b) 3 are girls (c) all are boys. The probability of winning a game of chance is 59% and the probability of a draw is 12%. What is the probability of losing? In how many ways can 3 letter words be selected at random from the word RANDOM? 8. A set of cards numbered from 1 to 20 is arranged randomly. In how many ways can this be done? (Answer in scientific notation, to 2 significant figures.) The probability of a missile hitting a 8 target is . What is the probability of the 9 missile missing the target?
2.
9.
3.
10. A 5 person committee is selected from a class of 30 students. In how many ways can the committee be selected? 11. In a horse race, a person bets at the TAB on a trifecta. To win, the person must pick the first 3 horses in order. In how many ways is it possible to win if there are 11 horses in the race? 12. (a) A group of 9 friends go out to dinner and sit at a round table. In how many ways can this be done? (b) The 9 friends then go to a nightclub and randomly queue up to get in. How many arrangements are there? (c) If Jack and Jill queue up together, in how many ways can the friends line up? (d) Once they get into the nightclub, there is only a table for 3 available, and the others will have to stand up. If the friends randomly assign who sits at the table, in how many different ways can they be seated? 13. How many different arrangements are there of the word (a) PERMUTATION (b) COMBINATION (c) FACTORIAL (d) PROBABILITY (e) SELECTION
4.
5.
6.
7.
747
14. A set of n coins are tossed. Find the number of ways if tossing k tails. 15. A set of 20 cards is numbered 1 to 20 and 6 selected at random. Find the number of arrangements of selecting (a) all odd numbers (b) the last 2 numbers less than 5. 16. In Australian Idyll, there are 12 singers who must choose a song to sing from a list of 32 songs. Each singer takes turns in order to randomly choose a song. In how many ways could these choices be made? Answer in scientific notation correct to 2 decimal places. 17. A ballet class has 30 students in it. Of these students, 21 are practising for a
ballet exam. If 8 students are chosen at random, find the number of ways that (a) 5 are practising for the exam (b) all are practising for the exam (c) 3 are practising for the exam. 18. Evaluate k (a) a 6 4 (b) 9 P7 19. A serial number is made up of 4 letters and 2 numbers. If zero is not allowed, find how many serial numbers are possible. 20. (a) Evaluate 0! n n (b) Show that a k = a k n 0
Challenge Exercise 13
1. Numbers are formed from the digits 1, 2, 3, 3, and 7 at random. (a) In how many ways can they be arranged with no restrictions? (b) In how many ways can they be arranged to form a number greater than 30 000? A charm bracelet has 6 charms on it. In how many ways can the charms be arranged if the bracelet (a) has a clasp (b) has no clasp? n n  1l bn  1 l Show that b l = b + for k k k 1 1 # k # n  1. A group of n people sit around a circular table. (a) In how many ways can they be arranged? (b) How many arrangements are possible if k people sit together? 5. (a) How many different arrangements of the word CHALLENGE are there? (b) How many different arrangements are possible if 3 letters are randomly selected from the word CHALLENGE and arranged into words? A subcommittee of 5 people is formed from the 12 members of a board. (a) If this is a random selection, in how many different ways can the committee be formed? (b) If there are 4 NSW members and 3 Queensland members on the board, what is the probability that 2 NSW and 2 Queensland members will be on the committee?
2.
6.
3.
4.
748
7. 8.
Prove that n Pr = r! nC r A management committee is made up of 5 athletes and 3 managers. If the committee is formed randomly from a group of 20 athletes and 10 managers, find (a) the number of different ways in which the committee could be formed (b) the probability that Marcus, an athlete, is included (c) the probability that both Marcus and his girlfriend, Rachel who is a manager, are included (d) the probability that Marcus and Rachel are excluded from the committee. A set of 100 counters, numbered from 1 to 100, is placed in a bag and 4 drawn
out at random in order. Find the number of different possible arrangements if (a) there is no restriction (b) all the numbers are 90 or more (c) all numbers are even (d) all numbers are less than 20 (e) the first number is greater than 60 (f) the first 2 numbers are odd. 10. In a group of 35 students, 18 play soccer and 21 play basketball. All students play at least one of these sports. If one of these students is selected at random, find the probability that this student (a) plays both soccer and basketball (b) plays basketball but not soccer.
9.
199
17. Solve 2x 2  3x  1 = 0 correct to 3 significant figures. 18. The radius r of a circle with area A is A given by r = . Find r, correct to r 2 decimal places, if A = 7.59. 19. Solve 5  2x 1 3 and sketch the solution on a number line. 20. Evaluate 3 5 1 2 + + . 20 15 3 12
x4
Simplify the expression 8y  2 ^ y + 5 h . 5 Rationalise the denominator of . 5 2 Expand and simplify ] x  3 g ^ x 2 + 5x  1 h . 3x 2 Solve the equation = . ^ x ! 1h x+1 3 Simplify x 2  2x  3 x+1 . ' 5 10
21. Solve the equation x 2  4x + 1 = 0, giving exact solutions in simplest surd form. 22. Write 7  2 as a rational number. 23. Solve simultaneous equations y = 3x  1 and y = x 2  5. 24. Find integers x and y such that 3 = x + y 3. 2 3+3
Show that TABC and TEDC are congruent triangles. Hence, or otherwise, show that TACE is an isosceles triangle.
10. Evaluate ] 3.9 g4, correct to 1 decimal place. 11. Simplify 2 3  27 . 12. Find the size of each interior angle in a regular octagon. 13. Evaluate 0.72 ' 9.82 in scientific notation, correct to 3 significant figures. 14. Expand and simplify 2 ^3 5  2 2 h.
15. Find, correct to 2 decimal places, the ] 2.14 g3 value of . 6.94  3.72
200
29. Simplify 2  4    3  +  2 . 30. Find the sale price if a discount of 8% is given on a DVD player that usually sells for $699. 31. Evaluate 3 5.21 + 4.71 correct to 3.94 # 1.76 2 significant figures. 5 +1
o as a fraction. 42. Write 0.16 43. Prove that the diagonals in any rhombus bisect the angles they make with the sides of the rhombus. 44. Write 1 in index form. x+3 45. Expand and simplify ] x + 2 g3. 46. Find the value of a 3 b  2 in index form if 4 2 1 3 a = c m and b = c m . 5 2 47. Find the value of x, giving reasons for each step of your working out.
. 2 2+3 33. The price of roller skates has increased by 6.5% to $89. Find the price before the increase.
34. Find the values of all pronumerals, giving reasons for each step of your calculations.
48. Find values of x and y. 35. Find the area of this figure.
36. Simplify
^ a  4 h3 # b 6
a9 # ^ b1 h
. 4
1 2
without an index.
as a rational number.
201
(d) (e)
1 + 2+1
2 21
3 2 4 + x + 1 x2  1 x  1
56. ABCD is a parallelogram with CD produced to E so that ED = AD. Prove that +ABC = 2+DEA.
x4 _ y3 i
1
^ z  4 h 2
2 2
2 1 5 3 57. Find the exact value of . 5 16 1 1 58. Tran spent of her salary on rent, 4 3 1 1 on food, on bus and taxi fares, and 5 6 on going out. If she puts the rest of her salary into savings, what percentage of her salary is savings? 59. The speed of light is about 2.99 # 10 8 ms  1 . If a rocket travels at onefifth the speed of light, find its speed in kmh  1 (in scientific notation correct to 2 significant figures). 60. Find the value of k if ] 2x + 5 g2 = 4x 2 + kx + 25. 61. Simplify 81x 2 y 3 .
53. Evaluate x.
54. The volume of a sphere is given by the 4 formula V = rr 3. Find the exact radius r, 3 2 if the volume V is 10 cm 3. 3 55. Find the perimeter of the figure below, correct to 3 significant figures.
62. The sum of the interior angles in a regular polygon is 1620c. Find the size of each interior angle, to the nearest minute. 63. Find the area of the shaded region in this figure, correct to 2 decimal places.
202
66. ABCD and BCEF are parallelograms. Show that AFED is a parallelogram.
25 m
72. In the figure, BD is the perpendicular bisector of AC. Prove that triangle ABC is isosceles.
B
73. The diagonals of a rhombus are x and y. Find the length of its side. 68. The diagonals of a rhombus are 6 cm and 10 cm long. Find the (a) exact length of the sides of the rhombus (b) area of the rhombus. 69. Write as a single fraction with a rational 2 1 denominator . 3 3 2 2+ 5 70. The exterior angles of a regular polygon are 18c . How many sides has the polygon? 71. A cable is used to support a 20 m tower as shown. If the cable is placed 25 m away from the base of the tower, how long must it be, to the nearest metre? 74. Write 1 in index form. 3 ] x  2 g5
5 3 5 2
(a) ] x  2 g
]x  2 g (b) 3
(c) 3 ] x  2 g 1 (d) 5 ] x  2 g3
5 2
75. Write the number 54 000 000 in scientific notation. (a) 5.4 # 108 (b) 54 # 106 (c) 5.4 # 107 (d) 54 # 108
203
76. Simplify
7
^ 2a 3 b h 3
] ab g
(a) 8a b (b) 8a8b (c) 2a7b (d) 2a8b 77. A computer costs $1850. If it has increased in cost by 4% since last week, how much did it cost last week? (a) $1924.00 (b) $1778.85 (c) $1867.80 (d) $1776.00 78. Evaluate 4 (a)  8 (b) (c) 1 8 1 6
3 2
11 30
E C
(d) 6
The triangles ABC and CDE can be proven congruent by using the test (a) SSS (b) SAS (c) RHS (d) AAS.
494
4.
5. 6.
7.
20. Find the gradient of the line through the origin and ^ 3, 5 h . 21. Simplify tan 20c + cot 70c . tan 20c
8. 9.
10. Sketch 5x  2y  10 = 0. 11. On the number plane, shade in the region given by x 2 + y 2 # 9 and x  y $ 2. 12. A soccer goal is 8 m wide. A man shoots for goal when he is 9 m from one post and 11 m from the other. Within what angle must a shot be made in order to score a goal? 24. Find the equation of the line passing through ^ 1, 2 h that passes through the intersection of lines x  2y  11 = 0 and 5x  y  19 = 0.
495
25. Solve 3x  7 1 2. 26. If f ] x g = 9  2x 2, find the value of f ] 1 g . 27. Find the value of x if f ] x g = 7 where f ] x g = 2 x  1. 28. Find the exact value of tan 300c. 29. Show that 3x  4y + 10 = 0 is a tangent to the circle x 2 + y 2 = 4. 3x if x 2 1 30. If g ] x g = ) 2x if x # 1 (a) find g ] 2 g and g ] 3 g (b) sketch the graph of g ] x g. 31. Find lim 3x 2 h  4xh + 2h 2 . h "0 h
(c) Find the area of TOPQ where O is the origin. 38. Two points A and B are 100 m apart on the same side of a tower. The angle of elevation of A to the top of the tower is 20c and the angle of elevation from B is 27c. Find the height of the tower, to the nearest metre. 39. The lines 3x  y = 6, 2x + y = 14 and y = 0 enclose a triangle. Find the area of the triangle. 40. Show that f ] x g = x 6  x 2  3 is an even function. 41. Differentiate x ^ 2x 2 + 1 h .
4
32. Find the exact value of cos 135c. 33. A bird at the top of a 10 m tree sees a mouse on the ground. If the angle l, how far, to of depression is 34c51 1 decimal place, does the bird need to fly to reach the mouse? 34. If the point ^ 3, 7 h is the midpoint of ^ x, 3 h and ^ 8, y h, find the values of x and y. 35.
42. Solve 3y  7 # 20. 3 43. Differentiate x . 44. (a) Find the equation of the tangent to the curve y = x 3  2 at the point P ^ 1, 1 h . (b) The curve y = x 3  2 meets the yaxis at Q. Find the equation of PQ. (c) Find the equation of the normal to y = x 3  2 at the point ^ 1,  3 h . (d) Find the point R where this normal cuts the xaxis. 45. Find the distance between the parallel lines 5x  12y  3 = 0 and 5x  12y + 5 = 0. 46. What is the domain and range of the 3 function f ] x g = ? x+4 47. Differentiate 2x  7 .
(a) Find AB, correct to 1 decimal place. (b) Find the area of TABC, to 3 significant figures. 36. Simplify 9  9 sin 2 i .
37. (a) Find the equation of the straight line l through ^ 1, 2 h that is perpendicular to the line 3x + 6y  7 = 0. (b) Line l cuts the xaxis at P and the yaxis at Q. Find the coordinates of P and Q.
48. Justin walks for 3.1 km due west, then turns and walks for 2.7 km on a bearing of 205c. How far is he from his starting point? Give your answer correct to 1 decimal place.
496
65. Simplify i 1  t2 where t = tan 2 2 1+t (b) cos i cos b  sin i sin b (a) (c) 2 tan 7a 1  tan 2 7a 3x 3 + x . x3  2
51. Differentiate from rst principles f ] x g = x 2  3x + 2. 52. Write as a single fraction 3 4 2 .  + x 2 + 5x x x + 5 53. Find the equation of the normal to the curve y = 3x 2  6x + 9 at the point where x = 2. 54. If f ] x g = 2x  5x + 4x  1, nd f ] 2 g and f l ] 2 g .
3 2
3 1 5. x4
67. Find the acute angle between the curves y = x 2 and y = 2x 2  1 at their points of intersection. 68. Find the domain and range of (a) y = 2x  1 5 (b) y = x+7 (c) y =  4  x 2 69. The point P ^ 3, 2 h divides the interval AB into the ratio 2:3 where A = ^ 5, 4 h and B = ^ a, b h . Find the values of a and b. 70. Simplify 1  2 sin 2 i. 71. (a) Find all points of intersection between the curves y = 2x 3 + x 2 and y = x 4 + 2x. (b) Find the acute angle between the two curves at each of these points of intersection. 72. Find the general solutions of 1 (a) cos x = 2 (b) tan x = (c) sin x = 1 3 3 . 2
55. At the point ^ 2, 3 h on the curve y = ax 2 + bx + 7, the tangent is inclined at 135c to the xaxis. Find the values of a and b. 56. Find the equation of the straight line passing through ^ 3, 6 h that also passes through the intersection of the lines x  2y = 0 and 3x + y + 7 = 0. 57. Find the equation of the tangent to the curve f ] x g = 2x 3  7x + 1 at the point where x = 3. 58. Solve for x: 4 2x  1 = 1 . 8
59. Divide the interval AB into the external ratio 5:4, given A^ 2, 3 h and B^ 5, 1 h . 60. Find the exact value of sin 75c. 61. Find the acute angle between the lines 5x  y  1 = 0 and 2x + 3y  3 = 0. 62. Solve 2 cos x  sin x = 0 for 0c # x # 360c . 63. Sketch y = x . x2
497
73. For the interval AB where A = ^ 3, 2 h and B = ^ 1, 4 h nd (a) the midpoint (b) the exact distance (c) the gradient (d) the equation of line AB. 74. Differentiate ] 3x  2 g ] 2x + 1 g6 (a) 12 ] 3x  2 g ] 2x + 1 g5 + 3 ] 2x + 1 g6 (b) 36 ] 2x + 1 g5 (c) 6 ] 3x  2 g ] 2x + 1 g5 + 3 ] 2x + 1 g6 (d) 18 ] 2x + 1 g5. 75. Find an expression involving i for the triangle below (there may be more than one answer).
77. The equation of the normal to the parabola y = 3x 2  5x + 1 at the point ^ 2, 3 h is (a) 7x  y  11 = 0 (b) 7x  y  17 = 0 (c) x + 7y  23 = 0 (d) x + 7y  19 = 0 78. The linear function with equation 4x  2y + 3 = 0 has 1 (a) gradient 2, yintercept 1 2 3 1 (b) gradient , yintercept 4 2 1 (c) gradient 2, yintercept 1 2 (d) gradient 4, yintercept 3. 79. Write an expression for cos 2x (there may be more than one answer) (a) (b) (c) (d) sin 2 x  cos 2 x cos 2 x  sin 2 x 2 sin 2 x  1 2 cos 2 x  1
i 7
52 + 42  72 2#5#4 sin i sin a (b) = 4 5 sin i sin a (c) = 5 4 2 5 + 72  42 (d) cos i = 2#5#7 (a) cos i = 8x if x 2 3 76. If f ] x g = * 3x 2  2 if 0 # x # 3 9 if x 1 0 evaluate f ] 3 g + f ] 1 g + f ] 1 g (a) 35 (b) 226 (c) 233 (d) 53
3
80. Find the point if the interval AB where A = ^ 4, 2 h and B = ^ 3, 5 h is divided in an external ratio of 2:3. 1 1 (a) c 1 , 3 m 5 5 (b) ^ 17, 11 h (c) ^ 18, 4 h 1 4 (d) c  , 3 m 5 5
655
3. 4.
AB, AC and CB are tangents with CZ = 3 cm, ZB = 7 cm and AY = 2 cm. Find the perimeter of TABC. 5. Find the centre and radius of the circle with equation x 2 + 6x + y 2  10y  15 = 0. If a and b are the roots of the quadratic equation 3x 2  2x  1 = 0, find the value of (a) a + b (b) ab (c) a 2 + b2 Find the coordinates of the focus and the equation of the directrix of the parabola x 2 =  8 y. Solve ] x + 3 g + 5(x + 3) + 6 = 0.
2
6.
Find the value of k correct to 1 decimal place. 15. Find the equation of the tangent to the parabola x 2 = 16y at the point ^ 4, 1h . 16. For what values of b does the equation x 2 + 4x  2b = 0 have real roots?
7.
8. 9.
Find the value of k in the equation x 2  ] k  4 g x + 3k = 0 if the sum of the roots is 5.
656
17.
i 0 32c
25.
Find i. O is the centre of the circle. 18. A and B are the points ^ 4, 0 h and ^ 4, 0 h respectively. Point P ^ x, y h moves so that PA 2 + PB 2 = 64. Find the equation of the locus of P and describe it geometrically. 19. Find the equation of the circle with centre ^ 2, 3 h and radius 5 units. 20. The lines PA and PB are perpendicular, where A is ^ 2, 7 h, B is ^ 5, 1 h and P is ^ x, y h . Find the equation of the locus of P. 21.
27. The point P _ 2ap, ap 2 i lies on the parabola x 2 = 4ay. (a) Find the equation of the tangent to the curve at P. (b) Find the point R where this tangent meets the directrix. (c) Find the equation for FR where F is the focus. 28. Find the locus of the point that is equidistant from the point ^ 2, 5 h and the line y = 3. 29. Show that D ABC is similar to DCDE and hence find y, correct to 1 decimal place.
O is the centre of the circle. Show +DAE = 90c  +BDC. 22. Find the gradient of the normal to the curve x 2 =  6y at the point where x =  4. 23. Find the locus of a point moving so that the ratio of PA to PB is 2:3 where A is ^ 3, 2 h and B is ^ 0, 7 h . 24. If 2x 2  3x + 1 / a(x  1) 2 + b(x  1) + c, find the values of a, b and c.
30. Find the equation of the tangent to the curve ] x  2 g2 = 8y at the point where x = 6. 31. Find the equation of the locus of point P ^ x, y h that moves so that it is always equidistant from the point ^ 1, 3 h and the line y =  5. 32. Solve 2 2x  5.2 x + 4 = 0.
657
33. Show that  x 2 + x  9 1 0 for all x. 34. Differentiate ^ 3x  1 h ^ 2x + 5 h4. 35. Simplify cot x + tan x. 36. Prove that the opposite angles are supplementary in any cyclic quadrilateral. 37. Find the centre and radius of the circle whose equation is x 2 + 10x + y 2  6y + 30 = 0. 38.
45. (a) Change the set of parametric equations x = 2t, y = 4t 2  1 into Cartesian form. (b) Find the coordinates of the point where t = 2. (c) Find the equation of the normal to the curve at the point where t = 2. 46. Find the value of i in degrees and minutes.
47.
AC is a tangent and AC < DE. Prove FGED is a cyclic quadrilateral. 39. Show that x 2  x + 3 2 0 for all x. 40. Find the value of k in the quadratic equation x 2  3x + k + 1 = 0 if the roots are consecutive numbers. 41. Find the equation of the locus of the point that is equidistant from ^ 2, 1 h and ^ 4, 5 h . 42. A ship sails from port due east for 150 km, then turns and sails on a bearing of 195c for 200 km. (a) How far from port is the ship, to the nearest kilometre? (b) On what bearing, to the nearest degree, is the ship from port? 43. Find the values of a, b and c if 3x 2  7 / a ] x + 3 g2 + bx + c. 44. Solve 2x  7 2 1.
O is the centre of the circle. Find x. 48. Show that the quadratic equation 6x 2 + x  15 = 0 has 2 real, rational roots. 49. Find the equation of the normal to the curve y = 2x 4  5x 2  1 at the point ^ 1, 4 h. 50. Find values of k for which the quadratic equation x 2  2x + k  2 = 0 has real roots. 51. Sketch y = x . 2x + 1
52. Find the equation of the straight line through ^ 5, 4 h , that is parallel to the line through ^ 7, 4 h and ^ 3, 1 h. 53. Divide the interval AB where A = ^ 1, 4 h and B = ^ 7, 0 h in the ratio 2:3. 54. Find the exact value of tan 75c. 55. Solve y $ 5. y+1
658
AB is a diameter of the larger circle and DB is a straight line. Show AD is a diameter of the smaller circle. 67. Solve 2 cos 2 x = 1 for 0c # x # 360c . 68. Solve equations x 2 + xy + 1 = 0 and 3x  y + 5 = 0 simultaneously. 69. Factorise a 3  8b 3 . 70. Solve x+1 x+2 = 7. 2 3
58. Given f ] x g = 8x  3, find the value of x for which f ] x g = 5. 59. Find the distance between ^ 0, 7 h and ^ 2, 1 h correct to 3 significant figures. 60. Find the value of p correct to 1 decimal place.
71. Find the gradient of the normal to the curve y = 2x 3 + 7x + 1 at the point where x =  2. 72. Find the perpendicular distance from ^ 3, 2 h to the line 4x  3y  9 = 0. 73. Simplify
] sec i + 1 g ] sec i  1 g .
61. Simplify
a3 ^ b2 h 2 4 if a = and b = . 3 9 ^ a  1 h2 b 7
4
x2 . x2  4 76. Find the equation of the locus of point P(x, y) if PA is perpendicular to PB, given A = ^ 3, 2 h and B = ^ 5, 5 h .
1 62. Solve cos 2x =  for 0c # x # 360c . 2 63. Find the equation of the straight line through ^ 3, 1 h perpendicular to the line 3 x  2 y  7 = 0. 64. Solve 5y  3 = 5  y. 65. Find the size of each internal angle in a regular 20sided polygon. 66.
77. Find the coordinates of the focus and the equation of the directrix of the parabola x 2  4x + 8y  20 = 0. 78. Find the equation of the tangent to the parabola x 2 = 36y at the point P(18p, 9p2). 79. Find the equation of the normal to the parabola x 2 = 12y at the point where x = 12. 80. If points P(2ap, ap2) and Q(2aq, aq2) lie on the parabola x 2 = 4ay, find (a) the equation of chord PQ (b) the equation of the locus of the midpoint of PQ if PQ passes through (0, 2a) (c) Describe the shape of this locus.
659
81. The equation of the locus of point P(x, y) that moves so that it is always 4 units from ^ 1, 3 h is (a) ^ x  1 h2 + ^ y + 3 h2 = 4 (b) ^ x + 1 h + ^ y  3 h = 4 (c) ] x + 1 g2 + ^ y  3 h2 = 16
2 2
85. Find the centre and radius of the circle x 2 + 2x + y 2  8y + 13 = 0. (a) Centre ^ 1, 4 h, radius 4 (b) Centre ^ 1, 4 h, radius 2 (c) Centre ^ 1, 4 h, radius 2 (d) Centre ^ 1, 4 h, radius 4 86. In the circle, O is the centre. Evaluate x.
(d) ^ x  1 h + ^ y + 3 h = 16
2 2
82. If a and b are the roots of the quadratic equation x 2  5x + 2 = 0, a b evaluate + b a (a) (b) (c) (d) 1 11 2 1 12 2 1 2 2 1 10 2
O 84
(a) x = 42c (b) x = 168c (c) x = 84c (d) x = 96c 87. Find the Cartesian equation for x = 8t, y = 4t 2 . (a) x 2 = 32y (b) x 2 = 4y (c) x 2 = 16y (d) x 2 = 8y 88. The equation of the normal to the curve x 2 = 20y at the point (10p, 5p2) is (a) x + py = 5p 3 + 10p (b) x  py = 5p 3  10p (c) px + y = 15p 2 (d) px  y + 15p 2 = 0
83. The equation of the locus of point P(x, y) moving so that it is equidistant from (3, 2) and the line x = 1 is given by (a) x 2  2x + 8y  15 = 0 (b) y 2  4y  8x + 12 = 0 (c) x  2x  8y + 17 = 0
2
(d) y  4y + 8x  4 = 0
2
84. The quadratic equation x 2 + ] k  3 g x + k = 0 has real roots. Evaluate k (a) k # 1, k $ 9 (b) k = 1, 9 (c) 1 # k # 9 (d) k 1 1, k 2 9
660
89. AB is a tangent to the circle. Which statement is true (there may be more than one answer)?
90. For the quadratic function y = ax 2 + bx + c to be positive definite (a) a 2 0, b 2  4ac 2 0 (b) a 1 0, b 2  4ac 2 0 (c) a 2 0, b 2  4ac 1 0
A D
(d) a 1 0, b 2  4ac 1 0
C B
749
4.
5. 6.
13. Evaluate 10 C 3. 14. Solve x 2  4 2 0. 15. A polynomial P (x) has a double root at x = 2. Show that P (2) = Pl(2) = 0. 16. If a , b, c and d are the roots of the equation x 4  3x 3 + 2x + 1 = 0, find (a) a bcd (b) a + b + c + d (c) ab and a + b if c = 2 and d = 5. 17. In how many different ways can a committee of 4 people be selected from a group of 9 people? 18. Find the remainder if P ^ x h = 3x 5  4x 3 + 2x 2  7x  3 is divided by x + 1.
7.
8.
9.
750
19.
29. The angle of elevation from a point A to the top of a tower BC is 38c 54l . A is 10 m due south of the tower.
CD is a tangent to the circle and AB = 5.6 m, BC = 4.8 m. Find the length of CD, correct to 1 decimal place. 20. Find the obtuse angle between the lines 2x  y = 0 and 5x + 2y  3 = 0. 21. (a) Write P ] x g = x 3  7x 2 + 15x  9 as a product of its factors. (b) Sketch the graph of the polynomial on a number plane. x . x2  4 23. Show that the remainder, on dividing P (x) = 2x 3  7x 2 + x  9 by (x + 2), is P (  2) . 22. Sketch y = 24. If a , b, c and d are the roots of x4  x3 + x2  1 = 0 (a) show that abc + acd + bcd + abd = 0 (b) nd (a + b + c + d) 2 (c) nd a 2 + b2 + c2 + d2. 25. Show that if the polynomial P(x) has a double root at x = 3, P ] 3 g = Pl(3) = 0. 26. A team of 3 boys and 5 girls is chosen at random from a class of 12 boys and 18 girls. In how many ways can this be done? 27. A circle with centre at the origin O passes through the point (2, 5 ). Find the radius of the circle, and hence its equation. 28. Find values of a, b and c for which 3x 2  2x  7 / a (x + 2) 2 + b (x + 2) + c.
(a) Find the height of the tower, to 1 decimal place. (b) If point D is 11.2 m due east of the tower, nd the angle of elevation from D to the tower. 30. If P (x) = (x 2  1)3 (x 2 + 5) (a) nd all zeros of P (x) (b) show P (1) = P l(1) = 0. 31. What is the domain and range of y = x 2  3? 32. Prove that TABC is congruent to TCDE.
34. Find the equation of the straight line through the midpoint of (5, 7) and (1, 3) and making an angle of 135c with the xaxis.
751
35. Complete the square on x 2  12x. 36. Find the acute angle between the lines 3x  y  4 = 0 and 7x + 3y + 1 = 0. 37. Solve 2y + 4 $ 9. 3 38. Sketch y = 2 . x 1 39. Find the point P that divides the interval AB in the ratio 4:3, given that A has coordinates (3, 6) and B has coordinates (5, 8) . 40. (a) Find the equation of the tangent to the curve y = x 3  3x at the point P (2, 2). (b) Find the equation of the normal to y = x 3  3x at P. (c) Find the point Q where this normal cuts the xaxis. (d) The curve y = x 3  3x meets the line 3x  2y + 2 = 0 at P. Find the angle between the line and the curve at P. 41. What is the domain and range of the x function f (x) = 2 ? x 4 42. Simplify (a) sin a cos b  cos a sin b (b) cos 15c cos 30c  sin 15c sin 30c (c) 1  sin 2 15c 43. Jason measures the angle of elevation of a tower as 38c 52l at a point A, 185 m due west of the tower. He then walks to a point B, 140 m due south of the tower. (a) What is the height of the tower, correct to 1 decimal place? (b) What is the angle of elevation of the tower from point B? 44. Point X divides AB externally in the ratio 3:5, given A (3, 4) and B (0, 5). Find the coordinates of X.
45. Find the exact value of tan 75c  tan 15c . 1 + tan 75c tan 15c 3 46. Solve 1 5. x1 47. Solve sin x  3 cos x = 2 for 0c # x # 360c. 48. (a) Find the equation of the normal to the curve y = x 2  6x + 9 at the point where x = 1. (b) This normal cuts the curve again at point R. Find the coordinates of R. 49. Write sin i + cos 2i in terms of t where i t = tan . 2 50. Show that x  3 is a factor of f ] x g = 3x 3  7x 2  5x  3. 51. The function f (x) = ax 2 + bx + c has a tangent at (1, 3) with a gradient of 1. It also passes through (4, 3) . Find the values of a, b and c. 52. Find two possible equations for the straight line passing through (1, 2) that intersects the line x  2y + 5 = 0 at an angle of 45c . 53. In the cone below, the vertical angle is 54c and the perpendicular height is 20 cm. Find the volume and surface area of the cone, correct to the nearest whole number.
54. Solve y 1
2 y+3
752
55. If sin x =
64. How many committees of 5 people could be formed randomly from a meeting of 20 people? 65. Write the polynomial P ] x g =  x 3 + 3x 2 + 9x + 5 as a product of its factors. 66. A string of beads is made up of 5 orange and 5 black beads. If they are randomly arranged around the necklace, how many possible combinations are there? 67. An example of a polynomial with leading coefficient 3 and degree 4 is (a) y
56. Solve for 0c # x # 360c (a) sin 2 x = 3 cos 2 x (b) sin x + cos x  1 = 0 (c) cos 2 x + sin x + 1 = 0 57. (a) Find x lim "3 x1 . x2  5 x1 (b) Sketch y = 2 . x 5
58. Find the general solution of sin 2i = 1. 59. Find the angle between the curves y = x and y = x 2 at (1, 1) .
3
60. The point P (1, 2) divides the interval A (x, 3) and B ^ 5, y h in the external ratio of 5:4. Find the values of x and y. 61. For the polynomial f ] x g =  x 4 + x 3  2x 2 + x  2 , what graph does the polynomial approach as x becomes very large? 62. If a , b, and c are the roots of the cubic equation x 3  4x 2  3x + 2 , evaluate (a) a + b + c (b) abc (c) ab + bc + ac 1 1 1 (d) + + a b c (e) a 2 + b2 + c2 63. By dividing the polynomial P ] x g = x 3  2x 2 + x + 3 by x  2 , write P(x) in the form P ]x g = ]x  2 gQ ]x g + R ]x g.
x
(b)
753
(c)
(d)
(b)
68. What is the number of possible outcomes when arranging the letters of the word LITERATURE? 10! (a) 2! 2! 10! (b) 2! 2! 2! (c) 10! 10! (d) 3!
754
(c)
72. The number of possible seating positions for 12 people sitting at a round table is (a)
12
C 11
(d)
12
P11
73. The graph below is of the polynomial (a) P ^ x h = x ^ x  2 h 2 (b) P ^ x h = x ^ x + 2 h 2 (c) P ^ x h = x 2 ^ x + 2 h (d)
y
(d) P ^ x h = x 2 ^ x  2 h
y
3
70. The polynomial P ^ x h = x 3  5x 2 + 3x  8 (a) is monic (b) has degree 3 (c) has leading coefficient  8 (d) has constant term  8. (there may be more than one answer) 71. The number of possible different PINs with a combination of 4 numbers and 2 letters is (a) 4 435 236 (b) 6 760 000 (c) 1 000 000 (d) 10 676
(b)
Pr
(n  r) !
n
(c) r! n Pr (d) Pr r!
755
75. The graph below could have a leading term of (a) x 6 (b) x 5 (c)  x 4 (d)  x 3
y
maths
maths
Margaret Grove
Text 2010 Grove and Associates Pty Ltd Illustrations and design 2010 McGrawHill Australia Pty Ltd Additional owners of copyright are acknowledged in onpage credits Every effort has been made to trace and acknowledge copyrighted material. The authors and publishers tender their apologies should any infringement have occurred. Reproduction and communication for educational purposes The Australian Copyright Act 1968 (the Act) allows a maximum of one chapter or 10% of the pages of this work, whichever is the greater, to be reproduced and/or communicated by any educational institution for its educational purposes provided that the institution (or the body that administers it) has sent a Statutory Educational notice to Copyright Agency Limited (CAL) and been granted a licence. For details of statutory educational and other copyright licences contact: Copyright Agency Limited, Level 15, 233 Castlereagh Street, Sydney NSW 2000. Telephone: (02) 9394 7600. Website: www.copyright.com.au Reproduction and communication for other purposes Apart from any fair dealing for the purposes of study, research, criticism or review, as permitted under the Act, no part of this publication may be reproduced, distributed or transmitted in any form or by any means, or stored in a database or retrieval system, without the written permission of McGrawHill Australia including, but not limited to, any network or other electronic storage. Enquiries should be made to the publisher via www.mcgrawhill.com.au National Library of Australia CataloguinginPublication Data Author: Grove, Margaret. Title: Maths in focus: mathematics extension preliminary course/Margaret Grove. Edition: 2nd ed. ISBN: 9780070278585 (pbk.) Target Audience: For secondary school age. Subjects: MathematicsProblems, exercises, etc. MathematicsTextbooks. Dewey Number: 510.76 Published in Australia by McGrawHill Australia Pty Ltd Level 2, 82 Waterloo Road, North Ryde NSW 2113 Publisher: Eiko Bron Managing Editor: Kathryn Fairfax Production Editor: Natalie Crouch Editorial Assistant: Ivy Chung Art Director: Astred Hicks Cover and Internal Design: Simon Rattray, Squirt Creative Cover Image: Corbis Proofreaders: Terence Townsend and Ron Buck CDROM Preparation: Nicole McKenzie Typeset in ITC Stone serif, 10/14 by diacriTech Printed in China on 80 gsm matt art by iBook
Contents
PREFACE ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS CREDITS FEATURES OF THIS BOOK SYLLABUS MATRIX STUDY SKILLS Chapter 1: Basic Arithmetic INTRODUCTION REAL NUMBERS DIRECTED NUMBERS FRACTIONS, DECIMALS AND PERCENTAGES POWERS AND ROOTS ABSOLUTE VALUE TEST YOURSELF 1 CHALLENGE EXERCISE 1 Chapter 2: Algebra and Surds INTRODUCTION SIMPLIFYING EXPRESSIONS BINOMIAL PRODUCTS FACTORISATION COMPLETING THE SQUARE ALGEBRAIC FRACTIONS SUBSTITUTION SURDS TEST YOURSELF 2 CHALLENGE EXERCISE 2 Chapter 3: Equations INTRODUCTION SIMPLE EQUATIONS SUBSTITUTION INEQUATIONS EQUATIONS AND INEQUATIONS INVOLVING ABSOLUTE VALUES EXPONENTIAL EQUATIONS QUADRATIC EQUATIONS FURTHER INEQUATIONS QUADRATIC INEQUATIONS SIMULTANEOUS EQUATIONS TEST YOURSELF 3 CHALLENGE EXERCISE 3 ix ix ix ix x xi 2 3 3 9 12 19 37 41 43 44 45 45 51 55 69 71 73 76 90 93 94 95 95 100 103 107 114 118 125 129 132 138 139
vi
Chapter 4: Geometry 1 INTRODUCTION NOTATION TYPES OF ANGLES PARALLEL LINES TYPES OF TRIANGLES CONGRUENT TRIANGLES SIMILAR TRIANGLES PYTHAGORAS THEOREM TYPES OF QUADRILATERALS POLYGONS AREAS TEST YOURSELF 4 CHALLENGE EXERCISE 4 Practice Assessment Task Set 1 Chapter 5: Functions and Graphs INTRODUCTION FUNCTIONS GRAPHING TECHNIQUES LINEAR FUNCTION QUADRATIC FUNCTION ABSOLUTE VALUE FUNCTION THE HYPERBOLA CIRCLES AND SEMICIRCLES OTHER GRAPHS LIMITS AND CONTINUITY FURTHER GRAPHS REGIONS TEST YOURSELF 5 CHALLENGE EXERCISE 5 Chapter 6: Trigonometry INTRODUCTION TRIGONOMETRIC RATIOS RIGHTANGLED TRIANGLE PROBLEMS APPLICATIONS EXACT RATIOS ANGLES OF ANY MAGNITUDE TRIGONOMETRIC EQUATIONS TRIGONOMETRIC IDENTITIES NONRIGHTANGLED TRIANGLE RESULTS APPLICATIONS AREA TRIGONOMETRY IN THREE DIMENSIONS SUMS AND DIFFERENCES OF ANGLES FURTHER TRIGONOMETRIC EQUATIONS TEST YOURSELF 6 CHALLENGE EXERCISE 6
140 141 141 142 149 153 159 163 171 177 184 188 195 197 199 204 205 205 216 224 228 234 242 246 254 260 264 277 287 288 290 291 291 299 308 318 322 336 342 347 358 362 365 367 374 385 387
vii
Chapter 7: Linear Functions INTRODUCTION DISTANCE MIDPOINT GRADIENT EQUATION OF A STRAIGHT LINE PARALLEL AND PERPENDICULAR LINES INTERSECTION OF LINES PERPENDICULAR DISTANCE ANGLE BETWEEN TWO LINES RATIOS TEST YOURSELF 7 CHALLENGE EXERCISE 7 Chapter 8: Introduction to Calculus INTRODUCTION GRADIENT DIFFERENTIATION FROM FIRST PRINCIPLES SHORT METHODS OF DIFFERENTIATION TANGENTS AND NORMALS FURTHER DIFFERENTIATION AND INDICES COMPOSITE FUNCTION RULE PRODUCT RULE QUOTIENT RULE ANGLE BETWEEN 2 CURVES TEST YOURSELF 8 CHALLENGE EXERCISE 8 Practice Assessment Task Set 2 Chapter 9: Properties of the Circle INTRODUCTION PARTS OF A CIRCLE ARCS, ANGLES AND CHORDS CHORD PROPERTIES CONCYCLIC POINTS TANGENT PROPERTIES TEST YOURSELF 9 CHALLENGE EXERCISE 9 Chapter 10: The Quadratic Function INTRODUCTION GRAPH OF A QUADRATIC FUNCTION QUADRATIC INEQUALITIES THE DISCRIMINANT QUADRATIC IDENTITIES SUM AND PRODUCT OF ROOTS EQUATIONS REDUCIBLE TO QUADRATICS TEST YOURSELF 10 CHALLENGE EXERCISE 10
390 391 391 396 398 408 412 417 422 426 430 434 435 438 439 440 449 465 471 476 478 482 485 487 490 491 494 498 499 499 500 512 519 525 537 539 542 543 543 549 555 562 566 571 575 576
viii
Chapter 11: Locus and the Parabola INTRODUCTION LOCUS CIRCLE AS A LOCUS PARABOLA AS A LOCUS GENERAL PARABOLA TANGENTS AND NORMALS PARAMETRIC EQUATIONS OF THE PARABOLA CHORDS, TANGENTS AND NORMALS PROPERTIES OF THE PARABOLA LOCUS PROBLEMS TEST YOURSELF 11 CHALLENGE EXERCISE 11 Practice Assessment Task Set 3 Chapter 12: Polynomials 1 INTRODUCTION DEFINITION OF A POLYNOMIAL DIVISION OF POLYNOMIALS REMAINDER AND FACTOR THEOREMS GRAPH OF A POLYNOMIAL ROOTS AND COEFFICIENTS OF POLYNOMIAL EQUATIONS TEST YOURSELF 12 CHALLENGE EXERCISE 12 Chapter 13: Permutations and Combinations INTRODUCTION FUNDAMENTAL COUNTING PRINCIPLE PERMUTATIONS COMBINATIONS TEST YOURSELF 13 CHALLENGE EXERCISE 13 Practice Assessment Task Set 4 Answers
578 579 579 587 591 610 625 627 634 643 648 652 653 655 662 663 663 667 672 681 706 713 714 716 717 717 730 740 746 747 749 756
ix
PREFACE
This book covers the Preliminary syllabus for Mathematics and Extension 1. The extension material is easy to see as it has green headings and there is green shading next to all extension question and answers. The syllabus is available through the NSW Board of Studies website on www.boardofstudies. nsw.edu.au. You can also access resources, study techniques, examination technique, sample and past examination papers through other websites such as www.math.nsw.edu.au and www.csu.edu. au. Searching the Internet generally will pick up many websites supporting the work in this course. Each chapter has comprehensive fully worked examples and explanations as well as ample sets of graded exercises. The theory follows a logical order, although some topics may be learned in any order. Each chapter contains Test Yourself and Challenge exercises, and there are several practice assessment tasks throughout the book. If you have trouble doing the Test Yourself exercises at the end of a chapter, you will need to go back into the chapter and revise it before trying them again. Dont attempt to do the Challenge exercises until you are confident that you can do the Test Yourself exercises, as these are more difficult and are designed to test the more able students who understand the topic really well.
ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS
Thanks go to my family, especially my husband Geoff, for supporting me in writing this book.
CREDITS
Fairfax Photos: p 327 Istockphoto: p 101, p 171 Margaret Grove: p 37, p 163, p 206, p 246, p 260, p 291, p308 (bottom), p 310, p 311, p 313, p 316, p 391, p 499, p 543, p 591, p 717, p 719, p 726, p 729, p 730, p 739 Photolibrary: p 205 Shutterstock: p 74, p 164, p 229, p 308 (top), p 580
A syllabus matrix is included to show where each syllabus topic fits into the book. Topics are generally arranged in a logical order. For example, arithmetic and algebra are needed in most, if not all other topics, so these are treated at the beginning of the book. Some teachers like to introduce particular topics before others, e.g. linear functions before more general functions. However, part of the work on gradient requires some knowledge of trigonometry and the topic of angles of any magnitude in trigonometry needs some knowledge of functions. So the order of most chapters in the book have been carefully thought out. Some chapters, however, could be covered in a different order, such as geometry which is covered in Chapter 4, and quadratic functions and locus, which are near the end of the book.
SYLLABUS MATRIX
This matrix shows how the syllabus is organised in the chapters of this book.
Mathematics (2 Unit)
Basic arithmetic and algebra (1.1 1.4) Chapter 1: Basic arithmetic Chapter 2: Algebra and surds Chapter 3: Equations Chapter 5: Functions and graphs
Chapter 6: Trigonometry
Chapter 10: The quadratic function Chapter 11: Locus and the parabola
Chapter 4: Geometry 1
Extension 1
Other inequalities (1.4E) Chapter 3: Equations
Chapter 6: Trigonometry
xi
STUDY SKILLS
You may have coasted through previous stages without needing to rely on regular study, but in this course many of the topics are new and you will need to systematically revise in order to build up your skills and to remember them. The Preliminary course introduces the basics of topics such as calculus that are then applied in the HSC course. You will struggle in the HSC if you dont set yourself up to revise the preliminary topics as you learn new HSC topics. Your teachers will be able to help you build up and manage good study habits. Here are a few hints to get you started. There is no right or wrong way to learn. Different styles of learning suit different people. There is also no magical number of hours a week that you should study, as this will be different for every student. But just listening in class and taking notes is not enough, especially when learning material that is totally new. You wouldnt go for your drivers licence after just one trip in the car, or enter a dance competition after learning a dance routine once. These skills take a lot of practice. Studying mathematics is just the same. If a skill is not practised within the first 24 hours, up to 50% can be forgotten. If it is not practised within 72 hours, up to 8590% can be forgotten! So it is really important that whatever your study timetable, new work must be looked at soon after it is presented to you. With a continual succession of new work to learn and retain, this is a challenge. But the good news is that you dont have to study for hours on end!
In the classroom
In order to remember, first you need to focus on what is being said and done. According to an ancient proverb:
If you chat to friends and just take notes without really paying attention, you arent giving yourself a chance to remember anything and will have to study harder at home.
xii
If you have just had a fight with a friend, have been chatting about weekend activities or myriad other conversations outside the classroom, it helps if you can check these at the door and dont keep chatting about them once the lesson starts. If you are unsure of something that the teacher has said, the chances are that others are also not sure. Asking questions and clarifying things will ultimately help you gain better results, especially in a subject like mathematics where much of the knowledge and skills depends on being able to understand the basics. Learning is all about knowing what you know and what you dont know. Many students feel like they dont know anything, but its surprising just how much they know already. Picking up the main concepts in class and not worrying too much about other less important parts can really help. The teacher can guide you on this. Here are some pointers to get the best out of classroom learning: Take control and be responsible for your own learning Clear your head of other issues in the classroom Active, not passive, learning is more memorable Ask questions if you dont understand something Listen for cues from the teacher Look out for what are the main concepts Note taking varies from class to class, but there are some general guidelines that will help when you come to read over your notes later on at home: Write legibly Use different colours to highlight important points or formulae Make notes in textbooks (using pencil if you dont own the textbook) Use highlighter pens to point out important points Summarise the main points If notes are scribbled, rewrite them at home
At home
You are responsible for your own learning and nobody else can tell you how best to study. Some people need more revision time than others, some study better in the mornings while others do better at night, and some can work at home while others prefer a library. There are some general guidelines for studying at home: Revise both new and older topics regularly Have a realistic timetable and be flexible Summarise the main points Revise when you are fresh and energetic Divide study time into smaller rather than longer chunks
xiii
Study in a quiet environment Have a balanced life and dont forget to have fun! If you are given exercises out of a textbook to do for homework, consider asking the teacher if you can leave some of them till later and use these for revision. It is not necessary to do every exercise at one sitting, and you learn better if you can spread these over time. People use different learning styles to help them study. The more variety the better, and you will find some that help you more than others. Some people (around 35%) learn best visually, some (25%) learn best by hearing and others (40%) learn by doing. Here are some ideas to give you a variety of ways to study: Summarise on cue cards or in a small notebook Use colourful posters Use mindmaps and diagrams Discuss work with a group of friends Read notes out aloud Make up songs and rhymes Do exercises regularly Role play teaching someone else
xiv
And finally
Study involves knowing what you dont know, and putting in a lot of time into concentrating on these areas. This is a positive way to learn. Rather than just saying, I cant do this, say instead, I cant do this yet, and use your teachers, friends, textbooks and other ways of finding out. With the parts of the course that you do know, make sure you can remember these easily under exam pressure by putting in lots of practice. Remember to look at new work today tomorrow in a week in a month Some people hardly ever find time to study while others give up their outside lives to devote their time to study. The ideal situation is to balance study with other aspects of your life, including going out with friends, working and keeping up with sport and other activities that you enjoy.
756
Answers
Chapter 1: Basic arithmetic 8.
Problem
5 9.
o (b) 0.07 oo (c) 0.13 oo (d) 0.16 o (a) 0.83 o oo o (g) 0.142857 or 0. 142857 (h) 1.18 (a) (h) 8 9 13 60 (b) 2 9 (c) 1 5 9 (d) 3 37 495 oo (d) 0.68 7 18 (e) 7 9 (e) 67 99
o (e) 0.6
oo (f) 0.15
(f)
6 11
(g)
7 45
Exercises 1.1
1. (a) Rational (b) Rational (e) Rational (f) Irrational (i) Rational (j) Irrational (a) 18 (b) 11 (c) 6 (d) 11 (h) 1 3. 19 20 (i) 2 (j) 3 1 3 (j) 8.16 (c) Rational (g) Irrational (d) Irrational (h) Rational 7 15
(i)
217 990
(j) 1
2.
(e)  4.3
(f) 1
(g) 2
(d) 2
12. 74%
13. 77.5%
14. 17.5%
(a) 16.36 (b) 21.87 (c) 8.80 (d) 22.71 (e)  13.20 (f) 0.17 (g) 0.36 (h) 1.20 (i)  4.27
Exercises 1.4
1. 3 20 (d) 8. 3 28 2. 7 20 3 (e) 5 1 20 7 4. $547.56 5. 714.3 g 6. 24 3. (a) (b) (c) 1 17 20 7 10
4. 8.
1300 600
5. 950
6. 3000
7. 11 000
9. $8 000 000 10. $34 600 000 12. 0.73 13. 33 14. 3.248 15. 4.21
7. $65
17. 79 cents 18. 2.73 19. 1.1 20. 3.6 m 22. 1.8 g 23. $3.20
179 cm 9. (a) 11.9 (b) 5.3 (c) 19 (d) 3.2 (e) 3.5 (f) 0.24 (g) 0.000 18 (h) 5720 (i) 0.0874 (j) 0.376 11. 54.925 mL 15. 402.5 g 19. 573 12. 1152.125 g 13. $10.71
21. $281.93
24. (a) 7.95 (b) 30.03 (c) 0.37 (d) 5.74 (e) 0.52 25. 0.2
17. $30.92
Exercises 1.2
1. 6. 1  1.2 4 15 2.  11 3.  56 4. 10 5.  4 9. 6.57 13. 10 14. 1
Problem
5 5 minutes after 1 oclock. 11
8.  35.52 12. 23
10.  2 15. 5
Exercises 1.5
1. 2. (a) 500 (a) 13.7 (a) a 17 (g) y 6 (m) w 10 (b) 145 (b) 1.1 (b) y 0 = 1 (h) x 21 (n) p 5 y
2
16. 3
(c)
1 64
Exercises 1.3
1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. (a) 16 25 (b) 51 1000 (c) 5 1 20 (d) 11 4 5
3.
(f) p 10 (l) x 10 y 45
o (a) 0.4 (b) 1.875 (c) 0.416 (a) 1 50 (b) 3 8 (c) 1 1000
(i) 4x 10 (o) x 3
(j) 81y  8
(p) a  2 b 3 or
(d) 1
(a) 0.27 (b) 1.09 (c) 0.003 (d) 0.0623 1 (a) 35% (b) 33 % 3 (a) 124% (b) 70% (a) 0.52; 13 25 2 (c) 226 % 3 (d) 0.1% 4.
(b) a 7
(c) 40.5% (d) 127.94% 7 100 (c) 0.168; 217 500 21 125
(b) 0.07;
(d) 1.09; 1
9 100
(e) 0.434;
(f) 0.1225;
b 2k 23 (g) 27
(c)
64a 3 b 12
ANSWERS
757
6.
1 2
7. 324
2 2
8. 2
10 27
(b)
1 25
5. 6.
(a) x 2
(b) x
1 2 3
(c) x 3
2
(d) x 3
2
(e) x 4
1
7 (b) 32 1 108
4 11. 9 16. 1 12
(a) x + x 2 + 2x 2 (d) x + x  1 + 2
(b) a 3  b 3 (e) x
3 1 2
(c) p 2 + p  1 + 2p 2
3 2
 3x
+x
7
5 2
15.
7.
(a) (d)
1
3
a  2b 1
(b) (e)
^ y  3 h2
6
(c)
4
] 6a + 1 g4
Exercises 1.6
1. 1 1 1 1 1 (b) (c) (d) (e) (f) 1 4 27 343 10 000 256 1 1 1 1 1 1 (g) (h) (i) (j) (k) (l) (m) 1 7 64 9 32 81 81 1 1 1 1 (n) (o) (p) (q) (r) 1 36 125 100 000 128 1 1 (s) (t) 64 64 (a) 1 11 1 (a) 1 (b) 16 (c) 1 (d) 1 (e) 1 (f) 125 (g) 1 2 25 3 3 13 19 1 (h) 49 (i) 3 (j) 32 (k) 2 (l) 1 (m) 1 (n) 1 8 3 36 81 5 16 7 (o) 1 (p) 16 (q)  15 (r) (s) 1 (t) 8 23 25 (a) m  3 (g) 2x (l)
4 6
3 4 ^ x + y h5
7 9 ] 3x + 8 g2
Exercises 1.8
1. (a) 3.8 # 10 3 (d) 1.2 #10 7 (g) 9 #10 2.
2
(h) 1.376 # 10
2.
(f) 8#10  8
(h) 2.3#10
3.
(a) 36 000 (b) 27 800 000 (c) 9 250 (d) 6 330 000 (e) 400 000 (f) 0.072 3 (g) 0.000 097 (h) 0.000 000 038 (i) 0.000 007 (j) 0.000 5 (a) 240 000 (b) 9 200 000 (c) 11 000 (d) 0.36 (e) 1.3 (f) 9.0 (g) 16 (h) 320 (i) 2900 (j) 9.1 (a) 6.61 (b) 0.686 (c) 8.25 (d) 1.30
3.
(b) x  1 (h) 3y
2
(c) p  7
1 z 6 (i) z  6 or 2 2
4.
5. 6.
1.305 # 10 10
7. 6.51 # 10  10
(t) 1 x 1
6
5 ] a + 3b g 9 1 y
3
7
1 t 5
5
(b) (i) 1
(c)
(d)
1 n
8
(e) 1
1 w
10
(f)
2 x
(g)
3 m
4
Exercises 1.9
1. (a) 7 (b) 5 (c) 6 (d) 0 (e) 2 (f) 11 (g) 6 (h) 24 (i) 25 (j) 125 2. (a) 5 (b) 1 (c) 2 (d) 14 (e) 4 (f) 67 (g) 7 (h) 12 (i) 6 (j) 10 3. (a) 3 (b) 3 (c) 1 (d) 3 (e) 1 4. (a) a (b)  a (c) 0 (d) 3a (e) 3a (f) 0 (g) a + 1 (h) a  1 (i) x  2 (j) 2  x (a)  a + b  = 6 (b)  a + b  = 3 (c)  a + b  = 1 (d)  a + b  = 1 (e)  a + b  = 10 (a) (d) 7. a  +  b = 6 `  a + b  #  a  +  b  a  +  b = 3 `  a + b  #  a  +  b  a  +  b = 5 `  a + b  #  a  +  b  a  +  b = 9 `  a + b  #  a  +  b   a  +  b  = 10 `  a + b  #  a  +  b  (b) (e) x2 =  x  = 2 x2 =  x  = 9 (c) x2 =  x  = 3
x7
8x 3
2
1 (j) 4n 1
(k)
9
] x + 1 g6
1 (l) 8y + z
(m)
]k  3g
(r) ] a + b g2
(n)
p 2
5.
Exercises 1.7
1. (a) 9 (b) 3 (c) 4 (d) 2 (e) 7 (f) 10 (g) 2 (h) 8 (i) 4 (j) 1 (k) 3 (l) 2 (m) 0 (n) 5 (o) 7 (p) 2 1 1 (q) 4 (r) 27 (s) (t) 2 16 (a) 2.19 (b) 2.60 (c) 1.53 (d) 0.60 (e) 0.90 (f) 0.29 (a) 3 y (e)
1
6.
x2 =  x  = 5 x2 =  x  = 4
2. 3.
(b) 3 y 2 or _ 3 y i 1
(c) (g)
1 x
5
(d) 1
2x + 5 or 1 ^ 5 x + 7 h2
1
3x  1
1
(f) 3 6q + r
3
] x + 7 g2
1
4.
(a) t 2
(b) y 5
2 3 1 2
(c) x 2
(d) ] 9  x g 3
3 2
(e) ] 4s + 1 g 2
5
(g) ^ 5x  y h (j)
1
(h) ] 3x + 1 g 2
1
2a 2 2 y  1k 3
1 ^ y + 7 h 2 (k) 5 ] x + 4 g 3 2 3 3 4 (m) _ x 2 + 2 i 5
(a) x + 5 for x 2  5 and  x  5 for x 1  5 (b) b  3 for b 2 3 and 3  b for x 1 3 (c) a + 4 for a 2  4 and  a  4 for a 1  4 (d) 2y  6 for y 2 3 and 6  2y for y 1 3 (e) 3x + 9 for x 2  3 and  3x  9 for x 1  3 (f) 4  x for x 1 4 and x  4 for x 2 4 1 1 (g) 2k + 1 for k 2  and  2k  1 for k 1 2 2 2 2 (h) 5x  2 for x 2 and  5x + 2 for x 1 5 5 (i) a + b for a 2  b and  a  b for a 1  b (j) p  q for p 2 q and q  p for p 1 q x = !3 9. !1 10. !1, x ! 2
8.
758
Test yourself 1
1. (a) 9 20 (b) 0.14 (c) 0.625 2. (a) 1 49 (b) 1 5 (d) 157 200 1 (c) 3 (e) 1.2%
Exercises 2.1
1. 7. 7x y 2. 3a 8. 5x 14.  x 3. z 9. 0 4. 6a 5. 3b 6. 3r 12. 10w 18.  10x
(f) 73.3% 3.
(a) 8.83 (b) 1.55 (c) 1.12 (d) 342 (e) 0.303 4. (a) 1 (e)  10 (f)  1 (g) 4 5. (a) x 9 8x 18 29 (b) 25y 6 (c) a 11 b 6 (d) (e) 1 6. (a) 27 40 1 1 1 (b) 3 (c) 12 (d) 2 (e) 12 7. (a) 4 (b) 6 (c) 19 7 2 2 1 1 (d) (e) 4 (f) 3 (g) (h) 2 (i) 1 (j) 4 7 64 (b) 1 (c) 39 (d) 2
10. 3k
11. 9t
13.  m
15. 0
16. 5b
17. 11b
19. 6x  6y
20. a  3b
21. 4xy + 2y
22.  6ab 2
25. 8x + 3y
28. 2a 5  9x 3 + 1
8.
(a) a
(b) x y
30 18
(c) p
(d) 16b
36
(e) 8x y
11
9. (a) n
1
1 2
29. x 3  2xy 2 + 3x 2 y + 2y 3
30. 3x 3 + x 2  7x  6
(d) ] x + 1 g
4
1 4
(e) ] a + b g 7
9
Exercises 2.2
3 4
(h) x 3 x+1
(j) m (e)
1. 5. 9.
10b 12a3
2. 8xy
3. 10p 2
4.  6wz
15ab 6. 14xyz 7. 48abc 8. 12d 2 10.  27y3 11. 32x10 14. 21p 3 q 4 18. 81t 12 13.  10a 3 b 2 20. 24x y
6
1 ] 4t  7 g4 1 1 (f) 5 a + b (g) (h) 4 b 3 (i) 3 ] 2x + 3 g4 (j) 3 x x3 11.  a + b  = 2  a  + b  = 8 `  a + b  #  a  +  b  a5 (b) 4 n 12. 1 1 13. 192
1
16.  8n 10 17. k 3 p 3
11 3
1 (c) 8
7
Exercises 2.3
1. 8. 6x 2. 2 3. 4a 2 4. 8a 5. 4a 6. y 2 7. 3p
16. $38 640 17. 70% 18. 6.3 # 10 23 (c) ] x + 3 g 6 (d) ] 2x  3 g 11 21. (a) 7 9 (e) y 3 (b) 41 330
(b) y  1
(b)
1 2a + 5
23. 14 500
ab 4 1 2 9. 10.  3x 3 11. 3a 12. 13. qs 3y 2 3ab 2 4 7 6 2 a b 2 z b 14. 15. 16. 6p 4 q 17. 18. 4c 2a 3c 2 d 2x 2 x3 z3 3y 20. a 13 2b 6
19. 
Challenge exercise 1
1. 4. 9. 11. 4 278 303 2. 1 11 18 3. 0.502, 51%,
14
Exercises 2.4
51 o , 0. 5 99 1. 5. 9. 2x  8 2. 6h + 9 3.  5a + 10 4. 2xy + 3x x 2  2x 6. 6a 2  16ab 7. 2a 2 b + ab 2 8. 5n 2  20n 3x3 y2 + 6x2 y3
2
1 1 53 % 5. 3 16 18 h 10. 1.98
6. 3.04 # 10
10. 4k + 7
13.  5b  6
14. 8  2x
2
19. 3x  9x  5 22.  7y + 4
25. 2a + 26
Exercises 2.5
1. 4. 7. a 2 + 7a + 10 m 2  6m + 8 2x 2 + x  6 2. x 2 + 2x  3 5. x 2 + 7x + 12 8. h 2  10h + 21 14. n 2  4 3. 2y 2 + 7y  15 6. y 2  3y  10 9. x 2  25 15. 4x 2  9 19. x 2  9
3 7
2 14. 6 % 3
10. 15a 2  17a + 4 11. 8y 2 + 6y  9 12. xy + 7x  4y  28 13. x 3  2x 2 + 3x  6 16. 16  49y 2 20. y 2  36 17. a 2  4b 2 18. 9x 2  16y 2
21. 9a 2  1
22. 4z 2  49
ANSWERS
759
Exercises 2.8
1. 4. 7.
]x + 4g]2 + bg ]m  2g]m + 3g
26. a  27
3 2
27. a + 18a + 81
2
2. ^ y  3 h ] a + b g
29. x + 4x + 4 32. 4t 2  4t + 1
2
30. y  14y + 49
2
5. ] d  c g ] a + b g 6. ] x + 1 g ^ x 2 + 3 h 8. ^ 2y  x h ^ x + y h 11. (y + 3) (1 + a)
2
] 5a  3 g ] b + 2 g
2 2
10. ] x + 5 g ] x  1 g
36. a  b 39. a + b
3 3
13. ^ x + 5y h ^ 2x  3y h
14. ^ a + b h ] ab  4 g
Exercises 2.6
1. 4. 7. t + 8t + 16
2
2. z  12z + 36
2
3. x  2x + 1
2
23. ] x  2 g ^ 3x 2  5 h 25. ^ y + 7 h ] x  4 g
2 2
y 2 + 16y + 64 n 2 + 2n + 1
2
10. 9y  6y + 1
2
17. r 2  36
21. 16a 2  1
2
22. 49  9x 2
2 2
Exercises 2.9
1. 4. 7.
]x + 3g]x + 1g ] t + 4 g2 ]v  3g]v  5g
25. 9a b  16c
2. ^ y + 4 h ^ y + 3 h 8. ] t  3 g
3. ] m + 1 g2
28. x 2  ^ y  2 h2 = x 2  y 2 + 4y  4
5. ] z + 3 g ] z  2 g
2
6. ] x + 1 g ] x  6 g 9. ] x + 10 g ] x  1 g
33. 9x + 8x  3
2
15. ] x  2 g ] x + 16 g
34. x 2 + 3xy + y 2  2x
3 2
16. ^ y + 4 h ^ y  9 h
4 2 2 4
38. x  2x y + y
19. ^ p + 9 h ^ p  1 h
Problem
a = 2, b = 7, c = 9, d = 4, e = 3, f = 8, g = 0, h = 6, i = 1
Exercises 2.10
1. 3. (2a + 1) (a + 5) 2. ^ 5y + 2 h ^ y + 1 h (3x + 7) (x + 1) 4. (3x + 2) (x + 2) 5. (2b  3) (b  1) (7x  2) (x  1) 7. ^ 3y  1 h ^ y + 2 h 8. ] 2x + 3 g ] x + 4 g
Exercises 2.7
1. 5. 9. 2^y + 3h 6 ^ 4  3y h 2. 5 ] x  2 g 3. 3 ] m  3 g 4. 2 ] 4x + 1 g 6. x ] x + 2 g 7. m ] m  3 g 8. 2y ^ y + 2 h 13. 2xy ] 4x  z g 14. a ] 6b + 3  2a g 16. q 2 _ 3q 3  2 i 17. 5b 2 ] b + 3 g 20. ^ y  1 h ^ 2  y h
6. 9.
^ 5p  2 h ^ p + 3 h 10. ] 3x + 5 g ] 2x + 1 g
12. ] 5x  1 g ] 2x + 1 g 14. (3x + 4) (2x  3) 16. ] 4n  3 g ] n  2 g
17. ] 4t  1 g ] 2t + 5 g 18. ^ 3q + 2 h ^ 4q + 5 h 19. ] 4r  1 g ] 2r + 6 g = 2 ] 4r  1 g ] r + 3 g 20. ] 2x  5 g ] 2x + 3 g 22. ^ 2p  3 h ^ 3p + 2 h 24. ] 3b  4 g ] 4b  9 g 26. ] 3x + 5 g2 29. ] 6a  1 g2 21. ^ 6y  1 h ^ y  2 h 23. (8x + 7) (x + 3) 25. (6x + 1) (x  9) 28. ] 5k  2 g2
22. ] a  2 g ] 6x + 5 g 24. ] 3x  2 g ] a + 2b  3c g
3
26. 3q _ pq 2  2 i
28. 4x 2 ] x  6 g 34.  ] a + 1 g
27. ^ 4y + 3 h2 30. ] 7m + 6 g2
760
Exercises 2.11
1. 5. 9.
Exercises 2.14
2 2
^y  1h
2 2
2. (x + 3)
3. (m + 5)
2 2
4. (t  2)
2 2
1. 3. 5. 8.
(x  6)
6. ] 2x + 3 g
7. ] 4b  1 g
8. ] 3a + 2 g
] 5x  4 g2
2
11. ^ 3y  5 h
13. ] 5x + 1 g 17. d x 2 n 3
2
14. ] 9a  2 g 18. d 3y + 1 n 5
15. ] 7m + 6 g2 1 2 19. c x + m x
10. 2 ] 3x  2 g ] x + 2 g 11. ] m  5 g ] 3 + n g 13. ^ y + 5 h ^ y + 4 h ^ y  4 h 15. ] x + 1 g ^ x 2  x + 1 h ] x  1 g ^ x 2 + x + 1 h 16. x ] x + 2 g ] x  5 g 17. ] x + 3 g (x  3) 2 18. y (2xy + 1) (2xy  1) 22. (x + 2) (x + 5) (x  5)
2 2 20. d 5k  n k
Exercises 2.12
1. 4. 7. (a + 2) (a  2)
]x + 5g]x  5g
2. (x + 3) (x  3)
3. (y + 1) (y  1) 6. (4y + 3) (4y  3)
19. 3 ] 2  b g ^ 4 + 2b + b 2 h 23. z ] z + 3 g2
5. (2x + 7) (2x  7)
10. ] 3 + 4x g ] 3  4x g 12. ^ 6x + y h ^ 6x  y h
Exercises 2.15
1. 3. 5. 7. 9. x 2 + 4x + 4 = ] x + 2 g2 2. b 2  6b + 9 = ] b  3 g2 4. y 2 + 8y + 16 = ^ y + 4 h2
2
 1 o 21. ^ x + 2y + 3 h ^ x  2y + 1 h
x 2  10x + 25 = ] x  5 g2 m  14m + 49 = ] m  7 g
2
6. q 2 + 18x + 81 = ^ q + 9 h2
x 2 + 2x + 1 = ] x + 1 g2
8. t 2  16t + 64 = ] t  8 g2
x 2  20x + 100 = ] x  10 g2
Exercises 2.13
1. 3. 5. 7. 9. (b  2) (b 2 + 2b + 4)
]t + 1g^t  t + 1h
2
12. y 2 + 3y +
3 2 9 = dy + n 4 2
(1  x) (1 + x + x )
2
(y + 2z) (y 2  2yz + 4z 2)
1 1 2 = da + n 4 2 25 5 2 = dy  n 4 16
^ 2x + 3y h _ 4x 2  6xy + 9y 2 i 10. ] ab  1 g ^ a 2 b 2 + ab + 1 h
12. d
5y 2
11k 121 11 n + = dk 4 2 16
16.  9 ^ a  a + 1 h
17. d 1 
x x x ne1 + + o 9 3 3
2
Exercises 2.16
1. 6. 10. 14. a+2 1 y4 p+5 3
2
2. 2t  1 7.
3.
4y + 1 3 8.
4.
4 2d  1 9.
5.
x 5x  2
b2 + b + 1 b+1 13. x  3
11.
12.
x + 2x + 4
p2 4p  2p + 1
a+b 2a  b
ANSWERS
761
Exercises 2.17
1. (a) 5x 4 (b) 13y + 3 15 (b) (c) a+8 12 (d) 4p + 3 6 (c) (e) x  13 6
Exercises 2.20
1. 3 5 7.  7 2 13.  3 2. 2 3. 6 3 4. 3 3 5.  3 5 11. 6. 3 6 2 12. 5 3 75 2 9.  4 2 15. 5 7
8. 8 5 14. 2
10. 4 5 16. 2
2.
(a)
b 2a  1 ab
^ p  2 h _ q2  q + 1 i
q+1
]x  3g]x  1g (e) ]x  5g]x  2g
b 2 ^ x + 2y h 10 ] 2b  1 g
17. 13 6 21.
18.  9 10
19. 47 3
20. 5 2  2 3
(d)
x 2  xy + y 2
23. 7 6 + 3 5
24.  2  2 3
25.  17 5 + 10 2
3.
5 (a) x
x + 2 (b) x ]x  1g
Exercise 2.21
1. 21 2. 15 3. 3 6 9. 60 14.  84 4. 10 14 10. 5.  6 6 6. 30 7.  12 55 12 = 2 3
8. 14
12. 15 28 = 30 7 15. 2 19. 18 22. 4 3 28. 1 3 5 5 2 2 23. 1 29. 2 3 1 2 35. 5 7 24. 8 6 18.  2 105 21. 2 6 27. 1 2 5 9 2 5
2 _ 3y 2 + 14y + 13 i
^y + 2h^y + 3h^y  1h
x2 ] x + 2 g 8 _ y 2  3y + 9 i (b)
4.
(a)
^y + 2h^y + 1h
5.
x 2 + 10x  24 3b 2  5b  10 (d) (e) x 2 ]x  3g]x  4g 2b ] b + 1 g 3x  13 3  5x (a) (b) ]x  5g]x  2g]x + 3g ]x + 2g]x  2g (c) (c) 3p 2 + 5pq  2q 2 pq ^ p + q h ^ p  q h y ^x + y + 1h (d) a 2  2ab  b 2 + 1 ]a + bg]a  bg
30.
31.
32.
33.
34.
Exercises 2.22
1. (a) 10 + 6 (b) 2 6  15 (c) 12 + 8 15 (h) 5  5 15 (d) 5 14  2 21 (f) 5 33 + 3 21 (i) 6 + 30 (e)  6 + 4 18 =  6 + 12 2 (g)  6  12 6
(e)
^x + yh^x  yh
Exercises 2.18
1. (a)  7.1 (b)  6.9 (c) 48.1 (d)  37.7 4. 375 (e) 0.6 5.  196 3 4 2. (f) 2.3 (g)  5.3 6. 5.5 7. 377 3.  7
2. 47
8. 284 9.  40 14. 3 4
(a) 10 + 3 6 + 3 5 + 9 3 (b) 10  35  2 + 14 (c) 2 10  6 + 10 15  15 6 (d) 12 20 + 18 60  8 10  12 30 = 24 5 + 36 15  8 10  12 30 (e) 52  13 10 (f) 15  15 + 18 10  6 6 (i)  12 (j) 43 (k) 3 (l)  241 (p) 25 + 6 14 (o) 11  4 6 (g) 4 (h)  1
13. 1838.8
15. 15 16. 10
Exercises 2.19
1. (a) 2 3 (f) 10 2 (k) 4 7 (p) 6 3 2. (a) 6 3 (f) 8 14 3. (a) (f) 4. 18 160 (b) 3 7 (g) 4 3 (l) 10 3 (q) 3 11 (b) 20 5 (g) 72 5 (b) (g) 20 117 (c) 2 6 (h) 5 3 (m) 8 2 (r) 5 5 (c) 28 2 (h) 30 2 176 98 (d) (i) (d) 4 7 (e) 16 5 (j) 24 5 5. (c) 128 363 (e) (j) 75 1008 6. 9. (h) (d) 5 2 (i) 4 2 (n) 9 3 (e) 6 2 (j) 3 6 (o) 7 5 3. 4.
(m)  6
(n) 7 + 2 10
(q) 57 + 12 15
(b) a = 19, b =  7
(i) 14 10
(a) x = 45 (b) x = 12 (c) x = 63 (d) x = 50 (e) x = 44 (f) x = 147 (g) x = 304 (h) x = 828 (i) x = 775 (j) x = 960
a = 107, b =  42
10. 9 + 5 units 2
762
Exercises 2.23
1. (a) (e) (h) 7 7 (b) 6 4 (f) (c) 2 15 5 (d) 6 14 3 14 = 5 10 5 + 2 10 5 (j) 4 15  2 10 35
8.
2 3+2 2 2
3+ 6 3
12  5 2 2 (i)
(g)
3 14  4 7 14
8 5 + 3 10 20 (b)
2 32 2 8 = # + # 3+2 2 32 2 2 2^3  2 2 h 8 2 + = 2 2 32  ^ 2 2 h 64 2 +4 2 94#2 64 2 = +4 2 1 =64 2+4 2 =6 = So rational b+4 b+4 b4
8 2 2
2.
(a) 4 3  4 2 = 4 ^ 3  2 h (c)
^ 6 + 7 3 h 47
 ^ 2 15  4 18 h  2 ^ 15  6 2 h = 19 19  ^ 19  8 3 h 8 3  19 = (d) (e) 6 + 2 + 5 3 + 5 2 13 13 6 15  9 6 + 2 10  6 2
9.
x = ^ 3 + 2h
10.
(f) 3.
Test yourself 2
1. (a)  2y (f) 6 2 2. (b) a + 4 (g) 4 5 (b) ] a + 3 g ] a  1 g (c) 4ab ] b  2 g (e) 2 ^ 2n  p + 3 h (c)  6k 5 (d) 5x + 3y 15 (e) 3a  8b
(a) 2 2 (b)  ^ 2 + 6  3 2 + 3 3 h =  2  6 + 3 2  3 3 22 5 + 14 2 (c) 39 ^ (d)  6 6  16  3 84 + 8 14 h 10  3 6 + 8 + 3 21  4 14 = 5 (e)  4 (f) 4 2 20 12 + 19 6 + 25 3  6 19 6 + 65 3  6 (g) = 15 15 (h) (j) (l) 6+9 2+2 3 6 (i) 4 6+9 3 21 (k) 28  2 6  7 3 13
(a) ] x + 6 g ] x  6 g (d) (y  3) (5 + x)
(f) (2  x) (4 + 2x + x 2) 3. (a) 4b  6
2
(b) 2x 2 + 5x  3
(c) 4m + 17 (f)  1  7a
(e) p 2  25
15 30  30 5  4 3 30
5. 7.
V = 157.464
6. (a) 17
2 15 + 2 10  2 6  3  5 2 (b) a = 1, b = 8 1 1 (c) a =  , b = 2 2
4.
(a) a = 45, b = 10
(e) a = 5, b = 32
4x + 5 8. (a) 36 (b)  2 ]x + 3g]x  2g 1 9. (a) (b) 8 10. d = 11.25 5 2 3 2+ 6 11. (a) (b) 15 2 12. (a) 3 6  6  4 3 + 4 2 13. (a) 3 (x  3) (x + 3) x3 3y 4 1 3x  1 (c) 5 ^ y + 2 h _ y 2  2y + 4 i 14. (a) (b)
4 2
2 2
(b) 11 + 4 7
(b) 6 ] x  3 g ] x + 1 g
4 2 2
15. (a) 99
21 5  46  2 7
ANSWERS
763
(b)  8 6 (g) 2x  3y
(c) 2 3
(d)
4 3
(e) 30a 2 b
Chapter 3: Equations
Exercises 3.1
2. z =  5.6 3. y = 1 4. w = 6.7 5. x = 12 1 8. b = 35 9. n =  16 10. r = 4 6. x = 4 7. y = 15 11. y = 9 12. k = 6 13. d = 2 14. x = 5 15. y = 15 1. 16. x = 20 17. m = 20 18. x = 4 19. a =  7 20. y = 3 2 21. b =  4 22. x = 3 23. a =  1 24. t =  4 3 1 25. x = 1.2 26. a = 1.6 27. b = 28. t = 39 8 29. p = 5 30. x Z 4.41 t = 5
(b) 10 14  5 21  6 10 + 3 15
3 7 7
12  2 6 15 x + 10 10 1 k1 (b)
20 + 3 15 + 4 10 + 3 6 53 (c) 3  2x (x + 1) (x  1)
17a  15 21
(e)
15  6  15 3  15 2 3 (c) n = 392
Exercises 3.2
1. 6. b =3 1 3 2. x = 35 3. y = 4 4 9 4. x = 1 9 35 5. k = 5 5 8
25. (a) n = 48
(b) n = 175
(e) n = 1445 28. (d) 34. (d) 29. (a), (d) 35. (b) 30. (c)
x = 36 7. t = 0.6 8. x =  3 9. y =  1.2 10. x = 69 12. t = 30 16. p = 3 20. x =  3 24. y = 1 13. x = 14 17. t = 8.2 14. x =  1 18. x =  9.5 22. a =  0.375
11. w = 13 27. (b), (c) 33. (a) 15. x =  0.4 19. q = 22 23. x = 3 (b) y 4  4
31. (c)
32. (b)
Challenge exercise 2
1. (a) 2a 2 b  8ab 2 + 6a 3
3 2
Exercises 3.3
1. 6. t = 8.5 r = 6.68 2. l = 122 3. b = 8 4. a = 41 5. y = 4 2 3
7. x = 6.44
8. n = 15
9. y 1 = 3
4. 5.
b b2 b 2 n x + 2 = dx + a a 2 4a
11. (a) BMI = 25.39 12. r = 0.072 16. r = 2.12 20. r = 3.3
(c) h = 1.94
17. r = 10.46
Exercises 3.4
8. 2 5 1. (a) x 2 3 4 3 2 1 0 1 2 3 4
6. 9.
4x 2 + 12x + 9 = ] 2x + 3 g2
]a + 1g
2
7.
a2  a + 1
10. d
2 a 2 a + nd  n x b x b
11.
3x 3  6x 2 + 3x + 4xy  6y
]x  3g]x + 3g]x  2g
3 2
(b) y # 4 4 3 2 1 0 1 2 3 4
3x + 4 (b) ] 2x  1 g2
2.
(a) t 2 7 (b) x $ 3 (c) p 2  1 (d) x $  2 (e) y 2  9 (f) a $  1 (j) y 1 12 (n) m 2 14 (g) y $  2 1 2 (h) x 1  2 (l) x 2 30 1 4 (i) a #  6 3 4
(k) b 1  18 2 3 (o) b $ 16
(m) x # 3
15. x 2 + 17.
(p) r #  9
(q) z 2 8
400  59 5 10 1 2
19. i = 1
20. r =
21. s = 2 + 6 3
764
(r) w 1 2
4 5 2 3
(s) x $ 35
(t) t $  9 1 4
(u) q 2  6
2 5 3.
(e) y = 1.89 (f) d = ! 2.55 (g) k = ! 4.47 (h) x = 2.22 (i) y = ! 3.81 (a) n = 27 (e) p = 243 (i) a = 128 (j) y = 3.01 (c) x = 32 (d) t = 8 (h) y = 27
(v) x 2  1 3. 0
(w) b #  11
(a) 1 1 x 1 7 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8
(f) m = 625
(g) b = 216
(b)  2 # p 1 5 3 2 1 0 1 2 3 4 5
4.
(a) x = (e) n =
1 5 2 3 2 3
(c) y =
1 2
(d) x = !
1 7
(c) 1 1 x 1 4 3 2 1 0 1 2 3 4 5 5. 0 1 2 3 4 5
(i) x = ! (a) x =
(d)  3 # y # 5 3 2 1 1 2 (e) 1 y 1 1 6 3 2 1
3
5 6.
1 1 1 1 (b) x = 6 (c) a = (d) k = 4 512 81 625 19 1 (e) x = (f) x = 4 (g) y = 8 (h) n = 7 8 32 127 (i) b = 8 (j) m = 1 216 (a) n = 4 (f) x = 3 (b) y = 5 (g) x = 2 (c) m = 9 (h) x = 2 (d) x = 5 (i) x = 1 (e) m = 0 (j) k = 2
Exercises 3.5
1. (a) x = ! 5 (b) y = ! 8 (c)  4 1 a 1 4 (h) a 2 14, a 1  14 8. 7. (d) k $ 1, k #  1 (f)  10 # p # 10 (i)  12 1 y 1 12 2. (a) x = 5,  9 (d) 4 # x # 6 (g)  3 (e) x 2 6, x 1  6 (g) x = 0 (j) b $ 20, b #  20 (c) a 2 2, a 1  2 5 (f) x = 5, 4 7 (i) x = ! 12 9. 1 3 (c) b = 2 2 7 1 3 2 3
(b) x = 1 (c) x =  2 (d) n = 2 (e) x = 0 1 (g) y = (h) x = 2 (i) x = 2 (j) a = 0 3 (b) x = (f) n = 1 3 3 4 2 3 1 3 2 3 (c) k =  4 (g) x =  4 1 2 (d) n = 3 (h) x =  1 7 11 (c) x = 1 3 1 2 (d) k = (h) n = 1 2 2 3
(b) n = 4, 2 (e) x = 3, 6
(e) k = (i) k = 
2 3 1 6
(g) x = 1
1 1y 12 2
(h) x $ 9, x #  6
(j) x = 1
4 , 2 5 1 3
3 4
(c) x = 2 (g) x = 4 5
3 8
(d) k = 1
1 2 1 6
(b) y = 3, 2
(c) a =  10, 1
1 2
(h) b =  3
(d) x = 4, 7 5.
(e) d = 4, 5 2 (b)  1 1 t 1 3 5
0 1 2 3 4 5
(i) x =  1
(j) m = 5
2 (a) t = 3, 1 5
3 2 1
Puzzle
1. 4. All months have 28 days. Some months have more days as well. 2. 10 3. Bottle $1.05; cork 5 cents 16 each time 5. Friday
Exercises 3.6
1. (a) x = 3 (e) p = 10 (i) n = ! 4 2. (b) y = ! 8 (f) x = ! 5 (j) q =  2 (c) n = ! 2 (g) y = ! 3 (d) x = ! 2 5 (h) w = 2
Exercises 3.7
1. 5. y = 0, 1 x = 2, 7 2. b = 2, 1 6. q = !3 3. p = 3, 5 7. x = !1 4. t = 0, 5 8. a = 0, 3
ANSWERS
765
9.
x = 0,  4 1 2
10. x = ! 13. b =
1 2
11. x = 1, 1
1 3 2 3
1 6
11.  4
5 # x 1 4 9
3 1 , 4 2
1 7 1x 11 3 15
1 1 13. a 1  3 , a 2  2 4 2
17. x = 0, 5 21. m =  6, 1
19. n = 3, 5
5 1 1x 1 9 2
15. y 1  2, y 2  1 17. 4 1 1 p 1 26 2
23. y = 1, 5, 2
24. x = 5, 7
7 16. x #  , x 2 4 8 18. x #  1, x 2 
Exercises 3.8
1. (a) x = ! 5  2 (d) x = ! 13  1 (b) a = ! 7 + 3 (c) y = ! 23 + 4 (e) p = ! 44  7 = ! 2 11  7
1 2 2 19. t # , t 2 2 5 5 3
20. 
(f) x = ! 28 + 5 = ! 2 7 + 5 (g) y = ! 88  10 = ! 2 22  10 = 2 ^ ! 22  5 h (h) x = ! 2 + 1 (j) y = 2. ! 5+3 2 (b) x =  4.59, 7.41 (d) x = 4.45,  0.449 (f) x = 17.7, 6.34 (h) x =  0.683, 7.32 (j) y = 40.1,  0.0749 (i) n = ! 137  12
22. 0 1 n # 2, n $ 4
24. m #  2,  1 1 m # 6 26. x #  2, 1 2 #x 1 2 3
27. x $ 3,  1 # x 1 2 29. x 1  4, 2 4 1x 17 3
(a) x = 3.45, 1.45 (e) b =  4.26, 11.7 (g) r = 22.3,  0.314 (i) a = 0.162,  6.16
Exercises 3.11
1. 3 1 x 1 0 c 1  1, c 2 2 2. 0 1 y 1 4 3. n # 0, n $ 1 6.  5 # n # 3 9. 4 1 x 1 5 1 3 4. 7. x #  2, x $ 2 5. n 1  1, n 2 1 8.  4 # x #  2 1 2
Exercises 3.9
1. (a) y =  0.354,  5.65 (c) b = 3.54,  2.54 (g) m =  2,  5 (e) x =  0.553, 0.678 (j) y = 2.62, 0.382 2. (a) x = (c) q =  1 ! 17 2 (b) x = 5 ! 13 6 (b) x = 1, 1.5 (f) n = 0.243, 8.24 (i) x = 1,  6 (d) x = 1,  0.5
(h) x = 0, 7
10. b #  2, b $ 
1 1 #x #2 3 18.  1 # a # 1 21. 0 1 x 1 2
4 ! 28 = 2! 7 2
2 1 24. m 1  1 , m 2 1 3 2 26. 0 1 x 1 1 2
25. 1 # x # 1 1 2 1 2
1 3
27. x 1 0, x $ 4 5
2 ! 32 =1!2 2 2 7 ! 41 4
28. y 1  1, y 2 
29. 3 1 n # 3 31. x 1
30. x #  8, x 2  5 1 32. x # 4 , x 2 5 5
3 2 ,x 2 5 7
Exercises 3.10
1. 4. 7. y 2 1, y 1 0 01m # 2 7 1 4 2. 0 1 x 1 1 2 3. x 1 0, x 2 1 1 2
1 33. x #  1 , x 2  1 4 35. 3 3 #x 14 5
34. x 1  3, x 2 2
3 5. x 1  , x > 0 5 8.  3
6.  2 # b 1 0 9. 2 1 x # 2 3 4
11x 11
1 1 z 1 3 5
766
Exercises 3.12
1. 4. 7. a = 1, b = 3 x = 6, y = 17 x =  3, y = 2 2. x = 2, y = 1 3. p = 2, q =  1 6. t = 3, v = 1 9. x = 3, y =  4 12. a = 0, b = 4 5. x =  10, y = 2 11. w 1 =  1, w 2 = 5 14. x 1 = 1, x 2 =  1 18. k =  4, h = 1 20. x = 2, y Z 1.41
3. 4. 5. 6. 7. 9.
(b) k 2 + 4k + 4 = ] k + 2 g2
8. x =  64, y =  39
(a) b = 2, 1 (a) A = 36 1 1 y # 3
(b) g = 2,
(b) b = 12
8. x =
Problem
23 adults and 16 children.
(c) n = 0.869, 1.54 11. (a) V = 764.5 13. x 1 2, x 2 9 (b) r = 2.9 12. x 2 71 1 4
Exercises 3.13
1. 2. 3. 4. 6. 8. 9. x = 0, y = 0 and x = 1, y = 1 x = 0, y = 0 and x =  2, y = 4 x = 0, y = 3 and x = 3, y = 0 x = 4, y =  3 and x = 3, y =  4 x = 3, y = 9 m =  4, n = 0 and m = 0, n =  4 x = 1, y = 2 and x =  1, y =  2 5. x =  1, y =  3 7. t =  2, x = 4 and t = 1, x = 1
(b) r = 3.9
20. x =  2 (d) x = 2
10. x = 0, y = 0 and x = 1, y = 1 11. x = 2, y = 1 and x =  1, y =  2 13. x = 1, y = 5 and x = 4, y = 11 1 14. x = , y = 4 and x =  1, y =  1 4 16. x = 2, y = 0 17. x = 0, y = 0 and x =  2, y =  8 and x = 3, y = 27 18. x = 0, y = 0 and x = 1, y = 1 and x =  1, y = 1 19. x = 3 1 ,y =2 4 2 20. x = 5 12 ,y =13 13 12. x = 0, y = 1
(h) x =  3 (k) x = 5 6
(i) y 2 2, y 1  2 (l) 1 #b #2 2
1 3 (n) t = 2 , 3 5
(o)  1 1 x 1 3 (r) 1 1 y 1 3
(p) m #  3, m $ 2 (s) 2 1 n # 2 2 5
(q) t 1  1, t 2 0 1 1 1x # 5 2
(t) 
] x + 3 g ] x  3 g ] x  2 g ^ x 2 + 2x + 4 h; x = ! 3, 2
Test yourself 3
1. (a) b = 10 (b) a =  116 (c) x =  7 1 (d) x #  4 , x 2  3 (e) p # 4 3 (a) A = 1262.48 (b) P = 8558.59
14. No solutions 1 2 #y 1 2 3
15. x = ! b + a 2 + a
17. P = 2247.36
2.
2 ^ 4 ! 10 h 3 3 5
20. y 1 1, y 2
ANSWERS
767
Chapter 4: Geometry 1
Exercises 4.1
1. (a) y = 47c (b) x = 39c (c) m = 145c (d) y = 60c (e) b = 101c (f) x = 36c (g) a = 60c (h) x = 45c (i) y = 40c (j) x = 80c 2. (a) 121c (b) 72c 29l (c) 134c 48l 3. (a) 42c (b) 55c 37l (c) 73c 3l (a) (i) 47c (ii) 137c (b) (i) 9c (ii) 99c (c) (i) 63c (ii) 153c (d) (i) 35c (ii) 125c (e) (i) 52c (ii)142c (f) (i) 15c7l (ii) 105c7l (g) (i) 47c36l (ii) 137c36l l (ii)162c21 l (i) (i) 26c11 l (ii) 116c11 l (h) (i) 72c21 l (ii) 128c51 l 5. (a) x = 49c (b) 41c (j) (i) 38c51 (c) 131c 6. (a) y = 15c, x = z = 165c (b) x = 142c, y = 48c, z = 28c (c) a = 43c, b = 137c, c = 101c (d) a = 97c, b = d = 41c , c = 42c (e) a = 68c , b = 152c , c = 28c (f) a = 10c, b = 150c 8x  10 + 2x  10 + x + 10 + 7x + 10 = 360 18x = 360 x = 20 +ABE = 8x  10 = 8 (20)  10 = 150c +EBC = 2x  10 = 2 (20)  10 = 30c +ABE + +EBC = 150c + 30c = 180c ` +ABC is a straight angle +DBC = 7x + 10 = 7 (20) + 10 = 150c +DBC + +EBC = 150c + 30c = 180c ` +DBE is a straight angle ` AC and DE are straight lines 8. +DFB = 180c  (180  x) c =x ` +AFC = x
(+AFB is a straight angle) (angle of revolution)
Exercises 4.2
1. (a) a = b = e = f = 148c , c = d = g = 32c (b) x = z = 70c , y = 110c (c) x = 55c , y = 36c , z = 89c (d) y = 125c , x = z = 55c (e) n = e = g = a = c = z = x = 98c, o = m = h = f = b = d = y = w = 82c (f) a = 95c , b = 85c , c = 32c (g) a = 27c , b = 72c , c = 81c (h) x = 56c , y = 124c , z = a = 116c , b = 64c (i) x = 61c 2. (a) (j) y = 37c
(FGH is a straight angle)
4.
7.
These are equal alternate angles. ` AB < CD (b) +BAC = 360c  292c = 68c
(angle of revolution)
` +BAC + +DCA = 68c + 112c = 180c These are supplementary cointerior angles. ` AB < CD (c) +BCD = 180  76 (+BCE is a straight angle) = 104c +ABC = +BCD = 104c These are equal alternate angles. ` AB ; CD (d) +CEF = 180  128 (+CED is a straight angle) = 52c +CEF = +ABE = 52c These are equal corresponding angles. `AB ; CD (e) +CFH = 180  ] 23 + 115 g (+EFG is a straight angle) = 42c ` +BFD = 42c (vertically opposite angles) +ABF + +BFD = 138c + 42c = 180c These are supplementary cointerior angles. ` AB ; CD
+CFE = 180c  (x + 180c  2x) =x ` +AFC = +CFE ` CD bisects +AFE 9. +ABD + +DBC = 110  3x + 3x + 70 = 180c So +ABC is a straight angle. AC is a straight line.
(+AFB is a straight angle)
768
Exercises 4.3
1. (a) x = 60c (e) x = 30c (b) y = 36c (f) x = 20c (c) m = 71c (g) x = 67c (d) x = 37c (h) a = 73c
10. +OQP = 180  ] 75 + 73 g (angle sum of triangle) = 32c ` +MNO = +OQP = 32c These are equal alternate angles. ` MN ; QP
(i) a = 75c , b = 27c , c = 46c (j) a = 36c , b = 126c , c = 23c (k) x = 67c , y = z = 59c , w = 121c 2. All angles are equal. Let them be x. (angle sum of D) Then x + x + x = 180 3x = 180 x = 60 So all angles in an equilateral triangle are 60c. 3. 4.
] 90  x g c
(vertically opposite angles) +ACB = 50c +ABC = 180c  (50c + 45c) (angle sum of D) = 85c ` +DEC = +ABC = 85c These are equal alternate angles.
Exercises 4.4
1. (a) Yes AB = EF = 5cm BC = DF = 6 cm AC = DE = 8 cm ` D ABC / DDEF (b)Yes XY = BC = 4.7 m YZ = AC = 2.3 m ` D XYZ / DABC
(given) (given) (given) (given) (SSS)
` AB < DE 5. +ACB = 180c  124c = 56c +CBA + 68c = 124c +CBA = 124c  68c = 56c ` +CBA = +ACB = 56c ` D ABC is isosceles y = 38c (a) x = 64c (b) x = 64c , y = 57c (c) x = 63c 2.
(angle sum of D HJI) (HJL is a straight angle) (angle sum of D IKL) (angle sum of D JIL) (DCB is a straight angle) (exterior angle of D)
(c) No (d) Yes +PQR = +SUT = 49c +PRQ = +STU = 52c QR = TU = 8 cm `DPQR / DSTU (e) No
(given) (a) AB = KL = 4 (given) +B = +L = 38c (given) BC = JL = 5 ` by SAS, D ABC / D JKL (given) (b) +Z = +B = 90c (given) XY = AC = 7 (given) YZ = BC = 2 ` by RHS, D XYZ / D ABC (given) (c) MN = QR = 8 (given) NO = PR = 8 (given) MO = PQ = 5 ` by SSS, D MNO / D PQR (given) (d) +Y = +T = 90c (given) +Z = +S = 35c (given) XY = TR = 1.3 ` by AAS, D XYZ / D STR (given) (e) BC = DE = 4 (given) +C = +E = 90c (given) AC = EF = 7 ` by SAS, D ABC / D DEF (given) (given) (given) (AAS)
6. 7.
(d) a = 29c , b = 70c 8. +HJI = 180c  (35c + 25c) = 120c +IJL = 180c  120c = 60c +JIL = 180c  (90c + 30c) = 60c +ILJ = 180  (60c + 60c) = 60c
Since +IJL = +JIL = +ILJ = 60c, D IJL is equilateral +KJL = 180c  60c = 120c +JLK = 180c  (30c + 120c) = 30c ` +JLK = +JKL = 30 ` D JKL is isosceles 9. BC = BD ` +BDC = 46c (base angles of isosceles triangle) +CBD = 180  2 # 46 = 88c ` +CBD = +BDE = 88c These are equal alternate angles. ` AB ; ED
(KJI is a straight angle) (angle sum of D JKL)
3.
(a)
+B = +C (base angles of isosceles D) +BDA = +CDA = 90c (given) AD is common ` by AAS, D ABD / D ACD
ANSWERS
769
(alternate angles, AD < BC) +ADB = +DBC BD is common ` by AAS, D ABD / D CDB ` AD = BC (corresponding sides in congruent Ds)
5.
(a)
OA = OC OB = OD
(equal radii) (similarly) (vertically opposite angles) (SAS) (corresponding sides in congruent triangles)
Exercises 4.5
1. (a) x = 15.1 (b) x = 4.4 (c) m = 6.6 (e) b = 4.5 (g) p = 9.7 (d) a = 76c , i = 23c , b = 81c (f) a = 115c , x = 19c , y = 3.2 2. 3. a = 1.81, b = 5.83 +BAC = +EDC +ABC = +DEC +ACB = +ECD
(alternate angles, AB < ED) (similarly) (vertically opposite angles)
6.
(given) (given)
7.
(a) OA = OC OB is common
(equal radii)
But +OCB + +OBC = 90c So +OCB = +OBC = 45c Similarly +OBA = 45c
5.
` +OBA + +OBC = 45c + 45c = 90c So +ABC is right angled 8. (a) +AEF = +BDC = 90c AF = BC FE = CD `DAFE / DBCD (b) +AFE = +BCD 9. (a) OA = OC OB is common AB = BC `DOAB / DOBC (b) +OBA = +OBC
(given) (SSS) (corresponding angles in congruent triangles) (given) (given) (given) (RHS) (corresponding angles in congruent triangles) (equal radii)
1.3 AB = = 0.714 DE 1.82 4.2 AC = = 0.714 DF 5.88 4.9 BC = = 0.714 EF 6.86 AC BC AB = = ` DE DF EF Since three pairs of sides are in proportion, D ABC  D DEF y = 41c
6.
Since two pairs of sides are in proportion and their included angles are equal, 3 OAB  3 OCD (b) AB = 5.21 cm 7. (a) +A is common +ABC = +ADE +ACB = +AED
(corresponding angles, BC < DE) (similarly)
770
` since 3 pairs of angles are equal, D ABC  D ADE (b) x = 2.17, y = 2.25 8. +ABF = +BEC +CBE = +BFA ` +C = +A
(alternate angles, AB z CD) (similarly, BC z AD) (angle sum of Ds)
6.
` since 3 pairs of angles are equal, D ABF  DCEB 9. +A is common 1.2 AD = = 0.4 AB 3 0.8 AE = = 0.4 AC 2 AD AE ` = AB AC Since two pairs of sides are in proportion and their included angles are equal, D AED  D ABC, m = 4.25 = = = = 2 = 0.769 2.6 3 = 0.769 3.9 3.9 = 0.769 5.07 BC AC = AD AC 9. 7.
AC 2 = AB 2 + BC 2 2 2 2 = ^ 3 h + BC 2 4 1 `1 AC = 3 + BC 2 = BC 2 = BC =2 =2#1 = 2BC
8.
AB 10. CD BC AC AC AD AB ` CD
(a) AC = 5 (b) AC 2 = 25, CD 2 = 144, AD 2 = 169 AC 2 + CD 2 = 25 + 144 = 169 = AD 2 ` D ACD has a right angle at +ACD ` AC is perpendicular to DC AB = 3b 10. x2 + y2 x
Since three pairs of sides are in proportion, D ABC  D ACD, x = 109c, y = 47c 11. (a) x = 7.8 (b) m = 4.0, p = 7.2 (c) x = 6.5
11. d 2 = ] 20  3t g 2 + ] 15  2t g 2 = 400  120t + 9t 2 + 225  60t + 4t 2 = 13t 2  180t + 625 12. 1471 mm 16. 4.3 m
2
13. 683 m
14. 12.6 m
15. 134.6 cm
17. 42.7 cm
18. 1.3 + 1.1 2 = 2.9 and 1.5 2 = 2.25 1.3 2 + 1.1 2 ! 1.5 2 so the triangle is not right angled ` the property is not a rectangle 19. No. The diagonal of the boot is the longest available space and it is only 1.4 m. 20. (a) BC 2 = 6 2  4 2 = 20 BC = 20 AO = 6 cm (equal radii) So AC 2 = 6 2  4 2 = 20 AC = 20 Since BC = AC, OC bisects AB (b) +OCA = +OCB = 90c (given) OA = OB (equal radii) OC is common ` DOAC / DOBC (RHS) So AC = BC (corresponding sides in congruent triangles) ` OC bisects AB
14. y = 0.98
Exercises 4.6
1. 2. 3. 5. (a) x = 6.4 (a) p = 61 (b) y = 6.6 (b) t = 58 (c) b = 5.7 (c) x = (d) m = 6.6 65 (d) y = 33
s = 6.2 m
4. CE = 15.3 cm
Exercises 4.7
1. (a) x = 94c (b) y = 104c (c) x = 111c (d) x = 60c (e) y = 72c (f) x = 102, y = 51 (g) x = 43, y = 47
ANSWERS
771
2.
D ABE is isosceles. ` +B = +E = 76c (base +s equal) +CBE = +DEB = 180c  76c = 104c (straight +s) +D + 62c + 104c + 104c = 360c (angle sum of quadrilateral) +D + 270c = 360c +D = 90c ` CD is perpendicular to AD`
9.
6.4 cm
11. 4 2 cm
Exercises 4.8
1. (a) 540c (b) 720c (c) 1080c (d) 1440c (e) 1800c (f) 2880c 2. (a) 108c (b) 135c (c) 150c (d) 162c (e) 156c 3. (a) 60c (b) 36c (c) 45c (d) 24c 128c34l 5. (a) 13 2340c 9. 168c23l (b) 152c18l 6. 16 7. 3240c
3.
(a)
4. 8.
= 180c  180c + x =x `+A = +C = x +B = 180c  x (+B and +C cointerior angles, AB < DC) `+B = +D = 180c  x (b) Angle sum = x + x + 180c  x + 180c  x = 360c 4. 5. a = 150c , b = 74c (a) a = 5 m, b = 3 m, x = z = 108c, y = 72c (b) x = 53c, y = 56c, z = 71c (c) x = y = 5 cm, a = b = 68c (d) a = 121c, b = 52c, i = 77c (e) x = 60c (f) x = 3, y = 7 +ADB = +CDB +CDB = +ABD +ADB = +DBC ` +ABD = +DBC ` BD bisects +ABC (a) AD = BC = 3.8 cm AB = DC = 5.3 cm
(BD bisects +ADC) (alternate angles, AB < DC) (alternate angles, AD < BC)
10. Sum = 145n = (n  2) # 180c 145n = 180n  360 = 35n 10.3 = n But n must be a positive integer. ` no polygon has interior angles of 145c. 11. (a) 9 (b) 12 (c) 8 (d) 10 (e) 30
12. (a) ABCDEF is a regular hexagon. AF = BC (equal sides) FE = CD (equal sides) +AFE = +BCD (equal interior angles) ` D AFE / D BCD (SAS) S = ] n  2 g # 180c = (6  2) # 180c = 720c 720c +AFE = 6 = 120c Since AF = FE, triangle AFE is isosceles. So +FEA = +FAE (base angles in isosceles triangle) 180  120c ` +FEA = (angle sum of triangle) 2 = 30c +AED = 120  30c = 90c Similarly, +BDE = 90c (b) So +AED + +BDE = 180c These are supplementary cointerior angles `AE < BD 13. A regular octagon has equal sides and angles. AH = AB (equal sides) GH = BC (equal sides) +AHG = +ABC (equal interior angles) ` D AHG / D ABC (SAS) So AG = AC
(corresponding sides in congruent triangles)
6.
7.
(given) (given)
Since two pairs of opposite sides are equal, ABCD is a parallelogram. (b) AB = DC = 7cm (given) AB < DC (given) Since one pair of opposite sides is both equal and parallel, ABCD is a parallelogram. (c) +X + +M = 54c + 126c = 180c These are supplementary cointerior angles. ` XY < MN Also, XM < YN ` XMNY is a parallelogram (d) AE = EC = 5 cm DE = EB = 6 cm
(given) (given) (given)
Since the diagonals bisect each other, ABCD is a parallelogram. 8. (a) x = 5 cm, i = 66c (b) a = 90c, b = 25c, c = 65c (c) x = 3 cm, y = 5 cm (d) x = 58c, y = 39c (e) x = 12 cm
772
180  135c (angle sum of triangle) 2 = 22c30l +GAC = 135  2 # 22c30l = 90c We can similarly prove all interior angles are 90c and adjacent sides equal. So ACEG is a square. `+HAG = 14. +EDC =
] 5  2 g # 180c 5 = 108c
2.
+AGF = i
So +AGF = +CFE = i These are equal corresponding +s. ` AB < CD 3. 4. 118.28 cm2
(common) (a) +DAE = +BAC (corresponding angles, DE < BC) +ADE = +ABC (similarly) +AED = +ACB ` D ABC and D ADE are similar (AAA)
ED = CD (equal sides in regular pentagon) So EDC is an isosceles triangle. `+DEC = +ECD (base angles in isosceles triangle) 180  108c +DEC = (angle sum of triangle) 2 = 36c +AEC = 108  36c = 72c Similarly, using triangle ABC, we can prove that +EAC = 72c So EAC is an isosceles triangle. (Alternatively you could prove EDC and ABC congruent triangles and then AC = EC are corresponding sides in congruent triangles.) 15. (a) 360 p (b) Each interior angle: 360 180 p 180p 360 = p p 180p  360 = p 180 ^ p  2 h = p
(a) AB = AD BC = DC
AC is common ` ABC and ADC are congruent (SSS) (b) AO = CO BO = DO +AOB = +COD
(equal radii) (similarly) (vertically opposite angles)
11.
AF AD = AE AG AD AB = AE AC AF AB ` = AG AC
Exercises 4.9
1. (a) 26.35 m 2 (b) 21.855 cm 2 (c) 18.75 mm 2 (d) 45 m 2 (e) 57 cm 2 (f) 81 m 2 (g) 28.27 cm 2 2. 4.83 m 2 (a) 42.88 cm 2 (b) 29.5 m 2 (c) 32.5 cm 2 (d) 14.32 m 2 (e) 100.53 cm 2 4. (a) 25 m 2 (b) 101.85 cm 2 (c) 29.4 m 2 (d) 10.39 cm 2 (e) 45 cm 2 7 51 + 98 = 7 ^ 51 + 14 h cm 2 $621.08 8. (a) 161.665 m 2 6. 22.97 cm 2 (c) 10.5 m
12. (a) AB = AC +B = +C BD = DC
` D ABD / D ACD ] SAS g (b) +ADB = +ADC (corresponding +s in congruent Ds) (straight +) But + ADB + +ADC = 180c So +ADB = +ADC = 90c So AD and BC are perpendicular. 13. +ACB = 68c +CAD = 68c  34c = 34c ` +CAD = +ADC = 34c So ACD is isosceles 14.
(base +s of isosceles D) (exterior + of D)
3.
5. 7. 9.
(b) 89 m 2
^ base +s equal h
Test yourself 4
1. (a) x = 43c, y = 137c, z = 147c (b) x = 36c (c) a = 79c, b = 101c, c = 48c (d) x = 120c (e) r = 7.2 cm (f) x = 5.6 cm, y = 8.5 cm (g) i = 45c
ANSWERS
773
7.
` D ABC / D ADC (AAS) (corresponding sides in congruent Ds) ` AB = DC Similarly, AD = BC ` opposite sides are equal 15. (a) 24 cm2 (b) 5 cm 16. 9 Let ABCD be a square with diagonals AC and BD and +D = 90c (adjacent sides of square) AD = DC ` D ADC is isosceles (base angles of isosceles D) `+DAC = +DCA (angle sum of D) +DAC + +DCA = 90 ` +DAC = +DCA = 45 Similarly, +BAC = +BCA = 45
(other angles can be proved similarly)
17. +BFG + +FGD = 109c  3x + 3x + 71c = 180c These are supplementary cointerior +s. ` AB < CD 18. 57 cm2 19. +ACB = 180c  ] +A + +B g = 180c  x  y +ACD = 180c  +ACB z = 180c  (180c  x  y) = 180c  180c + x + y =x+y 20. (a) +A AC EF AB DE AC ` EF = +E 2.97 = = 1.1 2.7 3.96 = = 1.1 3.6 AB = DE (+sum of D) (straight +) 8.
^ given h
So ABC and DEF are similar (two sides in proportion, included +s equal). (b) x = 4.3 cm
Let ABCD be a kite (given) AD = AB (given) DC = BC AC is common ` by SSS, D ADC / D ABC ` +DAC = +BAC
Challenge exercise 4
1. 4. 94c 2. x = 75c , y = 46c , z = 29c 3. 1620c , 32c 44l
` since 3 pairs of angles are equal, D ABD < ; D BCD d = 6.74 cm 5. AB = DC (given) +A + +D = 131c + 49c = 180c +A and +D are supplementary cointerior angles ` AB < DC Since one pair of opposite sides are both parallel and equal, ABCD is a parallelogram. 6. 27.36 m 2 9.
` by SAS, D ADE / D ABE ` +DEA = +BEA (corresponding angles in congruent Ds) But +DEA + +BEA = 180c (DEB is a straight angle) ` +DEA = +BEA = 90c ` the diagonals are perpendicular
(exterior angle of D MNZ) +MNY + 84c = (15c + 112c) ` +MNY = 43c (exterior angle of D XYZ) +XYZ + 69c = 112c ` +XYZ = 43c ` +MNY = +XYZ = 43c These are equal corresponding angles. ` MN < XY
10. x = 2.12 m
11. (a) 6 m 2
774
14. (a)
(adjacent sides in square) AB = BC +ABE = +CBE = 45 (diagonals in square make 45c with sides)
34. x = 22c, y = 29c, w = z = 90c 35. 56.7 cm 2 36. a  21 b 10 = 39.  x  7 b 10 a 21 37. x 2 6, x 1 2 1 4 2 5 38. 1 8 42. 1 6
EB is common. ` by SAS, D ABE / DCBE ` AE = CE (corresponding sides in congruent Ds) Since AB = BC and AE = CE, ABCE is a kite.
40. x =
41. x # 3, x $ 3
44. ] x + 3 g1 45. x 3 + 6x 2 + 12x + 8 46. (b) BD = = = DE = x2 + x2 2x 2 2x 48. x = 98c, y = 41c 51. (a) 12x  8y (e) 49. 0 1 x 1 5 50.
54 2 17
47. x = 53c 1
3x + 2 (d) 3 2 + 1
1 BD 2 2x = units 2
(b) 2 31
(c)
x3 x 2  3x + 9
y7  ]x + 5g 11 3 (f) (g) x  14 y 7 z 11 = 14 11 ]x + 1g]x  1g 6 x z 3 1 (h) (i) 8 5 (j) 13 2 5a ] a + b g ] 1 + 2b g (b) x 3 52. x = 2.7, y = 3.1 55. 17.3 cm 56. Let +DEA = x (base +s of isosceles D) Then +EAD = x +CDA = x + x (exterior + of DEAD) = 2x ` +ABC = 2x (opposite +s of < gram are equal) ` +ABC = 2+DEA 57. 2 5 58. 5% 59. 2.2 # 10 8 kmh 1 60. k = 20 53. x = 25 54. r = 2
3
1. 4. 7. 9.
p =9 6y  10 x= 2 7
2. 2 ^ 5 + y h ^ x  y h 25 + 5 2 5. 23 8. 2 x3
3. (a) x  1
6. x 3 + 2x 2  16x + 3
cm
(given) +ABC = +EDC = 90 (vertically opposite angles) +ACB = +ECD (given) AB = ED ` by AAS D ABC / DEDC (corresponding sides in congruent triangles) ` AC = EC ` D ACE is isosceles
10. 231.3
11.  3
12. 135c
61. 9xy y
14. 3 10  4
20.
7 15
21. x =
4 ! 12 =2! 3 2
22.
1 49
66.
24. x = 2, y = 1
6 15 + 2 6 43
BC < AD (ABCD is a < gram) BC < FE (BCEF is a < gram) ` AD < FE Also BC = AD ^ opposite sides of < gram h BC = FE ^ similarly h ` AD = FE Since AD and FE are both parallel and equal, AFED is a parallelogram. 68. (a) 34 cm (b) 30 cm2
67. b = 11.95 m
32. 2 10 + 3 5  2 2 + 3
ANSWERS
775
69.
18 3 + 31 2  25 5 75
70. 20 71. 32 m
(g) xintercepts 3, 5, yintercept 15 (h) xintercept  3 5 , yintercept 5 (i) xintercept 3, no yintercept (j) xintercept !3, yintercept 9 2. f ] x g = ] x g 2 2 = x2  2 = f (x) ` even function (a) f ^ x 2 h = x 6 + 1 (b) 7 f ] x g A 2 = x 6 + 2x 3 + 1 (d) Neither odd nor even
72. BD bisects AC So AD = DC +BDC = +BDA = 90c (given) BD is common ` DBAD / DBCD (SAS) ` AB = CB (corresponding sides in congruent
triangles)
So triangle ABC is isosceles 73. x2 + y2 2 74. (b) 75. (c) 76. (a) 77. (b) 78. (b)
3.
(c) f ]  x g =  x 3 + 1 4.
8
79. (d)
80. (d)
g ]  x g = ]  x g + 3 ]  x g4  2 ]  x g 2 = x 8 + 3x 4  2 x 2 = g (x) ` even function f ]  x g =  x = f ] x g ` odd function f ]  x g = ]  x g2  1 = x2  1 = f (x) ` even function f ] x g = 4 ] x g  ] x g 3 =  4x + x 3 =  ^ 4x  x 3 h =  f ]xg ` odd function f ] x g = ] x g 4 + ] x g 2 = x4 + x2 = f ]xg ` even function f ]xg  f ] xg = 0 (a) Odd (b) Neither (c) Even (d) Neither (e) Neither (b) Odd values i.e. n = 1, 3, 5, f
5. 6.
Exercises 5.1
1. 8. Yes Yes 2. No 9. Yes 3. No 10. No 4. Yes 5. Yes 6. Yes 7. No
11. Yes
12. No
13. Yes 7.
Exercises 5.2
1. 3. 5. f ] 1 g = 4, f ] 3 g = 0 2. h ] 0 g = 2, h ] 2 g = 2, h ] 4 g = 14 4. 14 8.
9. z = 1, 4
(b) Yes, when n is odd (1, 3, 5, ) (iii) Even (iii) Neither (iii) Neither (iii) Odd
(ii) x 1 0 (ii) x 2 2
20. (a) 3 (b) x  3 = 3  3 = 0 Denominator cannot be 0 so the function doesnt exist for x = 3. (c) 4 21. f ] x + h g  f ] x g = 2xh + h 2  5h 23. 5] x  c g 24. 3k 2 + 5 22. 4x + 2h + 1 (c) n 4 + n 2 + 2
Exercises 5.4
1. (a) xintercept 2, yintercept 2 1 (b) xintercept 1 , yintercept 3 2 1 (c) xintercept , yintercept 1 2 (d) xintercept 3, yintercept 3 2 1 (e) xintercept , yintercept 3 3
Exercises 5.3
1. 2 , yintercept 2 3 (b) xintercept 10, yintercept 4 (c) xintercept 12, yintercept 4 (d) xintercepts 0, 3, yintercept 0 (e) xintercepts !2, yintercept 4 (f) xintercepts 2, 3, yintercept 6 (a) xintercept
776
2.
(e) 5 4 3 2 1 4 3 2 1 1 2 3 4 5 (f)
1 21
2 3 4
y 5 4 3 2 1 4 3 2 1 1 2 3 4 5 1 2 3 4 x
(g) 5 4 3 2 2  1
3
4 3 2 1 1 2 3 4 5 (h) 5 4 3 2 1 4 3 2 1 1 2 3 4 5 y
1 2 3 4
1 2 3 4
ANSWERS
777
(i)
5 4 3 2 1
Exercises 5.5
1. (a) xintercepts 0, 2, yintercept 0 (b) xintercepts 0, 3, yintercept 0 (c) xintercepts !1, yintercept 1 (d) xintercepts 1, 2, yintercept 2 (e) xintercepts 1, 8, yintercept 8 (a) 6 5 4 3 2 1 4 3 2 1 1 2 3 4 5 x (b) 6 5 4 3 2 1 4 3 2 1 1 2 3 4 5 (c) 6 5 4 3 2 1 4 3 2 1 1 2 3 4 5 1 2 3 4 5 x y 1 2 3 4 5 x y 1 2 3 4 5 x y
4 3 2 1 1 2 3 4 5
(j) 5 4 3 2 1 4 3 2 1 1 2 3 4 5 3. y
2.
111 2
2 3
(a) " all real x ,, " all real y , (b) " all real x ,, " y: y = 2 , (c) ! x: x = 4 +, " all real y , (d) ! x: x = 2 +, " all real y , (e) ! all real x +, " y: y = 3 , (a) Neither (b) Even y 5 4 3 2 1 4 3 2 1 1 2 3 4 5 111 2 2 3 4 x (c) Neither (d) Odd (e) Odd
4. 5.
(3, 1)
778
(h)
y
5 4 3 2 1
1 2 3 4
4 3 2 1 1 2 3 4 5 6
(i) 5 4 3 2 1 y
1 2 3 4
1 2 3 4
4 3 2 1 1 2 3 4 5 6
111 2 3 4 2
(j) 5 4 3 2 1 x 4 3 2 1 1 2 3 4 5 6
1 2 3 4
1 2
3 4
3.
5 4 3 2 1
4 3 2 1 1 2 3 4 5 6
(a) (i) xintercepts 3, 4, yintercept 12 (ii) {all real x}, 1 ( y: y $  2 4 (b) (i) xintercepts 0, 4, yintercept 0 (ii) {all real x}, " y: y $ 4 , (c) (i) xintercepts 2, 4, yintercept 8 " y: y $  9 , (ii) {all real x},
1 2 3 4
(d) (i) xintercept 3, yintercept 9 (ii) {all real x}, " y: y $ 0 , (e) (i) xintercepts ! 2, yintercept 4 " y: y # 4 , 4. (a) {all real x}, " y: y $ 5 , (ii) {all real x},
ANSWERS
779
1 (c) {all real x}, ( y: y $ 2 2 4 (e) {all real x}, " y: y $ 0 , 5. (a) 0 # y # 9 (b) 0 # y # 4
(c) 5 4 3 2 1 4 3 2 1 1 2 3 4 5 (d)
5 4 3 2 1
(d) 4 # y # 21 6.
(c) (i) x 2 0 (ii) x 1 0 (d) (i) x 1 2 (ii) x 2 2 (e) (i) x 2 5 (ii) x 1 5 7. f ] x g =  ] x g 2 = x2 = f (x) ` even (a) Even (b) Even (c) Even (d) Neither (e) Neither (f) Even (g) Neither (h) Neither (i) Neither (j) Neither
8.
Exercises 5.6
1. (a) xintercept 0, yintercept 0 (b) No xintercepts, yintercept 7 (c) xintercepts ! 2, yintercept 2 (d) xintercept 0, yintercept 0 (e) xintercepts ! 3, yintercept 3 (f) xintercept 6, yintercept 6 2 (g) xintercept , yintercept 2 3 4 (h) xintercept  , yintercept 4 5 1 (i) xintercept , yintercept 1 7 (j) No xintercepts, yintercept 9 (a) 5 4 3 2 1 4 3 2 1 1 2 3 4 5 (b) 5 4 3 2 1 4 3 2 1 1 2 3 4 5 1 2 3 4 5 x y (f) 1 2 3 4 5 x y
4 3 2 1 1 2 3 4 5
(e) 5 4 3 2 1 4 3 2 1 1 2 3 4 5
2.
y 5 4 3 2 1 4 3 2 1 1 2 3 4 5 1 2 3 4 5 x
780
(g)
5 4 3 2 1
3.
(a) {all real x}, " y: y $ 0 , (b) {all real x}, " y: y $ 8 , (c) {all real x}, " y: y $ 0 , (d) {all real x}, " y: y $ 3 , (e) {all real x}, " y: y # 0 , (a) (i) x 2 2 (ii) x 1 2 (b) (i) x 2 0 (ii) x 1 0 1 1 (d) (i) x 2 0 (ii) x 1 0 (c) (i) x 2 1 (ii) x 1 1 2 2 (e) (i) x 1 0 (ii) x 2 0 (a) 0 # y # 2 (d) 0 # y # 11 (b)  8 # y # 4 (e) 1 # y # 0 (c) x 2 9 (d) x 2 2 (c) 0 # y # 6
4.
1 2 3 4 5
4 3 2 1 1 2 3 4 5
5.
6.
y
(h)
5 4 3 2 1
(b) x 1 0
7.
(b) x 2 1, x 1 1
(c) 2 # x # 2
(d) x = 1, 3 (e) x = 3 (f) x = 1, 2 (g) 3 1 x 1 5 (j) x # 2, x $ 4 1 (k)  4 # x # 1 (l) x # 0, x $ 1 (m) x = 2, 2 (n) No solutions (o) x = 0 (p) x = 1 (q) x = 0, 2 1 (t) x = 0, 6 (r) No solutions (s) x = 3 (h)  4 # x # 2 (i) x 2 4, x 1 0
4 3 2 1 1 2 3 4 5 y
5 4 3 2 1
Exercises 5.7
1. (a) (i) {all real x: x ! 0}, {all real y: y ! 0} (ii) no yintercept (iii)
5 4 3 2 1
1 2 3 4 5
(i)
4 3 2 1 1 2 3 4 5
4 3 2 1 1 2 3 4 5
(j) 5 4 3 2 1 4 3 2 1 1 2 3 4 5
(b) (i) {all real x: x ! 0}, {all real y: y ! 0} (ii) no yintercept (iii) 2 x y
2
1 1
2
ANSWERS
781
(iii)
5 4 3 2 1
2
1 1
4 3 2 1 1 2 3 4 5
2 3
y y
4 3 2 1 1 2 3 4 5
1 2
4 3 2 1 1 2 3 4 1 6 5
2
1 1 2
2 1
4 3 2 1 1 2 2 3 3 4 5
782
Exercises 5.8
1. (a) (i) y
1 x
2
1

1 2
3
1
2 3
3 2 (ii) ! x: 3 # x # 3 +, " y: 3 # y # 3 , (j) (i) {all real x: x ! 2}, {all real y: y ! 0} (ii) 3 (b) (i) (iii)
5 4 3 2 1
y 4
4
1 2 3 4 5
4
2.
3.
(a) (d)
(b)
1 #y #1 3
(c) 2 1 8
1 1 #y #2 2
(2, 1) x
4.
(a) 1 # x # 3 (d) 1 # x # 4
(c)  6 # x # 0
ANSWERS
783
1
6
4 3 2 1 1 2
8
8
5
(iii) ! x: 8 # x # 8 +, " y: 8 # y # 0 ,
5
784
6.
(a) {y:  9 # y # 3} (b) {y: 0 # y # 9} (c) {y: 8 # y # 1} 1 (d) ' y: # y # 1 1 (e) {y: 0 # y # 4} 5 (f) {y: 1 # y # 15} (g) {y: 1 # y # 0} (h) " y:  1 # y # 8 , (i) {y:  4 # y # 21} 1 (j) ' y:  6 # y # 6 1 4
 7
7.
(a) {all real x: x ! 1} (b) xintercept: y = 0 3 0= x+1 0=3 This is impossible so there is no xintercept (c) {all real y: y ! 0} (a) {all real x: x ! 0} (a)
25 20 15 10 5
(c) Radius 4, centre (4, 5) (d) Radius 7, centre (5, 6) (e) Radius 9, centre (0, 3) 4. (a) x 2 + y 2 = 16 (b) x  6x + y  4y  12 = 0 (c) x 2 + 2x + y 2  10y + 17 = 0 (d) x 2  4x + y 2  6y  23 = 0 (e) x 2 + 8x + y 2  4y  5 = 0 (f) x 2 + y 2 + 4y + 3 = 0 (g) x 2  8x + y 2  4y  29 = 0 (h) x 2 + 6x + y 2 + 8y  56 = 0 (i) x 2 + 4x + y 2  1 = 0 (j) x 2 + 8x + y 2 + 14y + 62 = 0
2 2
Exercises 5.9
1. (a) {all real x}, {all real y} (b) {all real x}, {y: y = 4} (c) {x: x = 3}, {all real y} (d) {all real x}, {y: y $ 1} 1 (e) {all real x}, {all real y} (f) {all real x}, ' y: y # 12 1 4 (g) {x: 8 # x # 8}, {y: 8 # y # 8} (h) {all real t: t ! 4}, {all real f (t): f (t) ! 0} (i) {all real z: z ! 0}, {all real g ^ z h: g ^ z h ! 5} (j) {all real x}, {y: y $ 0} (a) {x: x $ 0}, {y: y $ 0} (b) {x: x $ 2}, {y: y $ 0} (c) {all real x}, {y: y $ 0} (d) {all real x}, {y: y $ 2} 1 (e) ' x: x $ 2 1, {y: y # 0} 2 (f) {all real x}, {y: y # 5} (g) {all real x}, {y: y 2 0} (h) {all real x}, {y: y 1 0} (i) {all real x: x ! 0}, {all real y: y ! 1} (j) {all real x: x ! 0}, {all real y: y ! 2} (a) x = 0, 5 (b) x = 3, 1, 2 (c) x = 0, 2, 4 (d) x = 0, ! 4 (e) x = !7 4. (a) 1 # x # 1 (b) {x: 1 # x # 1} (a) {x: x #  1, x $ 2} (b) {t: t #  6, t $ 0}
4 3 2 1 2 4 6 8 (c)
25 20 15 10 5
2.
3.
4 3 2 1 5 10 15
5.
ANSWERS
785
(d)
8 6 4 2
(g)
3 2
4 3 2 1 2 4 6 8
x 1
1 1
1
y
2 1 1 2 3
1
4 3 2 1 2 4 6 8
11.
6 5 4 3 2 1
1
1
(f)
10
12. (a) (i) {all real x}, {all real y} (ii) All x (iii) None (b) (i) {all real x}, " y: y 2 2 , (ii) x 2 0 (iii) x 1 0 (c) (i) {all real x: x ! 0}, {all real y: y ! 0} (ii) None (iii) All x ! 0 (d) (i) {all real x}, {all real y} (ii) All x (iii) None (e) (i) {all real x}, " y: y 2 0 , (ii) All x (iii) None 13. (a)  2 # x # 2 (b) (i) {x:  2 # x # 2}, { y: 0 # y # 2} (ii) {x:  2 # x # 2}, { y:  2 # y # 0}
10
10
Exercises 5.10
1. (b) 10 (c) 8 (d) 3 (e) 3 (f) 75 1 (j) 1 (k)  7 (l) x 2  3x (h)  6 (i) 4 (a) 21 (m) 2x 3 + 3x  5 2. (n) 3c 2 (g) 0
10
(a) Continuous (b) Discontinuous at x =  1 (c) Continuous (d) Continuous (e) Discontinuous at x = !2
786
3.
(a)
5.
(a)
(b)
(b)
(c)
(c)
(d)
Exercises 5.11
1. (a) 0 (b) 0 (c) 0 (d) 2 (e) 1 (h) 0 (i) 5x (j) 3 (a) RHS = 1 + = 3 1 + 2 x x x2 + x + 3 (f) 6 (g) 2 3 (e)
2.
x2 = LHS (b) 1 from above (c) 1 from below 3. 4. (a) 2 from below (b) 2 from above x 3 5x 2 4
(a)
(b)
ANSWERS
787
(f)
7. 9.
21x #2 x#
2 5
8. x 1  6, x 2  3 10.  2 2 # x 1 2 3
2 ,x 21 3
Exercises 5.13
1. (a)
6
(g)
5 4 3 2 1
4 3 2 1 1 (h) 2 3 4
(b)
6
(i)
5 4 3 2 1
4 3 2 1 1 2 (j) 3 4 (c)
6 5 4 3 2 1
Exercises 5.12
1. 4. 1 1x 10 2 1 #x 10 2 2. 0 1 x 1 1 3 1 3 3. 0 1 x # 1 6. x $ 1, x 1  2
4 3 2 1 1 2 3 4
5. 1 1 x 1 1
788
(d)
6 5 4 3 2 1
(g)
6 5 4 3 2 1 1 2 3 4
x+y = 1
4 3 2 1 1 2 3 4 (e)
6 5 4 3 2 1
4 3 2 1 1 2 3 4
(h)
6 5 4 3 2 1 1 2 3 4
y = x +1
4 3 2 1 1 2 3 4 (f)
6 5 4 3 2 1
4 3 2 1 1 2 3 4 5 6 (i) y
6 5 4 3
3x  y  6 = 0
y = 2x  3
4 3 2 1 1 2 3
x x + 2y  2 = 0
2 1 1 2 3 4
4 3 2 1 1 2 3 4 5 6
ANSWERS
789
(j)
6 5 4 3 2 1
(c)
1
1 2 3 4
1
1 2
x=
(d)
5 4 3 2 1
(b) y $ 2
(c) y $ x + 1
(d) y 2 x 2  4
y=x2
y = x2  1
4 3 2 1
1 2 3 4 5 y
8 6 4
4 3 2 1 1 2 3 4 5
(e)
(b)
3
3
790
5.
(a)
5 4 3 2 1
(b)
6 5 4 3 2 1 2 3 4
4 3 2 1 1 2 y
5 4 3 2 1
x 4
y=x 3
1 2 3 4
3 2 1 1 2 3 4 5 6
(b)
(c) x
6 5 4 3 2 1
4 3 2 1 1 2 (c)
5 4 3 2 1
y = 3x 5
4 3
2
1 1 2 3 4 5 6
5 4 3 2 1 1 2 6. (a)
6 5 4 3 2 1
(d)
6 5 4 3 2 1
y=x+1
4 3 2 1 1 2 3 4
4
3
2 1 1 2 3 4 5 6
y=3x
ANSWERS
791
(e)
(h) x = 2
8 6 4
y y = x3 y=3 x
y=1 x
3
4 3 2 1 2 4 6 8
3
(f)
(i)
1 1
2
1
1
2 x=1 (g)
5 4 3 2 1
1
y (j) y=4
6 5 4
x  y = 1
y = x2 x
3 2
4 3 2 1 1 2 3 4 5
xy=2
1 2 3 4
4 3 2 1 1 2 3 4 5 6
792
7.
(a) y = x2
5 4 3 2 1
(d)
1
1 2 3 4 5
4 3 2 1 1 2 3 4 5
x
2 y= x
1
2
(e) (b)
8 6 4
y y = x3 2 1 x 4
y=
y=1
2 1 2 3 4
4 3 2 1 2 4 6 8
3 2
1 x+2
1 1 2
8. (c) y
(a) y = x2
5 4 3
y=5
2 x 4 3 2 1 1 1 2 2 x=1 3 4 5 x=2 1 2 3 4 5 x
2
ANSWERS
793
(b)
6 5 4 3 2 1
(e)
6
y = x
5 4 3 2 1
y=3
x 4  3  2  1 1 2 3 4 5 y=x2 6
1 2 3 4
x 4 3 2 1 1 2 3 x=2
1 2 3 4
y = 1
x=3
Test yourself 5
1. y 2. y = 2x + 1 (a) f ]  2 g = 6 (a) (b) f ] a g = a 2  3a  4 (c) x = 4, 1
(c)
6 5 4 3 2 1
2x  3y = 6
4 3 2 1 1 2 3 4 5 6
x
1 2 3 4
(b)
(c) (d) y
y=2
(d)
3
(e) x = 3 3
794
(f)
8.
9. (g)
(h) 10.
3.
1 4 (b) Domain: all real x; range: all real y (c) Domain:  1 # x # 1; range:  1 # y # 1 (d) Domain:  1 # x # 1; range: 0 # y # 1 (e) Domain:  1 # x # 1; range:  1 # y # 0 (f) Domain: all real x ! 0; range: all real y ! 0 (g) Domain: all real x; range: all real y (h) Domain: all real x; range: y $ 0 (a) Domain: all real x; range: y $  6 15 5. (a) 4 (b) 5 (c) 9 (d) 3 (e) 2
11. (a) y # 3
(b) y 2 x + 2
(c) y $  x 2, y # 0
4. 6.
13. (a)
7.
ANSWERS
795
14. (a) 2
(b) x = 3
2 3
(c) 1
1 3
(b)
15. (a) xintercept 10, yintercept 4 (b) xintercepts  2, 7, yintercept 14 16. (a) i (b) iii (c) ii 17. (a) 4 18. (b) 2 5 (c)  1 (d) i 1 2 (e) iii
(d) 3 1 1 x
(c)
2 x
(d) 20. (a) f (x) = x 4 3x 2 1 f ( x) = ]  x g4 3 ] x g2 = x 4 3x 2 1 = f (x) So f ] x g is even. f (x) = x 3 x f ( x) = ]  x g3 ( ) =  x3 + x = ( 3 ) =  f (x) So f ] x g is odd. (b) 21. (a a)
1 1 x
(e)
y
1 x
1 x 4 3 2 1
1 4
2
796
Challenge exercise 5
1. 2. 2 b= ,3 3
6.
f ] 3 g = 9, f ] 4 g = 16, f ] 0 g = 1
3.
2
9. 11.
Domain: x $ 0; range: y $ 0
10. x = 0, 3,  2
4.
12. h ] 2 g + h ] 1 g  h ] 0 g =  3 + 0  ] 1 g =  2 5.
ANSWERS
797
13.
18.
14.
19.
22.
16. x =
1 ! 41 4 RHS = 2 +
17. (a)
1 x+3 2]x + 3g 1 = + x+3 x+3 2x + 6 + 1 = x+3 2x + 7 = x+3 = LHS 2x + 7 1 =2+ ` x+3 x+3
798
Chapter 6: Trigonometry
5. 6.
(a) 0.635
(b) 0.697
(c) 0.339
(d) 0.928
(e) 1.393
Exercises 6.1
1. 2. 3. cos i = 5 12 12 , sin i = , tan i = 5 13 13
(a) 17c 20l (b) 34c 20l (c) 34c 12l (d) 46c 34l (e) 79c 10l
Exercises 6.3
1. 5 74 9 56 2. 5. 7. (a) x = 6.3 (b) y = 5.6 (c) b = 3.9 (d) x = 5.6 (e) m = 2.9 (f) x = 13.5 (g) y = 10.0 (h) p = 3.3 (i) x = 5.1 (j) t = 28.3 (k) x = 3.3 cm (l) x = 2.9 cm (m) x = 20.7 cm (n) x = 20.5 mm (o) y = 4.4 m (p) k = 20.6 cm (q) h = 17.3 m (r) d = 1.2 m (s) x = 17.4 cm (t) b = 163.2 m 1.6 m 3. 20.3 cm 4. 13.9 m 6. 10 cm and 10.5 cm (b) 6.6 cm
4. 5. 6. 7.
5 , tan x = 9 3 4 , sin i = 5 5
56 , cosec x = 5
(a) 18.4 cm
(b) 13.8 cm
9. (a) 7.4 cm
11. 38 cm
8. 9.
51 51 , sin i = 7 10
Exercises 6.4
1. (a) x = 39c 48l (b) a = 35c 06l (c) i = 37c 59l (d) a = 50c 37l (e) a = 38c 54l (f) b = 50c 42l l (i) a = 29c 43l (g) x = 44c 50l (h) i = 30c 51 (j) i = 45c 37l (k) a = 57c 43l (l) i = 43c 22l (m) i = 37c 38l (n) i = 64c 37l (o) b = 66c 16l (p) a = 29c 56l (q) i = 54c 37l (r) a = 35c 58l (s) i = 59 2l (t) c = 56c 59l 37c 57l 3. 22c 14l (a) 11.4 cm (a) 13 m 4. 36c52l 5. 50c
(b) 45c 1 1 (c) sin 45c = , cos 45c = , tan 45c = 1 2 2 3 (b) sin 30c = 3 1 1 , cos 30c = , tan 30c = 2 2 3 3
10. (a)
2. 6. 8.
11. sin 67c = cos 23c = 0.92 13. tan 48c = cot 42c = 1.11 (b) 0 (c) 0 (d) 1 (e) 2
12. sec 82c = cosec 8c = 7.19 14. (a) 2 cos 61c or 2 sin 29c
(b) 65c 17l 9. (a) 11c 19l (b) 26 cm 11. (a) 12.9 m (b) 56c 34l
17. p = 31c
Exercises 6.5
1. (a)
North
Exercises 6.2
1. 2. (a) 47c (b) 82c (c) 19c (d) 77c (e) 52c
(a) 47c 13l (b) 81c 46l (c) 19c 26l (d) 76c 37l (e) 52c 30l
100c
3.
(b) 65.5c
(c) 24.85c
(e) 82.517c
Beach house
4.
(a) 59c 32l (b) 72c 14l (c) 85c 53l (d) 46c 54l (e) 73c 13l
Boat
ANSWERS
799
(b)
North Jamie
(f) North
Farmhouse
12c
Campsite
Dam
(g)
320c
North
(c)
North
House 160c
Jetty
200c
Mohammed
(h)
North
Seagull
(d) North
(i)
Yvonne
North
(e)
Plane
349c
School
B Hill 285c
800
(j)
North
4. 6.
(a) 2nd
(b)  3 3 2 1 2
5. (a) 2nd
(b) 1 2 1 3
(b)
(b)
(f) 
(h) 
(j) 3 2
8.
(a) 
(b) (g) 1 2 3 1 2
(d) (i) 1 2 1 2
(e) 1 2 (f)
(f)  3 3 2
(h) 
(j) 1 2
2. 3. 7.
9.
(a) (g) 1
(b)
(c)
(d) 1 2
(e) 
(h)
(i) 1
(j)
10. (a) 1056.5 km (b) 2265.8 km (c) 245c 11. 83.1 m 12. 1.8 km 13. 12 m 14. 242c 15. 035c
3 4 10. sin i =  , cos i = 5 5 11. cos i = 12. cos x = 8 89 33 4 , tan i = 7 33 , cosec x = 5 21 , cot x = 89 5 2 21 , tan x = 21 2
l 20. 2.6 m 16. 9.2 m 17. 171 m 18. 9.8 km 19. 51c 41 21. 9c21l 22. 1931.9 km 23. 34.6 m 24. 149c
25. 198 m 26. 4.8 km 27. 9.2 m 28. 217c 29. (a) 1.2 km (b) 7.2 km 30. (a) 13.1 m (b) 50c26l
Exercises 6.6
1. (a) 3+1 2 1 4 (h) (b) 1 (c) 6+ 2 = 4 (k) 0 2 (d) 4 (e) 4 3 3 (i) 3 (n) 2 3 (t) 6 2 3 2 (f) 2 3 3
7 74 5 74 , sin x = 74 74 4 65 , sec i = 9 65
(g) 1
2 ^ 3 + 1h 4
(j)  ^ 2 + 3 h (o) 1 1 3
(l) 1
(p) 3  2 2 3 2 2 2m
(q) 2 3 9 3 2
61 61 , cosec a = 5 6
2. 3. 7.
(a) x = 60c 4.
(b) y = 5.
(c) p = 2 3 6. 10 3 m 3 9. 5^3 + 3 h m 3
51 7 , cot i = 10 51 (b) cos x (c) tan b (d)  sin a (e)  tan i (h)  tan x
3m
(a) 6 2 m
(b) 4 m 8. 0.9 m
10. 100 3 m
Exercises 6.8
1. l (b) i = 120c, 240c (a) i = 20c 29l, 159c 31 (c) i = 135c, 315c (d) i = 60c, 120c (e) i = 150c, 330c (f) i = 30c, 330c (g) i = 30c, 120c, 210c, 300c ] 0c # 2i # 720c g (h) i = 70c, 110c, 190c, 230c, 310c, 350c ] 0c # 3i # 1080c g
Exercises 6.7
1. (a) 1st, 4th (b) 1st, 3rd (c) 1st, 2nd (e) 3rd, 4th (f) 2nd, 3rd (g) 3rd (h) 3rd (i) 2nd (j) 4th (a) 3rd (b) 1 2 3. (a) 4th (b) 1 2 (d) 2nd, 4th
2.
ANSWERS
801
(i) i = 30c, 150c, 210c, 330c (j) i = 15c, 45c, 75c, 105c, 135c, 165c, 195c, 225c, 255c, 285c, 315c, 345c 2. (a) i = !79c 13l (b) i = 30c, 150c (d) i =  60c, 120c (f) i = !30c, !150c (g) i = 22c 30l, 112c 30l, 67c 30l, 157c 30l (h) i = !15c, !45c, !75c, !105c, !135c, !165c (i) i = 135c, 45c 3. (j) i = !30c, !60c, !120c, !150c (c) i = 45c, 135c
16.
17.
4. 5.
1
Exercises 6.9
1. 2. (a) cos i (b)  tan i (c) cos i (d) tan i (e)  sec a (a) sin i (b) sec i (c) cosec x (f) cosec x (j) sin2 x 3.
2
(d) cos2 x
(e) sin a
(g) sec x
(k) 1
2
6. 9. 10.
7.  1
8. 1
(a) LHS = cos x  1 = 1  sin 2 x  1 =  sin 2 x = RHS So cos 2 x  1 = sin 2 x (b) LHS = sec i + tan i sin i 1 = + cos i cos i 1 + sin i = cos i = RHS 1 + sin i So sec i + tan i = cos i (c) LHS = 3 + 3 tan 2 a = 3 (1 + tan 2 a ) = 3 sec 2 a 3 = cos 2 a 3 = 1  sin 2 a = RHS So 3 + 3 tan 2 a = 3 1  sin 2 a
11. 0
12. x = 270c
802
(d) LHS = sec 2 x  tan 2 x = tan 2 x + 1  tan 2 x =1 = cosec 2 x  cot 2 x = RHS So sec 2 x  tan 2 x = cosec 2 x  cot 2 x (e) LHS = ] sin x  cos x g 3 = ] sin x  cos x g ] sin x  cos x g 2 = ] sin x  cos x g ^ sin 2 x  2 sin x cos x + cos 2 x h = ] sin x  cos x g ] 1  2 sin x cos x g = sin x  2 sin 2 x cos x  cos x + 2 sin x cos 2 x = RHS So ] sin x  cos x g 3 = sin x  2 sin 2 x cos x  cos x + 2 sin x cos 2 x (f) RHS = 1  sin 2 i + 2 sin i sin i cos i cos 2 i + 2 sin i = sin i cos i 2 sin i cos 2 i = + sin i cos i sin i cos i cos i 2 = + sin i cos i = cot i + 2 sec i = LHS 1  sin i + 2 sin i sin i cos i
2
(j) LHS = =
1 + cot b
= =
cosec b 1 = cosec b = sin b RHS = = sec b tan b + cot b sec b sin b cos b + cos b sin b sec b sin 2 b + cos 2 b sin b cos b sec b
So cot i + 2 sec i =
(g) LHS = cos 2 ] 90c  i g cot i = sin 2 i cot i cos i = sin 2 i # sin i = sin i cos i = RHS So cos 2 ] 90c  i g cot i = sin i cos i (h) LHS = ] cosec x + cot x g ] cosec x  cot x g = cosec 2 x  cot 2 x = 1 + cot 2 x  cot 2 x =1 = RHS So ] cosec x + cot x g ] cosec x  cot x g = 1 (i) LHS = 1  sin 2 i cos 2 i 1 5. cos 2 i sin 2 i cos 2 i = cos 2 i cos 2 i = sec 2 i  sin 2 i = tan 2 i + 1  (1  cos 2 i) = tan 2 i + 1  1 + cos 2 i = tan 2 i + cos 2 i = RHS cos 2 i = tan 2 i + cos 2 i 4.
1 sin b cos b cos b sin b = sec b # 1 cos b sin b 1 = # 1 cos b = sin b LHS = RHS So 1 + cot b cosec b  cos b = sin b
LHS = x 2 + y 2 = ] 2 cos i g 2 + ] 2 sin i g 2 = 4 cos 2 i + 4 sin 2 i = 4 (cos 2 i + sin 2 i) = 4 ]1g =4 = RHS So x 2 + y 2 = 4 LHS = x 2 + y 2 = ] 9 cos i g 2 + ] 9 sin i g 2 = 81 cos 2 i + 81 sin 2 i = 81 (cos 2 i + sin 2 i) = 81 ] 1 g = 81 = RHS So x 2 + y 2 = 81
So
1  sin 2 i cos 2 i
ANSWERS
803
Exercises 6.10
1. (a) x = 8.9 (b) y = 9.4 cm (e) d = 8.0 (c) a = 10.0 (d) b = 10.7 m 2.
Exercises 6.13
1. (a) 7.5 cm 2 (b) 32.3 units 2 (c) 9.9 mm 2 (d) 30.2 units 2 (e) 6.3 cm 2 15 3 2 m 2 1.2 m 2 3. 7.5 cm 2 4. 15.5 cm 2 5. 34.8 cm 2
(a) i = 54c 57l (b) a = 61c 23l (c) x = 43c 03l (d) a = 87c 04l (e) i = 150c 56l
2. 6.
7. 42 cm 2
8. 247.7 mm 2
3. 5. 7. 9.
(b) 2.7 m 6. 5.7 cm 10. (a) 5.6 cm (b) 9.4 m 8. (a) 60c 22l (b) 57c 9l
Exercises 6.14
1. 3. l 2. (a) 1.9 m (b) 49c 46l (a) 2 m (b) 2.2 m (c) 65c 21 (a) 109 cm 2 (a) 9 m (a) 48 m 16c 50l (b) 16c 20l 4. 65c 9l (b) 89.7 m
Exercises 6.11
1. (a) m = 5.8 (d) n = 16.4 2. (b) b = 10.4 m (e) y = 9.3 (c) h = 7.4 cm
5. 7. 9.
(c) 97.7 m 8. 84 m
(a) i = 51c 50l (b) i = 60c 27l (c) x = 57c 42l l (e) i = 73c 49l (d) b = 131c 31
3. 5. 6. 7. 9.
32.94 mm 4. 11.2 cm and 12.9 cm l (c) 82c 13l (a) 11.9 cm (b) 44c 11 +XYZ = +XZY = 66c 10l, +YXZ = 47c 40l (a) 18.1 mm (b) 80c49l 8. (a) 6.2 cm 12.9 cm 10. (a) 11 cm (b) 30c (b) 12.7 cm
Exercises 6.15
1. (a) sin a cos b  cos a sin b (c) (e) tan a + tan b 1  tan a tan b tan 48 + tan x 1  tan 48c tan x (b) cos p cos q  sin p sin q
(d) sin x cos 20c + cos x sin 20c (f) cos 2i cos a + sin 2i sin a (h) tan 5x  tan 7y 1 + tan 5x tan 7y
Exercises 6.12
1. 4. 7. 12.5 cm and 4.7 cm 2. (a) 040c (b) 305c 3. 16.4 m 103c 5. 1.97 m 6. 11c (b) 1 minute 8. 32 m 9. 107 m 2. (i) sin 4a cos b  cos 4a sin b (j) (a) sin ] a + b g (b) tan 65c (e) tan 2i (f) sin 32c (i) 2 sin x sin y 3. (a) 1+ 3 2 2 1+ 3 31 1+ 3 1 3 1 3 2 2 1+ 3 2 2 = = = = =
(a) 1.21 km
5.8 sin 42c 29l (b) i = 74c 50l sin 101c 36l 12. 7.7 km 13. 5.7 km and 5.4 km
15. 35.8 m 16. 89c 52l 17. 9.9 km 19. 64.1 m 20. 3269 km
(c)
2 3+4 = 2
3+2
21. (a) 11.3 cm (b) 44c 40l 22. 141c 23. (a) 11.6 cm (b) 73c 14l 24. (a) 265.5 km (b) 346c 33l l (b) (i) 4.5 m 25. (a) 35c 5 (ii) 0.55 m
(d)
(e)
(g)
804
(h)
1+ 3 1 3
^4 + 2 3 h = ^2 + 3 h 2
(c) tan 10i (d) cos 2y (g) cos 6a (h) cos 80c
(i) tan 2b (j) 1  sin 6x 16. (a) 1 2 2 1 2 = 2 4 (h) 1 (b) 1 2 1 2 2 (c) 1 3 (j) (d) 1 2 1 2 (e) 3 (f) 3 2
4.
tan 2x (c)
6 + 35 12
(b)
3 5+2 7 12
(g)
(i)
6 + 35 3 52 7
32 5 + 27 7 17 2 tan i 1  tan 2 i
6. 7.
(a) 2 sin i cos i (b) cos 2 i  sin 2 i (c) (a) 3 sin i cos 2 i  sin 3 i (b) cos 3 i  3 sin 2 i cos i (c)
19. 4 sin i cos i ^ cos 2 i  sin 2 i h = 4 sin i cos 3 i  4 sin 3 i cos i 20. (a) tan x (b) 1 2+ 3 =2 3
8. 9.
(a) tan 4i (b) sin 7i cos 3i  cos 7i sin 3i cos 2x cos 7x  sin 2x sin 7x 3 (c) 2 3 (d) 2 12 13 (c) (b) (e) 33 65 1 3 (d) 12 5 (e)  3 15 16 10. (a) 1 2 (b) 3
21.
21 1 sin 2i tan i 2 1 = (2 sin i cos i) tan i 2 sin i = sin i cos i cos i = sin 2 i = LHS 1 2 ` sin i = sin 2i tan i 2 RHS = RHS = 1  cos i sin i 1  d cos 2
22. (a)
11. (a)
4 5
(b)
(d) cos x cos y  sin x sin y + sin x cos y  cos x sin y (e) 2 tan x _ 1 + tan 2 y i 1  tan 2 x tan 2 y (b) (f) 2 tan y ^ tan 2 x + 1 h 1  tan 2 x tan 2 y (c) cos 2 i  sin 2 i (b)
2 tan i 1  tan 2 i
(d) sin x cos 2y + cos x sin 2y = sin x _ cos 2 y  sin 2 y i + 2 cos x sin y cos y (e) cos 2a cos b  sin 2a sin b = ^ cos 2 a  sin 2 a h cos b  2 sin a cos a sin b (f) tan x + tan 2y 1  tan x tan 2y tan x  tan x tan 2 y + 2 tan y = 1  tan 2 y  2 tan x tan y (g) sin 2i cos d  cos 2i sin d = 2 sin i cos i cos d  cos 2 i sin d + sin 2 i sin d (h) cos i cos 2c + sin i sin 2c = cos i _ cos 2 c  sin 2 c i + 2 sin i sin c cos c (i) tan x  tan 2z tan x  tan x tan 2 z  2 tan z = 1 + tan x tan 2z 1  tan 2 z + 2 tan x tan z (j) sin 2x cos 2y  cos 2x sin 2y = 2 sin x cos x _ cos 2 y  sin 2 y i  2 sin y cos y ^ cos 2 x  sin 2 x h
i i  sin 2 n 2 2 = i i cos 2 sin 2 2 i i 1  cos 2 + sin 2 2 2 = i i cos 2 sin 2 2 i i sin 2 + sin 2 2 2 = i i 2 sin cos 2 2 i 2 sin 2 2 = i i 2 sin cos 2 2 i sin 2 = i cos 2 i = tan 2 = LHS i 1  cos i ` tan = 2 sin i
ANSWERS
805
23. RHS = sin 11i sin 3i = sin (7i + 4i) sin (7i  4i) = (sin 7i cos 4i + cos 7i sin 4i) (sin 7i cos 4i  cos 7i sin 4i) = sin 2 7i cos 2 4i  cos 2 7i sin 2 4i = sin 2 7i (1  sin 2 4i)  (1  sin 2 7i) sin 2 4i = sin 2 7i  sin 2 7i sin 2 4i  sin 2 4i + sin 2 7i sin 2 4i = sin 2 7i  sin 2 4i = LHS ` sin 2 7i  sin 2 4i = sin 11i sin 3i 24. LHS = cos 3i = cos (2i + i) = cos 2i cos i  sin 2i sin i = (cos 2 i  sin 2 i) cos i  2 sin 2 i cos i = cos 3 i  sin 2 i cos i  2 sin 2 i cos i = cos 3 i  3 sin 2 i cos i = cos 3 i  3 (1  cos 2 i) cos i = cos 3 i  3 cos i + 3 cos 3 i = 4 cos 3 i  3 cos i = RHS ` cos 3i = 4 cos 3 i  3 cos i 25. 3 sin x  4 sin 3 x
5. 6.
4t  4t 3  1 + 6t 2  t 4
^ 1