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Teachers Guide Literacy Hour Lesson Plans

Parrot: You shou ld have ac cepted. Tortoise : Nonse nse. Anansi is much be tter. Peacock: Youre al l ignorin g my beautiful legs. I sh ould marry M iss Selin a. Monkey: Be quiet! Here com es Anansi no w. (Anansi approach es Miss Selinas home.) Anansi: Im a bit late. Hav ent had any time to tidy m yself up. Never m ind. Mis s Selina will mar ry me fo r what I am, not what I lo ok like. Good m orning M iss Selin Selina: a. Good m orning, A nansi.

Year 4

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Year 4 Story of Small 1999 shing The
Publi From scourt King Fry by Marci a Vaug han

Fiction, Non-Fiction, Po Plays... and m etry, ore! Fully correla te NLS term-by-t d to er requirements m .

Teachers Guide
Year4

Literacy Hour Lesson Plans

Key Features of this Resource


More than 50 Literacy Hour les son plans, making it easy for you to get the most out of ALL Kingscourts shared reading res ources. ully correlated to Every title and Lesson Plan caref NLS term-by-term objectives. Support for every part of the Literacy Hour. Every Lesson Plan directly match es the structure of the Literacy Hour, from the critic al whole-class focus at the start of the Hour to indep endent activities that will engage children while you are working with small groups.

endent work, Pupil Activity Sheets for indep all correlated to the NLS. Text-level, sentence-level and word-level work included in every Lesson Plan. Books and posters Many genres! Kingscourts Big cified in the NLS. cover the variety of text types spe etry to a wealth of These range from fiction and po links to subject areas non-fiction material, with many and geography. such as maths, science, history Both reading and writing are emphasised. The careful balance of shared an d independent work helps all children build skills, creativity and confidence.

Literacy Links Plus

The Components
Big Books: Stories and a Play
Traditional stories, stories from other cultures and a play. See page 6

Poetry Big Book


Poetry based on animals, classic and modern poetry, poems from different cultures and poetry in different forms (such as monologue, conversation, rhyming verse and haiku). See page 7

Enlarged Text Charts: Fiction and Non-Fiction


Extracts from Kingscourts popular chapter books, carefully selected to help children investigate text types and language features specified in the NLS. See page 8

Non-Fiction Big Books


High-interest topics explored through text types including recounts, persuasive texts, explanations, reports and instructional texts. See page 9

Non-Fiction from Other Subject Areas


Big Books and posters featuring stunning photography, bold graphics and accessible text; unique resources that provide a perfect marriage between childrens study of non-fiction and their exploration of key concepts about mathematics, science, history and geography. See pages 10 and 11
Literacy Links Plus 3

Remember that Literacy Links Pl us for Key Stage 2 also includes a wealth of material for guid ed and indepen dent reading. See the back cover of th is Teachers Guide for more inform ation.

Contents
Overview of Components
Big Books: Stories and a Play Poetry Big Book Enlarged Text Charts Non-Fiction Big Books Non-Fiction from Other Subject Areas: Big Books and Posters 6 7 8 9 10

Term 1

19 Lesson Plans

Term 1 Overview: Lesson Plans and NLS Objectives


Lesson Plans Rumpelstiltskin The Wish Fish Anansi
PLAY TRADITIONAL STORY

12
14 16 17

2 lessons 1 lesson
POEMS

EXTRACT FROM A NOVEL

2 lessons 1 lesson 1 lesson

Summer Song and Ode to the Pig: His Tail The Eagle Pigeons Lion
POEM POEM

1 lesson 19 20 21 22 23 24

1 lesson
POEM

The Crocodile
POEM

1 lesson 1 lesson
CHAPTER BOOK

Samuel

POEM

All the Worlds a Stage! EXTRACT FROM NON-FICTION

1 lesson

25 26 27 29 31

Mathematics from Many Cultures NON-FICTION 1 lesson All About Forces SCIENCE NON-FICTION 2 lessons Fantastic Flight
MATHEMATICS NON-FICTION

2 lessons

The Sun

NON-FICTION

2 lessons

Literacy Links Plus

Term 2

16 Lesson Plans

Term 2 Overview: Lesson Plans and NLS Objectives


Lesson Plans The Fisherman and His Wife Because of Walter A Football Game The Bad Luck of King Fred
POEM TRADITIONAL STORY

33

2 lessons 35 37 39 40 41 42 43 44 46 1 lesson 38

EXTRACT FROM A NOVEL

1 lesson

EXTRACT FROM A NOVEL

1 lesson
POEMS

The City Dump and City

1 lesson

On the Skateboard, Freewheeling on a Bike and Portrait of a Motor Car POEMS 1 lesson Silver
POEM

1 lesson
POEMS

Winter Moon and Summer Full Moon Under the Ground


NON-FICTION

1 lesson

2 lessons

The Wonderful World of Plants SCIENCE NON-FICTION 2 lessons Natures Mathematical Marvels
NON-FICTION

2 lessons 1 lesson

48 50

Mathematics from Many Cultures

NON-FICTION

Term 3

18 Lesson Plans

Term 3 Overview: Lesson Plans and NLS Objectives


Lesson Plans Why Flies Buzz
TRADITIONAL STORY FROM

51
53 55

AFRICA 2 lessons

Why Frog and Snake Cant Be Friends TRADITIONAL STORY FROM AFRICA 2 lessons Peter the Pumpkin-Eater Wrestling
POEM EXTRACT FROM A NOVEL

1 lesson

57 58 59 60

1 lesson
POEM

Salt and Pepper Can You Sing?

1 lesson 1 lesson
POEMS EXTRACT FROM A NOVEL

POEM

Skipping Rhyme and The Swings in the Park The Story of Small Fry Egyptian Genius
MATHEMATICS NON-FICTION

1 lesson 61 62 63 67 68

1 lesson

2 lessons 1 lesson

Natures Shapes and Patterns Extinction Is Forever

SCIENCE NON-FICTION NON-FICTION

2 lessons 65

Mathematics from Many Cultures


NON-FICTION

3 lessons

Activity Sheets Index


Literacy Links Plus

73 103
5

Big Books: Stories and a Play


These highly engaging books are especially designed for whole-class use and offer a variety of genres including traditional tales, legends, stories from other cultures and a play. All have accompanying small books.

Rumpelstiltskin
A traditional story. Featured in Term 1 exploring characterisation and chronology; writing character sketches and a playscript; performing the play as readers theatre detailed sentence/word-level work focusing on verb tenses, adverbs, adverbial phrases, suffixes and more. See Lesson Plans 1 and 2.

The Fisherman and His Wife


A traditional story. Featured in Term 2 exploring expressive and descriptive language; creating settings and imaginary worlds detailed sentence/word-level work focusing on adjectives, word order, words that imply gender, suffixes and alternative words and expressions. See Lesson Plans 20 and 21.

Why Flies Buzz & Why Frog and Snake Cant Be Friends
Two traditional stories from Africa. Featured in Term 3 exploring stories from other cultures; identifying moral issues; understanding and using paragraphs; writing alternative endings detailed sentence/word-level work focusing on the grammar of different types of sentences, punctuation, compound words, using its/its, suffixes and word building. See Lesson Plans 36 to 39.

Anansi
A play based on a traditional story from Nigeria. Featured in Term 1 exploring the conventions of playscripts; investigating characterisation, dialogue, and narrative order; writing a newspaper report; converting a playscript to narrative detailed sentence/word-level work focusing on adverbs, verbs, double consonants and regular verb endings. See Lesson Plans 4 and 5.

6
23/7/1999 9:09 AM Peter M 9151-LitHour T/Guide Intro Gr 4

Literacy Links Plus

Poetry Big Book


Thrills and Chills is a wonderful anthology (Big Book and small books) designed to support NLS objectives for childrens study of poetry throughout Year 4. Every poetry Lesson Plan is accompanied by a pupil Activity Sheet for independent work.

Term 1
Poems based on animals. exploring language patterns; poetic devices and characterisation; comparing and contrasting poems; writing poems based on those read detailed sentence/word-level work focusing on adverbs, suffixes, verbs, pronouns, adjectives, tense, prefixes and punctuation. See Lesson Plans 6, 7, 8, 9, 10 and 11.

Term 2
Classic and modern poetry. Poems from different cultures. exploring and using expressive, descriptive and figurative language; comparing and contrasting settings; writing poetry based on poems read detailed sentence/word-level work focusing on adjectives, apostrophes, suffixes and prefixes, word order, syllabic patterns, using commas and connectives and examining the effect of punctuation. See Lesson Plans 24, 25, 26, 27 and 28.

Term 3
Poetry in different forms (monologue, conversation, rhyming verse and haiku). recognising forms of poetry and their features; identifying and exploring social issues; writing poems; exploring use of rhyme detailed sentence/word-level work focusing on tense, punctuation, word building, changing and extending words, sentence structure, parts of speech and more. See Lesson Plans 41, 42, 43 and 44.

Literacy Links Plus


23/7/1999 9:09 AM Peter M 9151-LitHour T/Guide Intro Gr 4

Enlarged Text Charts


These laminated poster-size charts feature extracts from Kingscourts popular chapter-book range (a rich resource of thematically linked titles that are ideal for independent reading and directed group activities). The double-sided charts support focused, close investigation of a variety of fiction and non-fiction text types and related sentence-level and word-level work. They can be the basis of stand-alone lessons but are also excellent for use in conjunction with the related chapter books to set the scene for reading and/or to extend and deepen childrens appreciation of a text.
Pedro was a kind man, so he put his net back into water and set the fish free. a poor the n, there lived

Term 1
exploring characterisation and the language of commands; identifying features of non-fiction texts; examining opening sentences detailed sentence/word-level work focusing on verbs, tense and homophones, spelling by analogy with known words, investigating word order and punctuation. See Lesson Plans 3 (The Wish Fish) and 12 (All the Worlds a Stage!).

Spai o on the coast of L ong ago, Every day, Pedr and his wife. As the red named Pedro

his wifefish swam away, he fisherman called, I am and, every day, a Wish Fish. to catch fish If you ever need would go out gh fish, enoustand to wish for some at this spot and You never catch thing, call me. would grumble. re just too lazy! You say. ld she wou Pedro watched e the fish, till he fish were scarc could see it no , but the wife He his then e walked home longer. pleas with his few Pedro tried to small fish. . and hard to catch His wife grum he found a bled loudly. You lazy man net, more ! If you caug fish, we o he pulled in his had coul when ht d Pedr day, mov e out of this One biggest fish wooden hut! fish. It was the he said. magnificent red a big price! s fish will fetch Pedro waited patiently for his wife to stop ever seen. Thi He then told grum bling. me abou his let story . Please t the Wish Fish eyes sad the reward that he and about ed at Pedro with had been prom go, I will The fish look ised. if you let me I promise that go! he said. reward you!

, List play the the prop s the script says r uses during you must have and add g. hing a characte things youd like , A prop is anyt a piece of strin to use. See if , a bucket, or actors realistic. the other any ideas. like an umbrella and more have fun e mor play e a Thin k or his about what you r get Props can mak acto each will do with food to have or drin de k.deci Rem to It is a good idea e emb mor er, not everything once has to be real, it only has s. Scan the play ing, her own prop le you are read to look real! youll need. Whi Practise using on the props your props. Pick them up and them t as you rehearse. kind use ask yourself: Wha e? Try plac usin g them in new play take different ways. and Where does the such places? ld you find in past, of things wou In the cklist take place? Che play the When does List the prop re? s the script present, or futu says you mus t have. INSIDERS TIP Add props you want one is to use. Make sure no or food the to allergic Put props in a place Check with drink you use. where you can quickly and make an adult first find them. will be sure your food Rehearse usin g safe to eat. your props.

Year 4 Year 4
Carol Krueger Fish Adapted by From The Wish ng 1999 Kingscourt Publishi From The Wish Fish Adapted by Carol Krueger Kingscourt Publishi ng 1999

Year 4 Year 4
Lee, a Stage! by Angie From All the Worlds ng 1999 Kingscourt Publishi From All the Worlds a Stage! by Angie Kingscourt Publishi Lee, Davis Nuss, Anna-Maria Crum ng 1999 and Anna-Maria Davis Nuss, and Crum

Term 2
exploring descriptive and expressive language in imaginative writing; understanding paragraphs; note-making detailed sentence/word-level work focusing on adjectives, compound words, the possessive apostrophe, words that imply gender and using suffixes to create adjectives. See Lesson Plans 22 (Because of Walter) and 23 (The Bad Luck of King Fred).

Parker, and Vict time Mr and Mrsold oria. r forget the first , rambling Parker were smiling. Vict Ill nevestop beautiful She glared at oria wasnt. ped outside this ething, me with small, grey eyes The car otten som . Mrs Parker Roberta had forg asked me to come in and they show house. I thought map. the hous ed me around e. It had a cosy to look at her or was going entrance hall, raincoats and ked. full of said. shoc boots, and a huge , This is it, she said I wooden staircase the Parkers live?There were four bedr . This is where ooms, and Mr to live. Parker had his you are going own study.had My room was This is where white. It blue. It was the room tall and painted Id ever prettiest seen. It had an The house was , which were ows wind old airs bras a blue quilt. The s s bed with on the upst of pink rose wallpaper and curtains window boxes A vine same blue and t were the spring flowers. white pattern. full of bright had a large fron The best thing of its walls. It was the view about it . From in the my wind rambled up one door right ow I could see blueWo ht brig dly, uld the sea. frien you side like to have a on each porch, with a nder look lave of at Kay the sha? Mr Park beach, were tubs er asked after middle. There Roberta had left. We can walk to it from our of the stairs. house.

As we got out of the car, the door opened. were all there. They e. Mr Parker, Mrs I saw the hous

Fred Fred dug the into his raged morning, King spoon The next befo derstorm had favourite porridge and scoo ped up a mouthfu and re, a violent thun

He felt a little better when the servant arrived with his rable. was very mise breakfast tray. King

s l. The hot cere The night the palace wall al rolled over and down his hours, shaking his tongue throat. for hours and palace roof. He start had pounding the of the salt heed to smack his lips, then full was bed Something was paused. h he not quit Even worse, his er how muc matt e righ No t. He took a sma shoulder. spoonful and left ller tried the porr thrown over his still enough idge again. Ther sheets, there was no flavour. The e was brushed off the porridge taste d like warm past skin. The king l ed roya e. push to scratch his It was the the tray aside door. the the at and ing called for royal cook she. had He heard tapp Within minutes, kings woes, the cook shuf r hearing of the through the beca,use fled clover, door gardener. Afte wringing his four-leaf hands in his apro and bobbing Fred another n his head up and eight. King brought King down. ys better than alwa are King es clover said, Somethin twelve clov the newFred SurelyMy g is ved. wron relie g. porridge taste Fred was very s like paste. . luck bad run of would break his

Year 4 Year 4
Krueger of Walter by Carol From Because ng 1999 Kingscourt Publishi From Because of Walter Kingscourt Publishi by Carol Krueger ng 1999

Year 4 Year 4
From The Bad Luck of King Fred by Anna-Maria Kingscourt Publishi Crum ng 1999 Crum by Anna-Maria Luck of King Fred From The Bad ng 1999 Kingscourt Publishi

Term 3
exploring and using paragraphs; evaluating the main issues in a text; summarising detailed sentence/word-level work focusing on the effect of punctuation and word order, using the apostrophe, pluralisation and prefixes and suffixes. See Lesson Plans 40 (Peter the PumpkinEater) and 45 (The Story of Small Fry).

-Eat s flytraps are hit. How always a big r the Pumpkin ever, Peter finally deci w and Show Young Pete red the Gro ded to grow cact because ety ed when he ente he uses plants start the Garden Soci liked the sound of some of the names: every year at jumping cholla, prickly pear, competition, held and organ pipe But, . more important was only Headquarters. , he wanted to type. He g enin gard beca grow use hed cactuses bike hear Peter wasnt the d that just abou a mountain t anyone coul ing first prize do it. d interested in winn ual plant. Twice rs a day, Peter lovin for the most unus to Pete gly fed compost a slight hitch was to his there or , and cact b water uses. He talke However a green thum d to them in t haveand didn He his t. most caring soothing n e and gree voic competition dbu played calming er, any other piano music or, for that matt for them. a green finger . But, sadly, in part of his body just over one week vegetable Flower beds, , Peter saw the mountain and patches, parks, bike slipping out of all very his reach. jungles were His cactuses were slicker foreign to citynt les doin jung g only well . The Peter. e that he was awar ones. of were concrete

Peter would have loved to culti vate a carnivoro plant. ent Insewith ct-snapping Venu us ers involvem

Just like a human baby bers of seals , a seal pup need er, large num A form s special food and early summ ula made from have . In the spring mashed fish, Some rookeries fish oil, vitam minerals is fed eries to mate. ins and by a tube feed gather at rook . seals er that is gent 000 than 100, into the pups ly pushed mouth. When colonies of more a pup is older, raw fish. birth, it will eat give to les return later, the fema Twelve months ery where they crowded rook By the time a seal pup is three often at the same months old, it and catch live can swim fish on its own. were born. It has also acqu skills, enabling ired social birth to just it to live with other seals be . Soon, it will usually gives trans cow) porte (or dery, in an animal ded rook A female seal carrier to a shall , acrow noisy a at know ow bay near n seal haul time. Even l. one pup at a its cry and smel out (or habitat). There, it pup byrelea sed ready to will be recognize her return to life a mother can in the sea. le may frighten s or peop Neve boat r pick ver, up a lone seal pup separated Sometimes, howe without getting permanen Somtly etimes, a pup advice! away. A pup is just resting a mother seal on the rocks while its moth or shore, er is called an er hunts for food from its moth . You can best a lone pup by help food and out mak With ing an. orph observations of seal an orph an it from protection, a distance. If the mother pup will die. has not returned to the pup after four hours, call the police or the Marine Fisheries Serv ice for help.
Year 4 Year 4
Marcia Vaughan of Small Fry by From The Story ng 1999 Kingscourt Publishi From The Story of Small Kingscourt Publishi Fry by Marcia Vaughan ng 1999

Year 4 Year 4
by Janine Pumpkin-Eater From Peter the ng 1999 Kingscourt Publishi Scott From Peter the Pumpkin Kingscourt Publishi -Eater by Janine Scott ng 1999

Adhesive Wikki Stix are ideal for circling or underlining key words and/or phrases on the Text Chart during discussion. Water-based markers and removable labels are also useful.

For even more activities, see the Teachers Booklets packaged with each set of Text Charts. For activities built around the chapter books themselves, see the Literacy Links Plus Chapter Books Teachers Guides.

Literacy Links Plus

Non-Fiction Big Books


Varied and appealing subject matter and text styles, top-quality photography, and interesting features of layout all combine to make these books highly engaging. These are rich resources for shared reading of non-fiction and for whole-class or group activities focused on key sentence-level and word-level work.

The Sun
Featured in Term 1 exploring features of non-fiction and the difference between fact and opinion; planning a narrative; summarising detailed sentence/word-level work focusing on word building, homophones, adverbs and verbs. See Lesson Plans 18 and 19.

Under the Ground


Featured in Term 2 identifying features of explanatory texts; summarising and note-making detailed sentence/word-level work focusing on punctuation, words that imply gender, adjectives, word order and defining words. See Lesson Plans 29 and 30.

Extinction is Forever
Featured in Term 3 investigating and writing arguments; summarising; presenting a point of view detailed sentence/word-level work focusing on pluralisation, compound words, verb endings and prefixes and suffixes. See Lesson Plans 51, 52 and 53.

Mathematics from Many Cultures


Including a Big Book and Posters, this resource provides a unique blending of mathematical concepts with fascinating insights into history and many different cultures. Featured in Term 1 investigating and writing instructional texts verb tenses and homophones. in Term 2 investigating and writing explanatory texts adjectives and word order; defining words. and in Term 3 investigating and writing persuasive texts; summarising extending words using prefixes and suffixes. See Lesson Plans 12, 25 and 50.

Mathematics from Many Cultures also features in Kingscourts Maths Links Plus programme. There the teachers resource material provides daily mathematics lesson suggestions supporting the National Numeracy Framework.

Literacy Links Plus

Non-Fiction from Other Subject Areas


This Maths in Context series features high-interest topics and comprises sets of posters along with student books. All titles provide excellent models of non-fiction text types, and feature photography, graphs, charts and diagrams that help to build childrens visual literacy. Literacy Hour Lesson Plans for each title focus on investigating key aspects of reading and writing non-fiction. They also provide a wealth of activities for essential sentence-level and word-level work.

Fantastic Flight
Featured in Term 1 identifying the typical features of non-fiction texts; investigating and writing instructional texts and a newspaper report; understanding fact and opinion detailed sentence/word-level work focusing on tense, punctuation, homophones, defining words and word building. See Lesson Plans 16 and 17.

Natures Mathematical Marvels


Featured in Term 2 analysing the features of non-fiction and explanatory texts; collecting and presenting information in a useful format; using descriptive language detailed sentence/word-level work focusing on adjectives, uses of suffixes, using the apostrophe and alternative words and expressions. See Lesson Plans 33 and 34.

Egyptian Genius
Featured in Term 3 exploring styles and purposes of non-fiction texts; investigating and writing advertisements; summarising detailed sentence/word-level work focusing on verb endings, pluralisation, extending words, using its/its and exploring the grammar of different sentence types. See Lesson Plans 46 and 47.
Maths in Context titles are also featured in Kingscourts Maths Links Plus programme, where teachers resource material focuses on daily mathematics lessons supporting the National Numeracy Framework.

10

Literacy Links Plus

Non-Fiction from Other Subject Areas


The Science Alive Big Books offer stunning photography, bold, colourful graphics and accessible text a combination of features carefully crafted to engage and inform young readers as they explore concepts that explain our world. Each title is invaluable for helping children to explore key aspects of effective reading and writing of non-fiction material.

All About Forces


Featured in Term 1 exploring the typical features of non-fiction texts; investigating and writing non-chronological reports and instructional texts detailed sentence/word-level work focusing on commas, tense, verbs, adverbs and homophones. See Lesson Plans 14 and 15.

The Wonderful World of Plants


Featured in Term 2 exploring different ways of presenting information; investigating and writing explanatory texts; using notes to write prose; summarising detailed sentence/word-level work focusing on adjectives, prefixes, suffixes and using apostrophes. See Lesson Plans 31 and 32.

Natures Shapes and Patterns


Featured in Term 3 identifying key ideas; summarising and rewording; investigating and writing arguments; presenting a point of view detailed sentence/word-level work focusing on connectives, compound words, using its/its, punctuation and word building. See Lesson Plans 48 and 49.

For each Big Book, four separate small book titles are also available; these are high-interest non-fiction books that allow children to explore in greater depth the topics and concepts in the Big Book.

The above titles are also featured in Kingscourts Science Alive programme, along with teachers material and activity cards that provide a wealth of hands-on Science activities to complement the big and small books.

Literacy Links Plus

11

Term 1 Overview
Lesson Plans Key Skills and Strategies
(Specific NLS references are listed on each lesson plan) investigating how characters are built up from small details writing about the characteristics of main characters exploring chronology in narrative investigating adverbs and adverbial phrases

1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10

Rumpelstiltskin
Fiction Big Book

Rumpelstiltskin

exploring characterisation comparing story openings preparing, reading, performing and writing playscripts investigating adverbs and adjectives Activity Sheet 1: NLS references T24, S3 investigating main characteristics of key characters writing character sketches investigating verbs and verb tenses exploring regular and irregular verb endings investigating how characters and settings are developed preparing, reading and performing playscripts writing a newspaper article investigating verbs and adverbs

The Wish Fish


Fiction Text Chart

Anansi
Big Book Play

Anansi

investigating main characteristics of key characters exploring narrative order planning a story in stages investigating verb tenses and powerful verbs Activity Sheet 2: NLS references T11 & 25, W3 & 12 comparing poems with different language styles investigating viewpoint and its effect on the reader writing scripts for role-plays and interviews investigating suffixes and adverbs Activity Sheet 3: NLS references T11, S4, W5 investigating details that build a character describing, and expressing responses to, the form and language of a poem investigating viewpoint and its impact on the reader writing prose descriptions using ideas and images from poetry Activity Sheet 4: NLS references T1, S2 & 3, W7 identifying specific language features, including metaphor, and their impact, writing scripts based on poems comparing and contrasting poems on similar themes Activity Sheet 5: NLS references T2, S4 substituting own words and ideas to help clarify a poems meaning writing from the point of view of a character comparing and contrasting poems investigating verbs Activity Sheet 6: NLS references S2 & 4, W3 & 11 investigating how characters and themes develop exploring humour and language play, including innovative uses of typography and its effect on the reader writing poems linked to poems read investigating prefixes Activity Sheet 7: NLS references T19, S2, W12

Summer Song and Ode to the Pig: His Tail


Poetry: free verse and humorous rhyme

The Eagle
Poetry: classic rhyming poem

Pigeons
Poetry: contemporary free verse

The Crocodile
Poetry: humorous rhyming poem

Lion
Poetry: word play

12

Literacy Links Plus

Lesson Plans

Key Skills and Strategies


(Specific NLS references are listed on each lesson plan) discussing personal responses to poems and comparing form and language investigating language patterns sometimes found within free verse identifying point of view, and its effect on the reader writing scripts based on known stories investigating verb tenses Activity Sheet 8: NLS references T1, S2 investigating features of non-fiction texts investigating instructional texts exploring homophones investigating and writing instructional texts investigating verb tenses exploring homophones investigating irregular tense changes investigating features of non-fiction texts examining opening sentences writing a non-chronological report investigating verb tenses using commas to mark grammatical boundaries

11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19

Samuel
Poetry: first-person free verse

All the Worlds a Stage!


Non-Fiction Text Chart

Mathematics from Many Cultures


Non-Fiction Big Book See also Lesson Plans 35 and 50 for further work with this book

All About Forces


Non-Fiction from Other Subject Areas

All About Forces

investigating instructional texts investigating verb tenses and powerful verbs exploring adverbs exploring homophones Activity Sheet 10: NLS reference T22 investigating features of non-fiction texts identifying opening and key sentences writing a newspaper report investigating commas exploring irregular tense changes

Fantastic Flight
Non-Fiction from Other Subject Areas

Fantastic Flight

understanding the terms fact and opinion investigating and writing instructional texts defining familiar vocabulary in own words placing words in alphabetical order Activity Sheet 11: NLS reference T22; Activity Sheet 12: NLS references S2, W9 identifying and planning the stages of a narrative exploring different types of text and their purposes understanding the terms fact and opinion investigating verbs, adverbs and homophones

The Sun
Non-Fiction Big Book

The Sun

examining key sentences and phrases that capture interest and convey important information exploring verbs and verb tenses investigating adverbs placing words in alphabetical order Activity Sheet 13: NLS references T24, S2

Literacy Links Plus

13

Fiction Big Book


YEAR TERM

Rumpelstiltskin
Shared Reading and Writing

Background

Display the front cover of Rumpelstiltskin. Ask the children what they already know about the story. Do they know any of the characters and/or any of the key events? Write their responses on the board. Read the story to the children. Allow time for general discussion of the story and its characters. Then re-read pages 13. Ask the children to describe the characters of the king and the shepherd; for example, the king could be described as greedy, and the shepherd as boastful. Encourage them to refer to details of the characters dialogue and actions to help justify their descriptions. Discuss the time-frame of the story. Ask the children if they think it is set over a period of days, weeks or years. List their responses and reasons. Then display each page of the book and invite them to identify the words and phrases that indicate the passing of time, such as That night (page 4), By morning and tonight (page 7), and so on. Write these words and phrases on the board. Then, using these, work with the children to estimate the time-frame of the story. Work with the children to write a character profile for Rumpelstiltskin. Before writing, re-read the story, pausing to ask them to describe Rumpelstiltskins characteristics and appearance using the illustrations, his dialogue and actions to help them. Write their ideas on the board (under appropriate headings). Then, using this information, scribe the character profile for the children; for example, Rumpelstiltskin is a little, ugly man, who is also very greedy As you scribe, invite the children to help you choose words that best describe his character. Read the character profile together.

Rumpelstiltskin provides excellent opportunities for children to explore characterisation and chronology in narrative. Two lesson plans are provided (see also Lesson Plan 2) to highlight different aspects of the text. This lesson focuses on characterisation, while the second lesson focuses on dramatisation (readers theatre) and writing playscripts.

NLS References
T1 investigating how characters are built up from small details T2 identifying the main characteristics of key characters T3 exploring chronology in narrative S4 identifying adverbs and adverbial phrases and understanding their function; identifying common adverbs with -ly suffix and discussing their impact on meaning W9 recognising and spelling suffixes

Word and Sentence Level Work


Write spin on the board. Remind the children that, like most verbs, the word spin can be used in different forms (span, spinning, spun) to indicate whether it relates to a singular or plural subject and to show tense. Invite them to compose sentences that show the different forms of the verb in use; for example, Rumpelstiltskin spun the straw into gold. They could find and change other irregular verbs from the story, such as give, begin and wept. Remind the children that adverbs often end in -ly. Invite them to find one adverb on page 13 (sadly). Discuss the function and effect of this word in the sentence. Then ask them to find an adverbial phrase on this page (Once more). Discuss the role of this phrase in the sentence. Challenge them to find other adverbs and adverbial phrases in the book, such as happily, At once, and so on. Write amazement on the board, and discuss how the addition of the suffix -ment changes the word amaze (a verb) into a noun. Then write happy on the board and ask the children what suffix can be added to this word to change it to a noun (-ness). Challenge them to suggest other words that can change to nouns using the -ment and -ness suffixes; for example, sad/sadness, amuse/amusement, and so on. Write their suggestions on the board.

Independent Work
Children could: re-write page 3, writing dialogue for the daughter so that she defends herself and contradicts her fathers claim that she can spin straw into gold write a list of reasons stating how we know that this is a fantasy tale; for example, it is not possible to spin gold from straw, and so on imagine they are the girl and write a personal recount of her thoughts and feelings when she was left in the room on the first night; alternatively, write about the same moment from the kings point of view script a conversation between the three characters on the bottom right-hand corner of page 18; for example, Here comes the Kings messenger. He must be searching for that little man who is trying to take the Queens baby away! design a Wanted poster for Rumpelstiltskin.

14

Literacy Links Plus

Fiction Big Book


YEAR TERM

Rumpelstiltskin
Shared Reading and Writing

Background

Display the book and ask the children to tell you everything they know about the story of Rumpelstiltskin. Who are the characters? What happens at the beginning, middle and end? Do they like the story? Why or why not? Write their key points on the board. Suggest that Rumpelstiltskin could be read as readers theatre (the coloured type will help the children identify the dialogue). Discuss the idea that readers theatre is similar to performing a play. Children can read the characters parts with as much expression as they would use in a play, but the reading needs no stage or props, and the readers/actors read directly from the book. Invite the children to identify the cast members (king, shepherd, shepherds daughter, Rumpelstiltskin and narrator). Tell them that each part will be read by several children together. Discuss how voice can help to bring a character to life. Invite them to read some lines, trying different voices to establish appropriate voice styles for each character. Ask the children to decide which part they will read, and to form a group for each cast member. Decide whether the narrator-group will read or skip each he/she said, and so on. Then perform the story, allowing for some trial and error. Discuss extra challenges a reader in readers theatre might have compared to an actor in a play, such as no stage directions, having to work out when to read his or her part, and so on. Work with the children to re-write pages 18 and 19 as a playscript. Start by brainstorming how a playscript is set out. (If necessary, look at a playscript together and discuss its layout and structure.) Work out how many characters are talking and the action that might need to be described in stage directions. Scribe the playscript on chart paper and read it, with children reading the different parts. Discuss whether the characters moods and feelings come across in the play. Invite them to suggest improvements to the stage directions to help actors read with appropriate expression.

Rumpelstiltskin features coloured type that is ideal for supporting dramatic reading and adaptation of a narrative to create a play. In this second lesson plan focusing on Rumpelstiltskin (see also Lesson Plan 1) children practise dramatic reading by planning and presenting a shared-reading version of readers theatre. Several children can share each part, allowing the whole class to be involved. This provides an opportunity for children to compare the challenges presented to readers in readers theatre to those of actors performing the play.

NLS References
T1 investigating how settings and characters are built up from small details T5 preparing, reading and performing playscripts; comparing organisation of scripts with stories T13 writing playscripts S4 identifying adverbs and their function; collecting and classifying examples of adjectives W3 recognising common letter strings Activity Sheet 1: T24, S3

Independent Work
Children could: complete Activity Sheet 1 (page 71) copy a picture from the book and add speech and/or thought bubbles to illustrate what the different characters could be saying and/or thinking write about what happens to Rumpelstiltskin when he disappears at the end of the story think up multi-syllabic names for Rumpelstiltskins brothers and sisters, using the same number of syllables as Rumpelstiltskin write an alternative story from page 5 onwards imagine having been placed in the same situation as the girl in the story and write about what they would have done; or alternatively, they could imagine they were in the place of another character.

Word and Sentence Level Work


Re-read page 19 and ask the children to identify the verbs used for introducing and concluding dialogue (asked and laughed). Then display each page and ask them to identify the verbs used to introduce or conclude speech. Write them on the board. Discuss the impact of these verbs and how the mood would change if the dialogue were introduced with just said. Challenge them to think of adverbs to use with said that would convey a similar meaning as the speech verbs in the text, such as the Queen said tearfully instead of the Queen sobbed. Write daughter and laughed on the board. Discuss the augh letter string and compare the different sounds represented by it. Invite children to suggest other words with the same letter string and to classify them by sound; for example, caught, taught; draught, laugh. They could also brainstorm a list of words with the /ar/ sound that we hear in laugh, to find a number of spelling patterns, such as half/calf, car/part, heart/hearth, and so on.

Literacy Links Plus

15

Fiction Text Chart


YEAR TERM

The Wish Fish


Shared Reading and Writing

Background

Read both sides of the chart to the children. Tell them that this is the beginning of a traditional tale. Ask the children to identify the main characters (Pedro, his wife and the Wish Fish). Allow time for discussion of the events and the characters in the story. Discuss the importance of direct evidence, especially when making informed judgements about people or events. Invite the children to discuss what has been revealed about the characters, and to predict future events in the story. If you have a copy of The Wish Fish, read the rest of the story to the children and compare their predictions. Discuss the main characteristics of the characters with the children. Remind them that they can use the characters dialogue and their actions to help them decide on the personality traits of each character. Ask them how they would describe Pedro. Encourage them to refer to specific words or phrases in the text to justify their views. Ensure they understand Pedros relationship with his wife, encouraging them to discuss the actions and dialogue that help to establish this relationship. Repeat this process for the other two main characters. Record the characteristics of each character on a chart.

This chart comes from The Wish Fish, a collection of traditional tales adapted by Carol Krueger (Literacy Links Plus Stage 9). There are four tales on the theme of wishing. The chart presents the opening scenes from the fourth and final story, The Magic Fish, a Spanish traditional tale about how greedy wishes can backfire.

NLS References
T2 identifying characteristics of key characters; drawing on the text to justify views; and using the information to predict actions T11 writing character sketches S2 revising work on verbs; investigating verb tenses W3 & 7 spelling regular and irregular verb endings

Word and Sentence Level Work


Highlight lived, poor, go, grumble and say in the first paragraph. Invite the children to think of at least one synonym for each word that would maintain the meaning, but make the passage more interesting; for example, existed, impoverished, venture, complain and exclaim. Challenge them to experiment with substituting these words, and discuss the resulting text. Ensure they understand that the authors original choice of words may have been a reflection of the desired reading level. Review the childrens understanding of adjectives. Ensure they understand that an adjective is a word that describes a noun or a pronoun. Point out the following adjectives on the chart: poor, lazy, biggest, big, sad and kind. Challenge the children to identify the nouns or pronouns that each adjective describes. Discuss how each of the adjectives reflects a degree of intensity. Brainstorm other adjectives that could be substituted to change this intensity; for example, poor/destitute, sad/miserable, kind/compassionate. Remind the children that sometimes, to show the intensity of adjectives, we use the suffixes -er and -est. Use the examples big and biggest from the chart. Ask them to find comparatives and superlatives for the other adjectives. Alert children to the exceptions; for example, good/better/best, eager/more eager/most eager. Encourage them to think of other examples. Ask the children what tense the chart is written in and which words (verbs) indicate this tense. Highlight some of these verbs and then invite the children to experiment with re-writing parts of the chart in both present and future tenses. Make a list of some of the word changes; for example: lived/lives/will live, tried/tries/will try, was/is/will be, and so on.

Independent Work
Children could: write a variety of story endings that show a range of attitudes to greed; for example, greediness punished, greediness rewarded, greed for public or private good, and so on re-write the story using a modern context draw a picture of their own wishes (with captions). Pages 5455 of The Wish Fish show some examples that the children could use to stimulate their own ideas. compile a collection of stories with similar themes and add the collection to the class library.

16

Literacy Links Plus

Big Book Play


YEAR TERM

Anansi
Shared Reading and Writing

Background

Display the cover and the title page. If some children already know about the character Anansi or Anansi stories, ask them to share their ideas. Invite the children to discuss their predictions for the story based on the cover and illustrations of the cast. Display pages 2 and 3 and discuss the layout of the playscript; for example, the characters names and their dialogue, and stage directions in brackets. Read up to page 5. Discuss the different characters behaviour and characteristics. Ask the children to decide what part they would like to read and to form a group for each cast member. (Alternatively, you might ask for individuals to volunteer for the parts.) Remind them that voice can help bring a character to life and invite them to try different voices. Then read the play up to page 5 with the children reading their respective parts. Invite the children to make predictions about what might happen. Write their ideas on the board. Discuss how the characters personalities and moods are developed through the dialogue and stage directions. Ask them to identify the small details in the play that have helped them build up an image of each character. Invite them to comment on Anansi, even though he hasnt appeared yet. What do they know about him from the text so far? Do they think Selina will marry him? Read the rest of the play with the children reading the different parts as before. Discuss the ending, referring to the childrens initial predictions. As a shared writing activity, work with the children to compose a brief newspaper report announcing Selinas decision to marry Anansi. First discuss the layout, voice, level of formality and structure of the article. Invite them to suggest a headline; it could be witty or serious. Discuss the impact of the different styles of headline and agree on a style. Scribe the article, inviting them to help you with word choice. Read the article together, making sure that all the important events and characters have been included.

Anansi and the Old Tiger RidingHorse is a playscript featuring the traditional trickster character Anansi the spider. (Children may be familiar with other Anansi stories.) The play is explored in two lesson plans (see also Lesson Plan 5). It features parts for seven characters and provides an excellent opportunity for dramatised reading. It is also ideal for exploring characterisation, including how characters are developed through dialogue and stage directions.

NLS References
T1 investigating how settings and characters are built up from small details T2 identifying the main characteristics of key characters T5 preparing, reading and performing a playscript T24 writing a newspaper article S4 identifying adverbs and understanding their function W5 investigating two-syllable words containing double consonants W7 spelling regular verb endings

Independent Work
Children could: write a character portrait of one of the characters re-write the play as a story imagine that they saw the play performed and write a review of the performance, including which character they liked the most and which scene in the play was the most enjoyable write a story from Tigers point of view about his disappointment at not being chosen by Selina imagine they were Selina and write about her reasons for choosing Peacock as her husband write a story about the future life of Selina and Peacock as husband and wife. (Where do they live? Do they have children? etc.)

Word and Sentence Level Work


Re-read page 11 and discuss the words rascally and rapscallion. Ask the children if they know what the words mean, or, if not, to try to work out the meanings from the text. If necessary, use a dictionary and discuss the definitions. Also discuss the idea that when -ly is added to rascal it forms an adjective (rascally) that describes a noun (rapscallion). Ask them to suggest an -ly adverb that could be used to describe how Tiger is speaking; for example, angrily, furiously. Challenge them to think of lists of -ly adjectives and adverbs and use each appropriately; for example, smelly socks, chilly weather/cried loudly, quickly escaped. Ask the children to find two-syllable verbs containing double consonants in the play, such as offer, marry, and so on. Challenge them to suggest how these words are written in the past tense. Brainstorm words that use marry as a root word; for example, married, marrying, marriage, unmarried, and so on. Then challenge the children to put these words into alphabetical order.

Literacy Links Plus

17

Big Book Play


YEAR TERM

Anansi
Shared Reading and Writing

Background

Discuss Anansi and the Old Tiger Riding-Horse with the children. Ask them what they remember about the play. What was it about? Who are the characters? What happens at the end? Ask them their opinion of the play. Did they enjoy it? Why or why not? Read the play. Allow time for general discussion. Invite the children to compare and contrast the characters of Tiger and Peacock by compiling a list of their different characteristics; for example, Tiger: vain, confident, well-groomed Peacock: vain, ignored, confused Encourage children to use the text to support their views. Discuss the main stages in the narrative order (introduction, buildups, climax/conflict and resolution). With the help of the children, work through the book to find the key event where each stage occurs; for example, Resolution: Selina chooses to marry Peacock. Write the information under appropriate headings. Use this information to discuss at which points the play could be split into acts/scenes, such as Tiger arriving to see Selina (page 6) could begin a new scene. Display page 5. Discuss the stage directions for Peacocks second line of dialogue (to himself). Ask the children how an actor playing the part of Peacock might read the dialogue taking into account this instruction (he/she would speak quietly). Invite them to suggest other stage directions for this page; for example, Parrot: (jumping up and down excitedly) Oh! Here he comes Discuss the impact these directions have on the way the dialogue is read. Discuss how the play could be written as a story. Ask the children to suggest the different ways a story can be planned, such as using notes and diagrams. As a shared writing activity, use one of these suggested methods to plan an outline for a story of several chapters based on the play. For example, you could use notes divided into the different chapters, with headings and sub-headings, including setting descriptions, character sketches and key events. Scribe the planning notes, inviting the children to ensure that all the necessary information is included. Read and discuss the plan together.

This lesson plan builds on earlier work with Anansi and the Old Tiger Riding-Horse (see also Lesson Plan 4). This lesson reinforces the childrens knowledge of the conventions of playscripts, including layout and stage directions. In addition, the play can be used to explore narrative order, and is ideal for children to use as a basis for planning a story version of the play.

NLS References
T2 identifying the main characteristics of the key characters T4 exploring narrative order; identifying and mapping the main stages in a story T10 planning a story, identifying the stages of its telling S2 investigating verb tense S3 using powerful verbs W3 recognising common letter strings Activity Sheet 2: T11 & 25, W3 & 12

Independent Work
Children could: complete Activity Sheet 2 (page 72) write a personal recount from Anansis point of view about his disappointment at not being chosen by Selina imagine being a set designer and write a description of the setting for the play substitute each of the animals in the cast with animals native to the country where they live draw their own pictures of key scenes from the play and write thought bubbles for the characters illustrated write a review of the play, including their opinion of the ending of the play; do they think Selina has made the right decision? If not, who would they have preferred Selina to choose? Is Peacock happy about marrying Selina?

Word and Sentence Level Work


Read the stage directions on pages 2 and 5. Ask the children to identify the verbs (sitting, ignores, approaches, carrying). Write the verbs on the board. Ask the children what tense these verbs are in (present), and how they know. Then challenge them to suggest the past tense of each of these verbs (sat, ignored, approached, carried). Read Anansis first line of dialogue on page 12. Work with the children to write a stage direction for Anansi. Encourage them to use powerful verbs that make it as dramatic as possible; for example, Clutching his throat or Gasping for breath. Write monkey, marry and Anansi on the board. Ask the children what sound these words have in common (the long /e/ sound). Challenge them to think of other words with the long /e/ sound. Scribe their suggestions. Then work with them to group the words according to the spelling pattern; for example, key/monkey/donkey, marry/hurry, Anansi/ski, he/me, see/tree/knee, tea/flea.

18

Literacy Links Plus

Poetry Big Book: Thrills and Chills


YEAR TERM

Summer Song and Ode to the Pig: His Tail


Shared Reading and Writing

4
Background NLS References

Before reading the poems, remind the children that in many poems someone other than the poet is speaking someone the poet has invented. Invite them to read just the first two words of each poem and suggest who might be speaking: perhaps the poet herself in Summer Song, while Ode to the Pig is definitely in the voice of the pig. Read Summer Song to the children. Then re-read it together. Ask the children whether or not the poet seems to enjoy the crickets song, and why they think so. Also invite them to describe any patterns they can find in the language, such as the repetition of sing and summer and the rhyme of sing, evening, wing and string. Ask them if they think that these patterns, such as rhyme, would stand out as clearly if the words were in one long line rather than in short lines. Invite the children to substitute the word I for the word Crickets at the start of Summer Song (I sing and sing and sing). Discuss how this simple alteration changes the voice of the poem. Explain that an ode is a poem that expresses strong or enthusiastic emotion. Read the children Ode to the Pig: His Tail, and then re-read it together. Ask the children what they think of the pig. Discuss several responses, encouraging them to refer to specific parts of the poem to help explain and support their views. Also invite them to compare and contrast the two poems; they might comment on humour, rhyme and rhythm, the simplicity/complexity of the language, and the use (or not) of similes. List the words impressive, elegant, excessive, expressive, conceit, possessive, aggressiveness, and master touch on the board. Work with the children to compose sentences that help to show what the words mean; for example, If something is elegant, it is graceful and attractive. A master touch changes something from ordinary to special, and so on.

Summer Song by Jessica Wallace and Ode to the Pig: His Tail by Walter R. Brooks introduce a series of poems about animals. Summer Song evokes the sounds of an enthusiastic cricket song a song of love and summer on a warm summer evening. Ode to the Pig: His Tail treats us to a pigs celebration of his own tail. Far from agreeing with the popular image of a pig as a stupid and inelegant creature, the pig that speaks so eloquently in this poem is almost overflowing with self-esteem.

T7 comparing poems T13 writing scripts based on texts read S4 identifying adverbs and investigating their function W14 investigating suffixes Activity Sheet 3: T11, S4, W5

Independent Work
Children could: complete Activity Sheet 3 (page 73) and Activity Sheet 9 (page 79) re-read the poem in the small book list -ly adverbs to describe how crickets might sing; for example, Crickets sing loudly, rowdily, expressively, boldly, brightly find other poems written from an animals point of view; these could be included in a class anthology of animal poems write a scripted interview with the pig; children might include questions such as How do you feel about the reputation of pigs as dirty, fat and snorting animals? choose an animal and write a poem from the animals point of view about its own very special feature or master touch; for example, a lions mane; a snakes hiss. Alternatively, children could script a conversation among several creatures in which each boasts that it has the most impressive special feature of all.

Word and Sentence Level Work


Write the word excessive on the board, and discuss with the children how the addition of -ive changes the word excess (a noun) into an adjective. Ask them to find other words ending in ive that have changed from a noun (or verb) to an adjective. Then draw their attention to the word aggressiveness and invite them to add -ness to excessive. Scribe the new word on the board. Ask them what kind of word it is now (a noun). Invite them to suggest what other words ending in -ive can change into nouns by adding -ness; for example, passiveness, inventiveness, imaginativeness. Remind the children that adverbs often end in -ly. Invite them to find two words in Ode to the Pig: His Tail that end in -ly (awfully and foolishly). Ask them if these are adverbs in the poem do they tell us anything about the verbs? (No.) Discuss with the children how the words are being used as intensifiers to add to the meaning or strength of adjectives, as in foolishly possessive. Invite them to use foolishly as an adverb in a simple sentence; for example, He behaved foolishly. Challenge them to find other adjectives from the poem that could have -ly added to become adverbs, such as impressively, elegantly, neatly, and so on. Discuss and list their suggestions.

Literacy Links Plus

19

Poetry Big Book: Thrills and Chills


YEAR TERM

The Eagle
Shared Reading and Writing

Background

Before reading the poem, invite discussion of the title and illustration. Ask the children what comes to mind when they think of an eagle. List and briefly discuss suggestions; for example, bird of prey; powerful; hunter, and so on. Write the word regal on the board, and discuss the meaning (like a king or queen). Ask the children to think about the suitability of this word for the eagle as they listen to the poem. Read the poem to the children. Explain the meaning of crag and azure if necessary, and ask children what picture Ringed with the azure world makes them see (the eagle so high above land and sea that only the blue sky surrounds him). Then read the poem together. Ask the children if they think Tennyson sees the eagle as a regal creature, encouraging them to refer to specific parts of the poem. Invite the children to describe the rhyming pattern of the poem and to find other patterns of sound, such as the alliteration in lonely lands and in the repeated use of initial hard c in the first two lines (clasps, crag, crooked, close). Remind the children that poets tend to choose words with great care for meaning as well as for sound. Ask the children what they think Tennyson means by Close to the sun. Suggest that very high conveys the idea of superiority. Ask them what other metaphors and similes are used and how they affect us. For example, the simile like a thunderbolt conveys a sense of great power; the eagles fall towards its prey is effortless but deadly. Children could also suggest why the poet might have chosen crooked hands; they might think of the eagles bent talons as being like hands, or could suggest that the use of hands lets us think of the eagle as a king gripping the arms of his throne. For a shared writing activity, work with the children to compose a description of the eagle using ideas and images from the poem, along with the idea of royalty. You could suggest a starter, such as High above the world on his craggy throne, the eagle beholds his vast kingdom. He Scribe for the children as they agree on the text, encouraging them to pay careful attention to word choice and to guide you with spelling and punctuation.

The Eagle, a poem of tribute to one of the lords of life, is rich in bold and thrilling images. The eagle is presented to us as a monarch, fearless and proud. The feelings expressed in the poem are very much in keeping with those we find elsewhere in Alfred Tennysons (18091892) poetry: bravery is honoured and mastery is admired.

NLS References
T1 investigating how characters are built up from small details T7 comparing the form and language of poems T11 writing character sketches S2 investigating verb forms W1 identifying phonemes in speech and writing Activity Sheet 4: T1, S2 & 3, W7

Independent Work
Children could: complete Activity Sheet 4 (page 74) re-read the poem in the small book write a third verse for the poem, in keeping with the first two, describing the eagle falling on his prey and swooping back to his mountain crag write (and later act out for the class) a confession from an unusual eagle who is scared of heights research and prepare a report on the habits and habitats of various birds of prey, if possible describing those that are found in particular parts of the United Kingdom look in anthologies for other short poems about eagles and/or other creatures of prey write a description of the eagle from the point of view of another, smaller bird that the eagle might prey upon; you could suggest that the eagle might be seen as a terrible demon of the skies in the eyes of this vulnerable creature.

Word and Sentence Level Work


Remind the children that a complete sentence will have, at least, a subject and a verb. Invite them to suggest sentences with a minimal number of words, using word sequences taken directly from the poem; for example, He clasps the crag. He falls. He stands. Now ask the children if the first line of each verse forms a complete sentence, and if we could make complete sentences by joining the second and third lines of each verse. (The answer in both cases is yes.) Help them to identify the subject and verb in each case. Ask the children what three personal pronouns are used in the poem (he, him, his). Remind them that the poem is written in the third person, and briefly explain why we use this term. Now ask the children to put the whole poem into the first person; that is, in the voice of the eagle himself. Remind them that they might have to change more than the pronouns; for example, verb forms may need to change, as in like a thunderbolt he falls/like a thunderbolt I fall.

20

Literacy Links Plus

Poetry Big Book: Thrills and Chills


YEAR TERM

Pigeons
Shared Reading and Writing

Background

Display Pigeons. Before reading the poem remind the children that we are the only creatures on earth with language, and that we have the freedom to tell stories about other creatures. The other creatures, of course, cannot tell us that we are wrong or right in what we say about them. Ask the children to keep this in mind as they listen to the poem. Read the poem to the children. Then read it together. Ask the children to suggest some adjectives that would suit the pigeons in the poem; for example, boring, dull, unadventurous, unexciting. (Also ask the children if they think the pigeons would agree with this view of their lives.) Now ask the children which adjectives relate to: a/ the final line; b/ They seldom try the sky; c/ A pigeon never sings of hill and flowering hedge, and d/ but busily commutes from sidewalk to his ledge. Encourage the children to refine and/or add to their adjectives if their list does not include words to suit all these lines. Ask the children if they think the poem might be about people as well as birds. Why/why not? Encourage them to focus on the terms city folk and the words but busily commutes from sidewalk to his ledge. You could also ask them in what ways might human city folk who busily commute be like Lilian Moores pigeons. Invite the children to compare the pigeons and their environment with Tennysons eagle and its surroundings (page 4). Discussion of contrasts could lead to a shared writing activity, focused on composing sentences that mention both birds. For example, The eagle soars, with all the world below him, while pigeons seldom rise above the rooftops. Discuss several possible approaches before children agree on text for you to scribe. For example, they could take the point of view of a contented city pigeon, as in a sentence such as The eagle may be king of the skies, but the city is my castle.

Pigeons (Lilian Moore) looks with gentle and slightly puzzled disdain at the habits of city birds that rarely use their gift of flight. With some guidance, children may discover an underlying comment on aspects of human experience as well. The poem provides a perfect contrast (in terms of subject) to Tennysons The Eagle, while at the same time suggesting that Lilian Moore and Tennyson may share certain values and beliefs.

NLS References
T7 comparing and contrasting poems on similar themes T13 writing scripts, using known stories as a basis S4 collecting and classifying examples of adverbs W3 spelling by analogy with other known words Activity Sheet 5: T2, S4

Independent Work
Children could: complete Activity Sheet 5 (page 75) re-read the poem in the small book script a conversation between pigeons, talking about how busy they have been in the city write a dialogue between a pigeon and an eagle in which each defends the life he or she prefers research pigeons and their habits, with a special aim of discovering (if possible) facts that would contradict the version of pigeon life in the poem write the story of a pigeon that yearns to become an eagle (or vice versa) list Rules and Regulations that might be agreed upon by a group of city folk pigeons; for example, Rule I: No singing of hills! Definitely no singing of flowering hedges! Rule 2: No unnecessary use of wings

Word and Sentence Level Work


Write pigeon on the board. Invite children to think of some other words that use the unusual letter string eon (such as bludgeon/dungeon/surgeon). Then focus discussion on the soft g (/j/ sound), and challenge them to think of other words in which a g between two vowels represents the /j/ sound; for example, age, cage, rage, advantage. Now ask if they can find two words in the poem in which the /j/ sound, following a vowel other than a, is made by g in conjunction with another consonant (hedge and ledge). Ask them if they can think of more rhyming words for hedge with the same dg combination (for example, edge, sledge, wedge), and dg words with other vowel sounds, such as bridge, dodge and fudge. Using the word seldom as a starting point, brainstorm with the children words that indicate frequency or quantity without specifying a number. A list for frequency could include the adverbs often, rarely, usually, occasionally and regularly, and a list relating to quantity could include the words several, few, some, many, and so on. Discuss what each word means and encourage the children to put each word into a sentence.

Literacy Links Plus

21

Poetry Big Book: Thrills and Chills


YEAR TERM

The Crocodile
Shared Reading and Writing

Background

Display the poem and read it to the children. Ask them what word in the poem suggests that it was written some time ago (doth). Also discuss improve, which in this context might mean something like polish or make more beautiful. Tell the children that the poem comes from Lewis Carrolls Alice in Wonderland, published in 1865. Re-read the poem together. Encourage the children to explain how they can tell that the poet wants his depiction of the crocodile to be humorous. For example, they could mention the phrases little crocodile; and gently smiling jaws, pointing out that the words little and gentle really relate to the opposite of what the crocodile is like. Draw the childrens attention to the three uses of how in the poem. Discuss the use of how to begin statements (usually a statement expressing strong feeling) rather than questions. Then ask the children to make a How sentence in the poem into a question without changing the words; for example, the exclamation mark at the end of the first stanza could become a question mark, while in other cases the word order needs to be changed as well. Also invite the children to suggest statements that match Lewis Carrolls ironic tone but begin with What; for example, What a welcoming smile the crocodile has! After re-reading the poem, work with the children to compose a similarly ironic text about another dangerous creature. Scribe for the children as they agree on sentences, linking adjectives that mean gentle and harmless with animals that are dangerous. For example, the new text might begin, How sweetly the snake hisses before it strikes! or, How tenderly the wolf looks at the rabbit!

This famous and delightful poem by Lewis Carroll (18321898) is taken from Alice in Wonderland. The children may also be interested to know that it is a parody of another, equally famous poem by Isaac Watts (16741748), Against Idleness and Mischief (How doth the little busy bee/ Improve each shining hour). Encourage the children to compare The Crocodile with other verse by Lewis Carroll, in addition to comparing it with other poems in this collection that focus on animals.

NLS References
T7 comparing and contrasting poems T8 finding out more about poets T11 writing character sketches S2 investigating verbs W7 spelling regular verb endings Activity Sheet 6: S2 & 4, W3 & 11

Independent Work
Children could: complete Activity Sheet 6 (page 76) re-read the poem in the small book work in pairs to write an interview with a crocodile, in which he claims to be misunderstood and actually a great friend of all living creatures write a warning sign for fish using some of the language of the poem; for example, Beware the jaws of the crocodile! Any sign of a welcoming smile is just a trick, and means that you are in danger of being eaten. Do not be taken in! research crocodiles and alligators, preparing a report that includes an explanation of why these creatures might be thought to be smiling and also what is meant by the term crocodile tears find other poems by Lewis Carroll and learn or practise reading a favourite to present to the class; or write about similarities and differences between The Crocodile and one other animal poem they have read in Thrills and Chills.

Word and Sentence Level Work


Refer once again to the word doth in the poem (meaning does or do). Ask the children if they have ever come across other words like doth (such as hath, goeth). Remind the children that English has changed a great deal over the years, and that verbs such as to do and to go no longer have th endings. Also discuss words such as thee, thou and thy and ask the children if they can tell you what pronouns we now use in place of these (you/your). Discuss the meaning of pour. Remind the children that, like most verbs, this base word can be used in different forms (pours, poured, pouring) to indicate whether it relates to a singular or plural subject and to show tense. Invite children to suggest sentences that show the different forms of the verb in use. They could find and change the form of other verbs in the poem; for example, grin/grinning/grinned, welcome/welcoming. Ask the children what it is in the poem that the crocodile welcomes. When you are told fishes, write the word fish on the board and ask the children if you are right or wrong to leave off es. Now ask them if they can tell you any other animals name that can be made plural without the addition of an s or es. Scribe the suggestions on the board; for example, deer, sheep, swine, and so on (explain that these cannot have s or es as an alternative plural form).

22

Literacy Links Plus

Poetry Big Book: Thrills and Chills


YEAR TERM

Lion
Shared Reading and Writing

10

Background

Display the poem. Ask the children to focus on the look of the poem, and to suggest why some of the words are in capitals; for example, these words should be read more loudly. Children will also notice that the word LION is split over two lines and that there are larger spaces and fewer punctuation marks than usual. Ask them to think about these features as they listen to the poem. Read the poem to the children, using the large spaces as opportunities for dramatic pauses, and saying LI-ON as a roar and opening your mouth wide on the first syllable. Invite childrens spontaneous reactions and comments. Then read the poem together. Invite children to suggest how the phrase jaw unhinges helps to emphasise or exaggerate the way a lion roars (and the way the word lion is unhinged in the poem). Invite individual children to act out a lions attempt to say the other animal names while roaring with wide-open jaws, and to explain how the words flea, toad and peacock make this difficult. They could also try saying the word roaring to see if they think the sound would satisfy the lion. Talk with the children about teeth flash white, guiding them to see that this comprises noun, verb and adverb (since white, although usually an adjective, here qualifies flash). Ask the children if they can find the same three-word format elsewhere in the poem (name opens wide). Now ask them to suggest an adverb, this time ending in ly, that could follow jaw unhinges; for example, enormously, ferociously, savagely. Work with the children to compose similar phrases for other creatures; for example, Flea bites sharply; Toad hops lazily; Peacock struts proudly. Scribe the suggestions on the board. Write the following quotation from Romeo and Juliet on the board: That which we call a rose by any other name would smell as sweet. Tell the children where the quotation comes from, and ask them what they think it means and whether they agree. You could ask, Would we feel any differently about a lion if it were called a glug? Why/why not?

Lion (Barbara Juster Esbensen) is an animal poem with a difference, in that it is about the lions name as much as it is about the lion himself. The idea that the name Lion is perfect for being said with a roar will appeal to the children and provide starting points for their own imaginative writing about animals and sound.

NLS References
T1 investigating how characters are built up T14 writing poems linked to poems read S4 identifying adverbs and understanding their function W3 spelling using phonemes Activity Sheet 7: T19, S2, W12

Independent Work
Children could: complete Activity Sheet 7 (page 77) re-read the poem in the small book pick a name for themselves and one for a friend to suit them in terms of their personalities. (Remind them that the sound of the word chosen should be an important part of the suitability.) They could use these names as the basis for poems about themselves that are modelled on the structure of Lion. list and explain other animal names that seem suited in sound or feeling to the creature they name; for example, snake which starts with a hissing, sibilant /s/, and hippopotamus, which sounds heavy and ponderous find a picture of a lion, or print one from a computer program, and fashion the words of the poem around it so that they form a type of concrete poem write an acrostic poem for the word LION or the word ROAR; for example, Lord of the jungle, Impossible to silence, One fierce roar, Numbs his foes.

Word and Sentence Level Work


Ask the children to find a word in the poem beginning with the prefix un-. Ask the children if they can think of two good reasons for the poet choosing this word (to avoid repeating open, and because a jaw actually is a hinge). Then discuss the use of un- to form opposites and ask them to suggest examples (unhappy, uncomfortable, and so on), together with sentences in which each word could be used. Discuss and list suggestions. Then challenge the children to find words in the poem that could have un- as a prefix; the words could be altered to accommodate the prefix, as in unopened (from open) and unspoken (from speak). Ask the children what they notice about the punctuation of the poem. Invite them to guide you in punctuating it more conventionally as you write the text on chart paper as normal sentences. When the newly punctuated text is complete, ask the children to compare it to the original. Which do they prefer? Why?

Literacy Links Plus

23

Poetry Big Book: Thrills and Chills


YEAR TERM

Samuel
Shared Reading and Writing

11

Background

This poem is linked to others in the collection by its animal theme. But it is unlike the others in that it is about feelings that are associated with having a pet. The pet salamander does not remain alive for very long (and might have been an inappropriate choice for a start) but still the unnamed owner experiences strong emotions of attachment and loss, along with regret. Bobbi Katz, the author of many fine poems appealing to children and adults alike, skilfully weaves both poignancy and humour into this excellent example of free verse.

Display the poem, but before reading, write on the board: Amphibian of the order Urodela. Now read the poem to the children, then re-read it together. Explain that the words describe Samuel the salamander in scientific terms. Ask the children if the poem would work as well as it does if we were to change the opening lines to read: I found this salamander/ Near the pond in the woods/ Amphibian of the order Urodela Ask the children what lines particularly suggest that the child who found the salamander would not be satisfied with a scientific description of the little creature (Right away I loved him, along with the repetition of Samuel, I called him). Discuss the desire most people have to give a pet a personal name. Invite the children to talk about the names of pets they have or know. Ask the children about the mood of the poem and the emotions of the speaker in the poem. Remind them to quote lines from the poem to support their comments. They could also explain and demonstrate how they think certain lines should be read: what pace? what tone? what volume? what emphasis? Talk with the children about the absence of adjectives in the poem. (Coffee is the only adjective.) Ask them if they think the minimal description seems right, and if so, why. Suggest that they try adding some adjectives to see what impact they have and whether they assist or interfere with the poems expression of simple, strong feelings. Scribe the more descriptive version of the poem on chart paper; for example, I found this interesting salamander/ Near the pond in the leafy woods Read it together and discuss what has been gained and/or lost.

NLS References
T7 discussing personal responses to poems and comparing the form and language T13 writing scripts using known stories as a basis S2 investigating verb tenses S4 identifying adverbs and understanding their function W3 spelling by analogy with other known words Activity Sheet 8: T1, S2

Word and Sentence Level Work


Refer to the verb slept in the second stanza and write it on the board. Remind the children that many verbs do not simply have -ed added when put into the past tense. Ask them to suggest other irregular verbs, including some that have a past-tense form using -pt, such as creep/crept; leap/leapt; weep/wept. Another irregular form they could find in the poem is found, and they could think of other verbs that use the ound letter string in the past tense, as in bind/bound, wind/wound, grind/ground. Children could also suggest run/ran, shake/shook, take/took, do/did. List and discuss the irregular verbs, grouping them where possible by spelling pattern. Refer to the word sometimes in the poem. Remind the children that sometimes indicates the frequency of an event without specifying the exact number of times it happens. Ask them if they can think of other expressions such as this. (You may wish to mention that these will be adverbs or adverbial phrases of time.) For example, often, usually, occasionally, rarely, now and then. List and discuss suggestions, encouraging the children to give examples of sentences using the expressions. As a follow-up, children could suggest adverbs or adverbial phrases that give more specific details of frequency or time, such as every morning, annually, at 3 oclock, when I wake up, tomorrow night.

Independent Work
Children could: complete Activity Sheet 8 (page 78) re-read the poem in the small book research salamanders, finding out about their habits and giving some details of the famous myth of the salamander: that it can live in fire without being harmed act as medical detectives, speculating (on the basis of some study) on just why poor Samuel died in the classroom and writing a report of their conclusions or hypotheses write a story based on the poem work in pairs to write an interview with the child in the poem imagine that Samuel could tell his story, and write what he might say about being found, put into the coffee tin and taken to school.

24

Literacy Links Plus

Non-Fiction Text Chart


YEAR TERM

All the Worlds a Stage!


Shared Reading and Writing

12

Background

Read the opening paragraph on side one. Ask the children what information it contains (it explains what props are, and how they are used). Then ask them what type of text this is (non-fiction) and how they know. Read both sides of the chart. Discuss the differences between this text and fiction text. List some of the features used and discuss why they may have been used; for example, bold text (to highlight key words), boxed text, enlarged text and italic type. Discuss other methods that could be used to present this information, such as in a diagram. Draw the childrens attention to the checklist, and discuss how it helps the reader quickly review the major points in the chart. Ask them to describe the language of the points in the checklist (instructions or commands). Discuss the language used in instructions and how the pronoun you is usually either used or implied. Challenge them to identify other examples of commands on side two of the chart. Re-read the opening paragraph on side one. As a shared writing activity, work with the children to use this information to write a glossary entry for props; for example: props: things that characters use in plays to make the play more realistic. Scribe for the children. Read the entry together, encouraging them to make suggestions that improve the clarity. You could extend this activity by writing glossary entries for other words from the chart, such as play, actor, script, and so on.

This chart presents Chapter 6 of the non-fiction chapter book All the Worlds a Stage! by Angie Lee, David Nuss and Anna-Maria Crum (Literacy Links Plus Stage 8). The book explores the many elements (sound, lighting, costumes) that combine to make a successful play. The chart explains what props are, and how they can be used safely and effectively in a stage play.

NLS References
T17 identifying features of nonfiction texts T18 examining opening sentences T22 identifying features of instructional texts, including the language of commands S1 re-read own writing to check for grammatical sense W3 spelling by analogy with other known words W6 distinguishing between the spelling and meanings of common homophones

Word and Sentence Level Work


Discuss some homophones that the children may be familiar with, such as to/two/too and their/there. Ensure they understand that although homophones sound the same, their meanings and spellings are different. Challenge them to find words in the chart for which homophones exist, such as or, more, piece, no, see, not, be, new, where, and so on. Discuss the other spellings and meanings of these words. Write these words on chart paper and display them for the children to refer and add to. Review the childrens understanding of how common rimes can be used in conjunction with onsets to help spell new words. Write the words must, drink, pick and mind from the chart on the board. Ask the children to use onsets to form new words with the rimes. They could add other words to the list and use the list to help them with their spelling. Ask the children to identify an example of a statement, a question and a command on the chart. Discuss the word order and use of punctuation in each case. Then challenge them to change the question Where does the play take place? into a statement (The play takes place here.); and to change the command Put props in a place where you can quickly find them, into a question (Where can we put the props so we can quickly find them?). Invite the children to locate other examples of statements, questions and commands in the chart and repeat the activity. As you scribe, discuss the word order and punctuation of the different sentences.

Independent Work
Children could: create a checklist for another event; for example, a family members or friends birthday party, a friendly sports game with another team or group compose sentences using the homophones from the chart that show their meaning find and read a play and make a list of the props that would be needed to put on a performance work with classmates to write and perform a short play that uses easily obtained props.

Literacy Links Plus

25

Big Book and Posters


Non-fiction from other subject areas.

Mathematics from Many Cultures


Shared Reading and Writing

13

YEAR

TERM

Background

Display the cover and title page of the book. Ask the children what type of text they expect to find inside (fiction or non-fiction) and discuss their reasons. Flip through the book so they can see the layout of the text. Ask them to identify the features of non-fiction in the book; for example, headings, sub-headings, captions, and so on. Display each page of the book, allowing time for children to skim read. Discuss the content of the text and features of layout at the end of each page. Ask them how specific features of the layout help them understand the information presented; for example, the diagram on page 6 makes it easier to undersand why the Northern Hemisphere receives more sunlight in June. Re-read pages 1213. Invite the children to tell you (in their own words) what they have learned from reading these two pages. What features of the layout did they find helpful? Invite them to talk about their experiences of board games and to outline the different rules, aims and materials of the game(s). Discuss the Konane and Yote board games described on these pages. In what ways are they similar or different to games the children know about? Select two children to play Yote using the overhead transparency of the board. Before you start, re-read the instructions together. Divide the class into two groups, with one group guiding each player to play the game. Continue playing until each player has jumped at least one of the other players pieces. Discuss the effectiveness of the instructions provided. Could they be improved? If so, how? Work with the children to re-write the instructions for Yote so that each instruction begins with an imperative; for example, 1. Move your pieces backwards or forwards to an empty position on the board. 2. Jump one of your opponents pieces whenever you can do so safely. 3. Try to capture all your opponents pieces. Scribe the instructions. Read them together, inviting the children to suggest how they could be improved and to ensure that all the necessary information is included.

Mathematics from Many Cultures is a rich resource that helps children to explore many features of non-fiction texts, including instructions and explanations. It is explored in more detail in Lesson Plan 35 in Term 2 and in Lesson Plan 50 in Term 3. This book is a compilation of posters that can be used in any order.

Preparation
This lesson focuses on pages 1213, (instructions for two board games: Yote and Konane). To prepare, make an overhead transparency of the Konane board, along with 100 counters (coloured transparent counters or two different shapes) ready to be set up. Allow time for the game over several days, so that all children have a chance to play.

NLS References
T17 identifying the features of non-fiction texts T22 identifying the features of instructional texts T25 writing clear instructions S2 investigating verb tenses W6 distinguishing between the spelling and meanings of common homophones W8 spelling irregular tense changes

Independent Work
Children could write instructions for a popular present-day game; they could write for their own age group, or for an older or younger audience write answers for questions in the blue boxes choose a spread and re-write the information for a younger audience, such as Year 2 children write an article about the discovery of Yote and Konane, describing the rules of each game; encourage them to use linking words, such as first, then, next, and so on, to explain how the games are played write a short report comparing the way they multiply numbers with the way the Ancient Egyptians and the Arabs did; encourage them to use organisational devices, such as headings and numbered lists.

Word and Sentence Level Work


Display pages 12 and 13. Discuss the tense of the instructions (present) and how we know this. Work with the children to compose an oral recount (in the past tense) of their experience of playing Yote; for example, Ian jumped five of his opponents pieces in a row and captured them all. Discuss the changes to the verbs, such as jump/jumped, capture/captured. Write the words take and lose on the board. Ask the children how we write these words in the past tense (took, lost) and discuss the changes. Challenge them to suggest other irregular verb tense changes; for example, go/went, can/could, understand/understood. Highlight some words in the text for which homophones exist, such as in, by, see, would, herd. Discuss the other spellings and meanings of these words. Ask them to locate other homophones in the text and to compose sentences using the words, taking care to make the meanings of each homophone clear. Scribe their suggestions.

26

For detailed maths investigations building on Mathematics from Many Cultures, see Kingscourts Maths Links Plus programme.

Literacy Links Plus

Big Book (Science Alive) Non-fiction from other subject areas.


YEAR TERM

All About Forces


Shared Reading and Writing

14

Background

All About Forces (also explored in Lesson Plan 15) provides excellent opportunities for exploring the typical features of non-fiction, including the contents page and the index, and organisational features such as headings and diagrams. The books photographs are ideal as a basis for writing. Children will also benefit from reading the four additional information books (small books) from the All About Forces module: Gripping and Slipping, Down Down Down, Work and Machines, Natures Forces.

Display the cover. Ask the children what type of book they expect All About Forces to be (non-fiction), and to explain why. Display the contents page. Discuss with the children what information the book contains, and how this information appears to be ordered; for example, the first section of the book contains a definition/ explanation of forces. They might also notice that there are two sections for each type of force, as in Gravity and Using Gravity. Read pages 25, pausing at the end of each page to discuss the content and invite children to express key ideas in their own words. Also ask them to identify non-fiction layout features and how they have been used; for example, the headings name the topic for the double-page spreads, the photographs illustrate the different forces that are being discussed, and so on. Return to the contents page and ask the children to select the section they would like to read. Read the whole book in this way, discussing the information on each page. Remind the children that one of the helpful features in many nonfiction texts is an index. Display pages 25, drawing their attention to the photographs of the animals. Then suggest that they use the index to find other pages that contain information about animals. Display each page and ask them to find the animal(s) in each case. As they look at each example, they could discuss where forces (pushes and pulls) are involved; for example, the cat on page 2 does not need to use force to move, but its paw might be pulling on the side of the wheelbarrow to aid stability, and so on. As a shared writing activity, work with the children to write short texts about some of the animals from the book, and the forces they are using; for example, you could use the draught horses (page 6) and/or the sled dogs (page 4). Encourage them to use strong opening sentences to capture the readers attention, such as Forces are important for animals that have to pull loads. Scribe the text, inviting the children to help you with word choice. Read the text together.

NLS References
T17 identifying features of non-fiction texts T18 examining opening sentences T27 writing a non-chronological report S2 investigating verb tenses S5 practising using commas to mark grammatical boundaries W3 building words from words with similar patterns and meanings

Independent Work
Children could: write a short report on the types of forces using the information from the book; encourage them to use organisational devices, such as headings and numbered lists draw a scene, such as a football match, and use arrows to show the different forces being used; for example, the ball falling to the ground is gravitational force write captions for some of the photographs in the book write about their experiences of learning to ice-skate, or ride a bike, or row a boat write a newspaper article focusing on Forces of Destruction (pages 18 and 19); e.g. they could describe the damage caused by a hurricane or a flood read the All About Forces small books.

Word and Sentence Level Work


Write the first two sentences from page 8 on chart paper, omitting the punctuation. Read them with the children and discuss what is missing. Then work with them to punctuate the text. Read through the amended text and discuss the effect of the punctuation. Compare this text with the original text. Write the first paragraph from page 10 on the board. Ask the children to identify the tense (present) and to explain how they know this. Work with them to put it into the past tense. Discuss the words that changed (is/was, occurs/occurred, move/moved). Repeat this activity with other text from the book. Challenge the children to build words from force; for example, forces, forceful, forced, and so on. Discuss the use of force as a noun and as a verb. Challenge the children to compose sentences that use force as both a noun and verb, and to suggest other words that can be used as both a noun and verb; for example, walk, jump, laugh, drive, and so on.

Literacy Links Plus

For detailed science investigations building on the Big Book, see the All About Forces module of Kingscourt Science Alive programme.

27

Big Book (Science Alive) Non-fiction from other subject areas.


YEAR TERM

All About Forces


Shared Reading and Writing

15

Background

Display the cover of All About Forces and discuss what the children remember about the book. Display the contents page to remind them of the key topics, and allow time for general discussion. Ask the children what they remember about gravity and/or any general information they might know about it. Re-read pages 69. Discuss the main ideas in the text, encouraging the children to identify key sentences; for example, Earths gravity pulls everything towards the centre of the planet. Also discuss the photographs, inviting them to describe how each one relates to the topic of gravity. Cover-up Steps 1 and 2 on the overhead transparency of Activity Sheet 10 and display it to the children. Read the sections that are shown and then ask the children what information they think is covered up. Write their suggestions and discuss their validity. Reveal the first two steps and compare them to their predictions. Also discuss the layout and the language used in these instructions; for example, the use of an imperative to start each step. Read the instructions together. Provide materials to allow the children to make the paper spinners, and an opportunity for them to test them. Discuss the forces that are involved in the spinners movements. As a shared writing activity, work with the children to write a short text that describes how they made their paper spinners. Use the steps in the instructions as a guide to what information to include. Remind them that the tense and voice will need to change; for example, instead of the instruction Fold the paper, it would become I folded the paper, and so on. Also remind them to use words that link sentences and show sequence, such as first, then, next; for example, First, I folded the paper in half, then I folded it in half again Before writing, plan the text with the children, encouraging them to think about the information that needs to be included and how it could be organised. Scribe the text. Read it together, inviting them to check that all the relevant information is included.

This is the second lesson focusing on All About Forces (see also Lesson Plan 14). It extends childrens understanding of typical features of non-fiction. There is a special emphasis on the organisational devices and language features of instructions.

Preparation
Children can make their own paper spinners in this lesson. Create an overhead transparency of the Paper Spinner (Activity Sheet 10 on page 80). The children will need paper and scissors.

NLS References
T17 identifying the features of non-fiction texts T22 exploring instructional texts S2 investigating verb tenses S3 identifying powerful verbs S4 identifying ly adverbs W6 investigating homophones W7 & 8 spelling regular and irregular verb endings Activity Sheet 10: T22

Independent Work
Children could: research a topic they found interesting in the book present the key points they have learned from the book as a large poster; they could divide the poster up into the different forces and their uses plan a science fiction or fantasy story that involves all or many of the forces described in the book; for example, it could be about going into space and experiencing no gravity; or going to a strange planet where their feet stick to the ground, or what would happen if the wind lifted them up off the ground and into outer space make another paper spinner, using colours and patterns to decorate it; they could also write a list of Helpful Hints for someone who might be trying to make a paper spinner for the first time read the All About Forces small books.

Word and Sentence Level Work


Using the text from Shared Writing, work with the children to add as many -ly adverbs as possible to describe how they made their spinners; for example, First, I folded the paper in half very carefully I cut the paper slowly, and so on. Discuss the impact these adverbs have on the text. They could also suggest adverbs that describe how the spinners performed; for example, a spinner might have fallen quickly, smoothly, and so on. Work with the children to compile a forces verbs word bank using words from the book; for example, pull, push, shove, squeeze, bang, lift, and so on. Then challenge the children to change these verbs into the past tense; for example, squeezed/squeezes/squeezing, and so on. Discuss any irregular tense changes, such as fly/flew, and so on. Ask the children to find homophones in the text; for example, to, no, greater, and so on. Discuss their different spellings and meanings. Challenge them to put these words into sentences that make their meanings clear. Scribe the sentences.

28

For detailed science investigations building on the Big Book, see the All About Forces module of Kingscourts Science Alive programme.

Literacy Links Plus

Posters and Book


(Maths in Context) Non-fiction from other subject areas. YEAR TERM

Fantastic Flight
Shared Reading and Writing

16

Background

Display the front cover and title page of the book to the children. Brainstorm their ideas about flight. Ask questions, such as What can fly? (planes, birds, helicopters, balloons, and so on). How do they fly? Record the childrens responses as a word web under appropriate headings. Discuss whether the forms of flight on the word web are natural or mechanical. Display each poster, allowing time for the children to comment on the content and layout, and to identify typical features of non-fiction, including headings, sub-headings, captions, and so on. Discuss the role of the different features; for example, headings are in large type to allow the reader to identify the main topic. Discuss the effectiveness of these features in helping the reader to identify and understand the information. Ask the children to identify the posters that are particularly relevant to the history of human flight (Day Dreamers, Beautiful Balloons, Awesome Airships, Hanging Around, Propeller Planes, Jetting Around, and Racing Rockets). Then read three or four of these posters (the children could choose which ones they would like read). Invite them to pick out the key sentences that capture their interest; for example, on Day Dreamers, the opening sentence immediately attracts attention, and the title might intrigue a reader by how it relates to flight. Using the Beautiful Balloons poster, work with the children to write a newspaper article about the first balloon flight. Before writing, re-read the poster and ask them to suggest what information should be included. Scribe their suggestions. Discuss how the information could be organised in the article; for example, they will need to come up with a headline and to compose an opening sentence that captures the readers attention. Scribe the article for the children, encouraging them to help you with word choice and to check that all the relevant facts are included. Read the finished article, inviting the children to make any improvements.

Fantastic Flight is one of the titles in the exciting Mathtastics series, which provides a set of high-interest posters as well as books with additional information and related activities. Fantastic Flight looks at the history of flying, from birds and balloons, to planes and rockets. The material is ideal for exploring typical features of non-chronological reports and instructions. Two lesson plans are provided to focus on different aspects of non-fiction reading and writing. (See also Lesson Plan 17.)

NLS References
T17 identifying features of non-fiction T18 selecting opening and key sentences T24 writing a newspaper style report S5 using commas W3 spelling by analogy W8 spelling irregular tense changes

Independent Work
Children could: design a futuristic mode of air transport, including an explanation of how it works write comical instructions for a pre-flight brief for the sheep, duck and rooster who flew in the Montgolfier balloon; for example, Dont try to jump out! Dont run around madly! compile a list of -ly adverbs to qualify fly; for example, swiftly, dangerously, excitingly think up new attention-grabbing headings for each poster write a definition for the word flight using the information they have learned from the posters write about their experiences if they could fly for one day. Where would they go? What would they see? How would it feel to be high above the world?

Word and Sentence Level Work


Write fly, flew and has flown on the board. Discuss that flew and has flown are the past tense of fly. Remind the children that many verbs do not simply have -ed added when they are put into the past tense. Ask them to suggest other flight-related verbs that have irregular tense changes; for example, take off/took off, rise/rose, and so on. Ask them to suggest other verbs that have irregular tense changes, such as weep/wept, bind/bound, run/ran, do/did, and so on. Write flight on the board. Invite the children to think of some other words that have the letter string ght; for example, fright, fight, might, light, bright, tight, and so on. Scribe their suggestions. Write the first paragraph from the Awesome Airships poster on chart paper, omitting the punctuation. Read it with the children and discuss how the absence of punctuation affects the reading. Work with them to punctuate the text. Read the punctuated text together and discuss how it has improved. Compare their punctuation with the punctuation in the text from the poster.
For detailed maths investigations building on Fantastic Flight, see Kingscourts Maths Links Plus programme.

Literacy Links Plus

29

Posters and Book


(Maths in Context) Non-fiction from other subject areas. YEAR TERM

Fantastic Flight
Shared Reading and Writing

17

Background

Ask the children what they remember about the Fantastic Flight posters. Scribe and discuss their ideas. Display some of the posters that relate to human flight (for example, Day Dreamers, Beautiful Balloons, Awesome Airships, Hanging Around). Discuss the main ideas and different ways in which the information is presented. Display the Awesome Airships poster. Draw the childrens attention to the Fact Sheet and read the information to them. Ask the children what fact means. How is a fact different from an opinion? Use an example of an opinion such as People should not fly in planes, and ask them to explain why this is an opinion rather than a fact. Cover the You will need section and steps 1 and 2 of the overhead transparency of Activity Sheet 11 and display it to the children. Ask them what information is covered up. Write and discuss their suggestions. Reveal the text and compare it to their predictions. Discuss the layout and language used in the instructions; for example, the use of steps, list of equipment, and illustrations. Read through the instructions together. Provide the materials for the children to make the paper gliders, and an opportunity for them to test them and discuss their performance. As a shared writing activity, ask the children to imagine they had to teach a baby bird how to fly. Work with them to compose clear instructions for the baby bird. Before scribing, ask them to suggest all the things they might need to tell the baby bird so it can learn to fly without hurting itself. Write their ideas on the board. Also discuss how the information could be organised; for example, they could use numbered steps as in the paper glider instructions: Step 1: Stand on the edge of a low branch of a tree. Step 2: Test your wings by flapping them a few times Remind the children that these instructions will need to be very clear and easy to follow. Agree on and scribe the instructions. Read through them together, inviting the children to check that all the necessary information is included and that they are clear.

This second lesson plan on Fantastic Flight builds on the childrens knowledge of the typical features of non-chronological reports and instructions (See Lesson Plan 16 for the introduction to the posters and book.)

Preparation
Children can make their own paper gliders in this lesson. Create an overhead transparency of the Paper Glider Activity Sheet 11 on page 81. The children will need paper, scissors, ruler, tape and a coin.

NLS References
T19 understanding the terms fact and opinion T22 identifying the features of instructional texts T25 writing clear instructions S1 checking own work for grammatical sense and accuracy W11 defining familiar vocabulary in their own words W12 putting words into alphabetical order Activity Sheet 12: S2, W9

Independent Work
Children could: complete Activity Sheet 12 (page 82) write a personal recount about their experiences of flying a kite research the Hindenberg airship fire in 1937 and write a newspaper article about it, including an attention-grabbing headline write a recount from a birds point of view about one of the forms of human flight discussed in Fantastic Flight; for example, it could be critical of our efforts to fly: Just because the new Boeing 777 Stretch can carry hundreds of people, I still think it is unattractive and clumsy, compared to my graceful and lovely wings and the noise it makes! imagine that they were a stowaway in the Montgolfier balloon and write a story about their experiences.

Word and Sentence Level Work


Write the sentence A fly can fly on the board. Ask the children to comment on the different uses of the word fly (as a noun and a verb). Remind them that the word fly is a homophone. Challenge the children to suggest other examples of homophones in the posters with the same and different spellings and to use them in sentences that make their meaning clear; for example, plane/plain, feat/feet, soar/sore, land, trip, bee/be, beat, see/sea, and so on. Brainstorm words and/or phrases that use the word fly as the root word; for example, fly, flew, flying, flight, flight path, flown, flies, flying fish, flying start, and so on. Then challenge the children to put these words into alphabetical order. Work with the children to compile a list of flight-related words; for example, balloon, kite, plane, wingspan, migration, aircraft, glider, propeller, and so on. Then challenge them to give a clear oral definition of each of the words.

30

For detailed maths investigations building on Fantastic Flight, see Kingscourts Maths Links Plus programme.

Literacy Links Plus

Non-Fiction Big Book


YEAR TERM

The Sun
Shared Reading and Writing

18

Background

Discuss the cover. Ask the children what they already know about the sun and what they would like to find out from reading the book. Record responses under the headings, What I already know about the sun and What I want to find out about the sun. Read the main heading and body text of each double-page spread with the children (or read up to page 11 and save the remaining section for a follow-up lesson). Pause after each spread to discuss main ideas. Also help children to explore how sub-headings, pictures and captions contribute to these ideas and to the overall impact. Record points relevant to childrens initial ideas in note form. Invite the children to comment on features of layout and typography that they find interesting, attractive and/or helpful. Also invite them to comment on aspects of the book, if any, that they think are less effective. Revisit pages 2 and 3. Discuss the concepts of fact (something proven to be true) and belief. Note examples of beliefs or legends about the sun, using ideas from the book; for example, The sun is a golden egg laid every morning. Then introduce the concept of opinion (a point of view). Brainstorm with the children examples of facts and opinions. For example, Facts: The sun is a star. The sun is the only star we see on a clear day. Opinions: The sun shining in the sky is beautiful. An eclipse is scary. Work with the children to plan a narrative version of one of the sun legends mentioned on pages 2 and 3; for example, the legend about a sky dragon causing an eclipse. Brainstorm ideas for the introduction, build-up, climax, and resolution; for example, the introduction might focus on the dragon waking up and feeling hungry. Scribe for the children to help them develop a draft plan. Creating the story itself could also be a shared writing activity.

The Sun is a very accessible non-fiction big book that explores many aspects of the sun, ranging from ancient myths and legends, to contemporary environmental issues. Two lesson plans are provided to allow children to explore many different aspects of text and layout, and to use the book as a springboard for a variety of writing activities. (See also Lesson Plan 19.)

NLS References
T4, 9, 10 identifying and planning stages of a narrative T16 identifying and exploring different types of text and their purposes T19 exploring and distinguishing between fact and opinion S2 revising work on verbs S4 identifying adverbs and their function W3 word building W6 exploring homophones

Independent Work
Children could: write about a world without a sun write their own stories (new legends) to answer the questions on page 3 (Where does the sun come from? or What is an eclipse?) or another question of their choice write a letter to the sky dragon or the great goose of the sky mentioned on page 3, perhaps asking for the creatures help in making sure that the people of earth are never without the sun, and explaining why this is so important personify the sun and write a character description make a poster that shows all the different ways in which we depend on the sun. Children should give the poster a title and also use a variety of organisational devices to present the information clearly to the reader.

Word and Sentence Level Work


Challenge the children to come up with as many words as possible that have sun as a root word; for example, sunny, sunburn, sunlight, sunset, sunrise, sunshine. Remind the children that a suffix could be used to form an antonym of sunny (sunless). Discuss homophones with the children, starting with words from the text; for example (pages 23), sun (son), where (wear), knew (new), by (buy), would (wood), made (maid), great (grate). Work through the text with the children to find other homophones and discuss their different meanings. Challenge the children to suggest -ly adverbs that qualify the verbs shine or shining: brightly, brilliantly, dimly, shyly, and so on. (Ensure that the terms verb and adverb are used and clarified.) If appropriate, extend the activity to include adverbial words and/or phrases that do not have the -ly pattern; for example, often, sometimes, seldom, in the afternoon, every morning. Encourage the children to suggest complete sentences using a variety of structures; for example, Shining brightly, the sun kept us warm all day. The sun shone brightly and kept us warm all day.

Literacy Links Plus

31

Non-Fiction Big Book


YEAR TERM

The Sun
Shared Reading and Writing

19

Background

Discuss and list main points about the sun that children recall from their earlier work with the Big Book. Also invite them to pose any new questions they may have about the sun. Record these under the heading What I want to find out about the sun. Invite the children to say why this is a non-fiction book. Discuss the different types of text and the non-fiction text features that allow the reader to gain information efficiently, asking the children to find and describe specific examples in the book. Read pages 1215 of the book with the children and discuss the content of the text. Work with them to identify and list the key sentences (or words or phrases) that help the reader to understand what is meant by the heading Our sun needs help. Work with the children to plan a poster or wall display showing the different threats to the sun. Decide on key headings, possible illustrations and captions, labelled diagrams, and so on. As a shared writing activity, work with them to compose a paragraph that will sum up the key ideas and serve as an introduction to the poster or display. Place particular emphasis on having a clear opening sentence that will set the scene and capture interest. Scribe the text. Read through the work and ask them to check it makes sense and if there is anything else they wish to add. Later, for independent work, they could write and illustrate posters of their own and/or work on their individual contributions to the classroom wall display.

The Sun was introduced in Lesson Plan 18. If appropriate, refamiliarise the children with the key features and main ideas of the parts of the book they have already explored before moving on to the activities suggested in this lesson plan.

NLS References
T17 identifying features of non-fiction text T18 selecting and examining key sentences and phrases that capture interest and convey important information S2 exploring verbs and verb tenses S4 identifying adverbs W3, 7, 9 building from words with similar patterns and meanings W12 using 3rd- and 4th-place letters in alphabetical sequencing Activity Sheet 13: T24, S2

Independent Work
Children could: complete Activity Sheet 13 (page 83) make a poster that shows all the ways in which we depend upon the sun. They could think of a title for the poster and use a variety of organisational devices to present the information. write, for younger readers, a report on the sun, using information from the book. Remind them to think about the main topics they wish to cover and key headings that help make the report accessible and interesting. write a dialogue between the sun and rain in summertime; e.g. I dont know why you wont just go away and let me do my job! Sun said to Rain./Im not going to let you spoil my fun, Rain replied. list good and bad things about the sun; for example, Positive: Plants need the sun so they can make their own food. Negative: The sun can burn our skin and scorch the land. The children should think about how they wish to present the information, e.g. a chart.

Word and Sentence Level Work


Use the verbs move/moved, trap/trapped, shine/shone as the starting point for a discussion about regular and irregular verbs and pasttense forms. Brainstorm more examples and list them on chart paper, discussing spelling patterns as you write. Suggestions could include rise/rose, keep/kept, verbs that do not change, such as let, and also examples of -ed or -t alternative endings, as in burn/burned/ burnt, learn/learned/learnt. Use sun words (sunny/sunburn/sunlight/sunset/sunrise and so on) to help children practise arranging words alphabetically using 3rd- and 4th-place letters. Work through the book with the children and ask them to note all the words that are in italics (such as day and night on page 6). Discuss why these words are in italics. Work together to put them into alphabetical order and write concise definitions for them. Use the words danger, destroy, protection, friend and heat as the basis for word building activities; for example, danger, dangerous, dangerously, endanger, endangered, endangering; destroy, destroyed, destruction, destructive; friend, friendship, friendly, friendliness, and so on. Work with the children to place the words on a chart, using headings for the different parts of speech (noun, verb, adverb, adjective). Encourage them to see that sometimes one word can be more than one part of speech; for example, The suns heat (noun); The sun can heat (verb). As a follow-up, children could use some of the words in different ways to form different tenses.

32

Literacy Links Plus

Term 2 Overview
Lesson Plans Key Skills and Strategies
(Specific NLS references are listed on each lesson plan) investigating how writers create imaginary worlds investigating the use of descriptive and expressive language to create moods and describe emotions exploring adjectives investigating word order exploring words that imply gender Activity Sheet 14: NLS references S2, W12 investigating how writers create imaginary worlds identifying patterns of rhyme writing poetry based on the structure of poetry read exploring adjectives, including adding suffixes to nouns and verbs to make adjectives

20

The Fisherman and His Wife


Fiction Big Book

21 22 23 24 25

The Fisherman and His Wife

Because of Walter
Fiction Text Chart

investigating how writers create imaginary worlds investigating and developing settings exploring adjectives, including adding suffixes to nouns and verbs to make adjectives investigating the use of descriptive and expressive language to create moods and describe emotions note-making investigating the apostrophe of possession exploring words which imply gender understanding the use of figurative language understanding the effect of expressive and descriptive language writing poetry and other texts based on poems read investigating and using prefixes Activity Sheet 15: NLS reference T2 discussing the use of figurative language in poetry, and evaluating its impact on the reader comparing and contrasting settings writing poetry based on poems read using alternative words to be more accurate or interesting and extend vocabulary Activity Sheet 16: NLS references T10, S1 & 2 comparing and contrasting poems identifying patterns of rhyme in poetry writing descriptive poetry and/or other descriptive texts based on poems read investigating the effect of expressive and descriptive language on the reader using connectives and commas to join clauses Activity Sheet 17: NLS references S4, W3 & 6 identifying words which suggest a poem is not contemporary discussing figurative language writing descriptive poetry and/or other descriptive texts based on poems read adding suffixes to nouns and verbs to make adjectives Activity Sheet 18: NLS references T4, S2 & 4, W13

The Bad Luck of King Fred


Fiction Text Chart

A Football Game
Poetry: descriptive rhyming poem

The City Dump and City


Poetry: contemporary poems on the same theme

26

On the Skateboard, Freewheeling on a Bike and Portrait of a Motor Car


Poetry: free verse

27

Silver
Poetry: classic rhyming poem

Literacy Links Plus

33

Lesson Plans

Key Skills and Strategies


(Specific NLS references are listed on each lesson plan) comparing and contrasting poems on similar themes identifying specific language features and poetic techniques that create impact describing how a poet does or does not use rhyme understanding how words can be changed writing scripts based on poems Activity Sheet 19: NLS references T13, W3 scanning a non-fiction book to appraise its contents and usefulness identifying key words and phrases investigating paragraphs exploring commas to separate clauses defining words

28

Winter Moon and Summer Full Moon


Poetry: classic and contemporary verse

29 30

Under the Ground


Non-Fiction Big Book

Under the Ground

identifying key words and phrases and using these to summarise text investigating explanatory texts exploring adjectives investigating word order Activity Sheet 20: NLS references T23, W10

31 32 33 34 35

The Wonderful World of Plants


Non-Fiction from Other Subject Areas

investigating and writing explanatory texts using notes as a basis for writing exploring adjectives spelling by analogy with other known words

The Wonderful World of Plants

identifying key words and phrases and using these to summarise text exploring adjectives and adjectival phrases investigating apostrophes for contraction and possession Activity Sheet 21: NLS references T21, S3

Natures Mathematical Marvels


Non-Fiction from Other Subject Areas

collecting and presenting information in a useful format examining comparative and superlative forms of adjectives investigating apostrophes for contraction and possession

Natures Mathematical Marvels

writing using descriptive and expressive language investigating explanatory texts exploring adjectives and adjectival phrases exploring alternative words and expressions Activity Sheet 22: NLS references T15, S4, W3 investigating and writing explanatory texts examining comparative and superlative adjectives investigating word order defining words

Mathematics from Many Cultures


Non-Fiction Big Book See also Lesson Plans 13 and 50 for further work with this book

34

Literacy Links Plus

Fiction Big Book


YEAR TERM

The Fisherman and His Wife


Shared Reading and Writing

20

Background

The Fisherman and His Wife, a traditional tale, is explored in two lesson plans in this term (see also Lesson Plan 21). The story provides an opportunity for children to explore the importance of expressive and descriptive language in helping writers to create imaginary worlds. The characters of the fisherman and his wife are ideal for comparing and contrasting. You may also wish to use the story as a starting point for discussing features of traditional tales.

NLS References
T1 understanding how writers create imaginary worlds T4 understanding how the use of expressive and descriptive language can create moods and describe emotions S1 revising work on adjectives S3 understanding the significance of word order W9 using alternative words and expressions W10 exploring words which imply gender Activity Sheet 14: S2, W12

Display the front cover, and then page 3. Ask the children what they can tell about the characters based on these illustrations. Then read the story to or with them. After general discussion, ask them to identify features of the story that make it a fiction text; for example, it is set in an imaginary world. Ask them if the ending is happy or sad, and to give their reasons. For example, it could be sad because the fisherman and his wife lose everything the fish gives them. However, it could also be happy because the fishermans wife learns a valuable lesson about greediness. Discuss their responses. Discuss the personalities of the characters. Ask the children to describe the fishermans wife; for example, greedy, selfish, mean, and so on. Also discuss the characters of the fisherman and the fish. How are they different from the wife? Encourage the children to use examples to support their answers. Re-read page 4. Ask the children to locate words that help create the mood of the scene; for example, strange, enchanted. Then read page 8 and ask them what words/phrases in the first paragraph help the reader imagine the setting, such as lovely little cottage and white picket fence. Discuss how adjectives are often used to create vivid scenes or moods. Re-read a few more pages with the children, challenging them to find adjectives that help to make the scene vivid. As a shared writing activity, work with the children to compose a letter from the fishermans wife to her sister about her lovely cottage (page 8); for example, Dear Marigold, Finally I have a decent house! That hut was dark and smelly, and horribly small! Now I have a lovely cottage, with big windows and flower boxes filled with bright red roses Encourage the children to suggest expressive and descriptive language to create a vivid scene and convey an appropriate mood. As they agree on each sentence, scribe the text. Discuss the layout of the letter as you write. Read the text together.

Independent Work
Children could: complete Activity Sheet 14 (page 84) write a moral for this story, such as, Be content with what you have, or If you ask for too much, you may end up with nothing. Children could also write morals for other suitable traditional tales. compare and contrast the behaviour and characters of the fisherman and his wife write a personal recount from the point of view of the enchanted fish write a list of things they would wish for if they met an enchanted fish (keeping in mind what happens to the fishermans wife!) imagine where the wife would want to live next if the fish allowed her one more wish, and describe it using as many adjectives as possible.

Word and Sentence Level Work


Re-read page 12. Ask the children to identify the words that imply gender (for example, wife, fisherman, queen) and ask them to suggest matching words for the other gender (husband, fisherwoman, king). Then challenge them to think of other examples, such as goose/ gander, stallion/mare, prince/princess, hero/heroine, brother/sister. Display each page of the book and ask the children to identify the words that are used to introduce dialogue: cried, called, asked, said, and so on. Invite them to suggest alternative words that could be used. For example, his wife said (page 16), could be his wife demanded, or his wife yelled ferociously, and so on. Discuss the effect these words have on the text and a readers response. Write the fishermans wife on the board. Ask the children what task the apostrophe performs here (showing possession). Then ask the children what the plural forms of man and wife are (men and wives). Discuss how to use the apostrophe of possession in these words (mens and wives ). Challenge them to think of words that have the same pattern when they are made plural possessive, such as woman/women/womens, thief/thieves/thieves, and so on.

Literacy Links Plus

35

Fiction Big Book


YEAR TERM

The Fisherman and His Wife


Shared Reading and Writing

21

Background

Ask the children what they remember about The Fisherman and His Wife. Where is the story set? What happens to the fisherman and his wife in the end? Scribe key points. Then work together to re-organise the information under the headings: Characters, Setting and Sequence of events. Display page 22. Draw the childrens attention to the words in bold (another and home) and ask them why they might be in bold. Read the text together, emphasising the words. Then display page 24 and ask them to choose two words that could be given similar emphasis; for example never and again. Discuss their suggestions and what impact the extra emphasis has on the reading of the text. Ask the children how they know that this story is fantasy; for example, it is set in an imaginary world where enchanted fish make wishes come true. Work through the book, inviting them to identify sections in which the fantasy quality is evident, such as when the fish talks. Encourage them to refer to specific words/phrases in the text to support their answers. As a shared writing activity, work with the children to write replies from the enchanted fish to each request made by the fisherman, using the same rhyming pattern. Before you begin, brainstorm and list adjectives that describe the fisherman and his wife; for example, the wife could be described as weak, greedy and selfish. Then help the children to compose the fishs rhymes; for example, to the fishermans second request the enchanted fish could reply: Sad fisherman who is calling me,/Sad fisherman, I hear your plea./What does your selfish wife need?/I am astounded by her greed! Scribe the new text. Then have some children read the fishermans requests, with others reading the fishs responses.

This is the second lesson plan exploring The Fisherman and His Wife (see also Lesson Plan 20). This lesson builds on earlier work done on the devices writers use to create vivid characters and scenes and convey moods. It also uses the rhyming text in the story as a model to help children to write their own rhyming text. In shared reading and re-reading of the story, children could take turns reading the characters parts (direct speech).

NLS References
T1 understanding how writers create imaginary worlds T7 identifying patterns of rhyme T11 writing poetry based on the structure of poetry read S1 revising and extending work on adjectives; relating them to the suffixes and adverbs which indicate degrees of intensity W13 adding suffixes to nouns and verbs to make adjectives

Independent Work
Children could: write a personal recount from the point of view of the fisherman about how he felt each time he returned home only to have his wife demand he ask the enchanted fish for more write a poem based on the story compare and contrast The Fisherman and His Wife with other traditional tales write a personal recount from the point of view of the wife, including the reasons for her wishes script, and later role-play for the class, an interview with the fisherman and his wife about how they feel about their experiences with the enchanted fish choose another animal that could be enchanted like the fish and write a story based on the events of The Fisherman and His Wife; for example, an enchanted cow could grant wishes to a dairy farmer.

Word and Sentence Level Work


Write greedy on the board and ask the children what part of speech it is (an adjective). Discuss how greedy would change if we wanted to say one person was more greedy than another person (greedier). Also discuss how greediest is used; you could use an example, such as The first demand the wife made was greedy. The next demand was greedier than the first, but the last was definitely the greediest of all. Challenge the children to suggest another word that describes the wife or her demands; for example, unhappy, and then compose sentences that use the comparative and superlative forms of the word. Then use selfish to discuss how more and most are used to indicate different degrees of selfishness. Ask the children to use them in a sentence about the wife; for example, The wife is more selfish than the fisherman. She is the most selfish character in the story. Write man and home on the board. Ask the children what part of speech these words are (nouns). Discuss how they can be changed into adjectives by adding -ly (manly, homely). Extend the discussion to include other words (nouns and verbs) that can be changed into adjectives by adding a suffix; for example, colour/colourful, excite/excitable or exciting, magic/magical. Brainstorm examples with the children.

36

Literacy Links Plus

Fiction Text Chart


YEAR TERM

Because of Walter
Shared Reading and Writing

22

Background

This chart presents the first half of Chapter 2 from the novel Because of Walter by Carol Krueger (Literacy Links Plus Stage 8). This moving story is a first-person narrative told by the main character, Kaysha, who has lived in a number of foster homes. She hopes her new foster family, the Parkers, will be a lasting placement.

Read the chart with the children. Then re-read the description of the outside of the house. Ask the children if they can paint a picture in their minds of what the house looks like. Ask them to locate the words and phrases the author has used to make the description memorable. These could include bright spring flowers, rambled, bright blue door, tubs of lavender. Discuss the use of description in expressive writing, especially in building up settings. Talk about the use of imagination and interesting language to help create an original and interesting scene. Re-read the description of the inside of the house together, and invite the children to locate the specific words or phrases that help create the scene. Discuss the parts of speech that are often used to build a vivid description. In most cases, these are likely to be adjectives, verbs and adverbs. Discuss the characters behaviour. Ask the children how the descriptions help the reader to understand the characters and their feelings. Encourage them to locate specific text that supports this view; for example: This is where the Parkers live? I said, shocked. This is where you are going to live. As a shared writing activity, work with the children to compose a short text from Kayshas point of view that describes what happens next. Encourage them to use descriptive, interesting language to help create the scene; for example, We walked for a short time, winding our way along a narrow, twisting path. Then, suddenly, I felt the warmth and softness of the sand beneath my feet. I looked up and there it was, the spectacular turquoise sea Scribe the text for the children. Read it together, inviting them to make any improvements.

NLS References
T1 understanding how writers create imaginary worlds T2 understanding how settings influence events and incidents in stories and how they affect characters behaviour T10 developing settings in writing S1 revising and extending work on adjectives W13 investigating a range of suffixes that can be added to nouns and verbs to make adjectives

Word and Sentence Level Work


Review the childrens understanding of compound words, inviting them to recall some of these. Then challenge them to identify compound words on the chart; for example, outside, upstairs, raincoats, staircase, bedrooms and wallpaper. Scribe them on the board. Ask them to identify the two words in each and to have some fun combining them to make made-up compound words, such as outstairs, or rainrooms. Ask the children to suggest common suffixes. List them. Discuss how some words can be changed by using a suffix; for example, hope, hopeful, hopeless and hoping. Then ask the children to identify adjectives in the text chart that contain a suffix, such as beautiful, rambling and friendly. As a follow-up, challenge the children to suggest the root word for each of these adjectives and, where appropriate, extend this to creating other parts of speech; for example: beautiful, beauty, beautify, beautifully; rambling, ramble, rambler; friendly, friendship, befriend. Point out the word flowers on side one. Ask the children to suggest suffixes that can be added to flowers to make adjectives, such as flowering, flowery, or flowered. Encourage them to use each of the new words as an adjective in a sentence. Scribe the sentences.

Independent Work
Children could: write a prequel to the scene outlined on the chart, explaining how Kaysha might have come to be a foster child use the descriptive passages on the chart as a model and write descriptions of their ideal room, house, view, street, or neighbourhood write about why Victoria might not be pleased that Kaysha is coming to live with her family make predictions about how the chapter might end and check these predictions by reading Because of Walter (if it is available) make suggestions about who Walter is and what his significance might be later in the story.

Literacy Links Plus

37

Fiction Text Chart


YEAR TERM

The Bad Luck of King Fred


Shared Reading and Writing

23

Background

This chart presents the text from pages 2024 of the novel The Bad Luck of King Fred by Anna-Maria Crum (Literacy Links Plus Stage 8). The use of humour to illuminate ageold superstitious practices is a feature of this book. Superstitions relating to four-leaf clovers and salt are the focus of the chart text.

Read the first paragraph on side one of the chart. Highlight the sentence that begins The night before... Ask the children to imagine the scene that is being described. Ask them to locate the specific words and phrases that have been used to create the scene; for example, violent thunderstorm, raged for hours and hours, shaking and pounding. Also ask them to describe the feeling or mood that the author is trying to evoke in the first paragraph. Read the second paragraph together. Discuss the way it differs from the first paragraph in its lack of description. Ask the children what the main purpose of this paragraph is (providing information rather than describing a scene). Then read the third paragraph and discuss its purpose (plot development). Discuss the strategies the author has employed to create moods, build tension and develop the plot. Read the rest of the chart together. As a shared writing activity, work with the children to make notes about what they believe the authors intent to be in each of the remaining paragraphs. Also encourage them to identify the expressive or descriptive language the author has used. Scribe the notes under appropriate headings. Read the text together, inviting the children to add examples from the text if necessary and to make any improvements to the notes.

NLS References
T4 understanding how the use of expressive and descriptive language can create moods, arouse expectations, build tension, describe attitudes or emotions T14 making notes S2 using the apostrophe to mark possession W3 using independent spelling strategies W10 exploring and discussing words that imply gender

Word and Sentence Level Work


Highlight words on side one that contain ou; for example, hour, pounding, shoulder, brought and would. Discuss the pronunciations of these words with the children. Point out the importance of the surrounding letters, especially those after the letter string, in the pronunciation of the ou. Discuss any spelling-pronunciation patterns they can find; for example, pound/round/sound, could/ would/should. Ask them to locate other examples of words containing the ou letter string on side two. List these and encourage them to suggest rhyming words that contain the same spelling pattern. Ask the children to find words on the chart with double consonants; for example, matter, tapping, better, arrived, porridge and bobbing. Scribe these on the board. Challenge the children to identify the words that always contain the double consonant, and those where the final consonant has been doubled when a suffix was added. Write King Fred on the board and ask the children, If King Fred had a wife called Francesca, what would her title be? Discuss the idea that king and queen are titles that indicate the gender of the person. Invite the children to suggest other words that indicate gender; for example, prince/princess, chicken/rooster, fox/vixen, and so on. Write King Fred's wife is called Francesca on the board. Ask the children to identify the apostrophe and describe its purpose (possession). Then ask them where the apostrophe would be placed if you were talking about more than one king (kings). Then ask the children what the plural of wife is (wives). Challenge them to place the apostrophes in the following sentence: The kings wives hats were pink (kings, wives). Discuss the location of each apostrophe.

Independent Work
Children could: write about their experiences of storms at night, focusing on the thoughts that went through their minds as they waited for the storm to end create some amusing explanations for why King Freds bed was full of salt design a cartoon sequel that continues the story of how King Fred solves the problem with his porridge interview older family members about other superstitions they know about.

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Literacy Links Plus

Poetry Big Book: Thrills and Chills


YEAR TERM

A Football Game
Shared Reading and Writing

24

Background

Display the poem, then read it to the children. Re-read it together. Allow time for a brief discussion of the childrens experiences of attending a football game, or another game. Re-read the final stanza and ask the children if they think there is a message, and if so, what that message might be. (Encourage the children to quote directly from the poem.) Discuss the idea that it is better to play any game for the fun of it, rather than to win, and ask the children if they would agree with this message. Why/why not? Also ask them if they can find any lines that might seem to contradict the message (for example, two teams that wont give in and Go, fight, win!). Discuss the mood of the poem with the children. Invite them to suggest adjectives that could describe the mood. Scribe their suggestions on the board, encouraging them to quote from the poem to support their choices; for example, if they suggest cheerful, then lines such as Its the colours everywhere, or Its a thrill could be quoted to support that view. Discuss the rhymes and rhythm of the poem, and ask children how effective they think these are. Ask the children if a slow and mournful rhythm would be more or less appropriate for the subject of the poem, and why. Draw the childrens attention to the rhymes whiff/sniff and thrill/chill. Ask the children if they can tell you what is special about these particular rhymes (the words not only rhyme, they are related in their meaning). As a shared writing activity, challenge the children to think of other matched rhymes like these, and put them into sentences for you to scribe on the board. For example, hurry and scurry; prattle and rattle; doom and gloom; light and bright; fearful and tearful; weary and dreary.

A Football Game is the first in a series of poems that focus on aspects of contemporary life. Alice Van Ecks poem is about sport and the passions it arouses. The children will relate to and have fun with the descriptions of the energy and excitement of a football match. They are also given the opportunity to discuss whether the aim of sport is enjoyment, or winning. While children are discussing the poem, you could ask them how they can guess that it was originally written about American football rather than soccer (e.g. the reference to popcorn).

NLS References
T4 understanding the effect of expressive and descriptive language T7 identifying patterns of rhyme in poetry T13 writing examples of descriptive, expressive language S1 revising and extending work on adjectives S4 using connectives and commas to join clauses W3 spelling by analogy with other known words Activity Sheet 15: T2

Word and Sentence Level Work


Draw the childrens attention to the word popcorn in the second stanza of the poem. Ask the children what is unusual about popcorn as the name for a food (its name describes the process of its preparation). Challenge the children to think of other food names that have the same or a similar characteristic; for example, apple turnover, crackers, bubble and squeak, mashed potatoes, milk shake, stir-fry. List the names on the board as the children offer them, then ask the children to put three of their suggestions into a single sentence, using connectives other than and. For example, I ate an apple turnover after drinking the milk shake, but this meant I had no room left for the stir-fry. Discuss with the children the task of adjectives, and the important part they play in this poem. Ask them if they can find two examples of adjectives being used to make a noun stronger and more intense (deep, breathless hush; desperate grasp). Challenge them to use adjectives to make some of the unqualified nouns more intense in the same way; for example, a sigh could become, a long, heartfelt sigh. Other nouns that could be qualified in this way are: cheer, roar, band, colour, thrill, chill.

Independent Work
Children could: complete Activity Sheet 15 (page 85) re-read the poem in the small book write an additional stanza for the poem, keeping the same 2/4 rhyming scheme compose their own football club theme song (to an existing tune, perhaps) that focuses on the fun and thrill of the game, rather than winning write an account of the things they most enjoy about attending a football match (or any sporting event), either as a spectator or a player write a poem or story about the most thrilling and chilling sporting event they have ever witnessed or been involved in.

Literacy Links Plus

39

Poetry Big Book: Thrills and Chills


YEAR TERM

The City Dump and City


Shared Reading and Writing

25

Background

Before displaying the poems, discuss with the children some of the more common subjects of poetry; for example, nature, animals and people. Tell them one of the poems they will be reading today is about a rubbish dump; ask them whether this seems a very likely subject and invite them to suggest what might be in the poem. Read The City Dump to the children. Re-read it together. Ask them if they think the poet is disgusted with the dump, or has discovered a different, more positive side to it. Invite them to quote specific lines from the poem to support their view, and to find the word in the poem that the poet has used to sum up all of the images we are offered (carnival). Ask them what creatures are enjoying this carnival (mice, seagulls). Challenge them to find things that happen at the dump that could be compared to the things that might happen at a carnival; for example, There are lots of different sorts of foods to try, like grapefruit rinds and apple peels. Scribe the comparisons on the board, using inverted commas for quotations from the poem. Read City to the children, then re-read it together. Discuss the mood of this poem. Allow time for discussion of the childrens impressions of the differences in a big city in the morning and at night. Ask them if they think the poet has made the city an attractive place or an ugly place. Discuss with the children what the poet has compared the city to in each stanza (a bird and jewels). Ask them if they think the comparisons work to help us imagine the city as an appealing place at different times of the day, and why/why not. As a shared writing activity, invite the children to create a menu for the dump, adding to the foods already mentioned in the poem. Encourage them to choose words that rhyme, as in the lines crusts and crumbs/ And pits of plums; for example, bits of cheese and the shells of peas. The children could also suggest a name for the dump restaurant. Scribe the childrens suggestions on the board, inviting them to guide you with spelling and punctuation.

The City Dump provides a wonderful example of the way a poet can look at something ordinary to make us see something extraordinary. Felice Holman found inspiration in a rubbish dump and turned a heap of rubbish into a carnival. (Children will readily understand mild Americanisms such as dump, and pits rather than pips.) City, by Langston Hughes, similarly transforms the ordinary into the special: the city is no longer tired, polluted and dull, but a place that soars into life, while at night the lights appear like fabulous jewels. The children will enjoy thinking of their own unusual topics for poetry.

NLS References
T3 comparing, contrasting and evaluating settings T5 understanding the use of figurative language in poetry T11 writing poetry based on poems read S4 investigating the effect of punctuation W9 using alternative words to be more accurate or interesting Activity Sheet 16: T10, S1 & 2

Independent Work
Children could: complete Activity Sheet 16 (page 86) re-read the poem in the small book choose and write about another feature of the city, in the way that Langston Hughes has; city features might include the hustle and bustle of busy shoppers, or the city skyline write a more complete menu for the creatures that visit the dump, with hors doeuvres, a main course, side dishes, desserts and drinks, all based on what would be found on a garbage heap choose an activity or a location that we usually consider unattractive or uninviting and write about it in a way that makes it seem fascinating; for example, washing a pile of dirty clothes; sweeping up the rubbish from the streets; a butchers shop.

Word and Sentence Level Work


Challenge the children to find two words in the poem that we use to name things we have thrown away and consider useless (garbage and refuse). Scribe these words on the board. Then ask the children if they can think of any other words that we use for the same purpose; for example, debris, rubbish, muck, trash, swill, junk, litter. Scribe these new words on the board. Ask the children to identify the punctuation marks in the two poems (full stops and ellipses). Work with them to punctuate the poems more fully. Scribe the lines of each poem on chart paper, adding the childrens suggested punctuation as you go (for example, City asleep, City asleep, Papers fly at the garbage heap). Take this opportunity to discuss the use of any punctuation marks they may be unfamiliar with, such as semicolons. Encourage the children to look at the two versions of each poem and suggest reasons why the poets did not use more punctuation; for example, perhaps they wanted to leave the words on the page uncluttered.

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Literacy Links Plus

Poetry Big Book: Thrills and Chills


YEAR TERM

On the Skateboard, Freewheeling on a Bike and Portrait of a Motor Car


Shared Reading and Writing

26

Background

These poems all capture and celebrate the poetry of motion. On the Skateboard (Lillian Morrison) follows a skateboard rider skimming an asphalt sea; Freewheeling on a Bike (Robert Gray) pinpoints a moment of sheer delight as a cyclist speeds beneath overhanging branches and experiences flickering sunlight; Carl Sandburgs famous poem Portrait of a Motor Car finds as much to enjoy about the look and performance of a sleek automobile as others might find in the grace and speed of an eagle. The poems are ideal for exploring metaphors.

Display the three poems and read On the Skateboard to the children, then re-read it together. Ask the children if they think the choice of words in the poem suits the subject. Encourage them to quote lines and phrases from the poem that they think are well chosen and that help them imagine how it feels to ride a skateboard; for example, skimming, swerve, curve, sway, speed. Draw the childrens attention to the lines Im the sailor and the sail and Im the driver and the wheel. Ask them if they know what we call this type of description (metaphor). Invite them to describe how the words I swerve, I curve, I sway relate to these metaphors. Then discuss with them how these metaphors improve the description of the skateboarders motion. Challenge them to think of other metaphors that would convey the joy of motion; for example, Im the pilot, and the plane. Scribe the suggestions on the board. Read Freewheeling on a Bike to the children, then re-read it together. Ask them what the metaphor is in this poem (butterflies of sunlight). Invite them to talk about what this metaphor is describing and what it makes them imagine; you could suggest that perhaps the speeding cyclist is cycling under the branches of trees and experiencing the fluttering of sunlight as it shines through the leaves. Display Portrait of a Motor Car. Read the poem to the children, then re-read it together and invite spontaneous comments. Invite them to discuss what sort of car they imagine from the poets description and his use of metaphor. Draw their attention to the illustration and ask them if they imagine it looking anything like this. Scribe the childrens suggestions on the board, building up a description of the car. As a shared writing activity, work with the children to compose other animal metaphors that could describe the car; for example, A sidewinding snake of a car; A rearing, foaming-at-the-mouth, great black thoroughbred of a car. Scribe the new metaphors on the board.

NLS References
T4 understanding the effect of expressive and descriptive language T5 understanding the use of figurative language T11 writing poetry based on poems read S2 using the apostrophe to mark possession W7 using prefixes Activity Sheet 17: S4, W3 & 6

Independent Work
Children could: complete Activity Sheet 17 (page 87) re-read the poem in the small book write a poem or story about their own experiences of speed and motion on wheels write an extra line or lines for each of the poems, showing how anything on wheels can come to a sudden, undesired halt; for example, a new final line for Portrait of a Motor Car might be, Then, pow! Puncture! and the driver had no spare! write a script for a scene that shows the skateboarder, the cyclist and the motor car driver all colliding at an intersection, and then having to explain themselves to the police. They could use metaphors from their respective poems; for example, Well, constable, I think that butterflies of sunlight must have obscured my vision. They could perform the scene for the class.

Word and Sentence Level Work


Ask the children to identify words from the poems that contain an apostrophe, such as Im. Ask them what task the apostrophe performs in each word, and what words are joined in each one. Now challenge them to think of other common contractions starting with I; for example, Ill, Id, Ive, Im. Then ask the children to suggest examples of words with possessive apostrophes; for example, a cars wheels, childrens skateboards. List and discuss several examples to focus on where the apostrophe is placed and why. Refer to the word freewheeling. Remind the children that free is also the first part of other words, although it is not actually a prefix, like dis or pre. Ask them if they can think of other words or terms that start with free, such as free-fall, free-for-all, freeloader, free-range. Invite the children to put these words into sentences that show the words meaning. You could repeat this activity for the prefix auto in automobile; for example, autograph, automatic, automation.

Literacy Links Plus

41

Poetry Big Book: Thrills and Chills


YEAR TERM

Silver
Shared Reading and Writing

27

Background

Silver, by Walter de la Mare (18731956) looks at the effects of silvery moonlight on a landscape. The poet finds in the moonlight a unifying quality; something that places each feature of the landscape, and each animal, in the cradle of nature. The children will respond to the peacefulness conjured by the poet, and could compare it to the energy and racket of some of the other nature poems in this collection.

Suggest to the children that one special thing about human beings is that we notice things, not only things to do with survival, but things that are beautiful, or unusual, or mysterious, or just plain interesting. We also want to express what we notice and how it makes us feel sometimes through poetry. Tell them that the poem they will be reading is about a scene in moonlight. Invite them to discuss the title, Silver, and to suggest what features of a moonlit night a poet might write about. Display the poem and mention that it includes an old Scottish word, shoon, which means shoes. Read the poem to the children. Discuss any other unfamiliar vocabulary, such as cote (a shelter), couched and moveless. Then read the poem together. Ask the children what features of the moonlit scene they think the poet wants to emphasise. They could talk about particular things that are mentioned and how they are described, the way the moon is given characteristics of a person, and the overall sense of peace and restfulness. Ask them to quote specific phrases or lines from the poem to support their views. Discuss the poets use of rhyme. Ask the children what they notice about the words that end each line. Suggest that they test whether the poem features rhyming words that are easy to rhyme; what other rhymes can they think of for moon, sees, catch, log, peep, by, gleam? Children could also suggest why silver, one of the key words of the poem, is not used at the end of a line: how easy would it have been for the poet to find a rhyme? Refer to the word scampering in the poem. Ask the children to suggest other descriptions of the movement of creatures but only using words that would not interfere with the hush of the poem. For example, snakes slithering, whisper-quiet; cats creeping on padded paws Discuss and scribe several suggestions.

NLS References
T4 understanding the effect of expressive and descriptive language T5 understanding the use of figurative language T6 identifying clues such as archaic words which suggest poems from the past T13 writing examples of descriptive, expressive language based on those read S3 understanding the significance of word order W13 adding suffixes to nouns and verbs to make adjectives Activity Sheet 18: T4, S2 & 4, W13

Independent Work
Children could: complete Activity Sheet 18 (page 88) re-read the poem in the small book describe a landscape in which rain or bright sunshine has changed the look of everything, as the moonlight has in the poem look in anthologies for other short poems by Walter de la Mare, and describe features that are similar to those found in Silver; for example, the rhyming scheme, the fascination with nature and peacefulness imagine and write about what the animals in the poem think of the moon; the mouse, for example, might think it a great help to him at night, while the dog might think it strange and mysterious write about the effects of silvery moonlight on a scene that they know well, such as a local street or park, or their own garden.

Word and Sentence Level Work


Refer to the term silvery thatch in the poem. Ask the children if they can think of any reasons why we sometimes add y to a word that can stand by itself, as silver can. Is silvery different from silver? In what way? Why can we say silver shoes or silvery shoes or shoes of silver, but not shoes of silvery? (Silver can be a noun as well as an adjective.) Also discuss the word shadowy. Then invite the children to suggest other adjectives or nouns that can have y added while keeping their original sense; for example, feathery, lumpy, hairy. Refer to the word kennel in the poem. Ask the children to suggest other words that end with an /l/ sound. List suggestions, grouping them by the spelling pattern of the end of the word; for example, a double letter as in tall, le as in pale, ial as in special, or other vowel combinations as in real, cool, feel, coal, and so on. Help them to think of as many words as they can (there are not very many) that have a single e followed by l, like kennel; examples could include barrel, quarrel, panel.

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Literacy Links Plus

Poetry Big Book: Thrills and Chills


YEAR TERM

Winter Moon and Summer Full Moon


Shared Reading and Writing

28

Background

Winter Moon (Langston Hughes, whose poem City is also included in this collection) and Summer Full Moon (James Kirkup) invite the children to speculate on the great popularity of the moon as a subject for poets. Both poems are appealing, and their similes and metaphors provide an opportunity for children to explore the importance of figurative language as a tool for the poet.

Before displaying the poems, discuss with the children the fascination that people have with the moon. Ask them if they can suggest reasons for this fascination; for example, the illusion of its changing size and shape; its domination of the night sky; or perhaps a belief that it influences peoples moods and lives. Then ask them if they have ever imagined the moon to look like something else. Discuss and list suggestions. Display the two poems and read them to the children. Refer back to the list on the board to see if any of their views relate to the images of the moon in the poems. Ask them if they find it easy to imagine the moon as a curved blade, or as a dish of milk. Also ask them whether they have ever looked at the clouds and seen interesting shapes in them, like the Persian cat that James Kirkup saw. Re-read the poems together. Discuss with the children the use of metaphors and similes, and the differences between them. Ask the children whether Winter Moon uses a simile or a metaphor. Then ask them if the description of the moon as a dish of milk in Summer Full Moon is a simile or a metaphor. Refer the children to the simile The cloud tonight is like a white Persian cat and challenge them to re-write it as a metaphor; for example, A white Persian cat rests in the sky tonight. Scribe the metaphors on the board, inviting the children to guide you with spelling and punctuation. Ask the children to identify the adjectives that describe the moon in the second line of Winter Moon (thin and sharp, and ghostly white). Challenge them to add another adjective to the description; for example, thin and sharp, glimmering and ghostly white. Work with them to see how many words they can add to the description. Then ask them if they can think of a simile that relates to the description ghostly white (as white as a ghost). Challenge the children to think of other colours that are used in similes; for example, as black as night; as green as grass; as red as a lobster. Scribe their suggestions on the board.

NLS References
T4 understanding the effect of expressive and descriptive language T5 understanding the use of figurative language T13 writing examples of descriptive, expressive language based on those read S1 revising and extending work on adjectives W1 identifying syllabic patterns in multi-syllable words Activity Sheet 19: T13, W3

Independent Work
Children could: complete Activity Sheet 19 (page 89) re-read the poem in the small book reverse the images in the poems; for example, How round and full is the moon tonight!/ How round and full and white/ Is the brimming milk dish of the moon tonight research the phases and motion of the moon, and write an explanatory text on its change of size and shape imagine and write about what people living thousands of years ago might have thought about the moon and its changes, and what similes and metaphors they might have used script a conversation between Langston Hughes and James Kirkup in which the two poets criticise each others depiction of the moon, and suggest alternative images for them to offer; for example, The moon doesnt look like a dish of milk it looks like a giant billiard ball!

Word and Sentence Level Work


Ask the children to find two words in Summer Full Moon that contain double letters (lapping and brimming). Ask them to name the part of speech each word is (verb and adjective, respectively). Challenge them to think of a sentence (based on the poem) in which lapping could be used as an adjective; for example, The lapping tongue of the cat . . . Also invite children to suggest other words that can be used as verb or adjective. Discuss and list suggestions, along with sentences showing the words used as different parts of speech. Ask the children if they can think of other words, like lapping and brimming, that have the last letter doubled when ing is added; for example, hop/hopping, run/running. Discuss with them what the reason might be for doing this (to avoid confusion in pronunciation with words that have had an e dropped when ing is added, such as hope/hoping). Challenge the children to find other words in the poems that double the last letter when ing is added (star/starring; slim/slimming; shut/shutting; thin/thinning).

Literacy Links Plus

43

Non-Fiction Big Book


YEAR TERM

Under the Ground


Shared Reading and Writing

29

Background

Under the Ground is a fascinating non-fiction big book that explores a variety of things that go on under the ground, from animals and humans that live there, to mining and underground networks, such as trains and electricity. Two lesson plans are provided (see also Lesson Plan 30); these allow children to investigate typical features of non-fiction and explanatory texts, and to practise their note-making and summarising skills.

Display the cover and discuss it with the children. Ask them what information the book might contain. Then ask them how they could find out if this book could help them if they had to write a report on life underground. Would they need to read the whole book, or is there a more efficient way? Discuss the different ways a reader can find out if a book contains relevant information; for example, by using the index and the contents, by scanning the headings and captions, and so on. Try some of these suggestions with Under the Ground and discuss whether this book will be useful for writing a report on life underground. Also ask where else they could go to find more information, such as the library or the Internet. Read pages 813. Then display each double-page spread and discuss the main ideas with the children. Ask them to identify key sentences (or words and phrases) that relate to the topic of life underground; for example, on page 8, a key sentence could be Ants, rabbits and some termites live in underground colonies. Invite them to suggest the best way to record these key ideas, such as in a list or under headings. Work with the children to record these notes for a report. Scribe their suggestions and discuss the effectiveness of their chosen method of note-making. Re-read page 12 and discuss the use of paragraphs. Ask the children why the author would have separated this information into two paragraphs. Then work with them to write two paragraphs of text using some of the notes they compiled in the previous activity. Scribe the text for them, inviting them to guide you on when to commence a new paragraph. Read the new text together.

NLS References
T15 scanning a non-fiction book to appraise its contents and usefulness T17 locating key words and phrases T19 investigating paragraphs T22 filling out brief notes into connected prose S4 recognising how commas are used to separate clauses W10 exploring words that imply gender W12 defining familiar words within constraints

Word and Sentence Level Work


Write under and ground on the board. Challenge the children to define these words; for example, under: when something is beneath something else. Scribe their definitions. Then work with them to reduce the number of words, where possible, in the definitions; for example, the definition for under could be reduced to beneath. Write the first paragraph from page 11 on chart paper, omitting the punctuation. Work with the children to punctuate the text. Then compare it with the text in the book. Discuss the two uses of the comma (to separate items in a list and to separate clauses). Then write the text from the bottom of page 10 on chart paper and invite them to punctuate it. Discuss the use of the comma in this text. Re-read pages 89. Ask the children to identify the words that imply gender (buck, doe, queen). Then challenge them to think of other words used to distinguish the gender of different animals; for example, goose/gander, stallion/mare, and so on. Challenge the children to come up with as many words as possible that have under as the root word; for example, underneath, underarm, undercover, undergo, underdone, underhand, understand, and so on. Then challenge them to compose a sentence using as many of these words as possible. You could repeat this activity for the word ground; for example, grounded, grounding, and so on.

Independent Work
Children could: use other sources of information to research, make notes and write a short report on animals and people that live underground write a list of questions they would like to ask the people in Coober Pedy about their lifestyles underground imagine that they lived underground in Coober Pedy and write a letter to a friend in England explaining what their house is like and what they like/dislike about living underground design an underground house; they could include secret tunnels and rooms. Children could present this as a detailed labelled diagram.

44

Literacy Links Plus

Non-Fiction Big Book


YEAR TERM

Under the Ground


Shared Reading and Writing

30

Background

Under the Ground was introduced in Lesson Plan 29. This lesson explores the book further. It provides an opportunity for the children to plan and write their own explanatory text about what happens under the ground, using the information in the book.

Invite the children to talk about what they recall from the previous lesson on Under the Ground, specifically about life underground. Display the contents and skim through some of the pages. Ask them how they know that this is a non-fiction book; for example, it contains a glossary, the information is arranged under headings, there are photographs with captions, and so on. Ask them what else they expect or would like the book to tell them. Write their ideas and questions on the board. Invite the children to choose the chapters they would like to read. Read their chosen text. At the end of each double-page spread, allow time for general discussion of the key ideas. Then ask them to locate key words or phrases from each spread. Scribe these words/phrases on the board. Discuss the childrens predictions about the content of the book and whether any of their questions have been answered. Write What happens underground? on the board. Discuss with the children the planning process that would be needed in order to write an answer to this question. Ask them to suggest what steps would be involved; for example, selecting the most relevant information from the book, note-making, deciding on the format that the information will be presented in, the headings to use, and so on. Work with the children to answer this question by presenting the information as a simple wall chart; for example, they could have the question in the middle with arrows pointing to different things that happen underground under headings such as Transport, Mining, and so on. Scribe the text for the children, inviting them to help you with word choice and the best way to organise the information.

NLS References
T17 locating key words and phrases, useful headings and key sentences to use as tools for summarising text T14 note-making T20 identifying key features of explanatory texts S1 revising and extending work on adjectives: comparing adjectives on a scale of intensity; relating them to the suffixes which indicate degrees of intensity S3 understanding the significance of word order W3 spelling by analogy with other known words Activity Sheet 20: T23, W10

Word and Sentence Level Work


Write ground on the board. Challenge the children to suggest other words containing the ou letter string. Discuss the letters surrounding ou and any spelling-pronunciation patterns the children can find, such as pound/round/sound, should/could/would, and so on. Display page 4. Ask the children to suggest adjectives that describe the molten rock; for example, hot, smoky, red, and so on. Then ask the children to suggest other adjectives (besides hot) that describe temperature; for example, cold, warm, chilly, freezing, boiling, and so on. Then challenge them to place the words in order, from coldest to hottest; for example, freezing, cold, warm, hot, boiling. To extend this activity, discuss how the suffixes -ish, -er and -est can be added to warm to indicate degrees of intensity (warmish, warm, warmer, warmest). Ask them to suggest other words that these suffixes could be added to in the same way. Write the first sentence from the caption at the bottom of page 11 on the board. Work with the children to re-order the sentence (adding words if necessary) without changing the meaning; for example, To help it tunnel through the soil in search of worms and grubs to eat, the mole uses its forepaws and claws. Repeat this activity with other sentences from the book. If relevant, discuss any changes in meaning.

Independent Work
Children could: complete Activity Sheet 20 (page 90) research and write a short text explaining why rabbits live in burrows under the ground write alternative chapter headings write a letter to put into a time capsule; the letter could include information about themselves and predictions of what life might be like in the future look up any unfamiliar words in a dictionary; for example, molten, minerals, crystals, tapped, unstable, plates, and so on draw a labelled diagram of where they live, showing all the different networks under the ground (they could use the illustrations on pages 1617 to help them) imagine that they were speleologists and write about an exciting adventure they had when exploring a cave.

Literacy Links Plus

45

Big Book (Science Alive) Non-fiction from other subject areas.


YEAR TERM

The Wonderful World of Plants


Shared Reading and Writing

31

Background

Display the cover. Ask the children to suggest what might be in this book; for example, pictures of plants, information on how plants grow, and so on. Also ask them how the book might be organised, such as in sections for different types of plants. Then invite them to discuss what they already know about how plants grow. Discuss and write their responses on a word web under appropriate headings. Read the contents with the children and discuss the organisation of the book; for example, the first section is an Introduction and there is an Index at the end of the book. Discuss the different sections, inviting them to predict what information might be in each one. Tell the children that a writing activity in this lesson will be to write an explanatory text that answers the question How does a seed grow into a plant? Then read the book up to page 13, pausing at the end of each double-page spread to discuss the relevance of the information to the question. Invite them to locate key words and phrases that relate to the question. Scribe their suggestions, inviting them to help you organise this information in the best way for use in Shared Writing. When you read pages 45, highlight the key features of explanatory texts, such as structure (discuss the role of paragraphs to organise information), language features (technical words such as inactive and sprouting) and layout (text and photographs presented in an interesting and clear way). Using the notes you have compiled, work with the children to write an explanation that answers How does a seed grow into a plant? Organise the text in paragraphs, asking the children to indicate when a new paragraph could be started, and where diagrams, photographs or illustrations would be required. Read the finished text together, inviting the children to comment on its structure, language features and presentation. Invite them to suggest how the text could be improved.

The Wonderful World of Plants (also explored in Lesson Plan 32), looks at how plants grow and their importance in our lives. In this lesson there is a special emphasis on explanatory texts. Children explore the different formats for organising explanations and experiment with these in their own writing. Children will also benefit from reading the four additional information books (small books) from The Wonderful World of Plants module: Plants Galore, Plant Works, Adapt or Die!, People and Plants.

NLS References
T20 identifying key features of explanatory texts T22 filling out brief notes into connected prose T25 writing explanations S1 revising and extending work on adjectives; examining comparative and superlative forms W3 spelling by analogy with other known words

Word and Sentence Level Work


Independent Work
Children could: use the picture of the germinating seed on page 9 to write diary entries, either from the point of view of the seed or someone growing the seed. Encourage them to use descriptive language. show all the ways seeds can be dispersed, using a labelled diagram of a garden write a description of their favourite vegetable/fruit/flower for someone that has never seen it. Remind them to think about their five senses and to use descriptive language and appropriate organisational devices. read The Wonderful World of Plants small books.

Draw the childrens attention to the words with prefixes on page 4 and 5 (unfavourable, inactive). Then challenge them to find words on these pages that could have prefixes added to them; for example, grow/outgrow, ability/disability/inability, eaten/uneaten, broken/ unbroken, and so on. Challenge them to find other words in the text with prefixes, or words that could have prefixes added to them. Read page 14. Ask the children to identify the adjectives in the first paragraph (bright, wonderful, amazing, appealing). Then ask them what the comparative and superlative forms are for these words (brighter/brightest, more wonderful/amazing/appealing, most wonderful/ amazing/appealing). Write the caption from page 15 on the board and ask the children to identify one adjective that does not really have comparative or superlative forms (green). Discuss why and challenge them to suggest other adjectives that do not have degrees of intensity, such as full and dead. Using the word light (page 7) challenge the children to suggest other words with the same ight letter string; for example, bright, fight, might, sight, right, and so on. Scribe their suggestions.

46 For detailed science investigations building on the Big Book, see The Wonderful World of Plants module of Kingscourts Science Alive programme. Literacy Links Plus

Big Book (Science Alive)


Non-fiction from other subject areas.

The Wonderful World of Plants


Shared Reading and Writing

32

YEAR

TERM

Background

Display the book and ask the children what they remember about it. Ask them what type of book it is (non-fiction). Also ask them if they remember details about how a plant grows from a seed. Display the contents and ask the children which sections they have read, and then which sections they would like to read next. Before you read, ask the children to keep in mind the question, How do plants help us live? Then read their chosen pages, pausing at the end of each double-page spread to allow time to discuss the content and layout of the text. Challenge the children to identify key words or phrases, and to use them to summarise the content of the text in a few sentences. Also ask the children what information is relevant to the question of how plants help us to live. Display pages 2 and 3. Ask the children to imagine they are at one of the locations in the two central photographs, and to describe what it would be like to be there. What can they see, hear, smell and feel? Discuss and scribe their responses. Then ask them to identify five features of each location; for example, in the second photograph there are mountains, snow, grass, flowers and sky. Write these on the board. Then challenge them to suggest at least two adjectives for each feature. Scribe their suggestions. As a shared writing activity, work with the children to write detailed descriptions of the photographs; for example, If I walked into the picture I would see... hear smell and feel Encourage them to use interesting adjectives; for example, instead of nice and tall, they could suggest spectacular and towering. Scribe the text. Read the descriptions together, inviting the children to make improvements.

In this second lesson on The Wonderful World of Plants (see also Lesson Plan 31) the emphasis is on the importance of descriptive language in conveying information.

NLS References
T17 scanning texts to locate key words or phrases and use these as a tool to summarise S1 revising and extending work on adjectives; constructing adjectival phrases S2 distinguishing between uses of apostrophes for contraction and possession W5 investigating what happens to words ending in l when suffixes are added Activity Sheet 21: T21, S3

Word and Sentence Level Work


Independent Work
Children could: complete Activity Sheet 21 (page 91) write a description of what could be happening in the main photograph on page 24; they could write about who the people are, where they are going, what happens to them, and so on write a list of the foods that they have eaten today and classify them under the headings of Plant and Animal imagine they were a seed and write a personal recount of their experiences of being scattered (see pages 6 and 7); for example, by the wind, on water, via a hairy parachute, or an animal write a description of one of the other photographs on page 3, using their Shared Writing work as a model read The Wonderful World of Plants small books.

Write the words flower, bud, eat, and help (from pages 18 and 20) on the board. Ask the children to identify what part of speech these words are (nouns and verbs). Then work with them to add suffixes that change them to adjectives (flowering, budding, edible and helpful). Challenge them to suggest other words that these suffixes could be added to; for example, differ/differing, cheer/cheerful, sense/sensible, and so on. Re-read pages 16 and 17. Ask the children to locate the word that has an apostrophe (dont) and to identify the two words that have been contracted. Ask them to locate three other examples on this page where two words could be contracted using an apostrophe (they are/theyre, they have/theyve, do not/dont). Write The cones contain the conifers seeds on the board and ask them what role this apostrophe plays (possession). Ask them where the apostrophe would be placed if the sentence were referring to more than one conifer (conifers). Write the word travel (from page 6) on the board. Ask the children what happens to the l in travel when the suffix -ed is added (it doubles). Ask them to think of other words where the final l doubles when a suffix is added; for example, levelled/levelling, compelling/compelled, modelled/modelling, and so on. Work together to formulate a rule for adding suffixes to words that end in l.

Literacy Links Plus For detailed science investigations building on the Big Book, see The Wonderful World of Plants module of Kingscourts Science Alive programme. 47

Posters and Book


(Maths in Context) Non-fiction from other subject areas. YEAR TERM

Natures Mathematical Marvels


Shared Reading and Writing

33

Background

Display the cover of the book. Ask the children to think about what natures marvels might be and why; for example, huge mountains, waterfalls, volcanoes, storms, and so on. Ask them if natures marvels necessarily have to be beautiful. Could they also be strange or frightening or unnattractive? Discuss their responses. Read the posters Growing Up, Going to Extremes, Built Big and Creepy Crawlies, allowing time for general discussion and for children to comment on the layout and the different ways in which information is presented; for example, the picture graph on Growing Up. Also discuss the use and impact of illustrations and photographs; for example, you could ask them why they think illustrations were used instead of photographs in Creepy Crawlies and Built Big. Display the remaining posters in turn, asking the children to identify ways, other than text, in which information is presented; for example, diagrams, arrows, pictures with labels, and so on. Discuss these different methods, asking the children to appraise their usefulness and suitability to the information they are conveying. Re-read the Creepy Crawlies poster with the children. Then help them to work out the size of each of the creatures. Write these measurements on the board. Then discuss how this information could be presented in a graph. Discuss what information the children need (the names and measurements of the creatures), and what needs to go on the two axes of the graph. Also ask them to suggest a heading. Work with them to create the graph on chart paper. When you have finished, ask them which they think is more effective in presenting the information the poster or the graph. Why?

Natures Mathematical Marvels provides a unique and fascinating view of the natural world. In this first lesson (see also Lesson Plan 34) children explore a selection of posters that are ideal for highlighting typical features of explanatory non-fiction texts.

NLS References
T16 preparing for factual research by reviewing what is known T23 collecting information and presenting it in one useful format S1 examining comparative and superlative adjectives; relating them to adverbs which indicate degrees of intensity S2 distinguishing between the uses of the apostrophe for contracting and possession W3 building from other words with similar patterns and meanings W5 investigating what happens to words ending in l when suffixes are added

Word and Sentence Level Work


Discuss the idea of comparative and superlative adjectives. Then display Built Big and ask the children to find examples in the poster (tallest, largest, bigger). Challenge them to suggest others to do with size; for example, fatter/fattest, small/smallest, wider/widest, and so on. Discuss the spelling of these words. Then ask them to think of adjectives that use more and most in their comparative and superlative forms, such as amazing, beautiful, ferocious, and so on. As an extension to work on comparative and superlative adjectives, challenge the children to find examples that could be turned into adverbs; for example, ferociously/more ferociously/most ferociously, beautifully/more beautifully/most beautifully. Write natures marvels and worlds tallest on the board and ask the children what the apostrophe indicates in each of these words (possession). Then discuss the use of apostrophes for contraction and challenge the children to use natures and worlds where the s represents has or is; for example, The worlds gone mad. Use the words marvel and natural as a basis for word building; for example, marvellous, marvellously and naturally. Discuss what happens to the final consonant in some of these words when a suffix is added (it doubles). Ask them to suggest other examples where this happens, such as beautiful, travel, fur, star.

Independent Work
Children could: write about aspects of life on Earth that they would describe as marvellous write a story about how it would feel to experience one of the weather extremes mentioned on the Going to Extremes poster present the information from the Built Big poster in two graphs, one for height and one for weight research the bird-eating spider from the Creepy Crawlies poster and present the information on a poster; they could research other special spiders as well choose one of the planets from the Somewhere in Space poster and write a description of the environment on that planet and/or an imaginative story about space travel.

48

For detailed maths investigations building on Natures Mathematical Marvels, see Kingscourts Maths Links Plus programme.

Literacy Links Plus

Posters and Book


(Maths in Context) Non-fiction from other subject areas. YEAR TERM

Natures Mathematical Marvels


Shared Reading and Writing
Review ideas from the posters/book that were discussed in the previous lesson. Display the contents page and ask the children which posters they examined. Invite them to describe specific natural marvels they read about.

34

Background

This second lesson plan for Natures Mathematical Marvels (see also Lesson Plan 33) reinforces childrens knowledge of features of non-fiction, with a focus on explanatory texts. The photographs and illustrations in the book also provide an excellent starting point for writing descriptions.

Choose posters that have a more explanatory emphasis, such as Beautiful Balance, Natural Cycles and Around and Around. Read them with the children and invite comments on the content and layout. Discuss what the text is explaining on these posters; for example, Natural Cycles explains natural events that mark intervals of time (day, month and year), and Around and Around answers the question How does turning symmetry work? Also discuss the language features and the different ways information is presented (diagrams, graphs, photographs, and so on). Display the Beautiful Balance, Perfect Fit and Around and Around posters. Ask the children to give oral descriptions of the creatures; for example, the starfish has five points, a mini star-like shape in its centre and a pattern all over its body, and so on. Challenge them to think of one or two describing words for each creature. Then select one creature for the children to describe in detail. Encourage them to think of words that describe its features accurately and interestingly. Also ask them to imagine and describe what the creature might feel like to touch. Scribe their responses in note form. Then work together to organise these notes into a written description; this could start with the sentence When I look at the [starfish] I see... Read the complete description, inviting the children to comment on the effectiveness of the text and to suggest possible improvements.

NLS References
T13 writing using descriptive and expressive language T20 identifying the key features of explanatory texts S1 revising and extending work on adjectives; constructing adjectival phrases W9 using alternative words and expressions which are more accurate or interesting than the common choices W13 investigating a range of suffixes that can be added to nouns and verbs to make adjectives Activity Sheet 22: T15, S4, W3

Word and Sentence Level Work


Independent Work
Children could: complete Activity Sheet 22 (page 92) write about why some aspects of nature can be described as mathematical marvels, including a variety of examples write descriptions of other animals on the poster, using the work they did in Shared Writing as a model research starfish and write a short explanation of how they eat research one thing about nature that they find amazing or unusual and present their findings as a poster use the alliteration in some of the poster titles, such as Built Big, Mighty Mountains, Natures Numbers, as models to write alliterative titles for Going to Extremes, Growing Up and Natural Cycles; for example, Explosive Extremes, and so on.

Select adjectives from the posters and challenge the children to suggest which ones have opposites; for example, dark/light, hot/cold, big/small, wet/dry. Also discuss words and expressions that could sometimes be used as alternatives to these adjectives; for example, gloomy, shadowy; light: bright, sunny. Scribe the childrens suggestions on the board. Display the Creepy Crawlies poster and work with the children to suggest adjectival phrases for the different creatures; for example, large and hairy to describe the bird-eating spider; delicately patterned to describe the butterfly; blue, winged and six-legged to describe the wasp. You could repeat this activity for one of the other posters. Write mathematics on the board. Ask the children what suffix could be used to form an adjective (-al, as in mathematical). Then write the words marvel, symmetry, amaze and pattern on the board and challenge children to suggest how these nouns and verbs could be made into adjectives; for example, marvellous, symmetrical, amazing, patterned. As a follow-up, children could find adjectives in some of the posters and discuss how nouns could be formed from these; for example, hot/heat.

Literacy Links Plus

For detailed maths investigations building on Natures Mathematical Marvels, see Kingscourts Maths Links Plus programme.

49

Big Book and Posters


Non-fiction from other subject areas.

Mathematics from Many Cultures


Shared Reading and Writing

35

YEAR

TERM

Background

Display the cover. Then flip through the book, allowing the children to skim-read some of the pages. If they explored the book earlier (see Lesson Plan 13, Term 1), ask them what they remember about it. Read pages 1011 with the children. Discuss the text on page 11. Ask them to identify what type of text this is (explanatory). Discuss the typical features of explanation on this page; for example, it explains a process (how the Arabs performed multiplication), it contains a sequential explanation, it is written in the present tense and it uses diagrams. Use the explanation as a guide for multiplying some numbers, and then discuss its effectiveness in explaining the process. Write How I got to school today on the board. As a shared writing activity, work with the children to use one childs journey to school as a basis for writing an explanation of the process (use the explanation on pages 1011 as a model). They could include what happens at home before he/she leaves, such as getting dressed, eating breakfast, and so on. Remind them that the steps should be arranged in chronological sequence. They could also indicate where diagrams would be useful, such as a simple map showing the route from home to school. Scribe the text for the children. Read the explanation together, inviting them to comment on its effectiveness and possible improvements; for example,using sub-headings. Make appropriate changes and re-read the text.

This is the second lesson on Mathematics from Many Cultures (the book is introduced in Lesson 13 in Term 1 and explored further in Lesson Plan 50 in Term 3). In this lesson the children explore explanatory texts, analysing the features that help to explain a process or answer a question. They use the explanation in the book as a model for writing their own explanatory text. Because this Big Book is a compilation of posters that can be used in any order, children can use it to create a contents page, index and glossary.

NLS References
T20 identifying the key features of explanatory texts T25 writing an explanation of a process S1 revising and extending work on adjectives; examining comparative and superlative adjectives S3 understanding the significance of word order W12 defining familiar words within constraints; considering how to arrive at the best use of words

Word and Sentence Level Work


Ask the children to choose familiar words from pages 1011; for example, easy, multiply, quick, and so on. Work with them to identify what part of speech each word is and to suggest definitions. Write the words and their definitions on the board. Read them together and then discuss whether it is possible to cut down the number of words used in the definitions. Remind them that some definitions may need to be re-written in order to reduce their length, while others may not be able to be reduced at all. Write largest (from page 10) on the board and ask the children whether this is the comparative or superlative form of the adjective large, and how they know. Ask them to suggest the comparative form of large (larger). Then invite them to suggest sentences to show how they are used; for example, Alices room is large. It is larger than her sisters room. In fact, it is the largest room in the house. Also discuss adjectives that follow different spelling patterns or use more and most in their comparative and superlative forms, such as tiny/tinier/tiniest and enormous/more enormous/most enormous. Read the first sentence on page 8. Then write All over the world, shapes use simple people for decoration. Discuss how this re-ordering has changed the meaning. Then challenge the children to re-order it without changing the meaning (People all over the world use simple shapes for decoration). Choose other sentences from the book for the children to re-order without changing the meaning. Remind them that it may be necessary to delete or add words.

Independent Work
Children could: choose a spread from the book and re-write it for a younger audience, such as Year 2 or 3 children write a detailed description of something with a tessellation pattern on it; for example, a rug, or tiles interview older family members or friends about the board games they played when they were children and ask them to explain the rules create a contents page for the book create a glossary and/or an index for the book.

50

For detailed maths investigations building on Mathematics from Many Cultures, see Kingscourts Maths Links Plus programme.

Literacy Links Plus

Term 3 Overview
Lesson Plans Key Skills and Strategies
(Specific NLS references are listed on each lesson plan) understanding how paragraphs are used writing an alternative ending for a story investigating the grammar of statements, questions and orders/commands Activity Sheet 23: NLS references T2, W3 & 4 investigating the moral issues in stories writing critically about an issue or a dilemma raised in a story exploring punctuation investigating compound words investigating moral issues in stories reading stories from other cultures writing stories from story plans extending words using prefixes and suffixes

36 37 38 39 40 41 42

Why Flies Buzz


Fiction Big Book

Why Flies Buzz

Why Frog and Snake Cant Be Friends


Fiction Big Book

Why Frog and Snake Cant Be Friends

investigating moral and cultural issues in stories understanding how paragraphs are used writing an alternative ending for a story investigating words with common letter strings but different pronunciations Activity Sheet 24: NLS references T1, W10 understanding how paragraphs and chapters are used exploring punctuation distinguishing between the two uses of the apostrophe discussing figurative language and how it creates powerful images investigating the effect of expressive and descriptive language on the reader exploring the impact of viewpoint; writing from different points of view investigating verb tenses Activity Sheet 25: NLS references S3 & 4, W3 & 5 discussing the message of a poem investigating how characters and themes develop writing a script discussing and using direct and indirect speech investigating suffixes and prefixes Activity Sheet 26: NLS references T4, S3, W3 exploring humour and language play investigating the use of direct speech and how it affects the reading of a poem reviewing sentence structure and grammar writing dialogue and nonsense poems Activity Sheet 27: NLS references T7, S1 & 3 investigating language features such as alliteration and describing their impact describing how a poet does or does not use rhyme investigating features of different forms of poetry, such as haiku investigating homophones Activity Sheet 28: NLS references T4, W3 & 5

Peter the Pumpkin-Eater


Fiction Text Chart

Wrestling
Poetry: free verse (monologue)

Salt and Pepper


Poetry: rhyming conversation

43 44

Can You Sing?


Poetry: contemporary free verse

Skipping Rhyme and The Swings in the Park


Poetry: traditional skipping rhyme and haiku

Literacy Links Plus

51

Lesson Plans

Key Skills and Strategies


(Specific NLS references are listed on each lesson plan) exploring and evaluating the main issues of a text summarising investigating pluralisation exploring suffixes and prefixes

45 46 47 48 49 50 51 52 53

The Story of Small Fry


Non-Fiction Text Chart

Egyptian Genius
Non-Fiction from Other Subject Areas

investigating, evaluating and designing advertisements investigating verb endings investigating words with common letter strings but different pronunciations summarising investigating pluralisation investigating the grammar of different sentence types distinguishing between the two uses of the apostrophe Activity Sheet 29: NLS references T20, S3, W8 investigating and writing arguments investigating connectives used in an argument exploring compound words

Egyptian Genius

Natures Shapes and Patterns


Non-Fiction from Other Subject Areas

Natures Shapes and Patterns

summarising by re-wording and by identifying the key ideas in a diagram investigating punctuation extending words by adding parts investigating the two forms of its and its Activity Sheet 30: NLS references S1, W6 investigating, evaluating and designing advertisements summarising the key ideas in a paragraph exploring the use of -ive and -tion to extend words Activity Sheet 31: NLS references T20, S1, W8

Mathematics from Many Cultures


Non-Fiction Big Book See also Lesson Plans 13 and 35 for further work with this book

Extinction is Forever
Non-Fiction Big Book

investigating arguments presenting a point of view in a letter investigating the grammar of different sentence types exploring prefixes and suffixes

Extinction is Forever

summarising by re-wording the key points in a text presenting a point of view investigating pluralisation exploring compound words

Extinction is Forever

investigating and writing arguments summarising the key ideas from a paragraph/chapter investigating verb endings investigating words with common letter strings but different pronunciations Activity Sheet 32: NLS references S2, W11

52

Literacy Links Plus

Fiction Big Book


YEAR TERM

Why Flies Buzz


Shared Reading and Writing

36

Background

Display the cover and the title page. Invite the children to talk about other traditional stories they may have read (you could remind them of Rumpelstiltskin and The Fisherman and His Wife). Discuss typical features of traditional stories, including aspects of story structure, such as introduction, build-up and conflict, and resolution. Read up to the end of page 10. Invite the children to comment on the events that have happened so far and how they fit into the structure of a traditional story (the characters are introduced, the setting is described, the complication is established). Remind them that this is a traditional story from Africa and discuss any evidence of this; for example, the man and the woman picking coconuts, and the different animals, such as the monkey and the rhinoceros. Re-read page 4 and ask the children to describe the main idea/event in each paragraph; for example, the second paragraph describes the wife stepping on the snake, causing it to climb the tree and encounter the monkey. Read and discuss the rest of the book together. Invite them to pinpoint more examples of one thing building on another, and to explain when and how this chain of problems is broken. As a shared writing activity, work with the children to write an alternative ending to the story. You could suggest that perhaps the fly has an opportunity to speak, or the Great Spirit fails to convince the Bushfowl that the rhinoceros did not mean to break her eggs, or what a less patient and diplomatic Great Spirit might do in the same situation. Discuss the consequences of their chosen ending on the characters and events. Scribe for the children. Read the text together, inviting them to evaluate its effectiveness. They could also suggest a new moral for the story if appropriate.

Why Flies Buzz is a traditional story from Africa. In this lesson (see also Lesson Plan 37), the children are provided with the opportunity to write an alternative ending, and then examine the impact this has on the characters and the readers view of the story.

NLS References
T2 reading stories from other cultures; focusing on differences in place and customs T3 understanding how paragraphs are used to collect, order and build up ideas T12 writing an alternative ending for a known story and discussing how this would change the readers view of the characters and events in the original story S3 understanding how the grammar of a sentence alters when a statement is made into a question and when a question becomes an order W8 extending words by adding the suffix -ful W10 distinguishing the two forms of its (possessive) and its (contraction) Activity Sheet 23: T2, W3 & 4

Word and Sentence Level Work


Write Get out of my tree! on the board. Discuss the idea that this is an order, or command. Challenge the children to change the command into a question; for example, Can you get out of my tree? Discuss the changes (addition of words and question mark). Then write Great Spirit asked the snake, What have you to say for yourself? on the board and challenge the children to change this into an order; for example, Great Spirit demanded, Explain yourself! Discuss the changes that were made. Find other examples of questions in the book for the children to change into commands. Write fearful on the board. Challenge the children to find words in the story that could have the suffix -ful added to them (thank, wake, mouth and fright). Then ask them to suggest other words with the -ful suffix, such as careful, cheerful, harmful, spoonful, thoughtful, beautiful, and so on. Discuss how these words are used. Write It is a dangerous thing to drop knives (page 20) on the board. Ask the children which words in this sentence could be contracted using an apostrophe (it is/its). Discuss when its is used without an apostrophe (possessive) and ask the children to suggest examples, such as The car was driven until its engine exploded.

Independent Work
Children could: complete Activity Sheet 23 (page 93) re-write the first sentence, for example, On a bright sunny day, A long time ago write dialogue between the monkey and the snake based on the illustration on page 5 write a persuasive letter from the Great Spirit to the bushfowl asking her to wake the sun in the morning write a story, using the sequence of events of Why Flies Buzz as a model, to explain why another animal makes a particular sound; for example, why dogs bark write what the fly might have said if he/she had had a chance to protest.

Literacy Links Plus

53

Fiction Big Book


YEAR TERM

Why Flies Buzz


Shared Reading and Writing

37

Background

This is the second lesson on this traditional story from Africa (see also Lesson Plan 36). The book is perfect for examining moral issues in stories and exploring the process of problem solving and how different characters face dilemmas.

Display the cover and ask the children what they can tell you about Why Flies Buzz; for example, that it is a traditional story from Africa, it is set in the bush, and it explains why flies make a buzzing sound. Scribe the childrens responses. Then read the book, pausing at the end of each page to discuss the content and developing the structure of the story (introduction, build-up of one accident leading to another, conflict or major dilemma, and resolution). Ask the children to describe the dilemmas faced by the bushfowl and the Great Spirit. Discuss how the Great Spirit solved the problem and whether they agree with the way he did it. For example, what might have happened if he had just ordered the bushfowl to wake the sun, without examining the reason for her refusal, or if he had found another bushfowl to wake the sun? Discuss the idea of a moral, and ask the children if they think there is a moral to this story, such as Explain yourself when you are given the chance, or Take responsibility for your actions. As a shared writing activity, work with the children to write an explanation from the point of view of the Great Spirit, stating why he chose his particular approach to the problem. The explanation would need to examine the dilemma faced by the Great Spirit and identify his reasons for solving it the way he did. Before you begin, work with the children to compile a list of the key events from the story that could be used by the Great Spirit to justify his choice. Then work with them to join these points together to form a convincing argument. As you scribe, encourage children to use adverbs and conjunctions that help them sequence the events and sum up the main points in the argument; for example, if, then, finally and so. Read the text together, inviting them to make improvements.

NLS References
T1 identifying the moral issues in stories, e.g. the dilemmas faced by characters, the moral of the story; discussing how characters deal with them T8 writing critically about an issue or dilemma raised in a story; explaining the problem, alternative courses of action and evaluating the writers solution S2 identifying common punctuation marks W3 building words from other words with similar patterns W6 spelling words with common letter strings but different pronunciations W11 investigating compound words

Word and Sentence Level Work


Independent Work
Children could: make signs to warn animals to be careful when they are passing a bushfowls nest write a review of the book write a newspaper article, describing the events of the story and including an attentiongrabbing headline write a character portrait of one of the characters; for example, the Great Spirit, the bushfowl or the fly write the story as a playscript write the sequence of events as numbered points find other traditional African stories and present them to the class work in groups of eight to read the story, with each child reading a different part.

Write head on the board. Ask the children to suggest as many words as they can that have the ea letter string; for example, bead, dead, heard, dread, feat. Then work with them to sort the words according to pronunciation; for example, words that have the long /e/ sound: bead, lead; feat, meat, and so on. Write bushfowl on the board and ask the children to identify the two words that make up this compound word. Challenge them to think of other compound words; for example, lawnmower, shoelace, candlestick, and so on. Discuss how identifying the two words in compound words can help with spelling. Then challenge the children to suggest other words with the root word head; for example, headband, headless, beheaded, heading, headed, headache, and so on. Ask them to identify which of these words are compound words. Write the second paragraph from page 4 on the board, omitting the punctuation. Challenge the children to punctuate the text. Discuss their suggestions, including the tasks of the different punctuation marks, such as the dash to indicate a break or pause in a sentence. Compare this text with the text in the book. Discuss any differences.

54

Literacy Links Plus

Fiction Big Book


YEAR TERM

Why Frog and Snake Cant Be Friends


Shared Reading and Writing

38

Background

Display the cover of the book. Ask the children what it tells them about the story (a traditional story about a frog and a snake). Ask them to suggest reasons why a frog and a snake couldnt be friends. Read up to page 7. Invite them to make predictions about what might happen. Will the story have a happy ending? Why/Why not? Read up to the end of page 13. Re-read the second paragraph on page 13 and discuss the irony of Snakes statement. Ask the children to describe the relationship between Frog and Snake, encouraging them to refer directly to the text; for example, Snake says Its been fun (page 12) and Frog says Youre my very best friend (page 13). However, Snake also feels his own natural instinct to squeeze things even more tightly (page 13). Discuss why Snake loosens his hug and does not hurt Frog (he sees Frog as a friend and not a Niporbite). Read the rest of the story. Ask the children to identify the main dilemma for Frog and Snake; for example, they had such a great time playing together, but are told that they are not meant to be friends, and that Snake should eat Frog. Discuss how they deal with this and ask the children to describe the resolution. Also discuss how well this story fits with their ideas about typical traditional stories. Ask the children to suggest other animals that couldnt be friends for the same reason Frog and Snake cant, such as a chicken and a fox, a spider and a fly, or a cat and a mouse. As a shared writing activity, work with them to plan a short story about two animals, based on Why Frog and Snake Cant Be Friends. Before you start, establish a planning method; for example, points to indicate what will be in each chapter or paragraph. Discuss what will happen at the beginning (introduce the characters, describe the setting), middle (establish the conflict), and end (resolution). Scribe the story plan in the agreed format. Read the plan together.

Why Frog and Snake Cant Be Friends is a traditional story from Nigeria. In this lesson (see also Lesson Plan 39) the children identify the moral issues in the story and why it is described as a traditional story. They will also enjoy choosing and writing about what other animals could be used to tell a story with the same message.

NLS References
T1 identifying moral issues in stories, e.g. the dilemmas faced by characters, and discussing how characters deal with them; locating evidence in the text T2 reading stories from other cultures T13 writing stories from story plans S1 understanding how words can be changed W8 practising extending and compounding words through adding parts W12 understanding how diminutives are formed, e.g. prefixes, nouns and adjectives

Word and Sentence Level Work


Ask the children to find two nouns in the story that are used to name a young person (child and baby). Challenge them to suggest other nouns like these; for example, infant, kitten, puppy, chick, kid. Then ask them to suggest adjectives that describe something young, such as little, tiny, small. Then ask them to add endings to these adjectives to form comparatives and superlatives, such as small/smaller/smallest, and so on. Use the word immature to discuss the use of more (comparative) and most (superlative) in comparisons. Write the prefix mini- on the board and ask them what it means (small) and to suggest words that contain mini or that use it as a prefix; for example, minibus, miniskirt; miniature, minimal, minimum, minimise. Challenge the children to think of all the words that can be made using happy with the addition of prefixes and suffixes; for example, happiness, happier, happiest, unhappy, unhappiness, and so on. Discuss the need to change the y to i in some of the happy words. Extend the activity to friend; for example, friendly, friendliness, unfriendly, and so on. Challenge them to find other words in the text that could be extended with the use of suffixes and prefixes.

Independent Work
Children could: write a personal recount of the day of fun from the point of view of either Snake or Frog draw a Clawsangnaws or a Niporbite draw a scene from the book and add speech and/or thought bubbles for Frog and Snake use the story plan from Shared Writing to write a story write a story about a future meeting between an adult Frog and Snake find out the names of the babies or young of a variety of animals and present their findings to the class.

Literacy Links Plus

55

Fiction Big Book


YEAR TERM

Why Frog and Snake Cant Be Friends


Shared Reading and Writing

39

Background

Discuss what the children remember about Why Frog and Snake Cant Be Friends. Scribe their responses. Then display each page, asking them to comment on the design, illustrations and colours. What do they like/dislike about the book? Invite them to suggest reasons for some of the elements; for example, the curved lines used to separate the text and illustrations on pages 2 and 7 resemble a snake. Tell the children that the book is adapted from a Nigerian story. Ask them if they can find any evidence in the book that might indicate it is from another culture; for example, the jungle setting, unusual words such as Clawsangnaws and Niporbite, and so on. Ask them to suggest what animals might be used if the story had been set in England, or a different country. Discuss the childrens responses. Discuss the ending of the story. Is it a happy ending? Why or why not? Ask the children if they think there is a moral or a message to this story; for example, ignorance is bliss, or choose your friends carefully. Discuss whether they agree with the decision Frog and Snake make in the end. As a shared writing activity, work with the children to write an alternative ending to the story; for example, perhaps Frog and Snake ignore their mothers warnings and continue to play with each other, or Frog might decide to play with Snake (page 23). Ask the children at which point they would like to start the alternative ending. Before you start writing, plan the story together, inviting the children to suggest what information needs to be included (such as new characters, a new setting), what happens at the end, and so on. Then scribe the new ending on chart paper, inviting the children to guide you with organising the text into paragraphs, and with the punctuation of any dialogue. Read through the text, discussing whether this ending has altered their view of the characters and/or the story.

This is the second lesson plan on this traditional story from Nigeria (see also Lesson Plan 38). Children will enjoy looking at the story in more detail and writing an alternative ending.

NLS References
T1 identifying moral and cultural issues in stories T3 understanding how paragraphs are used T12 writing an alternative ending for a story and discussing how this changes the readers view of the characters and events in the original story S3 understanding how the grammar of a sentence alters when a statement becomes a question, and a question becomes an order W6 spelling words with common letter strings but different pronunciations W8 extending words through adding parts (-able, tion) Activity Sheet 24: T1, W10

Independent Work
Children could: complete Activity Sheet 24 (page 94) write descriptions of the illustrations using as many descriptive and expressive adjectives as possible suggest adverbs that add expression and feeling to the verbs that introduce and conclude dialogue; for example, on page 7: Lets play, said Frog excitedly. write a concrete poem or an acrostic about a frog or a snake write a persuasive text about why Frog and Snake should be friends write the story from the point of view of one of the mothers write the story that Frog or Snake would tell their children about their experience of playing together, and why they never played together again.

Word and Sentence Level Work


Write the verb like (from page 5) on the board. Ask the children what suffix could be added to make like an adjective (-able). Ask them to suggest other words that -able could be added to; for example, obtain, teach, watch. Then write admiration (page 7) on the board and ask them what the root word is (admire). Ask them to suggest other words that -tion could be added to, such as communicate, suffocate, locate, dedicate. Discuss what happens to the e at the end of these words when the suffix is added. Use mound and counted (page 10) to challenge the children to suggest words that have the ou letter string, and then to sort them into groups of words with the same sound; for example, pound, hound, fountain, mountain; plough; four, pour, and so on. Challenge the children to change the question Will you keep away from him now? into an order (You keep away from him!). Then challenge them to change Lets play into a question (Would you like to play?). Discuss the addition or deletion of words, the changes in punctuation, and the change in tone.

56

Literacy Links Plus

Fiction Text Chart


YEAR TERM

Peter the Pumpkin-Eater


Shared Reading and Writing

40

Background

Tell the children the title of the book this chart is taken from and ask them to predict why the boy is called Peter Pumpkin-Eater. Discuss the use and organisation of paragraphs in a fiction or narrative text; for example, paragraphs usually contain one main idea; are organised sequentially; build upon one another; are often indented, and make reading the text easier. Then read both sides of the chart together and discuss the number and length of the paragraphs. Discuss Peters dilemma. Ask the children to suggest things Peter could do to help the cactuses; for example, he could read a book on how to grow cactuses, or he could get advice from a cactus expert or a gardener. Scribe their suggestions on the board. If the children read the novel, they could compare these suggestions with Peters course of action in the story. Re-read the chart, pausing at the end of each paragraph. As a shared writing activity, work with the children to summarise the authors intent and the main idea in each paragraph of the chart. For example, Paragraph 1 Authors intent: to set the scene, Main idea: Peters interest grows; Paragraph 2 Authors intent: to describe Peter, Main idea: Peter wants first prize; Paragraph 3 Authors intent: to present a problem, Main idea: Peter cant seem to grow things. Scribe the summaries on chart paper. Read through these summaries, discussing the planning that has obviously gone into the writing of this text. Discuss how summarising the intent and the main idea before writing can be a useful device to help sequence ideas and plan writing.

This chart presents Chapter 1 of the novel Peter the Pumpkin-Eater by Janine Scott (Literacy Links Plus Stage 8). The chart pages describe Peters initial interest in growing cactuses, while the book tells us how, and why, his interest moves on to giant pumpkins.

NLS References
T3 understanding how paragraphs or chapters are used to collect, order, and build up ideas S2 identifying common punctuation marks, and responding to them appropriately when reading W10 distinguishing between the two uses of the apostrophe

Word and Sentence Level Work


Independent Work
Children could: explain some of the figures of speech that appear on the chart; for example, a green finger, cityslicker, concrete jungle, and list or create others that could be used in their own writing write imaginatively about how Peter might have got his nickname, Peter the Pumpkin-Eater find out more about carnivorous plants and present their findings to the class write what happens next in the story; for example, they could write about what would happen if Peters cactuses suddenly grew to be enormous and took over his house present an argument either for or against the idea of talking and playing music to plants in order to help them grow.

Re-read the first sentence on side two of the chart. Then write the following sentences on the board: A carnivorous plant would have loved to cultivate Peter and It would have been lovely for Peter to cultivate a carnivorous plant. Discuss how changing the word order and adding words has changed the meaning. Select other sentences from the chart for the children to re-write by changing the word order and/or adding words. Ask them to comment on any change of meaning and any words they added to retain meaning. Ask the children to highlight the punctuation marks on side one of the chart. Ask them to explain the function of each. Discuss the authors choice of punctuation marks. Work with the children to identify the punctuation that could be altered, without changing the meaning; for example, the dashes in the second paragraph could be replaced by commas; the hyphen in city-slicker could be removed to make two words. Then ask them to locate the punctuation marks on the second side of the chart. Draw their attention to the colon and discuss its function in preceding a list. Ask the children to locate words containing an apostrophe on the chart. Ask them to indicate which apostrophes indicate contractions and which mark possession. You could list the words in two columns with the headings Contractions (wasnt, didnt, hed, werent); and Possession (Pumpkin-Eaters, Peters).

Literacy Links Plus

57

Poetry Big Book: Thrills and Chills


YEAR TERM

Wrestling
Shared Reading and Writing
Display the poem and read it to the children. Invite their spontaneous comments about the poem and about their own experiences of seeing or taking part in the sort of behaviour described in the poem; that is, wrestling in a friendly way. They might also have seen animals play-fighting and could suggest reasons for this: do they think that it is a type of practice for real fighting or just for fun? Do the same reasons apply to children?

41

Background

Wrestling (Kathleen Fraser) tells of the games children play, and of the unspoken rules that govern them. It provides an interesting comparison with an earlier poem in this collection, Samuel (Bobbi Katz), which also is spoken in the slightly puzzled but determined voice of a child dealing in a fundamentally optimistic way with the ups and downs of life.

Ask the children what makes Wrestling a poem. You might like to suggest that the poet has created a rhythm in the words she has chosen, and ask them how the rhythm has been created; for example, with repetitions and an unusual number of connectives. Invite the children to comment on the level of language used in the poem and say whether they think the words and style would suit a child of four, or a child of ten, or an age in-between these. Ask them to give reasons for their answers. Also ask them whether, based only on the words of the poem, they would assume the speaker to be a boy or a girl. Ask the children what unspoken rules might apply to the type of fighting and wrestling described in the first part of the poem. What words in the poem might suggest such rules? (but not very hard.) Also ask the children whether they would have a play-fight with someone they didnt like. Why/why not? Invite the children to suggest a set of rules for play-fighting. Scribe the rules on the board; for example, Opponents must not really dislike each other. Attempts to cause injury are strictly forbidden

NLS References
T1 identifying social issues T6 describing how a poet does or does not use rhyme T11 exploring the issues of a story by writing a story S1 understanding how words can be changed W8 extending words and investigating the links between meaning and spelling Activity Sheet 25: S3 & 4, W3 & 5

Independent Work
Children could: complete Activity Sheet 25 (page 95) re-read the poem in the small book write a short story about a particular wrestling match between the two children in the poem; suggest that they write in the third person, taking the role of a narrator who can tell us not only who the children are and what they look like, but what each is thinking and feeling before, during and after the match write about their own experiences of a play wrestling match, or a real argument with a friend script a conversation between the children in the poem (giving them names) and a friendly adult who is concerned about their fighting; the childrens aim could be to help the adult understand that this kind of play is part of their friendship and to persuade him or her that they know how to prevent a real fight developing.

Word and Sentence Level Work


Refer to the word sunny in the poem. Ask the children what part of speech this word is (an adjective). Discuss how we would change the word if we wanted to say that one day or time was more sunny than another (sunnier, as in Which day was sunnier: Monday or Tuesday? or The morning was sunnier than the afternoon). Also guide children to explain how the superlative sunniest is used; that is, when three or more days or times are involved in the comparison, as in Monday was the sunniest day weve had in weeks or Usually the afternoon is the sunniest part of the day. Brainstorm with the children several groups of positive, comparative and superlative adjectives, including some examples that involve a change of word or the use of more/most; for instance: funny, funnier, funniest; good, better, best; playful, more playful, most playful. List the adjective groups on the board. Also discuss typical ways in which the different forms of adjective are used; for example, the comparative is often followed by than, the superlative is often followed by of (as in It was the best game of the season the hottest day of the week and so on). Discuss the tense of the poem, guiding the children to see that it is in the present tense. Work with them to change sections of the poem into past tense. Scribe the text on the board or on chart paper as children agree on what words need to be changed or added. Invite comparison of the past-tense and present-tense versions.

58

Literacy Links Plus

Poetry Big Book: Thrills and Chills


YEAR TERM

Salt and Pepper


Shared Reading and Writing

42

Background

Display the poem and read it to the children. Briefly discuss their impressions of the poem, and clarify any unfamiliar vocabulary. Then re-read it together. Invite the children to re-read the poem in parts, with some children saying Salts words, the others reading Peppers reply, and you reading the few linking words. Introduce and discuss the word temperament. Then ask the children to describe Salts temperament, according to Pepper. They could start with an adjective to stand in place of takes life easy (easy-going), and suggest other adjectives that might relate to easy-going; for example, relaxed, unexcitable, calm. Then ask, Which lines in the poem show that Pepper thinks of his own temperament very differently? For example, they could talk about the suggestion of a hot temper or troublemaking tendencies in if I let fly, people cry. Encourage them to talk about the literal meaning of I make life sneezy (spilled pepper might lead to sneezes). Also discuss what sort of person might make life sneezy in a metaphorical sense; for example, someone who makes it impossible for you to feel relaxed. Remind the children that, as this poem shows, imaginative writing makes it possible to give a voice to anything. Invite them to imagine other contrasting foodstuffs; for example, sugar and vinegar, or ice-cream and a very spicy curry. Discuss what these foods might say to each other and how they might say it. Work with the children to compose a new version of the poem using indirect speech and the past tense. This could begin: Salt asked Pepper/ Why they were always separate;/ He in his cellar Scribe the new text for the children as they agree on each line. Discuss how the changes affect the impact of the text.

Salt and Pepper provides an example of light-hearted rhyming poetry in the form of direct speech. David McCord gives a salt-cellar and a pepper-mill a voice and listens in on their conversation. As children discuss the differing characteristics of salt and pepper, encourage them to consider whether the poem is about more than just salt and pepper. For example, perhaps the poet is suggesting that people with very different temperaments wont always get along easily or have the same needs and reactions.

NLS References
T1 identifying social issues and locating the evidence in the text T11 exploring issues by writing a story S1 understanding how words can be changed S2 identifying common punctuation marks W7 collecting words with common roots Activity Sheet 26: T4, S3, W3

Independent Work
Children could: complete Activity Sheet 26 (page 96) re-read the poem in the small book write a conversation in direct speech between two other contrasting foods or objects; such as a chocolate bar and a lemon, or a hiking boot and a slipper script an argument involving various food items on a dinner table, with each one insisting that its taste is the best of all write about ingredients describing how they think they should be used; for example, Good morning, this is A Cup of Sugar speaking. Now, I dont mind mixing with Flour, but dont put me anywhere near Mustard please! work in pairs to write an interview with Pepper and/or Salt, asking about some of the most extraordinary experiences they have had.

Word and Sentence Level Work


Challenge the children to take the word kind and think of all the words that can be made using it with the addition of prefixes and suffixes. Discuss and list the childrens suggestions; for example, kindness, unkind, unkindness, kinder, kindest, unkinder, kindly, kindliness, unkindly, unkindliness, and so on. Extend the activity to life, another word from the poem, discussing the need to change f to v, as in lives, living, livelihood, and so on. Use the word kinder as a starting point for discussing positive, comparative and superlative forms of adjectives. Ask children to suggest sentences to show how kind, kinder and kindest are used. For example: Helen is kind. She is a kinder person than her sister. She is the kindest person I know. Also discuss some adjectives that follow a different spelling pattern or do not use -er,-est, such as easy, easier, easiest and easy-going, more easy-going, most easy-going. Ask the children to find a word in the poem that can be used as both an adjective and a verb, with different pronunciation but without any change of spelling (separate). Ask them how they can tell that it is used as an adjective in the poem. Invite them to compose a sentence using the verb separate; for example, Its best if we separate the salt and the pepper.

Literacy Links Plus

59

Poetry Big Book: Thrills and Chills


YEAR TERM

Can You Sing?


Shared Reading and Writing

43

Background

Display the poem and read it to the children. Re-read it together. Children could also read the poem in parts; some of the children could be the boy, reading everything except the words spoken by the man, and the other children could read the mans speech. An enjoyable follow-up would be for children to act out the conversation without any of the attributions. Discuss the joke of the poem: the way a simple answer to a simple question is put off for as long as possible, so that when it comes it is almost a surprise. Children might also comment on the way the boy gives his replies in the form of questions; invite them to talk about having done or seen the same thing themselves. Ask the children to explain the task of the attributions (or the words that tell us who is talking) in the poem. The point that might emerge is that they help us make sense. As a way of testing this idea, ask the children to read Can You Sing? without the attributions, except for the first one; for example, A man said to me, Can you sing? Sing? Yes. Who? You. Me?, and so on. Ask why this might be confusing. Children might suggest that using character voices would be a way of helping to avoid confusion. Suggest to the children that they could think of Can You Sing? as a joke duet. Invite them to play with this musical idea by replacing the single-word responses with, in order, Doh, Ray, Me, Fah, Soh, Lah, Te, Doh; for example, A man said to me,/ Can you sing?/ I said, Doh?/ He said, Ray./ I said, Me? (The last line could remain: said, Oh.) This could be the basis of a shared writing activity. Invite the children to sing the result.

This poem is a delightful piece of nonsense based on the old game of Me, Sir?, in which a conversation is carried out with hardly any advance on the question that initiated it. The children will enjoy the joke of the poem, and the dialogue format provides an ideal springboard for activities that will reinforce their skills in writing direct speech.

NLS References
T7 recognising some simple forms of poetry and their uses T14 writing poems S2 identifying common punctuation marks S3 understanding sentence grammar Activity Sheet 27: T7, S3 & 1

Independent Work
Children could: complete Activity Sheet 27 (page 97) re-read the poem in the small book write a poem using Can You Sing? as a model, based on other oneword or two-word questions and responses, using words that begin with the same sound as what, why, well, when, which, wont, will; for example, Where, he said, is Wendy?/ What? I said./ Wendy, he said./ I said, Wendy?/ He said, Wendy./ Wendy? I said. Why? re-write the poem in indirect speech; for example, A man asked me if I could sing. I asked him if hed asked me if I could sing and he said that he had. Alternatively, the children could re-write the poem using direct speech but expanding the responses; for example, I said, Sing? Did you say sing?/ He said, Yes. You heard me correctly work in groups of three to read the poem, with one child as the man, one as the other speaker, and the third reading the attributions; they could try to read as rapidly as possible without overlapping.

Word and Sentence Level Work


Ask the children which word is most often repeated in the poem (said). Invite them to test whether it would be difficult or easy to find another saying verb (such as exclaimed, asked, demanded or whispered) that could be substituted for said throughout the poem. They are likely to find that using a mixture of two substitute words, such as asked and replied, would be easier than trying to find a single replacement for said, because the alternative words have more specific meanings. Invite the children to think of adverbs to describe the way the two characters speak. For example, I said suspiciously, Sing? Encourage them to change the adverb with each new attribution, and to make the adverbs consistent with the characters they develop. For example, if suspiciously is used at the start, the character should continue to be suspicious so warily could be used. Ask the children how we would punctuate the following, if we wanted to put an attribution after well: Yes, as a matter of fact I can sing very well, but I dont intend to sing for you. (Yes, as a matter of fact I can sing very well, I said, but I dont intend to sing for you.) Continue with other direct speech, including some questions; for example, children could punctuate the following with an attribution after now: are you asking me to sing for you now well Im afraid I wont.

60

Literacy Links Plus

Poetry Big Book: Thrills and Chills


YEAR TERM

Skipping Rhyme and The Swings in the Park


Shared Reading and Writing

44

Background

Before displaying the poems, ask the children what skipping chants or other play rhymes they know; for example, counting rhymes such as One, two, buckle my shoe. Three, four, knock at the door Read Skipping Rhyme to the children. Discuss the actions with the children, aiming to reach agreement about what each involves; for example, stay alive could involve the pace of the game increasing rapidly for a few seconds; bang the gate could mean landing loudly on both feet without losing rhythm. Discuss the purpose of the rhyme with the children. In what ways does the rhyme add to the enjoyment of the game? You might like to remind the children of other activities in which a chant plays a part, such as hauling ropes on a sailing ship, accompanied by sea shanties. Children could also discuss sporting events where the spectators develop various chants to encourage their team, or other examples such as people dancing while singing along with a song. Invite children to describe the rhyming pattern of the poem and to give examples of exact and imperfect rhymes, as in two/shoe compared to one/tongue or twist/this. For each imperfect rhyme, ask the children what sound the two words do have in common; that is, the vowel sound is the same, and there is a similarity between the final sounds, although not an exact match. Read The Swings in the Park to the children. Draw attention to the haiku format (three lines, with 5/7/5 syllables), and ask the children how they can tell that the child who wrote the poem took care to follow this pattern. They might comment on they at the beginning of line 2; the pronoun is not needed but provides an effective rhythm and a perfect syllable count. Ask the children if they agree with the thought and image that this haiku conveys. Why/why not? Invite children to comment on the repeated /l/ sound in lonely looking and how effective this is. For a shared writing activity you could work with them to compose alliterative phrases that could relate to play, scribing suggestions under the headings Cheerful and Less cheerful. For example: Cheerful jump joyfully, dance with delight Less cheerful look longingly (at children playing when you have not been asked to join in), despair at dropping the ball, slip while skipping

Exploring a traditional skipping rhyme will remind children that poetry is not only found in books. Like many childrens chants, Skipping Rhyme bases its rhymes and its energetic rhythm on numbers and counting, and is clearly designed to accompany action. If a convenient location and a long skipping rope are available, have children perform the game while the rest of the class chants the rhyme. The Swings in the Park, a carefully constructed haiku by a child of 9, offers a more meditative view of play.

NLS References
T5 counting the syllables in each line of poetry T6 describing how a poet does or does not use rhyme T7 recognising simple forms of poetry and their uses T14 writing poems W3 spelling using phonemes and visual skills Activity Sheet 28: T4, W3 & 5

Independent Work
complete Activity Sheet 28 (page 98) re-read the poem in the small book write their own skipping rhymes, or rhymes for any other sort of activity write a rhyme for an activity that we would normally not expect to be accompanied by a chant, such as cooking, washing clothes, ironing, fixing a motor car, sewing a garment write a haiku about skipping, and a rhyme about playing on swings in a park research other game-rhymes and street-rhymes, including countingout rhymes, and the short chants traditionally used in various games; for example, Coming, ready or not! try continuing Skipping Rhyme up to twenty.

Word and Sentence Level Work


Tell the children that touch has an unusual spelling pattern for the /uch/ sound. Ask them to test this statement by suggesting other words that rhyme with touch. Encourage them to guide you with spelling as you list their suggestions, grouping the words by spelling pattern; for example, much, such, clutch, hutch. Remind the children that the names of some of the numbers in Skipping Rhyme are homophones. Write on the board the example of one (won); then ask children to find and guide you in spelling the others: two (to, too), four (for), eight (ate). Invite the children to suggest sentences using as many of the words as possible; for example, We thought that eight pizzas, two huge bowls of salad and four apple pies would be too much food for one meal but we ate it all!

Literacy Links Plus

61

Non-Fiction Text Chart


YEAR TERM

The Story of Small Fry


Shared Reading and Writing

45

Background

Read side one of the chart. Allow time for general discussion. Ask the children what type of text this is (non-fiction) and what features they would expect to find; for example, an opening statement about the topic, a number of paragraphs each dealing with one main idea, and so on. Read side two of the chart. Work with the children to compose a sentence that summarises the information presented in the first paragraph; for example, Seals gather at rookeries to mate. Scribe for them and discuss how the details are left out. If possible, organise the children to work in small groups to compose sentences that summarise each paragraph on side one. Discuss and compare the sentences, and then use them to compose a definitive sentence that captures the essence of each paragraph. Re-read the final paragraph on side two. Discuss how this is a summary about caring for seal pups. Discuss how this type of summary can be useful when the reader only requires the essential information of a text. Point out the use of words such as never and if and discuss the use of the imperative form of verbs. Then challenge the children to further summarise this summary by highlighting the main points and deleting the supporting arguments. Scribe the points on chart paper. Read them together. Write the following questions on the board to help the children revise and evaluate what they have learnt from the chart: What have you learnt about seal pups? What are some of the problems for seal pups? What would you do if you found a seal pup? Work with the children to write short, concise answers to these questions. Scribe for them, encouraging them to help you find the relevant information on the chart. Read the text together, discussing the features of the text that helped them answer the questions.

This chart features selected text from pages 2229 of the novel The Story of Small Fry by Marcia Vaughan (Literacy Links Plus Stage 8). The first section of this book presents a fiction story of an orphan seal pup. The second section is a non-fiction report on real-life seals and the people who help them in times of trouble.

NLS References
T11 exploring the main issues of a text T16 evaluating issues in a text T20 summarising a sentence or paragraph and rewording them in a limited number of words S1 understanding that some words can be changed in particular ways and others cannot, e.g. pluralisation W8 revising prefixes and suffixes

Word and Sentence Level Work


Independent Work
Children could: re-write the text from the seals point of view write an imaginative story about finding a seal pup and becoming its friend investigate the word rookery and prepare a report that describes all the sorts of animals that form rookeries, and why they do this give possible reasons for the warning given in the last paragraph, Never pick up a lone seal pup without getting advice! investigate and report on any other mammals that are closely related to seals and have adapted to life in, and near, the sea draw pictures of a seal resting on a rock or swimming in the sea.

Review previous work on suffixes. Discuss how some words can change into different parts of speech when a suffix is added. Ask the children to find words on side one that contain suffixes; for example, usually, frighten, permanently and protection. Ask them to identify the root word and what part of speech each word is. Then challenge them to use each word in a sentence. Scribe their sentences. As a follow-up, ask them to find words on side two to which suffixes could be added, such as, time, swim, eat, and so on. Challenge them to add the appropriate suffixes to each word. List the new words and ask the children to use each in a sentence. Scribe their sentences. Write baby on the board and ask the children what the plural for this word is (babies). Challenge them to suggest other words ending in y that have the suffix -ies when they are made plural; for example, lady/ladies, sky/skies, fly/flies, and so on. Then write the word die on the board and ask them what happens when the -ing suffix is added (the ie letter string is replaced with y, as in dying). Challenge them to suggest other words where the ie ending changes to a y when -ing is added, such as lie/lying.

62

Literacy Links Plus

Posters and Book


(Maths in Context) Non-fiction from other subject areas. YEAR TERM

Egyptian Genius
Shared Reading and Writing

46

Background

Ask the children what they already know about ancient Egypt. Scribe and discuss their responses. Display the cover of the book and discuss the images. Then display some of the posters and ask them whether they are non-fiction or fiction and to give their reasons why. Also discuss the different ways in which information is presented; for example, timeline, map, captions, and so on. Read the posters Massive Monuments, Number Pictures, Ancient Art, Tomb Paintings and Fun and Games (these posters cover aspects of Egypt that the children might already know about). Ask the children to suggest how the information on each poster relates to mathematics; for example, Number Pictures looks at hieroglyphs that represent numbers. Ask them if they think, from reading these posters, that ancient Egypt was an important civilisation, and to explain why. Encourage them to refer to specific points which show that ancient Egypt made significant contributions to mathematical and other kinds of knowledge. As a shared writing activity, work with the children to create an advertisement to attract visitors to ancient Egypt. Before you write, ask them to think about the typical characteristics of advertisements; for example, a slogan or catchy line, persuasive language, photographs and/or illustrations, and so on. You could show them examples of real holiday advertisements. Discuss which elements they could use. Then work with them to compile a list of key points to include, such as what there is to see and do in Egypt, its location, and so on. Scribe their ideas. Discuss the need for their advertisement to be clear and easy to read. Create the advertisement on chart paper. Provide an opportunity for them to evaluate and improve its effectiveness.

Egyptian Genius is a non-fiction book with a set of posters of key spreads from the book. Reading about the ancient Egyptian civilisation is a fascinating way to examine the different ways information is presented in non-fiction texts. Children will enjoy creating an advertisement to persuade people to visit Egypt and can use it to evaluate the impact and appeal of advertisements, and the methods used to persuade readers to buy products. (See also Lesson Plan 47.)

NLS References
T19 to evaluate advertisements for their impact, appeal and honesty, focusing on how information about the product is presented T25 to design an advertisement S1 understanding how some words can be changed in particular ways and others cannot, e.g. verb endings W6 spelling words with common letter strings but different pronunciations W8 extending words through adding parts

Word and Sentence Level Work


Ask the children what word is used to describe things or people that come from Egypt (Egyptian) and what part of speech it is (adjective). Ask them to suggest the adjectives for Britain (British), France (French) and Australia (Australian). Then challenge them to suggest the adjectives for civilisation (civilised), fame (famous), value (valuable). Ask them to find other examples of noun-adjective connections on the posters. They could then use the adjectives in sentences to qualify a noun, such as Valuable items were stolen from the tomb. Read the main paragraph and the first caption on Number Pictures. Ask the children to find all the verbs and describe their tense (past). Scribe them on the board. Then challenge them to change this text into first-person present tense (as if they were writing from the point of view of someone of the time). Discuss the different patterns of verb endings, including the regular -ed ending (represent/represented) and the irregular (write/wrote). Use the words death, creating, great, features (from the Tomb Paintings poster) to look at the way one letter string (ea) can represent different sounds and pronunciation. Challenge the children to think of other examples for each pattern; for example, death, weather, bread; great, steak, break; feature, teacher, and so on.
For detailed maths investigations building on Egyptian Genius, see Kingscourts Maths Links Plus programme.

Independent Work
Children could: use the work from the Shared Writing activity as the basis for designing a holiday brochure for ancient Egypt imagine they were a child who had gone back in time to ancient Egypt and write a letter home about all their experiences write a description of the main picture on the Massive Monuments poster write a description of either the mans or the womans outfit on page 33 and say how it is different to the clothes they wear write a persuasive piece on the topic Ancient Egypt was an amazing civilisation.

Literacy Links Plus

63

Posters and Book


(Maths in Context) Non-fiction from other subject areas. YEAR TERM

Egyptian Genius
Shared Reading and Writing

47

Background

Display the book. Discuss the previous lesson, reviewing key ideas from the posters and the features of layout the posters include. Display the childrens advertisements for visiting Egypt and discuss their impact and effectiveness. Ask the children if the Egyptians were good mathematicians. Discuss their responses. Display the posters Its About Time, From Time to Time, Number Pictures, Tools of the Trade, Pyramid Patterns, Hand Drawn and Measuring Up. Read through and discuss the posters with the children. Ask them to summarise the key ideas; for example, Its About Time is about ways in which the Egyptians told the time. Then ask them to find evidence on these posters that support the idea that the Egyptians were good mathematicians. List points in note form on chart paper. Read the Number Pictures poster and discuss the use of hieroglyphs to represent numbers. Invite some children to write some numbers in hieroglyphs on the board while the others work out what they are. Then challenge them to summarise the first paragraph by rewording it; for example, Ancient Egyptians used hieroglyphs to write numbers. Read the poster King Khufus Pyramid. As a shared writing activity focusing on the use of its and its, work with the children to write about a trip to see this pyramid. As a model or a beginning, write Ive just been to see King Khufus Pyramid. Its amazing. Its sides face directly north, east, south and west. Work with them to continue the text with sentences that include its/its and to guide you on the use of the apostrophe. Read the text together.

In this second lesson plan on Egyptian Genius (see also Lesson Plan 46) children continue to look at the different ways information is presented in non-fiction texts. They use the interesting information in the posters to summarise the key points and to make notes.

NLS References
T20 summarising a sentence or paragraph by identifying the most important elements and rewording them S1 understanding how some words can be changed in particular ways and others cannot, e.g. pluralisation S3 understanding how the grammar of a sentence alters when the sentence type is altered W1 spelling words through identifying phonemes W10 distinguishing between the two forms: its (possessive) and its (contracted) Activity Sheet 29: T20, S3, W8

Word and Sentence Level Work


Write Egypt on the board and ask the children what part of speech it is (proper noun) and how they know this. Ask them if it can be made plural (no, it can only refer to one thing). Then ask them if Egyptian (used as a proper noun rather than an adjective) can be made plural (yes). To focus more generally on pluralisation, play a plural game with the children, where one child says a plural word, such as camels, and the next child gives the singular form, and so on around the room. Pause to discuss the different ways words are pluralised; for example, adding s and ies, and so on. To extend the work on pluralisation, ask children to write some plural nouns relating to ancient Egypt on pieces of paper and put them into a lucky dip; for example, Egyptians, pyramids, deserts, temples, and so on. Then a child could pull out two or three words at a time and challenge another child to put the nouns into sentences. Encourage the children to use statements, questions and direct speech, and to compare the word order in each. Write hieroglyphics and pharaoh on the board and ask the children to identify the letters that make the /f/ sound (ph). Then challenge them to think of other ways of spelling the /f/ phoneme (f, ff, gh) and ask them to suggest examples of each; for example, fright, for, trifle; puff, stuff, piffle; tough, laugh, laughter, and so on.

Independent Work
Children could: complete Activity Sheet 29 (page 99) draw a picture about their lives on paper, using the Egyptian grid method described on the Tomb Paintings poster research further one subject from the posters that interested them and present this information on a wall chart create a timeline for their own lives; for example, it could show when they started school, when they moved house, when a brother/sister was born, when they went on holidays, and so on write a personal recount from the point of view of one of the workers in the illustration on the Massive Monuments poster.

64

For detailed maths investigations building on Egyptian Genius, see Kingscourts Maths Links Plus programme.

Literacy Links Plus

Big Book (Science Alive) Non-fiction from other subject areas.


YEAR TERM

Natures Shapes and Patterns


Shared Reading and Writing

48

Background

Ask the children what the word pattern means and to suggest where patterns are found; for example, on shells, clothes, stained-glass windows, and so on. Encourage them to think of less obvious patterns, such as cycles in nature and time. Also discuss the meaning of shape and ask them to name some different shapes. Display the cover of the book. Ask the children what sort of book it is, and why. Flip through some of the pages and ask them to identify some typical features of non-fiction texts. Scribe their suggestions. Display the contents page and ask them what it tells them about the content of the book. Challenge them to suggest some examples of shapes and patterns for each entry in the contents; for example, Animal patterns: the fur on a cheetah and a zebra, and so on. Read pages 215, pausing at the end of each double-page spread to discuss the content. Ask the children whether the content of each double-page spread relates to shapes or patterns, or both. Ask them to summarise some sentences or paragraphs by identifying the most important elements and rewording them; for example, Spines are lines with sharp, pointed ends which protect their owners (page 5) could be re-written as Sharp spines protect their owners. Ask the children to choose one animal from the book that has a particularly appealing shape/pattern; for example, they could choose the peacock on pages 89 because of its amazing plumage. Then, as a shared writing activity, work with them to write a letter to the judges of a competition for The animal with the most amazing pattern/shape, to persuade them that their animal should win. Before you begin writing, brainstorm a list of descriptive words and phrases that focus on the pattern/shape of the animal; for example, exquisite colour, complex patterns, detailed, bright, colourful, symmetrical, and so on. Write these on the board. Also work out the best way to order the points that need to be covered in the letter. Scribe the letter, encouraging the children to use adverbs, adverbial phrases and conjunctions to connect their argument, such as then, so, finally, if, and so on. Read the letter together.

In this lesson plan on Natures Shapes and Patterns (see also Lesson Plan 49), children identify typical features of non-fiction and summarise selected sections. They also write a persuasive letter, and examine the language and structure of persuasive writing. Children will also benefit from reading the four additional information books (small books) from the Natures Shapes and Patterns module: Visual Patterns, Patterns of Life, Rhythms and Patterns, People and Patterns.

NLS References
T17 investigating how arguments are presented T20 summarising a sentence or paragraph T23 presenting a point of view in writing in the form of a letter S1 understanding that some words can be changed in particular ways and others cannot S4 using connectives to structure an argument W11 investigating compound words

Independent Work
Children could: write descriptions of the Viceroy and the Monarch butterflies, including the differences and similarities between them identify different shapes and patterns in the classroom, and draw one of them; for example, an aerial view of all the desks write a description of the girl in the photograph on page 15 describing where she is and what she did before and after the picture was taken write about and draw at least one more example for each page of the book; for example, a tabby cat could be featured on Animal Patterns. read the Natures Shapes and Patterns small books.

Word and Sentence Level Work


Display pages 215 (you may need to read the captions to the children) and ask the children to locate compound words; for example, anteaters (page 6), sometimes (page 7), beehive, honeycomb (page 7), spiderwebs (page 10), and so on. Write the words on the board and ask the children to identify the two words in each case. Challenge the children to suggest as many words as possible that have shape as the root word; for example, shaped, shapely, shapeliness, shaping, shapes, shapeless, and so on. Discuss the changes to shape when suffixes are added. Repeat for wide and also discuss the comparative and superlative forms (wider, widest). Ask them to suggest other words that describe something and to use them in sentences in their comparative and superlative forms; for example, Eliza has long hair, but her sister Alices hair is longer. However, their other sister Penny has the longest hair of all.

Literacy Links Plus

For detailed science investigations building on the Big Book, see the Natures Shapes and Patterns module of Kingscourts Science Alive programme.

65

Big Book (Science Alive) Non-fiction from other subject areas.


YEAR TERM

Natures Shapes and Patterns


Shared Reading and Writing

49

Background

Display the book and ask the children what they already know about it; for example, it is a non-fiction book about the shapes and patterns that occur in nature. Discuss any aspects of the book they remember, such as particular photographs. Read pages 1623, pausing at the end of each spread to discuss the content. Ask the children to identify the specific shapes/patterns that are being referred to on each spread. Write these on the board. Discuss the role of the illustrations/photographs to explain or demonstrate particular concepts; for example, the photographs on pages 89 show different animals with a variety of patterns, and the illustrations on page 17 explain night and day, and the seasons. Re-read pages 2223. Ask the children to suggest more patterns or shapes that people have created. Scribe them on the board. Then ask them to indicate which ones imitate the shapes and patterns in nature; for example, hang-gliders and planes have wings like a butterfly or bird, leopard-skin material imitates the fur of a leopard. Also ask them to think of things people have created that have patterns and shapes that are the opposite to nature, such as brightly coloured skiing clothes in contrast to the white fur of animals, like the polar bear, that live in the snow. Re-read pages 2021. Discuss the dog and butterfly life cycles. Ask the children to compare them and suggest similarities and differences between them. As a shared writing activity, work with them to present the information in one of the life cycle diagrams using text rather than photographs; for example, An adult butterfly lays an egg. The egg is white and very small. Then the egg hatches into larvae Before you write, determine what information is needed and the most effective way to present it. Encourage the children to use appropriate descriptive language, along with connectives that help to support the structure and sequence of the text. Scribe for the children. Read the text together, inviting them to make improvements if possible.

In this second lesson on Natures Shapes and Patterns (see also Lesson Plan 48) children examine the effectiveness of photographs and illustrations to convey information and explain processes.

NLS References
T20 summarising a sentence or paragraph by identifying the most important elements and rewording them T24 summarising in writing the key ideas from a diagram S1 understanding that some words can be changed in particular ways and others cannot S2 identifying common punctuation marks W8 extending words through adding parts, e.g. -ly W10 distinguishing between the two forms of its and its Activity Sheet 30: S1, W6

Independent Work
Children could: complete Activity Sheet 30 (page 100) create a life cycle diagram for another animal, such as a frog write a description of the trees in each season on page 16. Encourage them to think of their senses and what it would feel like to be there. create a life cycle diagram of one of their adult family members or friends using photos of him/her at different stages of his/her life add more shape and pattern adjectives to the list started in Word and Sentence Level Work find and research other animals that have amazing patterns or that can change their patterns to suit their environment write a dialogue between two of the animals in the book, with each one claiming to have the more beautiful shape/pattern read the Natures Shapes and Patterns small books.

Word and Sentence Level Work


Write the first paragraph from page 10 on chart paper, omitting the punctuation. Ask the children to punctuate the text. Scribe their suggestions. Then compare this text with the text in the book. Discuss the function of each punctuation mark. Highlight animals in this paragraph and ask them what the task of the apostrophe is (possession) and why it comes after the s (animals is plural). Ask them to suggest other sentences using the possessive apostrophe in plural words. Then write A tabby cat has patterns on its fur. Ask them if there should be an apostrophe in this sentence (no). Emphasise that the possessive its does not have an apostrophe. Discuss when its is used (for contractions of it is and it has). Work with the children to compile a list of adjectives from the book that describe the different shapes and patterns; for example, interesting, beautiful, compact, sharp, pointed, bright, red, and so on. Then challenge the children to identify the words in the list that can become adverbs with the addition of -ly, such as interestingly, beautifully, brightly, and so on. Scribe them on the board.

66

For detailed science investigations building on the Big Book, see the Natures Shapes and Patterns module of Kingscourts Science Alive programme.

Literacy Links Plus

Big Book and Posters


Non-fiction from other subject areas.

Mathematics from Many Cultures


Shared Reading and Writing

50

YEAR

TERM

Background

This is the third lesson on Mathematics from Many Cultures (see also Lesson Plan 13 for investigation of instructional texts and Lesson Plan 35 for investigation of explanatory texts). This lesson reviews key ideas and also explores the features of persuasive texts.

NLS References
T19 evaluating advertisements for their impact and appeal, focusing on how information about the product is presented T24 summarising in writing the key ideas from a paragraph S1 understanding how some words can be changed in particular ways and others cannot W5 exploring the occurrence of ss within words W8 extending words by adding -ive and -tion Activity Sheet 31: T20, S1, W8

Independent Work
Children could: complete Activity Sheet 31 (page 101) add descriptive words to the photograph captions compile a glossary for key words in the book and design a tessellating border to decorate the page choose some shapes; for example, octagon and triangle, and create a pattern that could be used on a patchwork quilt find designs in the classroom or at home and copy them on paper create a design using the letters in their names research a profession that deals with an area of design, such as fashion design, graphic design, furniture design, industrial design, and present their findings to the class.

Display the cover of the book. Ask the children what they remember about it. You could display pages 1213 to remind them of the instructions they looked at in Term 1, and pages 1011 for the explanation they used as a model for Shared Writing in Term 2. Briefly discuss the features of the instructions and explanations, including the layout, language, use of diagrams, and so on. Display the cover again and ask the children how they could describe the background. Encourage them to use the word pattern. Discuss its meaning and ask them to suggest some examples of patterns (remind them of Natures Shapes and Patterns from the previous two lessons). Then display pages 23 and read the heading. Ask them if they know the meaning of design. Then read the text and discuss how designs are different from patterns. Ask them to suggest other designs they have seen. Display pages 910. Ask the children what patterns and designs they can see in the tiles and rug in the photographs. Read and discuss the text. Ask them to describe in detail the shapes and the colours on the quilt, and the overall pattern that these shapes create. Challenge them to suggest definitions for design and pattern. As a shared writing activity, work with the children to write the text for an advertisement designed to sell the dish with the design on page 2 and the rug on page 9; for example, Your last chance to purchase these spectacular items! This amazing small dish is an object of beauty with an intricate and detailed design. The one complex design covers the entire dish The pattern on this rug is made up of small interlocking diamond shapes in colours that are bright and vibrant Before you write, help the children to summarise the relevant ideas from the text. Scribe the advertisement text as the children agree on each sentence. Encourage them to use persuasive language, including an attention-grabbing heading and descriptive words that make the items sound especially desirable. Read the text together.

Word and Sentence Level Work


Write creative on the board and ask the children to identify the root word (create) and what part of speech each word is (verb and adjective). Ask them to suggest other verbs that could have the -ive suffix added to create an adjective; for example, decorate/decorative, act/active, describe/descriptive, and so on. Discuss the changes that are made to the words when -ive is added. Then ask them which of these words could have the -tion suffix added, such as creation, decoration, action, description, and what part of speech these words are (nouns). Then challenge them to use the three forms of each word; for example, Tim is a very creative cook. He creates very interesting creations from vegetables. Using the word tessellate, challenge the children to think of as many words as they can that use ss; for example, toss, loss, possible, and so on. Then ask them to group the words based on where the ss appears (middle or end). Also discuss any conventions or patterns in the use of ss; for example, it always follows a vowel.

Literacy Links Plus

For detailed maths investigations building on Mathematics from Many Cultures, see Kingscourts Maths Links Plus programme.

67

Non-Fiction Big Book


YEAR TERM

Extinction Is Forever
Shared Reading and Writing

51

Background

Discuss the meaning of extinction and forever with the children. Ask them if they know of any animals that are extinct or endangered. Discuss and scribe their responses. Display the front and back covers. Ask the children what type of book it is (non-fiction). Then ask them to name as many of the animals as they can and what they notice about the photos (they gradually fade). Why is this significant? Read pages 25. Pause at the end of each page to discuss the content with the children. Ask them to comment on the different ways in which information is presented in the book. For example, the text on pages 23 is arguing humans are responsible for the increased rate in the extinction of animals; this argument is supported by two graphs (explanatory texts) that show the number of extinctions over a period of time in relation to human population growth. Discuss the effectiveness of these methods and their impact on the reader. The children could also highlight specific aspects of the text, such as the chronological sequence of information, and the use of statistics. As a shared writing activity, work with the children to write a letter to a local newspaper about the frightening extinction rate of animals and why it is important that people start to take action. Before you begin, help the children to identify the information from pages 25 that could be used; for example, statistics extracted from the graphs, facts such as In the period since people arrived in North America, at least 82 animal species have been exterminated, and so on. Discuss the most effective methods of getting the intended message across, such as linking points in a way that builds up the argument/point of view. Also discuss the importance of using appropriate language and vocabulary. For example, keeping the information clear and easy to understand and using connectives to help structure the argument. Scribe for the children. Read the letter together, inviting them to evaluate its persuasive impact and suggest possible improvements.

Extinction Is Forever explores the extinction of animals and the destruction of our environment. Children will learn about the history of and the reasons for the extinction of particular species. They will also learn about what is being done to help and how their individual contributions can make a difference. In this lesson (see also Lesson Plans 52 and 53) children explore the features of an argument and write a persuasive letter using information from the book.

NLS References
T16 evaluating examples of arguments T17 investigating how arguments are presented T23 presenting a point of view in writing, e.g. in a letter T24 summarising the key ideas from paragraphs S3 understanding how the grammar of a sentence alters when the sentence type is altered W8 extending words through adding prefixes and suffixes W9 recognising and spelling the suffixes -ible, -ive and -tion

Word and Sentence Level Work


Ask the children what suffix has been added to extinct to make extinction. Challenge them to find either words ending in the suffix -ion or words that could have it added; for example, destruction, evolution, exception (page 2), exterminate/extermination (page 3), and so on. Then ask the children to suggest the words that are built from the same root word as destruction, such as destructive, indestructible, and so on. Discuss the different prefixes and suffixes used. Work with the children to change the main headings into questions (excluding page 18); for example, How Do People Cause Extinction? (page 6), Can Everyone Help? (page 26). Scribe the questions on chart paper. Discuss changes in the order of words, such as transposition of Can and Everyone, addition/deletion of words, such as addition of Do, and changes to punctuation. Then challenge them to change the headings on pages 22 and 26 into orders and discuss word order, verb tense, punctuation and addition/deletion of words; for example, Take Action!, Everyone Must Help!

Independent Work
Children could: come up with alternative titles for the book, such as Here One Minute - Gone the Next, No Return present the information in the graphs on pages 2-3 in pie charts write an EXTINCT acrostic research one endangered animal and write a newspaper article to persuade people to take action to prevent its extinction write a description of a world without animals, including the problems this would cause.

68

Literacy Links Plus

Non-Fiction Big Book


YEAR TERM

Extinction Is Forever
Shared Reading and Writing

52

Background

Display the book. Ask the children what they remember about it. Conduct a general discussion on animal extinction and how humans have contributed to the increasing rate of extinction. Write extinction on the board and ask the children to suggest other words that start with ex, such as except, external, excuse. Write these headings for two columns on the board: How do people cause extinction? and Animals made extinct. Read pages 617, pausing at the end of each double-page spread to discuss the information. Ask the children to identify the different ways in which people cause extinction and to give examples of animals that have been made extinct. Write these under the headings on the board; for example, Deforestation/Ivory-billed woodpecker. Discuss the different ways in which information in the book is presented, such as the food pyramid on pages 67. Also discuss the photographs and how they support the authors point of view; for example, the children might comment on the beauty and vulnerability of the panda on pages 67, compared to the ugliness of the images on pages 10 and 11. As a shared writing activity, work with the children to compile a list of rules that could help lessen the devastating effect that humans can have on animals. (Remind the children that they can be idealistic!) Relate each rule to a human cause of animal extinction indicated by the sub-headings (Deforestation on page 6, Introduced Animals on page 8, and so on, up to page 17). Before you begin writing, help the children to summarise the most important points; for example, Damming Rivers: hydroelectricity causes flooding; destroys animals habitats. Encourage the children to keep the rules as concise as possible; for example, 1. Stop cutting down native forests. Work with the children to sequence the points in the most effective way to present their point of view. Read the rules together.

In this second lesson on Extinction Is Forever (see also Lesson Plans 51 and 53) children discuss the ways of presenting information in an argument and write a set of rules outlining how we can help reduce the extinction rate.

NLS References
T20 summarising a sentence or paragraph by identifying the most important elements and rewording them in a limited number of words T21 assembling and sequencing points to present a point of view T24 summarising key ideas S1 understanding that some words can be changed in particular ways and others cannot, e.g. pluralisation W7 collecting words with common roots W8 extending words through adding prefixes and suffixes W11 investigating compound words

Word and Sentence Level Work


Independent Work
Children could: make up some morals or mottos about the extinction of animals; for example, Destroy too much of something and you will be destroyed; Live and let live write a letter from the point of view of one of the endangered animals in the book, pleading for humans to take more care so that his/her species can stay alive design a poster to present the rules they wrote in Shared Writing; they could include pictures of animals from magazines research anti-fur organisations that exist and write a summary of the reasons they are against using fur to make clothes.

Ask the children what the singular form of people is (person). Challenge them to suggest other words that have irregular plural forms; for example, goose/geese, man/men, thief/thieves, and so on. Ask the children what the plural form of the noun species is (species) and ask them to suggest other nouns where the plural and singular form of a word are the same; such as sheep, fish, and so on. Challenge the children to suggest words built from danger; for example, dangerous, dangerously, endanger, endangered. Then challenge the children to think of as many words as possible that use en as a suffix or a prefix, such as enable, enact, entrap, enclose; fasten, harden, lengthen, strengthen, and so on. Ask the children to identify the two words in the compound word wildlife. Then challenge them to find other compound words in the book; for example, cannot (page 8), railroad (page 14), fishermen (page 15), and so on.

Literacy Links Plus

69

Non-Fiction Big Book


YEAR TERM

Extinction Is Forever
Shared Reading and Writing

53

Background

Discuss and list the main points about extinction that the children recall from the previous two lessons on this book. Ask them if reading the book has made them realise what a serious issue the extinction of animals is. Discuss their reasons. Read pages 1832, pausing at the end of each double-page spread to discuss the content and define any unknown words. Discuss the meaning of conservation (defined on page 18). Re-read pages 2021 and discuss how each objective in the World Conservation Strategy would help prevent further extinction of animals. Ask the children if they have ever heard of any of the conservation organisations mentioned on page 21. If so, what do they know about them? Point out the question What can be done? on page 22 and discuss how the answer is ordered into five numbered points. Ask the children if they think this is an effective way of expressing a point of view. Why/Why not? Also discuss the way sub-headings have been used on pages 2632 to list ways in which people can help. Ask them why the author would have done this rather than just using one main heading. Also discuss the use of the statistics on page 26. Ask the children what point the author is trying to make by using these statistics and whether it is an effective method. Re-read page 25. Discuss the role of zoos and childrens experiences of them. Discuss what the children think is good and bad about zoos and why. Scribe their ideas on the board. Then, as a shared writing activity, work with them to compose five points for and five points against zoos; for example, For: Allows endangered species to breed. Against: Removes animals from their natural environment. Scribe the text for the children. Encourage them to think about effective ways of wording each point, including careful selection of vocabulary. Read the text together.

In this third lesson on Extinction Is Forever (see also Lesson Plans 51 and 52) children continue their examination of the features of arguments and texts that present a point of view. They also write two sides of an argument.

NLS References
T17 investigating how arguments are presented, e.g. ordering of points, how statistics can be used to support arguments T23 presenting a point of view in writing T24 summarising in writing the key ideas from a paragraph/chapter S1 understanding that some words can be changed in particular ways and others cannot, e.g. verb endings W6 spelling words with common letter strings but different pronunciations W11 investigating compound words Activity Sheet 32: S2, W11

Independent Work
Children could: complete Activity Sheet 32 (page 102) write a list of all the things they currently do in their everyday lives to help animals and the environment. They could also write a list of things they could do based on what they have read. write to a conservation organisation, such as the World Wildlife Fund, asking for further information on what they can do to help conserve the environment compile a glossary for this book, including words such as extinction, environment, conservation, wildlife, endangered, and so on. design a poster with the message that every individual can make a difference in reducing rates of extinction visit their local zoo and find out about the breeding programmes that zoos have for endangered animals.

Word and Sentence Level Work


Challenge the children to suggest words that have conserve as the root word; for example, conservation, conserved, conserving, conservative, conservationist, conservator, conservatory, and so on. Discuss how the different meanings of the words relate to the meaning of conserve (such as conservative: wanting to preserve existing conditions). Ask them which suffixes can be added to preserve; for example, preservation, preserved, preserving, preservative, and so on. Discuss the meanings of these words. Write sea, streams, oceans, learn, creatures (from pages 2830) on the board. Ask the children to group these words by the pronunciation of ea; for example, the long /e/ sound in sea, streams, creatures. Challenge them to suggest and find more words from the text that include ea and to put them in the relevant sound group. Write the word undersized. Challenge the children to suggest other words that start with under; for example, underneath, underground, underwear, undercover, underarm, underlying, undermine, and so on. Ask them to identify which of these are compound words.

70

Literacy Links Plus

Rumpelstiltskin

Name ____________________________ Date __________

1.

Imagine that you are Rumpelstiltskin. Write about: what you are like: ______________________________________________ _______________________________________________________________ _______________________________________________________________ _______________________________________________________________ how and why you tried to trick the queen: ___________________________ _______________________________________________________________ _______________________________________________________________ _______________________________________________________________ _______________________________________________________________

2. Choose the best verb for each space. Write your own sentences using the remaining verbs and direct speech. laughed shrieked begged pleaded asked

boasted

ordered

The King ____________ the girl to spin straw into gold. The shepherd ____________ about his daughter. Please dont take my baby, she ____________. The Queen wept and ____________.

Youll never guess! ____________ the little man. _____________________________________________________________ _______________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________ _______________________________________________________________
e Writ ! n o

Design a Wanted poster about Rumpelstiltskin. OR Write a newspaper report about some events from Rumpelstiltskin. Include a headline.
Kingscourt: Literacy Links Plus 71

Activity Sheet 1 (NLS: T24, S3) Use with Lesson Plan 2 (Yr 4).

Anansi and Old Tiger Riding-Horse

Name ____________________________ Date __________

1.

a) vain

Use these words, and some of your own choice, to describe the characters. handsome intelligent clever rascally tall good-looking fun-loving funny

Tiger was ______________, ______________, and ___________________. Peacock was ______________, ______________, and ________________. Anansi was ______________, ______________, and _________________. Selina was ______________, ______________, and _________________. b) Which character from the play do you like most? Why?

_______________________________________________________________ _______________________________________________________________ _______________________________________________________________ _______________________________________________________________ 2. Re-write each list in alphabetical order. riding ready really rotten rascally 3. _________ _________ _________ _________ _________ creatures call clever cleared carry __________ beautiful __________ __________ being __________ __________ better __________ __________ because __________ __________ before __________

Unscramble these animals names. protar ____________ parrot myonke ____________ serdip ____________ musoe ____________
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pacocek tergi eplethan hopiptapomus

____________ ____________ ____________ ____________

Write instructions about how to avoid being tricked by Anansi. OR Write a character sketch of Anansi.
Kingscourt: Literacy Links Plus

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Activity Sheet 2 (NLS: T11 & 25, W3 & 12) Use with Lesson Plan 5 (Yr 4).

Summer Song and Ode to the Pig: His Tail

Name ____________________________ Date __________

1.

Write the animals replies to the questions in the box.


What do you like most about the way you look? Why?

a pigs reply: _________________________________________________ ______________________________________________________________ ______________________________________________________________ a crickets reply: ______________________________________________ ______________________________________________________________ ______________________________________________________________ a mouses reply: ______________________________________________ ______________________________________________________________ ______________________________________________________________ a lions reply: _________________________________________________ ______________________________________________________________ ______________________________________________________________ 2. a) Complete the chart. Adjective impressive elegant cheerful b) -ly adverb impressively commonly Adjective final brave happy -ly adverb

aggressively

Write a sentence including one adjective and one adverb from the chart. ______________________________________________________________ ______________________________________________________________
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Write a character profile of the pig from Ode to the Pig: His Tail.
Kingscourt: Literacy Links Plus 73

Activity Sheet 3 (NLS: T11, S4, W5) Use with Lesson Plan 6 (Yr 4).

The Eagle

Name ____________________________ Date __________

1.

Explain what the following phrases mean.


He clasps the crag with crooked hands; Close to the sun in lonely lands, Ringed with the azure world, he stands.

crooked hands ________________________________________________ ______________________________________________________________ lonely lands __________________________________________________ ______________________________________________________________ azure world __________________________________________________ ______________________________________________________________ 2. a) Complete the chart with past-tense verbs. Past tense clasped Present tense watches falls flies Past tense

Present tense clasps stands crawls b)

Write two sentences (in past tense) about an eagle.

____________________________________________________________ ______________________________________________________________ ____________________________________________________________ ______________________________________________________________ 3. Suggest a more powerful or appropriate verb to replace each underlined verb in the following sentences. The eagle flew through the sky. ___________________ The eagle eats its prey. ___________________ The frightened rabbit went into its burrow. ___________________
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Write a poem or story about a creature stalking or hunting its prey.

74

Activity Sheet 4 (NLS: T1, S2 & 3, W7) Use with Lesson Plan 7 (Yr 4).

Kingscourt: Literacy Links Plus

Pigeons

Name ____________________________ Date __________

1.

2.

Write a paragraph in which a pigeon explains why he/she enjoys living in the city. ______________________________________________________________ ______________________________________________________________ ______________________________________________________________ ______________________________________________________________ ______________________________________________________________ Select words to fill the spaces. Use the remaining words in sentences of your own about pigeons. often most rarely occasionally sometimes seldom

City pigeons ______________ visit the countryside. They ______________ travel far from home. Pigeons can ______________ be seen in parks and on rooftops, and ______________ they even wander into buildings.

____________________________________________________________ ____________________________________________________________ 3. Write other -ly adverbs that could fit these sentences. cautiously The pigeon looked around____________. ____________. ____________. quietly I sat ____________ and fed the pigeons. ____________ ____________
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Write a conversation between a city pigeon and a bird that lives in the country. OR Write a diary entry for a city pigeon.
Kingscourt: Literacy Links Plus 75

Activity Sheet 5 (NLS: T2, S4) Use with Lesson Plan 8 (Yr 4).

The Crocodile

Name ____________________________ Date __________

1.

What does gently mean? Is there really anything gentle about the way a crocodile smiles? Foolish fish swim happily into my _________________________________ gently smiling jaws. Yum! _________________________________ _________________________________ _____________________________________________ ______________________________________________________________ ______________________________________________________________

2.

Add verbs. Underline the adverbs. When a crocodile is ____________ quietly in the water, it can be hard to see. With a snap, the crocodile quickly ____________ its jaws. The foolish fish ____________ into the crocodiles mouth calmly, and the crocodile cheerfully ____________ them.

3.

Use letters from CROCODILE to form other words. __ __ __ __ __ __ __ __ __ __ __ (not hot) (open this to go inside) (put on a jar)

__ __ __ __ __ (shouted out) __ __ __ __ __ __ __ __ __ __ __ __ __ __
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(told an untruth) (true ___ false) (a boys name) (the centre of an apple)

What would you do if you met a crocodile? Write about it.


Kingscourt: Literacy Links Plus

76

Activity Sheet 6 (NLS: S2 & 4, W3 & 11) Use with Lesson Plan 9 (Yr 4).

Lion

Name ____________________________ Date __________

1.

Imagine that a lion is explaining why he likes being a lion. Write three reasons that he might include. ____________________________________________________________ ______________________________________________________________ ____________________________________________________________ ______________________________________________________________ ____________________________________________________________ ______________________________________________________________

2.

Re-write each group of words in alphabetical order. a) b) c) lions living loud lioness lively lounge __________________________________________________________ fierce flick flea from flash free __________________________________________________________ savage sharp saving shout shallow sword __________________________________________________________ Complete the chart of verbs. Present tense chases cries will bite b) Use two of the past-tense verbs in a sentence about a lion. ______________________________________________________________ ______________________________________________________________ ______________________________________________________________
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3.

a)

Past tense chased roared

Future tense will chase

Write a list of facts about lions and a list of opinions about lions.

Activity Sheet 7 (NLS: T19, S2, W12) Use with Lesson Plan 10 (Yr 4).

Kingscourt: Literacy Links Plus

77

Samuel

Name ____________________________ Date __________

1.

Sometimes I think I should have left him Near the pond in the woods

What does this section of the poem tell you about the childs feelings? ______________________________________________________________ ______________________________________________________________ ______________________________________________________________ ______________________________________________________________ 2. Use four of these verbs/verb groups in sentences about the poem. Label each sentence past-tense, present tense or future tense. regretted are is sorry will be careful will avoid learnt

____________________________________________________________ ______________________________________________________________ ____________________________________________________________ ______________________________________________________________ ____________________________________________________________ ______________________________________________________________ ____________________________________________________________ ______________________________________________________________


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Write about caring for a real pet or an imaginary pet.


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78

Activity Sheet 8 (NLS: T1, S2) Use with Lesson Plan 11 (Yr 4).

Name ____________________________ Date __________

Poem title: _______________________________________ How much does the title tell you about the poem? Why do you think the poet chose this title? ______________________________________________________________ ______________________________________________________________ ______________________________________________________________ ______________________________________________________________ 2. Who do you imagine is speaking in the poem? What does the poem tell you about this person or thing? ______________________________________________________________ ______________________________________________________________ ______________________________________________________________ ______________________________________________________________ 3. Weird or wonderful words from the poem: Word or phrase Does the poem help me with the meaning? If so, how? What I think the word means Dictionary meaning 1.

Activity Sheet 9 Use with any appropriate poem (Yr 4).

Kingscourt: Literacy Links Plus

79

All About Forces

How To Make a Paper Spinner


You will need: paper (9 x 25 cm) scissors 1. 2. 3.

Fold the paper in half, then in half again, to form two creases. Open out the paper.

Cut in 10 cm from one end along the long fold. Cut in 3 cm from both sides along the short fold.

Fold in the side pieces to make the tail.

4.

5.

6.

Roll up the bottom of the tail.

Make the propeller by folding the top pieces.

Drop your paper spinner from a high place.

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Design and test smaller/bigger paper spinners. Write about your findings. OR Use the words spin and roll to start a list of movement verbs. List as many movement verbs as you can.

80

Activity Sheet 10 (NLS: T22) Use with Lesson Plan 15 (Yr 4).

Kingscourt: Literacy Links Plus

Fantastic Flight

How To Make a Paper Glider


You will need: a piece of heavy paper (at least 23 cm x 25 cm) scissors, ruler, tape and a coin. STEP 1 Fold the paper in half. STEP 2 Double all the measurements of this glider outline. Use a grid to help you if you wish. Draw the larger outline on your paper, with the bottom of the glider on the folded edge.

STEP 3 Cut out your glider. Dont cut along the fold.

STEP 4 Fold the wings and tail as shown below. Then attach a coin to the nose.

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Write about your paper gliders test flights. How well/how far does it fly? What can you do to make it fly as well as possible?
Kingscourt: Literacy Links Plus 81

Activity Sheet 11 (NLS: T22) Use with Lesson Plan 17 (Yr 4).

Fantastic Flight

Name ____________________________ Date __________

1.

Select the best words to fill the spaces. airship want


Airships
If you ____________ fast air travel, then dont choose to travel in an ____________. Airships are big ____________. They use ____________ own power to move forward, so they are ____________ than hot-air balloons. However, ____________ are still slow, and might not ____________ at all when flying into a ____________ wind.

wetter their

they jet

windy

strong

move faster balloons hate

wobble

2.

Complete these sentences. a) Airships fly ____________. b) The Hindenberg, a famous airship, was ________________.
slow slowly slowest

destroying

destroys

destroyed

c) A blimp will be ____________ cameras over next weekends main sporting event.

carry

carried

carrying

Which sentence is in the past tense? _______________ Which sentence is in the future tense? _______________ 3. Add ship to each word. air______, friend______, hard______, town______

Use two of the words in sentences. ____________________________________________________________ ______________________________________________________________ ____________________________________________________________ ______________________________________________________________


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Write about all the places in the world that you would like to fly over in a balloon.
Kingscourt: Literacy Links Plus

82

Activity Sheet 12 (NLS: S2, W9) Use with Lesson Plan 17 (Yr 4).

The Sun

Name ____________________________ Date __________

1.

Punctuate this passage. Change small letters to capitals where necessary.


if we did not have the sun which provides warmth and light plants could not live on our planet if there were no plants there would be no food for animals or people

2.

a)

Complete the chart. Verb shine worship know believe Past-tense shone Verb rise tell see take Past-tense

b)

Use one of these verb groups to write a sentence about the sun in future tense. will shine shall see will rise

______________________________________________________________ ______________________________________________________________ 3. Complete these sentences. People used to believe that the sun _______________________________ ______________________________________________________________ We need the sun because _______________________________________ ______________________________________________________________ The sun helps _________________________________________________ ______________________________________________________________ I think the sun ________________________________________________ ______________________________________________________________
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Write your own story based on one of the myths/legends mentioned in The Sun. OR Research solar power and write a report about it.

Activity Sheet 13 (NLS: T24, S2) Use with Lesson Plan 19 (Yr 4).

Kingscourt: Literacy Links Plus

83

The Fisherman and His Wife

Name ____________________________ Date __________

1.

a)

Number these points from 1 to 6 to match the order of the story.


The fish granted the wifes wish for a nice cottage. The fishermans wife would often sigh, How I wish we were rich. Following his wifes orders, the fisherman asked the fish to grant wishes. The fisherman said that he had caught an enchanted, talking fish. Even when the wife had a castle, she kept demanding more and more. The fish did not like the wifes greed, and took all her riches away.

b) Write what point number 7 would be. ______________________________________________________________ ______________________________________________________________ 2. Write a definition of enchanted. Also use enchanted in a sentence that helps to show its meaning. Definition: _____________________________________________________ ______________________________________________________________ Sentence: _____________________________________________________ ______________________________________________________________ a) Complete the chart. Adjective greedy larger frightened more frightened most selfish b) Use one of the superlative adjectives in a sentence about the story. Comparative form Superlative form greediest

3.

______________________________________________________________ ______________________________________________________________
84 Activity Sheet 14 (NLS: S2, W12) Use with Lesson Plan 20 (Yr 4). Kingscourt: Literacy Links Plus

A Football Game

Name ____________________________ Date __________

1.

a)

What does this section of the poem tell you about a football game?

Its a thrill, its a chill, Its a cheer and then a sigh; Its that deep, breathless hush When the ball soars high.

______________________________________________________________ ______________________________________________________________ ______________________________________________________________ ______________________________________________________________ b) What do these words mean in the poem? chill: _______________________________________________________ soars: ______________________________________________________ 2. Do you think that Fun is King in sport? Why/why not? ______________________________________________________________ ______________________________________________________________ ______________________________________________________________ ______________________________________________________________ Complete these charts. Apostrophes in contractions its Full words it is that is arent theres
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3.

Possessive apostrophe the childrens ball

Possessive phrase the ball owned by the children the hat of one man the seeds of the orange the smiles of two babies

Write about the sport that you most enjoy watching and/or playing.
Kingscourt: Literacy Links Plus 85

Activity Sheet 15 (NLS: T2) Use with Lesson Plan 24 (Yr 4).

The City Dump and City

Name ____________________________ Date __________

1.

a)

Complete the chart. gulls dawn sky plums Could describe: stone walls bare trees

Color grey red purple green b) 2.

Use adjectives (apart from colour words) to complete these phrases: greedy __________________ __________________ __________________ __________________ squawking __________________ __________________ __________________ __________________ gulls plums cities garbage

Describe what you might see, and how you might feel, in the following situations. Include some adjectives and underline them. Looking down from the top of a high city building: ______________________________________________________________ ______________________________________________________________ ______________________________________________________________ Being on a crowded bus or train: ______________________________________________________________ ______________________________________________________________ ______________________________________________________________ Being at a party: ______________________________________________________________ ______________________________________________________________ ______________________________________________________________
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List good points and bad points about: a) living in the city; b) living in the country.

86

Activity Sheet 16 (NLS: T10, S1 & 2) Use with Lesson Plan 25 (Yr 4).

Kingscourt: Literacy Links Plus

Name ____________________________ Date __________

On the Skateboard, Freewheeling on a Bike and Portrait of a Motor Car

1.

Write the correct word in each space. Use the remaining words in two sentences of your own about transport. because when and although but if

Pedalling up hills is hard work ____________ I love freewheeling downhill. ____________ I speed along on my skateboard, I feel like a human automobile. ____________ our car is old ____________ has a few scratches, it still runs as smoothly as can be. ____________________________________________________________ ______________________________________________________________ ____________________________________________________________ ______________________________________________________________ 2. a) Complete the puzzle with rhyming words that end in -ate, -ait or -eat.
1 2

1. Slow down and _ _ _ _ for me! 2. _ _ _ _ _board.

3. Fill up with air. 4. Opposite of early.

5. A word that can mean very large or excellent.

b) Write words that rhyme with wheel. -eel spelling pattern: _________________________________________ ______________________________________________________________ -eal spelling pattern: _________________________________________ ______________________________________________________________
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Write about similarities and differences between a bicycle and a skateboard.


Kingscourt: Literacy Links Plus 87

Activity Sheet 17 (NLS: S4, W3 & 6) Use with Lesson Plan 26 (Yr 4).

Silver

Name ____________________________ Date __________

1.

a)

Slowly, silently, now the moon Walks the night in her silver shoon This way, and that, she peers, and sees Silver fruit upon silver trees;

What is this part of the poem describing? (shoon means shoes.) Describe the scene in your own words. ______________________________________________________________ ______________________________________________________________ ______________________________________________________________ ______________________________________________________________ b) Write three more nouns or noun phrases that silver could describe. silver __________________ silver __________________

silver light of the moon silver __________________ 2. a) Complete the chart. Phrase the beauty of the moon the glow of the stars the silver fruit on the trees

Using possessive apostrophe the moons beauty

b) Write a sentence about night-time. Include a possessive apostrophe. ______________________________________________________________ ______________________________________________________________ 3. Re-write these sentences, using more interesting words and expressions.
The moon looks nice in the dark sky. The moonlight on the trees looks good.

______________________________________________________________ ______________________________________________________________ ______________________________________________________________


88 Activity Sheet 18 (NLS: T4, S2 & 4, W13) Use with Lesson Plan 27 (Yr 4). Kingscourt: Literacy Links Plus

Winter Moon and Summer Full Moon

Name ____________________________ Date __________

1.

Describe the night sky using at least three of the following phrases. is like a the same as look like as big as is a reminds me of

I think of

______________________________________________________________ ______________________________________________________________ ______________________________________________________________ ______________________________________________________________ 2. a) Use the underlined words to complete the puzzle.
How thin and sharp and ghostly white Is the slim curved crook of the moon tonight!

b) What does the word crook mean in Winter Moon? ______________________________________________________________ ______________________________________________________________ c) List words that rhyme with white. -ite spelling: ________________________________________________ ______________________________________________________________ -ight spelling: _______________________________________________ ______________________________________________________________
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Use the word white to begin a list of adjectives that could describe the moon.
Kingscourt: Literacy Links Plus 89

Activity Sheet 19 (NLS: T13, W3) Use with Lesson Plan 28 (Yr 4).

Under the Ground

Name ____________________________ Date __________

1.

Write the correct words in the spaces. rabbits house another colony creature colonies called female known rabbit safe animals homes

Many ____________ make their ____________ under the ground. For example, ____________ live in underground ____________ or warrens, which provide ____________ places for them to raise their young. A ____________ colony is ruled by a male rabbit, ____________ a buck. The burrows where he and other rabbits live within the ____________ are built by ____________ rabbits.

2.

Complete the chart of male/female animal pairs. Female doe goose drake Male buck fox Female cow Male
gander hen duck filly vixen lioness rooster lion bull colt

3.

a) What sort of mine would you read about in Under the Ground? ______________________________________________________________ ______________________________________________________________ b) Write a sentence in which the word mine has a different meaning. ______________________________________________________________ ______________________________________________________________
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Research and write a report on one animal that lives underground.

90

Activity Sheet 20 (NLS: T23, W10) Use with Lesson Plan 30 (Yr 4).

Kingscourt: Literacy Links Plus

The Wonderful World of Plants

Name ____________________________ Date __________

1.

List some things that you would write about in a report on Leaves. ______________________________________________________________ ______________________________________________________________ ______________________________________________________________ ______________________________________________________________ ______________________________________________________________ ______________________________________________________________ Complete the chart. Word trunk (of a tree) evergreen deciduous buoyant fragile inactive Definition in no more than six words

2.

3.

Re-order these words to make sensible sentences. plant seeds carried are by wind the and birds by ______________________________________________________________ food are factories leaves the of plants ______________________________________________________________ plants all not helpful are ______________________________________________________________ taking enjoy in people parks walks ______________________________________________________________ and all flowers of parts are leaves, petals, stems ______________________________________________________________
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Write about your favourite tree or flower; explain why it is special.

Activity Sheet 21 (NLS: T21, S3) Use with Lesson Plan 32 (Yr 4).

Kingscourt: Literacy Links Plus

91

Natures Mathematical Marvels

Name ____________________________ Date __________

1.

a)

Punctuate this passage.

Our planets surface features many different landscapes including forests mountain ranges deserts and plains However most of Earths surface is covered by water which is in oceans seas lakes rivers and also in snow and ice

b)

Write two sentences of your own about nature. Begin the second sentence with However,. ______________________________________________________________ ______________________________________________________________ ______________________________________________________________ 2. Add an apostrophe in each phrase. Then write your own examples in the last row of the chart. Singular possessives a plants colours a leafs shape Plural possessives plants colours leaves shapes

3.

For each heading from Natures Mathematical Marvels, list the key points you found (or expect) in that section. Hottest, Coldest!

Terrific Trees!

Small and Scary

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Describe something that you think deserves the title: A Natural Marvel.
Kingscourt: Literacy Links Plus

92

Activity Sheet 22 (NLS: T15, S4, W3) Use with Lesson Plan 34 (Yr 4).

Why Flies Buzz

Name ____________________________ Date __________

1.

a)

Number the points from 1 to 5 to match the order of the story.


When the mans wife jumped to avoid the knife, she stood on the snakes tail. The bushfowl grieved silently, so the sun did not rise and the sky remained dark. The fly buzzed in the mans ear and he dropped his knife. The rhinoceros crashed through the bush and broke the bushfowls eggs. The snake frightened the monkey, who threw the mango that hit the rhinoceros on the head.

b) Write what point number 6 would be: ______________________________________________________________ ______________________________________________________________ 2. How important is it for the story to have a bush setting? Give reasons for your answer. ______________________________________________________________ ______________________________________________________________ ______________________________________________________________ a) Write words in which the letters -ush have

3.

the same sound as in bush: _____________________________________ ______________________________________________________________ the same sound as in brush: ____________________________________ ______________________________________________________________ b) Write words in which the letters ow have the same sound as in throw : ____________________________________ ______________________________________________________________ the same sound as in down: _____________________________________ ______________________________________________________________
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Write a letter to the bushfowl from another character.


Kingscourt: Literacy Links Plus 93

Activity Sheet 23 (NLS: T2, W3 & 4) Use with Lesson Plan 36 (Yr 4).

Why Frog and Snake Cant Be Friends

Name ____________________________ Date __________

1.

a)

Imagine that you are Snake. Explain how you learnt to do the Frog Hop. ______________________________________________________________ ______________________________________________________________ ______________________________________________________________ b) Imagine that you are Frog. Describe what happened when you arrived home doing the Snake Slither. ______________________________________________________________ ______________________________________________________________ ______________________________________________________________ Do you think that Frog and Snake were right to stop playing together? Why/why not? ______________________________________________________________ ______________________________________________________________ ______________________________________________________________

2.

3.

a)

Add apostrophes where they are needed in this passage.

When Frog and Snake first met, they didnt know that they werent meant to be friends. Once they realised that theyd made their parents angry, they kept apart from each other. Its a pity that we cant be friends after all, they said.

b)

List the words that needed apostrophes. How did you know where to put each apostrophe? ______________________________________________________________ ______________________________________________________________ ______________________________________________________________ ______________________________________________________________
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Write a new version of the story using different animals, such as a cat and a mouse.
Kingscourt: Literacy Links Plus

94

Activity Sheet 24 (NLS: T1, W10) Use with Lesson Plan 39 (Yr 4).

Wrestling

Name ____________________________ Date __________

1.

Present tense:

I like wrestling with Herbie because hes my best friend.

Write three other sentences about the character in Wrestling. A sentence in present tense : ____________________________________ ______________________________________________________________ A sentence in past tense : ______________________________________ ______________________________________________________________ A sentence in future tense : _____________________________________ ______________________________________________________________ 2. Imagine that you are Herbie. Write how he might complete these sentences. When I have a pretend fight with my friend, _________________________ ______________________________________________________________ Although we sometimes really get angry, __________________________ ______________________________________________________________ ____________________________________________________________ ______________________________, because it makes our sisters scream. 3. List words that: a) rhyme with fight -ight spelling: _______________________________________________ -ite spelling: ________________________________________________ b) rhyme with cry -y spelling: _________________________________________________ -igh spelling: ________________________________________________ -ie spelling: _________________________________________________ other spellings: _______________________________________________
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Write a true or imaginary story about settling an argument with a friend.


Kingscourt: Literacy Links Plus 95

Activity Sheet 25 (NLS: S3 & 4, W3 & 5) Use with Lesson Plan 41 (Yr 4).

Salt and Pepper

Name ____________________________ Date __________

1.

Write Q next to each question and S next to each statement. Then change the questions to statements and the statements to questions. Why are salt and pepper always separate? ______________________________________________________________ Pepper makes me sneeze. ______________________________________________________________ There are many ways of adding flavour to food. ______________________________________________________________ Is too much salt bad for you? ______________________________________________________________

2.

Complete this crossword.


1 2 3 4 5

6 8

ACROSS 1. ______ and pepper 5. bread and ______ 6. socks and ______ 8. ______ and fork 9. apple pie and ______ 11. toast and h______ DOWN 1. happy or ______ 2. chair and ______ 3. ______ and ball 4. ______ and paper 6. cup and ______ 7. ______ and dry 10. ______ and woman

10

11

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Write a conversation between a brush and comb; a knife and fork; or a sock and shoe. OR Write a poem or story featuring delicious food.

96

Activity Sheet 26 (NLS: T4, S3, W3) Use with Lesson Plan 42 (Yr 4).

Kingscourt: Literacy Links Plus

Can You Sing?

Name ____________________________ Date __________

1.

a) Write words that can be used instead of said. shouted _____________ _____________ _____________ replied _____________ _____________ _____________ _____________ _____________ _____________

_____________ _____________ _____________

b) Use two of these words in a sentence. ______________________________________________________________ ______________________________________________________________ ______________________________________________________________ 2. a) Label each of the following as a statement, a negative statement, a question or a command. Sing! ______________________ You cant sing. ______________________ Can you sing? ______________________ You can sing. ______________________ I dont sing very often. ______________________ Turn the music down! ______________________

b) Re-write this statement as a question and as a command. Statement: You can play the piano. Question: _____________________________________________________ Command: _____________________________________________________ 3. Using direct speech, write a conversation between two people who are talking about music. Do you have a favourite song? asked ______________________________ ______________________________________________________________ ______________________________________________________________ ______________________________________________________________ ______________________________________________________________
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Write about your favourite singer(s) and song(s).


Kingscourt: Literacy Links Plus 97

Activity Sheet 27 (NLS: T7, S3 & 1) Use with Lesson Plan 43 (Yr 4).

Skipping Rhyme and The Swings in the Park

Name ____________________________ Date __________

1.

Write words to make alliterative phrases. cheerful children shiny ____________ lonely looking wonderful ____________ peaceful ____________ ____________ ____________ p r ____________ river ____________ ____________ a) Imagine a lonely looking playground. Describe it. ______________________________________________________________ ______________________________________________________________ ______________________________________________________________ ______________________________________________________________ b) Imagine being a lonely swing in a park. What would you say to children going past? ______________________________________________________________ ______________________________________________________________

2.

3.

a) Write other endings to rhyme with three and four. scratch your knee touch the floor Number three ________________ Number four ________________ go to sea ________________ ________________ ________________ ________________ ________________ ________________ ________________ ________________ b) List all the words you can think of that rhyme with eight. ______________________________________________________________ ______________________________________________________________ ______________________________________________________________ How many different spelling patterns did you find? ____________________ Circle one example of each pattern in your list.
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Write your own number rhyme for the numbers one to ten or one to twenty.
Kingscourt: Literacy Links Plus

98

Activity Sheet 28 (NLS: T4, W3 & 5) Use with Lesson Plan 44 (Yr 4).

Egyptian Genius

Name ____________________________ Date __________

1.

The Nile River was a vital part of life in ancient Egypt. Many people lived close to it, and it provided a means of transport. The Nile River also supplied the water and fertile soil that made successful farming possible.

a) Summarise the paragraph in no more than 20 words. ______________________________________________________________ ______________________________________________________________ ______________________________________________________________ b) Write a question about the paragraph. ______________________________________________________________ 2. a) Complete the chart. Add endings ion, ive, ively

Word construct instruct destruct

b) Use three of the new words in sentences about Egypt. ____________________________________________________________ ______________________________________________________________ ____________________________________________________________ ______________________________________________________________ ____________________________________________________________ ______________________________________________________________ 3. List as many words as you can think of that start with soft g, as in genius. ______________________________________________________________ ______________________________________________________________
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Write about what you would most like to see on a tour of Egypt.
Kingscourt: Literacy Links Plus 99

Activity Sheet 29 (NLS: T20, S3, W8) Use with Lesson Plan 47 (Yr 4).

Natures Shapes and Patterns

Name ____________________________ Date __________

1.

a)

Complete this chart of words that could be used to describe and compare patterns. Adjective Superlative form Comparative form bright brighter brightest more interesting most beautiful complex prettier

Write a sentence about nature using the comparative and the superlative form of an adjective. ______________________________________________________________ ______________________________________________________________ ______________________________________________________________ 2. Describe a pattern that you might see on an animal. Explain what purpose the pattern might have. ______________________________________________________________ ______________________________________________________________ ______________________________________________________________ Now write about a pattern or shape that a plant might have. ______________________________________________________________ ______________________________________________________________ ______________________________________________________________ 3. List as many words as you can think of that include the vowel combination ea. How many different pronunciations did you find? create, year ______________________________________________________________ ______________________________________________________________ ______________________________________________________________
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b)

Describe some examples of patterns that people create.


Kingscourt: Literacy Links Plus

100 Activity Sheet 30 (NLS: S1, W6) Use with Lesson Plan 49 (Yr 4).

Mathematics from Many Cultures

Name ____________________________ Date __________

1.

a)

Write the correct words to complete the passage. people in number harvested throughout any

record

People ______________ history have used numbers to ______________ important information, such as the ______________ of animals they owned, the number of bushels of wheat ______________ in a season, or the number of ______________ captured ______________ battle.

b)

Complete the chart. Words from passage harvested Built from same root word (at least 4 per word) harvesting, unharvested, harvests, harvester ownership, captive, useful,

Select two verbs from the chart and use them in sentences about people of the past. Underline the verbs in your sentences. ____________________________________________________________ ______________________________________________________________ ____________________________________________________________ ______________________________________________________________ 2. Which of these words are nouns? Tick each noun and write its plural form. person4 people number clever _________________ _________________ _________________ animal _________________
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c)

multiply _________________

add _________________

Write about some situations, outside school, in which you use numbers.
Kingscourt: Literacy Links Plus 101

Activity Sheet 31 (NLS: T20, S1, W8) Use with Lesson Plan 50 (Yr 4).

Extinction Is Forever

Name ____________________________ Date __________

1.

Punctuate this passage. Change small letters to capitals where necessary.


Many kinds of wildlife have been affected badly by human activities even though the people involved may not have meant to do harm. For example when early voyagers first arrived on the island of hawaii rats from the ships soon found their way to shore too. until this time it had been safe for birds on the island to lay their eggs on the ground but the rats ate the eggs and soon the bird population began to decline

2.

Use some of the words to make more compound words for the chart.
sea one
save wood

some

Word wild

Word life

Compound word wildlife

side

pecker
every over

board
thing

in

3.

Use each of these verb groups in a sentence about the environment. Label each sentence past tense, present tense or future tense. will protect damaged are working

____________________________________________________________ ______________________________________________________________ ____________________________________________________________ ______________________________________________________________ ____________________________________________________________ ______________________________________________________________


e Writ ! on

What extinct animal would you most like to see? Why?

102 Activity Sheet 32 (NLS: S2, W11) Use with Lesson Plan 53 (Yr 4).

Kingscourt: Literacy Links Plus

Index
A __________________________
adjectival phrases 47, 49 adjectives 1516, 17, 19, 212, 24, 357, 39, 43, 4550, 55, 589, 63, 66 see also comparatives; superlatives adventure (genre) 45 adverbial phrases 14, 24, 31, 65 adverbs 1415, 17, 19, 21, 234, 289, 31, 367, 48, 54, 56, 60, 656 advertisements 63, 67 Alice in Wonderland 22 All About Forces 278 alliteration 20, 49, 61 All the Worlds a Stage! 25 alphabetical order 30, 32 Anansi and the Old Tiger Riding-Horse 1718 antonyms 23, 31, 49 apostrophes 35, 38, 412, 478, 53, 57, 64, 66 argumentative writing 6870

D __________________________
definitions 27, 50 oral 30, 67 written 32, 44, 50 descriptive language 35, 389, 413, 467, 49, 656 dialogue 14, 18, 21, 32, 35, 54, 60 dictionaries 17, 45 diminutives 55 direct speech 5960 dramatic conventions 1718

L___________________________
legends 31 letter strings 15, 18, 21, 24, 29, 38, 43, 456, 56, 63, 67, 70 letters, writing 35, 45, 65, 689 Lion 23

M __________________________
Mathematics from Many Cultures 26, 50, 67 metaphor 20, 41, 43 morals in stories 35, 546

E___________________________
Eagle, The 20 Egyptian Genius 634 explanatory texts 446, 4850 expressive language 359, 413, 49 Extinction Is Forever 6870

N __________________________
narrative 31, 57 chronology in 14 narrative order 18 Natures Mathematical Marvels 489 Natures Shapes and Patterns 656 newspaper articles 17, 27, 2930, 54 non-fiction texts features 259, 312, 623, 656, 68 from other subject areas see curriculum links reading 257, 2932, 4450, 63, 656, 6870 see also chapter books; explanatory texts; informational texts; instructional texts; reports note-making 38, 446, 64 nouns 19, 27, 39, 42 conversion to adjectives 367, 42, 47, 49, 67 see also pluralisation nounadjective connections 63

F___________________________
fact and opinion 301 Fantastic Flight 2930 fantasy 357 fiction texts features 35, 57 reading 1415, 358, 536 writing see writing see also chapter books; traditional tales figurative language 401, 43 figures of speech see similes Fisherman and His Wife, The 356 Football Game, A 39 Freewheeling on a Bike 41

B __________________________
Bad Luck of King Fred, The 38 Because of Walter 37

C __________________________
Can You Sing? 60 captions 26, 29, 31, 445, 65, 67 chapter books, extracts from fiction 16, 378, 57 non-fiction 25 characters 15, 20, 23, 35, 53 characteristics 14, 1618, 37 dilemmas faced by 545 setting influence 37 City 40 City Dump, The 40 clauses 39, 44 comparatives 16, 46, 48, 50, 55, 589, 65 compound words 37, 545, 65, 6970 concrete poems 23, 56 connectives/conjunctions 39, 54, 656, 68 contents, table of 27, 44, 50, 65 contractions 41, 478, 53, 57, 64 Crocodile, The 22 curriculum links mathematics 26, 4850, 637 science 24, 2632, 43, 467, 62, 66

G __________________________
games 26, 61 glossary 25, 45, 50, 67, 70 graphs 48, 68

O __________________________
Ode to the Pig: His Tail 19 onomatopoeia 23 onsets 25 On the Skateboard 41 opening sentences 25, 27, 29

H __________________________
haiku 61 homophones 256, 28, 301, 61

I ___________________________
illustrations/photographs 27, 32, 45, 48, 669 indexes 27, 44, 46, 50 indirect speech 5960 informational texts 278, 32, 44, 46, 48 instructional texts 256, 28, 30 irregular verbs 14, 24, 26, 289, 32, 63

P __________________________
paragraphs 44, 53, 567 personal pronouns 20 personification 31 persuasive text 63, 678 Peter the Pumpkin-Eater 57 phonemes 20, 61, 64 phrases 22, 23 Pigeons 21 plays adapted from narrative 15 conventions 17, 18 converting to narrative 18

Literacy Links Plus

103

preparing and performing 15, 17 props 25 reading 15, 1718, 25 writing 15, 25 pluralisation 22, 62, 64, 69 poetic styles 601 concrete/shape poems 23, 56 haiku 61 poetry comparing 1922 emotion in 19, 24, 3940 features 19, 20, 23 figurative language 401, 43 punctuation 40 reading 1922, 3942, 5860 responding to 234, 59 syllables in 61 writing 19, 20, 23, 36, 3940, 42, 5961 point of view 14, 17, 19, 20, 30, 367, 46, 556, 62, 65, 6870 Portrait of a Motor Car 41 possession (apostrophe) 35, 38, 42, 478, 53, 57, 64, 66 prefixes 23, 41, 46, 55, 59, 62, 689 pronouns 22, 25 first-person 20 third-person 20 punctuation 22, 23, 25, 27, 29, 3940, 44, 534, 567, 5960, 66, 68

478, 56, 59, 62, 67 see also pluralisation spelling strategies 38 using analogies 21, 245, 29, 39, 456 story endings 16, 53, 56 Story of Small Fry, The 62 story plans 18, 55 story predictions 16, 37, 55 story settings 40 suffixes 14, 16, 19, 31, 367, 42, 45, 479, 53, 556, 59, 62, 65, 6870 summarising text 45, 47, 57, 62, 6470 Summer Full Moon 43 Summer Song 19 Sun, The 312 superlatives 16, 46, 48, 50, 55, 589, 65 Swings in the Park, The 61 syllabic patterns 43 synonyms 16, 40, 45

T __________________________
technical words 46 text level work see Shared Reading and Writing sections of every lesson plan traditional tales 1415, 356, 536

U __________________________
Under the Ground 445

R __________________________
readers theatre 15 reports 20, 267 features 30 research 202, 24, 30, 43, 45, 489, 61, 669 rhyme 19, 20, 36, 3940, 42, 59, 61 rhyming words 21 rhythm 19, 39, 58, 61 rimes 25 root words 17, 301, 37, 44, 54, 56, 59, 62, 65, 6770 Rumpelstiltskin 1415

V __________________________
verb endings 1617, 289, 63, 70 verb forms, imperative 26, 28 verbs 15, 18, 22, 27, 37 conversion to adjectives 367, 42, 47, 49, 56, 67 conversion to nouns 14 double consonants in 17, 43 in dialogue 15 in poems 58 irregular 14, 24, 26, 289, 32, 63 verb tenses 14, 18, 20, 22 future tense 16 past tense 17, 18, 24, 26, 289, 32, 589, 64 present tense 16, 18, 267, 50, 58, 63

S___________________________
Salt and Pepper 59 Samuel 24 sentence level work see Word and Sentence Level Work in every lesson plan sentences, re-ordering 45, 50, 57 Silver 42 similes 19, 20, 43, 57 Skipping Rhyme 61 spelling and pronunciation 38, 54, 56, 59, 63, 70 spelling patterns 15, 18, 24, 32, 42, 45, 50, 59, 61, 67, 69 consonants 38, 48 spelling rules and conventions 43,

W__________________________
Why Flies Buzz 534 Why Frog and Snake Cant Be Friends 556 Winter Moon 43 Wish Fish, The 16 Wonderful World of Plants, The 467 word building 27, 32, 48, 54 word endings 25 word level work see Word and

Sentence Level Work in every lesson plan word order 25, 35, 42, 45, 50, 57, 64, 68 words implying gender 35, 38, 44 Wrestling 58 writing adventure stories 45 advertisements 63, 67 argumentative 68 book reviews 54 character sketches 14, 16, 20, 22, 54 checking own for grammatical sense 25, 30 checklists 25 descriptive/expressive language 39, 423, 46, 49, 65 dialogue 14, 21, 32, 54 direct speech 5960 drama reviews 18 explanatory text 456, 50 fantasy 28, 357 for a particular audience 32, 50 glossary entries 25 imaginative 57, 59, 62 informational texts instructional texts 26, 28, 30 legends 31 letters 35, 45, 65, 69 letter to the editor 68 newspaper report 17, 27, 2930, 54 note-making 38, 446, 64 paragraphs 44, 46 personal recounts 30, 356, 58, 64 persuasive 63, 678 plays 15, 18, 25, 54 poetry 19, 20, 23, 36, 3940, 42, 56, 5961 point of view 14, 17, 19, 20, 30, 367, 46, 54, 56, 62, 65, 689 recounts 30 reports 20, 267 science fiction 28 scripts based on known stories 19, 21, 24, 36, 42, 538 short stories 58 skipping rhymes 61 stories from story plans 556 story endings 16, 53, 56 summaries 45, 47, 57, 62, 6470

104

Literacy Links Plus

Literacy Links Plus teacher resource material for Key Stage 2

This series of Teachers Guides provides Literacy Hour lesson plans built around Kingcourts extensive range of fiction and non-fiction Big Books and posters. Additional Teacher Resource Material, as shown below, is available to support Kingscourts comprehensive range of fiction and non-fiction for guided and independent reading.

Teachers guides for guided reading titles.

Teachers guides for thematically linked chapter books.

Lesson Plans and Activity Journals for Wildcats (high-interest, low-reading level fiction and non-fiction for directed group activities).