Mark Hanna


Mark Hanna
Mark Hanna

United States Senator from Ohio In office March 5, 1897€€ February 15, 1904 Preceded by Succeeded by John Sherman Charles W. F. Dick 14th Chair of the Republican National Committee In office June 18, 1896€€ February 15, 1904 Preceded by Succeeded by Thomas H. Carter Henry Clay Payne Personal details Born Marcus Alonzo Hanna September 24, 1837 New Lisbon, Ohio, United States February 15, 1904 (aged€66) Washington, D.C., United States Republican Charlotte Augusta Rhodes (1864€1904, survived as widow) Daniel Rhodes Hanna, Mabel Augusta Hanna Parsons, Ruth Hanna McCormick Simms Western Reserve College (expelled) Businessman Protestant Christian, not a member of any denomination. [1]


Political party Spouse(s) Children Alma mater Occupation Religion Signature

Military service Service/branch Union Army

Mark Hanna

Unit Battles/wars Perry Light Infantry American Civil War

Marcus Alonzo "Mark" Hanna (September 24, 1837€€ February 15, 1904) was a Republican United States Senator from Ohio and the friend and political manager of President William McKinley. Hanna had made millions as a businessman, and used his money and business skills to successfully manage McKinley's presidential campaigns in 1896 and 1900. Hanna was born in New Lisbon (today Lisbon), Ohio, in 1837. His family moved to the growing city of Cleveland in his teenage years, where he attended high school with John D. Rockefeller. He was expelled from college, and entered the family mercantile business. He served briefly during the American Civil War and married Charlotte Rhodes; her father, Daniel Rhodes, took Hanna into his business after the war. Hanna was soon a partner in the firm, which grew to have interests in many areas, especially coal and iron. He was a wealthy man in Cleveland by his 40th€birthday, and turned his attention to politics. Despite Hanna's efforts on his behalf, Ohio Senator John Sherman failed to gain the Republican nomination for president in 1884 and 1888. With Sherman becoming too old to be considered a contender, Hanna worked to elect McKinley. In 1895, Hanna left his business career to devote himself full-time to McKinley's campaign for president. Hanna paid all expenses to get McKinley the nomination the following year, although he was in any event the frontrunner. The Democrats nominated former Nebraska Congressman William Jennings Bryan, who ran on a bimetallism, or "Free Silver", platform. Hanna's fundraising broke records, and once initial public enthusiasm for Bryan and his program subsided, McKinley was comfortably elected. Declining a Cabinet position, Hanna, secured appointment as senator from Ohio after Sherman was made Secretary of State; he was re-elected by the Ohio General Assembly in 1898 and 1904. After McKinley's assassination in 1901, Senator Hanna worked for the building of a canal in Panama, rather than elsewhere in Central America, as had previously been proposed. He died in 1904, and is remembered for his role in McKinley's election, thanks to savage cartoons by such illustrators as Homer Davenport, who lampooned him as McKinley's political master.

Early life and business career
Marcus Alonzo Hanna was born on September 24, 1837, in New Lisbon (in 1895 renamed Lisbon), Ohio, to Dr. Leonard and Samantha Hanna. Leonard's father, Benjamin Hanna, a Quaker of Scotch-Irish descent, was a wealthy store owner in New Lisbon. Dr. Hanna practiced in Columbiana County, where New Lisbon was located, until he suffered a spinal injury while riding. After the accident, he joined the family business, B., L., and T. Hanna, by now a major grocery and goods brokering firm. Samantha, n•e Converse, and her parents had journeyed west from Vermont when she was 11; she was of English, possibly Irish, and French Huguenot descent.[2][3] Mark's uncle Kersey Hanna described Mark as a boy as "short, strong and rugged, with a full round figure".[4] Young Mark attended the local public Hanna as a boy school, which conducted class in the basement of the Presbyterian church.[5] He competed in the local boys' debating society, and on the question of whether the black man had more cause for complaint than the Indian, carried the day arguing for the blacks.[6] Members of the Hanna family invested in a canal project to connect New Lisbon, distant from waterways, to the Ohio River.[7] The canal was a failure, and the family lost large sums of money. Most Hanna family members left New Lisbon in the early 1850s. Dr. Hanna went into partnership with his brother Robert, starting a grocery business in Cleveland, and relocated his family there in 1852.[8] In Cleveland, Mark attended several public schools, including

and Mark and Charlotte Augusta Hanna were married on September 27. supporting Republican candidates for municipal and Cuyahoga County offices. During the time the Perry Light Infantry was in service.[9] Hanna served in various capacities in the family business.[21] 3 . including one of the Pennsylvania's leased lines. a regiment of National Guard troops consisting mostly of young Cleveland business men. Hanna began to involve himself in politics. The losses reduced Hanna to near-insolvency.[11] With an ill father and many business responsibilities. but under Hanna expanded into many fields. he was elected to the Cleveland Board of Education. his regiment was briefly mustered into active service and sent to be garrison troops at Fort Stevens. Hanna. part of Washington. but was dismissed for distributing mock programs at a solemn ceremonial.[14] With peace restored in 1865. and soon retired. In 1864. The flood of inflationary greenback currency issued during the war made Rhodes and Company's dealings in the new confederation of Canada difficult. allowing it to remain open at times when it could not pay its full rent. was made a partner. Jubal Early feigned an attack on Washington. which in turn used the Rhodes steamers. Hanna and Company). Hanna had fallen ill with complications from his spinal injury (he died on December 15. who had been commissioned a second lieutenant. shortly after her return from a finishing school. the ship sank and the refinery burned. a swift Great Lakes steamer. and Mark Hanna. Foreseeing a demand for petroleum products. it saw brief combat action as Confederate Gen. and also invested his own money in the Lac La Belle. which he went to at the same time as John D. Grant. Her father Daniel Rhodes was an ardent Democrat and was distantly related to Illinois Senator Stephen A. 1864.[15] According to Hanna biographer Herbert Croly.[15][17] The firm had close dealings with the railroads•especially the Pennsylvania Railroad. former Union General Ulysses S. former Illinois Congressman Abraham Lincoln. Rockefeller. Hanna had fallen in love with Charlotte Augusta Rhodes. However.[18] The firm built many vessels and also gained interests in a wide variety of firms. having been sent to escort the body of a deceased soldier back to Ohio. Hanna supported the Republican. dealt principally in coal and steel.[20] During Grant's first four-year term.'s defenses. Hanna later became director of two railroads. around 1877 rival to the southern Ohio city of Cincinnati. Douglas. Hanna hoped that Grant. he became a member of the Perry Light Infantry. appreciating Hanna's potential. was absent during that time. the unsuccessful Democratic candidate for president in 1860. 1862). learning it from the bottom up. which grew from a small lakeside town to a major player in Great Lakes commerce and a Mark Hanna. uninsured."[16] His father-in-law. would institute policies which would return full value to the currency. which carried much of its freight. The regiment was mustered out in August 1864. At first his interest was purely local.[22] In 1873. Rhodes and Company (later M. The firm. After graduation in 1857. Mark Hanna could not be spared by his family to join the Union Army.Mark Hanna Cleveland Central High School. disgusted by local scandals and the influence of party bosses. D. even before his father's death.C. hiring a substitute to enlist in his place. he built a refinery. "he had gained little from the first nine years of his business life except experience. However. took him into his own business in 1867 as a partner. but as he was traveling a good deal for business at the time. he was a major participant in the business. Instead.[17] In the 1868 presidential election. he and other Republicans briefly abandoned the party to elect a Democrat running for mayor of Cleveland on a reform agenda.[21] In 1869. Dr.A.[19] Hanna also purchased Cleveland's opera house. merchants would accept a dollar in paper money as the equivalent of 35 cents in gold.[10] By the start of the Civil War. Rhodes disliked the fact that Hanna had supported the successful Republican candidate. Hanna attended Western Reserve College. who was elected. was able to attend less than half the meetings. whom he met in 1862. Hanna struck out on his own ventures. Daniel Rhodes eventually yielded.[13] The 1850s and 1860s were a time of great expansion for Cleveland.[12] Even before his service.

The industrialist helped found a businessman's fundraising club to raise money for Garfield's personal expenses in the campaign. Garfield's short-lived administration ended with his assassination after six months in office. without regard to that emperor's good reputation. who ran a front porch campaign. Nevertheless.Mark Hanna 4 Aspiring kingmaker (1880€1888) In 1880.[23] Cowles' paper attacked Hanna personally. This was resented by Edwin Cowles. Croly credits him with persuading the two men. who felt that public jobs should be used to reward campaign workers.[26] Hanna did much fundraising work. President Rutherford Hayes. Garfield. Cowles' choice of nickname was dictated by the coincidence of name. The nominee had gone to the convention as manager of the campaign of his fellow Ohioan. However.[27] Hanna sought no position in the Garfield administration. roaming the state to persuade business owners to contribute to the Garfield campaign. he was very active in the fall campaign. Garfield as any single individual in the country.[24] Before McKinley. according to his biographer Croly. According to Hanna biographer William T. suggesting that Grant made the decision unaided by Hanna. after 36 ballots. Secretary of the Treasury John Sherman. For the next five years. he strongly supported Garfield as a fellow Ohioan. Garfield favored civil service reform. and speculates that Hanna did not make any request of Garfield because of their political differences. dubbing him "Marcus Aurelius". a position disliked by Hanna. Hanna was in charge of the committee which took charge of the late president's body when it was brought to Cleveland and saw to the funeral arrangements and interment at Lake View Cemetery•where Hanna himself was to be laid to rest over 20 years later. he was bitterly attacked by Cowles in his paper. Although Hanna did not attend the convention.[28] . to visit Garfield in Mentor. The nickname remained with Hanna throughout the remainder of his career. Horner. Hanna tried to The incumbent in 1880. although Horner states that his services to the campaign entitled him to a reward. had no interest in seeking a make John Sherman president. Hanna had as much to do with the election of Mr. Hanna added The Cleveland Herald newspaper to his business empire. later biographer Horner believes the tale dubious. until Hanna sold the newspaper. "Mr. was in charge of the arrangements for the campaign visit of former President Grant and New York Senator Roscoe Conkling to the state. the episode was the start of the negative image of Hanna in the press which would be further developed by the Hearst newspapers over a decade later. Having Grant go to Mentor would be an important show of party unity•Grant had sought the presidency again in 1880. but his faction had failed to gain the nomination for him. who succeeded Hanna in the Senate after the latter's death in 1904. who were Stalwarts hostile to Garfield's Half-Breed wing of the party. The Cleveland Leader. who owned the Republican newspaper in Cleveland. According to Charles Dick. Garfield had emerged as a candidate after delegates were impressed by his nomination speech of Sherman. second term. the Republicans nominated Ohio Representative James Garfield. and the Republican candidate defeated his fellow Civil War general Winfield Hancock by a narrow margin in the November election."[25] Hanna. often had to entertain politicians and others who came to meet him at his home in Mentor.

Hanna worked less energetically for the Republicans than he had in 1880. Arthur. but was elected a delegate at-large from Ohio at the state convention. Hanna's knowledge of the coal business led to him being appointed head of one of the board's committees with responsibility in that area. was seeking re-nomination. At the national convention. who he did not actually meet until 1885.[29] Joseph B. a warm relationship grew between the two men. and our friendship ripened with each succeeding year.[30] The industrialist was successfully opposed by Cowles at the local convention. Hanna sought election as a delegate to the Republican National Convention in support of the presidential bid of Senator Sherman (as he was by then)•President Chester A. in 1903. Hanna was one of the mine owners affected by the unrest. whose rise in state and national politics over the next 20€years would parallel Hanna's. former Cincinnati judge Joseph B. when McKinley. but was opposed by a number of other Republicans[29] Hanna supported Sherman as the candidate favored the gold standard and worked to solve the problems of business. had fired on the strikers. and because he was from Ohio. The Ohio delegation proved bitterly divided between supporters of Sherman and those supporting Maine Senator James G.Mark Hanna 5 In 1884. Foraker. and Hanna worked for the senator's nomination. New York Governor Grover Cleveland. but Blaine won easily."[36] . however. Garfield's successor. Charles Francis Adams. Blaine. Hanna remembered. Once he did. "I became intimate with him soon after he entered Congress.[33] McKinley partisan (1888€96) Early relationship It is uncertain when William McKinley and Mark Hanna first met•neither man in later life could remember the first meeting. Ohio. Foraker During the first Cleveland administration.[34] The two men certainly met in 1876.[34][35] McKinley's victory won him the gratitude of labor elements in both major parties. McKinley was hired to represent them. McKinley biographer H. stated after some thought that he had met McKinley before 1876. and prepared for another run by Sherman. Foraker gained national acclaim with his speech nominating Sherman. Hanna. Blaine lost to the Democratic candidate.[32] Hanna was a major campaign adviser and fundraiser for Foraker's successful runs for governor in 1885 and 1887. called in by Governor Rutherford Hayes.[31] President Cleveland selected Hanna as one of the Union Pacific Railroad's directors•part of the corporate board was then appointed by the government. for his Civil War service). Hanna continued to run his businesses. The industrialist's work for the railroad was highly praised by its president. The appointment was most likely at the recommendation of Senator Sherman. Hanna joined forces in support of Sherman with another delegate at-large from Ohio. The militia. Wayne Morgan suggests that the two men may have met as early as 1871. and 23 miners were arrested and put on trial in Canton. McKinley. a lawyer. and only one was convicted. referred to a friendship with Hanna that had lasted over twenty years. represented a number of coal miners who had rioted following attempts by owners to cut wages. in 1896. although initially without making much impression on each other. and he won election to Congress later that year. the hometown of Major McKinley William McKinley in the 1870s (as he was often known. With a non-Ohioan the nominee.

. He appreciated men who stuck to a losing bargain. Hanna's admiration of Major McKinley was profuse. Thomas B. remained in Washington and did not attend the convention in Chicago.[33] However. as was customary at the time. Hanna determined to bring an Ohioan to the presidency. Ohio newspaper publisher J. with Sherman in the lead but unable to secure the nomination. might have become president. the principal reason that he decided to promote McKinley's career was the congressman's advocacy of high tariffs. Hanna became convinced that McKinley was the only Ohioan who could gain the nomination.[33] The convention deadlocked. a rupture that did not heal until after Hanna's death in 1904. Hanna was drawn to McKinley's scruples and idealistic standards. which he also favored.. Hanna biographer Clarence A. like a hardened man of the world who becomes infatuated with virgin innocence. Foraker gained renomination. believing this to be his best chance for election. though he returned to Sherman when the New Englander did not run. there was a strong dislike between the two men. feeling that if it had not been for that dispute. another Republican. McKinley refused. the nomination fell to former Indiana senator Benjamin Harrison. was elected. and by telegram hinted that Sherman should withdraw in the congressman's favor as the only Ohio Republican with a chance at the presidency. he had at least been born in Ohio. such as Congressman Benjamin Butterworth. After 1888."[38] According to Horner. opposed Foraker's effort to secure a third term as governor in 1889. Sherman.. approached him with a suggestion that he let himself be nominated. B. made up of men from every part of the country.[40][41] Hanna had come to admire McKinley. but fell in the general election. a decision which Hanna accepted. would declare a favorite son candidacy or else support Blaine if he entered the race. nominally a Sherman supporter.[44] Hanna and his allies. With Harrison likely to be the Republican candidate in 1892.[43] However. Hanna never forgave what he saw as Foraker's treason. He had been magnetized by a polar attraction. Morrow contradicted Foraker's account. In the end. the two men shared many political views. Cynical in his acceptance of contemporary political practices. they forged an increasingly close relationship. stating: "I was at the convention in 1888 and know Senator Foraker [as he later became] brought great scandal to the Ohio people who were there and to the delegates with his secret work with Mr.[39] Harrison was elected president after a campaign in which Hanna fundraised considerably. Hanna was greatly impressed by McKinley's loyal conduct in refusing to begin a run himself. He had come there pledged to support John Sherman and he would support John Sherman€. Hanna had not made a purely rational decision.[33] According to Hanna biographer Thomas Beer.[37] McKinley began to pick up small numbers of votes although not a declared candidate. the first real chance would be in 1896.Mark Hanna With Cowles' enmity ended by Hanna's sale of the Herald. At the Republican convention of 1888 an accident displayed Major McKinley favorably to Marcus Hanna. not McKinley. In the aftermath of Harrison's victory. the latter had little trouble being elected as a district delegate to the 1888 Republican National Convention.[42] According to McKinley biographer Margaret Leech: In choosing McKinley as the object on which to lavish his energies.[33] Sherman. Stern suggested that while the industrialist admired McKinley's loyalty to Sherman. refused. Hanna became thoroughly angered at what he thought was Senator Foraker's bad faith. The effort failed. A distinct faction.[45] In November 1889. Among the delegates at-large were Governor Foraker and Congressman McKinley. Hanna traveled to Washington to manage McKinley's campaign for Speaker of the House. There was widespread speculation in the press that Governor Foraker. likely considered too old to seek the presidency. Foraker. Harrison gave Hanna no control of any patronage in return for his fundraising. Foraker stated in his memoirs that the break occurred because Hanna bribed black delegates from the South in 1888.. Foraker threw his support to Blaine. Mr. Foraker was the more embittered of the two as the years passed. Sherman would be 73 in 1896. Blaine's friends€. Hanna financed many of the arrangements for the Sherman campaign and was widely regarded as its manager. Beginning in 1888. Reed of Maine. and the separation split the Ohio Republican Party into two factions. fighting for Sherman to the end. consoling himself with the thought that though Harrison was an Indianan. and bluntly.[42] 6 . Mr.

feeling it would make him beholden to the administration. Hanna declined.[48] McKinley's victory in what was generally a bad year for Republicans made him a possible presidential contender. He urged me to accept and asked me to see Mr. Hanna was instrumental in keeping enough Republican support to secure victory by Sherman in the Republican caucus. In the hope of sparking a McKinley surge. This was not seen as a major setback to his career. Harrison's supporters were in control of the possibility that year and issued a card convention throughout. many delegates "saw in [McKinley] their nominee for 1896". and arranged for the governor to be permanent chairman of the convention in Minneapolis•upon the podium. McKinley. and saw to it they supported Sherman. Hanna. Foraker and Hanna put aside their differences in support of McKinley. dubbed the "Twelve Apostles". he was deemed beaten by Democratic gerrymandering in redistricting. Hanna traveled as far away from Ohio as New York and Iowa. With McKinley's candidacy needing little of his attention. McKinley proved the consensus choice for the Republican nomination for governor. never a declared candidate. The reasons both urged were that the campaigns from 1892 down to 1896 must be conducted with a view to bringing about McKinley's nomination in 1896. McKinley was talked about as a potential candidate. This popularity did not considered him a presidential translate into delegate votes. a fraction of a vote behind Blaine. Hanna hoped to prevent the President's selection on the first ballot.[45][46] Victories by McKinley in the gubernatorial race and by the Republicans in securing a majority in the legislature in 1891 did not guarantee Sherman another term.[52][53] . McKinley and Hanna began to prepare for the 1896 campaign. Charles Dick recalled being asked to take the Republican state chairmanship: I went first to see Governor McKinley. by offering to make him treasurer of the Republican National Committee. According to Morgan. his political managers. Hanna hired detectives to find legislators who had gone into hiding and were believed to be Foraker supporters.Mark Hanna In 1890 McKinley was defeated for re-election to Congress. McKinley spoke of it and so did Mr. McKinley was carried from the convention hall to his hotel by supporters after he adjourned the convention. the Duke Tobacco Company spoke•his keynote address sparked wild applause.[50] President Harrison had proven unpopular even in his own party. who had declared himself not to be a candidate.[51] Although Harrison refused to believe that McKinley would oppose him. President Harrison attempted to neutralize Hanna.[47] Stern notes that the defeat of Foraker "was ascribable largely to the efforts of Hanna". and with the start of 1892. which I did the next day. but the Twelve Apostles succeeded in carrying Harrison to victory. assuring his election by the legislature. soliciting funds.[49] 7 Preparing for a run As early as 1892. some of which went to McKinley. and Hanna's involvement in the McKinley and Sherman victories established him as a force in politics. support in several state delegations. as he was challenged for his seat by Foraker. were less trusting. finished third. Despite Harrison's success. They observed McKinley as the Ohio governor presided over delegates who cheered him loudly any time he Although McKinley did not run in 1892. Hanna spent much of his time working to secure Sherman's re-election by the Ohio Legislature (senators were elected by state legislatures until the ratification of the 17th Amendment in 1913) by raising funds to gain the election of Republican candidates. Hanna sought for him. In 1891. Hanna. who was ill-disposed to the President and likely to oppose his renomination. but which for the most part went to the state Republican committee. McKinley could be watched. and found delegates willing to support McKinley•but not on the first ballot. and because of his sponsorship of a tariff bill•the increased tariffs had caused prices to rise.

returning home to Canton in January 1896 to municipal celebrations. out of gratitude for loans in his younger days. and Hanna duly undertook to gain the former governor's nomination without machine support. he remained popular. Hanna and his associates fundraised with such success from business owners and the general public that all McKinley property was returned intact. without ever grasping the full amount of the obligations he was taking on.[59] Even though both McKinley and his wife Ida insisted on putting their property in the hands of the supporters. He was called upon to pay over $100. A request by McKinley for the names of the subscribers so he might repay them was refused by the trustees. and eventually agreed to accept money only from those who expected nothing by lending the money but repayment.[57] McKinley was reluctant to take gifts. Although southern Republicans rarely had local electoral success. His bearing and conduct and personal magnetism won the hearts and respect of everybody.000 and proposed to resign as governor and earn the money as an attorney. He followed the usual Ohio custom and stepped down at the end of two two-year terms. and the very fact of the defeat this year will elect him the next time. recalling that he had cut off talk of a candidacy in 1888. even before the governor left office. Georgia. McKinley of Canton now. and also permitted him to meet many southern Republicans. Despite the poor economic times in Ohio.[63] McKinley. He journeyed east to meet with political bosses such as Senators Matthew Quay of Pennsylvania and Thomas Platt of New York.. including blacks. McKinley was unwilling to make such a deal. fearing his campaign would peak too soon. but had not done so in 1892. Governor McKinley's position today as a result of all that transpired at Minneapolis is in the best possible shape for his future.[65] .[61] Mark Hanna was certain. as he stated as McKinley's campaign began.[64] McKinley's public hesitation did not prevent Hanna from laying the groundwork for the nomination.. The location was a plausibly nonpolitical vacation spot for McKinley."[58] McKinley's wealthy supporters. but wait a little while."[54] McKinley campaigned loyally for President Harrison.[57] Hanna was absent from the state when the crisis broke. who was defeated by former president Cleveland in the November election. as many Americans had suffered in the hard times and sympathized with the Ohio governor. delayed making it clear that he would be a candidate. no claims were made against his estate.Mark Hanna Harrison and his adherents were unimpressed by McKinley's conduct. Hanna in 1895 turned over management of his companies to his brother Leonard. When Hanna returned to Canton."[56] Among those who suffered reverses in the financial Panic of 1893 was a McKinley friend in Youngstown. and spoke across much of the nation for Republican candidates. McKinley. angered over the "profusion of McKinley buttons."[60] To devote full-time to McKinley's presidential campaign. and when President McKinley died in 1901. he informed McKinley that the bosses would guarantee his nomination in exchange for control of local patronage. including Hanna once he learned of the situation. The Canton Repository stated. the President. Hanna wrote in a letter that "I do not consider that Governor McKinley was placed in any false position by what was done . Hanna rented a house in Thomasville. had guaranteed the friend's business notes. had only a cold formal greeting for the Ohio governor. Charles Bawsel. "[McKinley] is bound to be the nominee for the presidency. undertook to buy up or pay the notes. they elected a substantial number of delegates to the national convention.[57] McKinley was easily re-elected as governor in 1893. causing the governor to say "I wish Mark was here. who served as trustees.[55] Nevertheless. expressing a dislike for northern winters. and also in the winter of 1896.[62] 8 Campaign of 1896 Nominating McKinley After leaving business. The episode made McKinley more popular with the public. that "nothing short of a miracle or death will prevent his being the nominee of the party in '96".[54] When McKinley led the delegation of Republican dignitaries sent to formally advise Harrison of his convention triumph. "It is just plain Mr. and according to the governor's secretary. He was joined there by the McKinleys in 1895. placards and streamers that littered [his] path to victory".

Hanna was elected chairman of the Republican National Committee for the next four years. triumphant in the 1896 presidential election. "As early as March 1896. backed by McKinley via telephone from Canton. "Hanna and the others will shuffle and deal him like a pack of cards. Hanna has covered every district in the United States in the same manner he did those in Alabama. Journal reporter Alfred Henry Lewis attracted considerable attention when he wrote. most likely. decided general strategies. and they decided to seek support for local favorite son candidates. an easterner. Hanna met with many politicians at his Cleveland home. with little need to deal. including publisher William Randolph Hearst's New York Journal. Despite the opposition of Illinois' Republican political machine. giving the former Ohio governor a strong advantage going into the convention. Importantly. "If Mr. and shipped quantities of McKinley posters. cut little ice with voters. Louis. performed the rougher work for which McKinley had neither taste nor energy. became one of the reasons for the vital importance of that election. staking money to secure a bought-and-paid-for president.Mark Hanna Historian R. the press had better luck with Hanna. The convention duly nominated Hobart. believing that McKinley could be forced to bargain for support at the convention if he was denied a majority.. journalists awoke to the fact that McKinley would. The Major commanded. A young Chicago businessman and McKinley supporter. Day.[62] Through the months leading up to the Republican convention in June in St. New Hampshire Senator William E. The candidate had a sterling reputation for personal and political honesty. the bandwagon had become a steamroller.. the bosses again tried to secure political favors in exchange for their support. Hanna organized. Kohlsaat or McKinley's old friend from his days as a practicing lawyer. Senator Quay and former vice president Levi P.[72] 9 . Hanna spent much money and effort to undercut Reed in his native New England. Dawes and Hanna were able to secure all but a few of Illinois' delegates for McKinley. Hanna built his organization. Hanna. and expansive capitalism. with the latter relying on the young entrepreneur to secure support from his connections in the Chicago business community. To balance the ticket. paying all expenses. H. That faith. selected issues and programs. refused. The bosses supported candidates such as Speaker Reed. He paid for thousands of copies of McKinley's speeches to be printed. and on "McKinley Clubs" in Pennsylvania to force Quay to spend time and money shoring up his base. central authority. and applying the techniques of business to politics. The Journal began to describe McKinley's backers as a "Syndicate". He stressed ideals€. such as Chicago publisher H. McKinley and Hanna selected New Jersey party official and former state legislator Garret Hobart. Chandler commented. and the newspapers began to suggest that those who had made large contributions to aid him would own him as president."[66][67] McKinley's most formidable rival for the nomination was former president Harrison. they shared a Hamiltonian faith in the virtue of industrialism. and reporters found that even McKinley's few personal enemies spoke well of him. as vice-presidential candidate. Judge William R. McKinley was nominated easily. Louis. and buttons across the nation."[62] As the convention approached. badges. built coalitions. sent reporters to Canton to dig up dirt on McKinley. Attacks on some of McKinley's associates. Charles Dawes (who would thirty years later be vice president under Coolidge) worked at Illinois district and state conventions to elect delegates pledged to McKinley. Harrison declared he would not run for president a third time. The eastern bosses were hostile to McKinley for failing to agree to the offer they had made to Hanna."[71] In St. but in February 1896. McKinley's financial problem in 1893 was one of the few marks on his record.[68][69] A key to defeating the bosses' "favorite son" strategy was Illinois. Dawes and Hanna worked closely together.[70] According to Williams. Morton of New York. McKinley will be nominated. be the Republican nominee. Hal Williams summarized the relationship between McKinley and Hanna: McKinley and Hanna made an effective team. Those newspapers that were Democratic in their outlook.

53. which he believed disproportionately hurt the working classes. since 1873. Despite the candidate's past friendliness towards silver currency. Judge Day."[77] The future Secretary of State and Supreme Court justice responded: "In my opinion in thirty days you won't hear of anything else.[73][74] At the time. Democratic nomination A major issue. the precious metal in a silver dollar was worth about $0. Hanna had taken a yachting vacation in early July before beginning general election work. a nomination in which the Populist Party soon joined. The gold standard was unpopular in many agricultural and mining areas. was the question of the currency."[77] On the third day of the Democratic convention. he was a well-known protectionist. As they left. decrying the gold standard. and under such proposals. "free"•that is. making it difficult for the farmer to obtain loans and pay debts. Bland was deemed likely to be the nominee. stating to his Canton crony. Hanna wrote "The Chicago convention has changed everything" and returned to his labors. that "This money matter is unduly prominent. had effectively been on the gold standard•the metal. and lead to difficulties in international trade with nations on the gold standard. the Democrats nominated William Jennings Bryan. Advocates of the free and unlimited coinage of silver believed that doing so would cure the country's economic malaise by increasing the money supply. Silver. McKinley sent Hanna to the convention with a draft plank calling for maintenance of the gold standard. shouting "Go! Go! Go!"[76] McKinley expected the election to be fought on the issue of tariffs. and in 1890 had voted for the Sherman Silver Purchase Act. The adoption of the plank caused some Republicans. voted for the Bland€Allison Act. he privately commented on the nationwide debate over silver. would be assayed and struck into coin for a slight charge to cover expenses. as the quantity of gold available limited the money supply.[74][78][79] . could not be presented for conversion into coin. Bryan stampeded the convention with what came to be known as the "Cross of Gold speech". As McKinley awaited his opponent.Mark Hanna 10 Currency question. In thirty days you won't hear anything about it. going into the 1896 election cycle. without a charge for the Mint's costs for assaying and coining. former Missouri congressman Richard P. The United States. which Hanna successfully placed in the party platform. but had to be sold as a commodity. mostly from the West. Congressman Bryan for president. To the horror of Wall Street. Advocates of the gold standard argued that a "free silver" policy (sometimes called "bimetallism") would inflate the currency. Hanna stood on a chair. if presented to the government. to walk out of the convention.[75] McKinley had.[73] The Democrats met in convention in July in Chicago. silver worth that much would be returned to depositors as a one-dollar coin. on the other hand. though widely mined. McKinley and Hanna decided that an explicit mention of the gold standard in the party platform would be a better strategy than remaining silent on the issue. which required the government to purchase large quantities of silver bullion to be struck into money. with a wave of popular support for Bryan. seen during the 1896 campaign. in 1878. former Nebraska representative William Jennings Bryan concluded the debate on the party platform.

such as Dawes. from which McKinley spoke. named "McKinley". but four eagles. Bland•they were hospitably received by the startled McKinleys. McKinley "spoke from the front veranda of his house in Canton to many deputations. "In 1896. such as his old schoolmate Rockefeller•the magnate's Standard Oil gave $250. and embarked on an unprecedented itinerary of whistle stop appearances by train. the former governor decided on a front porch campaign. despite Wall Street's fear of Bryan. Here he addresses speaker. this also boosted his image as a good husband. the country was flooded with such paper. If this could not be arranged. printed speeches and other means of persuading the voter. The McKinley campaign had two main offices. were donated to the local zoo. it would at least disgorge a bundle of political tracts for local distribution. so long as its leader wrote to McKinley in advance and introduced himself and his group. Some Wall Street titans. brochures. If the train passed any large group of homes and did not stop for Bryan to speak. he would remain at home in Canton and allow the people to come to him. Ida. The delegation would then march through the streets of Canton to McKinley's house. if possible. determined how to spend it. was an invalid. This money went to pay for advertising. the plants were dead.[81] According to Rhodes. and "Protection". delegation leaders were brought to Canton in advance to settle with McKinley what each would say. giving him time to prepare his response. He also gave large sums himself. As McKinley's wife. McKinley was given no relief by the fall of night. Hanna's task was to raise the money. which were put to use when possible. whose campaign was ill-financed. where by the end of the campaign the lawn was bare. Ohio. Those who did know Hanna. was in a state of decrepitude from souvenir hunters. did not take him seriously as a candidate and refused to contribute to the McKinley campaign. and one in New York. some of them spontaneous. one in Chicago. as the country was mired in an economic slowdown that affected millions. delegations continued after dark thanks to the introduction of electric street lighting on the route. Despite Hanna's urgings to the candidate to get on the road.000•vouched for him. felt that his best means of persuading the voter of his position was personal communication. Beginning in late July 1896.[81] When Hanna and his associates saw the emotional appeal of the Bryan campaign for free silver. although disliking Bryan's positions.[83][84][85] . as the Democrat was a better stump campaign was unprecedented. accompanied by his defeated rival. they decided upon an extensive and expensive effort to educate the electorate. Delegations ranged up to thousands of people. Among those who visited was Bryan himself. others arranged for. a real. and send the information ahead by runner to McKinley. McKinley felt he could Bryan's whistle-stop tour during the 1896 not match Bryan's speaking tour. used by Hanna as a base of operations as he sought to gain support from New York financiers. substantive policy debate was conducted by candidates who believed firmly in their respective positions. "Mark Hanna". the delegation was met at the train station by a McKinley agent. The delegations left behind gifts."Republican". other campaign officials. Hanna initially had little success. The agent would suggest any fine-tuning necessary to McKinley (center) with a delegation in front of the famous front porch make it fit within campaign themes. Hanna had an easier time persuading industrialists to give to the McKinley/Hobart campaign. Being relatively unknown on the national scene.Mark Hanna 11 General election campaign According to Horner. who would greet it and learn what the leader proposed to say in his address."[82] Any delegation was welcome in Canton. effectively run by Dawes. and the front porch. a crowd in Wellsville."[80] Bryan.

in which he asked banks and millionaires for a contribution equal to 0. but that he was effectively owned by the corporations. though this In addition to giving speeches from did not include spending by state and local committees. which was a polarizing election. but the basic concept was not unusual. helpless in the hands of businessmen and their mere tool in the 1896 campaign. who studied the 1896 election. bought literature.[88] Historian Stanley Jones. hired men. He was confident of his mastery of that kind of operation. he himself retained control of the general structure and program. Dawes."[87] 1896 Homer Davenport cartoon. In addition. Hanna stated. so steep that they led to the quip that it was cheaper to visit Canton than to stay at home. by Hearst. McKinley. through Hanna. "He's talking Silver all the time. in charge of campaign spending for the Republicans in 1896. convinced that his "sound money" campaign had worked. McKinley Republicans were supported by "in-kind" corporate contributions. and which was sanctioned both by custom and.[81] . In the 1888 campaign. "I do not know what you think about it. by necessity. began to promote his tariff issue. Contributions to Bryan's campaign were much smaller. but I believe it is a good deal better to open the mills of the United States to the labor of America than to open the mints of the United States to the silver of the world. These discounts were conduct of his campaign from the library of his Canton home. attacked Hanna for his supposed role as McKinley's political master. Homer Davenport's cartoons for the Hearst papers were especially effective in molding public opinion about Hanna. stating to the crowds on his front lawn. established headquarters offices. Nothing of significance was done without his approval. The Clevelander was often depicted as "Dollar Mark". as he believed. closely fought over the tariff issue.5 million. in a suit decorated with dollar signs (a term for which "dollar mark" was a common alternative).000 and gave the Bryan campaign support in his papers. on the other hand."[90] The largest election fundraising before that time had occurred in the 1888 presidential race. The first Harrison campaign raised about $1. in July. The articles and cartoons have contributed to a lasting popular belief that McKinley was not his own man. later stated that the McKinley campaign raised just over $3.Mark Hanna 12 Despite the initial popularity of Bryan's message. but he never ceased to defer to McKinley's mastery of the grand strategy of politics.8 million. the Democratic newspapers. Though McKinley did leave to Hanna the immensely complicated and exceedingly arduous task of organizing the campaign and although he usually deferred to Hanna's judgment in this area. During the campaign.[89] Hanna's fundraising campaign. "Mr. Hanna merely systematized and developed a practice which was rooted deep in contemporary American political soil. Senator Quay (on behalf of Harrison) had sought funds from businessmen much as Hanna would eight years later. McKinley's personal financial crisis allowed him to be convincingly depicted as a child. the silver enthusiasm waned by September and Bryan had no ready replacement for it. he both donated about $40. such as (lower right) gave orders for the discounted railway fares for delegations coming to Canton.[86] He proved correct. pounding his desk. was unprecedented in its scale.25% of their assets. Hanna raised money. especially the papers owned suggesting that Hanna would be the real president. the his front porch in 1896. Hanna was convinced the Democrat's support would recede. he had few wealthy supporters and the largest donor was most likely Hearst. with the same drive and skill that he managed his business. stated of this view: The popularly accepted picture of Hanna's domination was not true.[81] According to Hanna biographer Croly. and that's where we've got him".

. who would later become Secretary of State under McKinley. and stating: We are through with the election. the President-elect wrote to his longtime friend. "The feeling here beggars description .Mark Hanna In late October..[98] Foraker. McKinley won 271 electoral votes to Bryan's 176. the freedom of Cleveland would have been conferred upon him. 1896.[91] McKinley took 51. speaking of this desire as early as 1892. but his only successes in the "Solid South" were in the border states of Delaware. On January 4. Was there ever such unselfish devotion before? Your unfaltering and increasing friendship through more than twenty years has been to me an encouragement and a source of strength which I am sure you have never realized. and before turning to the future I want to express to you my great debt of gratitude for your generous life-long and devoted service to me. strongly implied that Sherman was moved out of the way to allow Hanna to have his Senate seat. Maryland. the first presidential majority since Grant in 1872. McKinley swept the populous northeastern states. I accepted with some reluctance and largely to promote the wishes of Mark Hanna. West Virginia and Kentucky.3%. The poor record Sherman posted prior to his departure from office in 1898 led to attacks on Hanna."[93] On November 12. thanking him for his campaigning efforts. An embittered Sherman stated in a letter after his departure as secretary. The recollection of all those years of uninterrupted loyalty and affection. as he feared it would be seen as a reward for his political efforts. Bryan was also successful in his native Nebraska and neighboring Kansas and South Dakota. faced a difficult re-election battle with the (left) and McKinley's Thanksgiving Democrats and the Foraker faction in 1898. suggesting that a senile man had been placed in a key Cabinet position to accommodate him.[92] On Election Night. now aged almost 74. You are elected to the highest office of the land by a people who always loved and trusted you. offered Sherman the office of Secretary of State. McKinley dinner•carving up the presidency. November 3. They deprived me of the high office of . the intense voter interest in the campaign resulted in a turnout of 79. He had hoped to end sectionalism."[87] On Tuesday.0% of the vote. the voters had their say in most states. and the Midwest. how much I appreciate your friendship and faith. and I feel there is no doubt of our success. offering him a position in his Cabinet. "The outlook is generally encouraging. "When [McKinley] urged me to accept the position of Secretary of State. The Democratic candidate won in the South and in the western states except California and Oregon. I want you to know. though a Democrat).[97] Senator 1896 Puck cover showing Hanna Sherman."[96] Hanna stated that he would accept no office in the McKinley administration. Hanna wrote to Harrison. in his memoirs.[96] He had long wished to be a senator.[94] 13 Senator (1897€1904) McKinley advisor (1897€1901) Securing a Senate seat In the wake of McKinley's election.. but I cannot find the right words to tell you. The result was that I lost the position both of Senator and Secretary€. according to historian James Ford Rhodes (who was also Hanna's brother-in-law."[96] According to John Hay.[95] "Mark Hanna occupied an enviable position.. 1897. but which I have constantly felt and for which I thank you from the bottom of my heart. but my esteem and admiration for him have grown every hour. "What a glorious record Mark Hanna has made this year! I never knew him intimately until we went into this fight together. of mutual confidences and growing regard fill me with emotions too deep for the pen to portray. he immediately accepted. I will not attempt bulletins. Had it been usual. Hanna wired from Cleveland to Canton.

Bushnell was of the Foraker faction•Foraker was by then a senator-elect. James Rudolph Garfield."[99] Horner argues that the position of Secretary of State was the most important non-elective post in government.[108] When the legislature met on January 3. "Hanna's tactics•whatever they really were" succeeded. he was aware of the prestige.[102] Sherman's acceptance of the post of Secretary of State did not assure Hanna of succeeding him as senator. they settled on the Republican mayor of Cleveland. which was undoubtedly a promotion. though some of those tales must have been told by New York businessmen whom he trusted.[100] According to Rhodes. a number of Republicans. Bushnell wrote to Hanna that he would appoint him in Sherman's place. Rhodes suggests that the difficulty over obtaining a Senate seat for Hanna led McKinley to persist in his offer to make his friend Postmaster General into mid-February 1897. and formed an alliance with the Democrats. The Republicans won the election. with the overwhelming number of Republican victors pledged to vote for Hanna. hold elections both for the final portion of Sherman's term (expiring in March 1899) and for the full six-year term to follow. his contracts to sell the city brick pavers would be cut off. and though Sherman no longer sought to be president.[108] According to Horner. he was re-elected with the barest possible majority. Sherman. stated that he had been told by one Republican from Cleveland that he had to vote for McKisson because if he did not. in 1898. He exchanged two years in the Senate with a doubtful succession for apparently a four years' tenure of the Cabinet head of the new Republican administration. the anti-Hanna forces succeeded in organizing both houses of the legislature. then often seen as a stepping stone to the presidency. that was the way the game was played on both sides€. as did Bryan.[109] The Cleveland mayor was the insurgents' candidate for both the short and long Senate term. the late president's son.[108] However. Given Hanna's determination to win and his willingness to play by the rules as they existed. and had been elected in 1895 to his municipal position despite the opposition of Hanna and the Cleveland business community. Hanna. the legislature would then. The dissidents had not yet agreed upon a candidate. McKinley was active behind the scenes.. of course. after several days of negotiation. Robert McKisson. Rumors flew in Columbus that legislators had been kidnapped by either or both sides.[107] The 1897 legislative elections in Ohio would determine who would vote on Hanna's bid for election for a full six-year term. stated that Hanna was given the Senate seat because of McKinley's desires. and allegations of bribery were made. urging Republicans both inside and outside Ohio to support the senator. used his influence on Hanna's behalf.[106] Foraker. Governor Bushnell did not want to appoint a leader of the opposing faction and authorized Foraker to offer the place to Representative Theodore E. 1898. money may have changed hands during the campaign. when you are good friends with the president of the United States.[103][104][105] Bushnell was a candidate for renomination and re-election in 1897.Mark Hanna Senator by the temporary appointment as Secretary of State. Burton.. "Sherman was glad to accept the Secretaryship of State. the President-elect in February 1897 called accounts of Sherman's mental decay "the cheap inventions of sensational writers or other evil-disposed or mistaken people". but if it did. selected by the legislature to fill Ohio's other Senate seat for the term 1897 to 1903. and on February 21. If Hanna engaged in such behavior. who declined it. a man also personally very influential in Ohio politics. in his memoirs.[102] The stories were not believed by McKinley either. it is important to remember the context. for example. mostly of the Foraker faction.[111][112] 14 . A temporary appointment to the Senate was to be made by Ohio's governor. It is helpful. without Hanna's support his chances were smaller. and were seen as a referendum on McKinley's first year in office•the President visited Ohio to give several speeches. The 1897 Ohio Republican convention voted to support Hanna. Republican Asa Bushnell."[101] Rhodes suggested that Hanna did not give credence to warnings about Sherman's mental capacity in early 1897. did not want to re-elect Hanna. so did McKinley.[110] In the end. was not without resources. who was at that time still grateful for his Cabinet appointment. as did county conventions in 84 of Ohio's 88€counties.

"[122] Spanish€American War Even during the second Cleveland administration. but the President made the final decision. In late May. When the press asked Hanna if he felt there would be action on Cuba during the session. close to the White House. According to Hearst's New York Journal. who had bolted the party at the convention or later. Beginning in 1895. favored neutrality but believed that the US would inevitably go to war over Cuba. warned Spain that the patience of the United States was not inexhaustible.[115] After the death of Vice President Hobart in November 1899. but on his own terms. but McKinley (who apparently saw an opportunity to show the public that he was not Hanna's creature) was slow to ask him. he responded: "I don't know.[116] Despite civil service reform.[118] As the year 1900 began.[113][114] Hanna soon moved into the Arlington Hotel. "Silver Republicans". but in the end he always followed his own judgment". where he occupied a large suite. on the other hand. He and McKinley decided on a system where many southern appointees were recommended by the state's member of the Republican National Committee and the defeated Republican congressional candidate for the area in question. Most Americans believed that Cuba should be independent and that Spain should leave the Western Hemisphere. across Pennsylvania Avenue from the White House. the senator fainted in his office during the wait and may have suffered a heart attack.[118] Charles Dawes.Mark Hanna Relationship with the President Mark Hanna and William McKinley continued their friendship as they assumed their offices in March 1897. Despite the stated purpose of the session. Hanna was allowed to recommend candidates for the majority of federal positions in Ohio. Hanna took over the lease on his house on Lafayette Square. who had served as State Librarian of Ohio during McKinley's tenure as governor. Americans took keen interest in the ongoing revolt in Cuba. a number of resolutions were introduced calling for independence for Cuba.[123] Soon after Hanna was appointed to the Senate. Congress passed a number of resolutions calling for Cuban independence. the senator did want to run the campaign. President McKinley suggested that he stay at the Executive Mansion (as the White House was still formally known) until he found one. other men were more influential. then a senator. Although Cleveland pursued a policy of neutrality. whose duties as Fourth Assistant Postmaster General under McKinley involved patronage appointments. Richard Olney. A spark might drop in there at any time and precipitate action. thus the President's "uncharacteristic coldness". He wanted and needed Hanna. probably had more influence over federal jobs until his death in 1898.[120] Margaret Leech suggested that McKinley was angry at Hanna for unknown reasons.[117] Although Hanna was reputed to control the administration's patronage. a president had a large number of posts to fill. who was concerned about the campaign and his relationship with McKinley. Hanna hinted that he might not want to run McKinley's re-election campaign.[119] Joseph Bristow. stating that he was suffering from rheumatism. then a Spanish colony. by force if necessary.[121] Morgan. Hanna and McKinley gave few places to those who had served under Harrison. as the two presidents were not friendly. who was slated to be Comptroller of the Currency as soon as the incumbent left office. and was permitted a veto over Foraker's candidates. the President announced that Hanna would run his campaign. Senator Hanna was looking for a residence. where there were few Republican congressmen to lobby the President. later wrote that the President "gave Hanna's requests great consideration and had confidence in the clearness of his opinion. Hanna had a voice in some of McKinley's appointments. McKinley's friend Joseph Smith. You can't tell about that. "the Senator doubtless feels that if anyone has the right to make himself at home in the White House he is the man". In spite of his statement. This was a source of great stress to Hanna. It was customary at the time to fill many of the lower level positions with party political workers. wrote that "the president was using his usual indirect pressure and the power of silence. Hanna was also dominant in the South. his Secretary of State. McKinley called Congress into special session to consider tariff legislation. in fact. received nothing."[124] 15 . Sherman. was also a McKinley confidant.

McKinley hoped to preserve peace. using force if necessary. which the Spanish were not prepared to grant. "Look out for Mr. "Oh. 41€14. You can be damn sure of that!"[127] Nevertheless.[128] On February 15.[132] As the nation waited for the report of the board of inquiry. "We will have this war for the freedom of Cuba in spite of the timidity of the commercial classes!"[133] Nevertheless. with Hanna in the minority. He stated during the war to a member of the public.[125] On May 20. with the slogan. prominently including the Hearst newspapers."[136] Spain broke off diplomatic relations on April 20. and would continue to do so. I'd break my neck to stop it.[135] Hanna supported McKinley in obtaining that authority. retroactive to April 21. Hanna became concerned about the political damage if McKinley. he viewed the American casualty lists and stated. for the sinking of Maine (modern reports have suggested an internal explosion within a coal bunker).. and was vetoing war as bad for business. His edict meant that Uncle Sam might be kicked and cuffed from one continent to another. Nevertheless. Despite the increased calls for war.[140] 16 . pro-war elements. Hanna and the President were burned in effigy in Virginia. against popular opinion."[138] After the Battle of El Caney. Everything that goes wrong will be in the Democratic platform in 1900. Nevertheless. the Senate passed a resolution favoring intervention in Cuba. Over 250€officers and men were killed. The Hearst newspapers. the Ohio senator was the true master in the White House. negotiations broke off. many who favored war deemed McKinley too timid. believed by many to be a Spanish mine or bomb. McKinley asked Congress for authority to secure Cuban independence. According to the Hearst papers. McKinley ordered a board of inquiry while asking the nation to withhold judgment pending the result. Bryan.[129] It was (and is)[130] unclear if the explosion which caused Maine's sinking was from an external cause or internal fault. "If Congress had started this. 1898.. Hanna supported McKinley's patient policy and acted as his point man in the Senate on the war issue. though he stated privately. Congress declared war five days later. "Remember that my folks were Quakers. "Remember the Maine and to hell with Spain!" pounded a constant drumbeat for war and blamed Hanna for the delay. He spoke as one having authority. 1897. War is just a damn nuisance.[126] As the crisis slowly built through late 1897 and early 1898. On April 11. when it became clear that the United States would accept nothing but Cuban independence.[137] The war resulted in a complete American victory.[131] Heart's New York Journal editorialized in March 1898: Senator Hanna. but he also quietly prepared for war. Assistant Secretary of the Navy Theodore Roosevelt shook his fist under Hanna's nose at the Gridiron Dinner and stated. pressured McKinley for a more aggressive foreign policy. However. now we'll have this sort of thing again!"[139] After the war. McKinley maintained neutrality on Cuba.[134] The Navy's report blamed an external cause. kept the nation out of war. probably felt the need of recouping his Ohio expenses as well as helping his financial friends out of the hole when he began playing American patriotism against Wall Street money€. God. the Ohio senator believed that McKinley's policy of quietly pressing Spain for colonial reform in Cuba had already yielded results without war. fresh from the bargain for a seat in the United States Senate. the American warship Maine sank in Havana harbor. hoping to negotiate autonomy for the island.Mark Hanna Through 1897. Hanna was uncomfortable with the conflict. Hanna supported McKinley's decision to annex Spanish colonies such as Puerto Rico and Guam. Hanna said there would be no war.

and told him.000 miles (34. while renting a seaside cottage in Elberon. Bryan ran with a broader agenda.[149] Hanna was now a public figure. McKinley sent Postmaster General Charles Emory Smith to Chicago.Mark Hanna Campaign of 1900 Vice President Hobart had died in late 1899. reaching 24 of the 45€states. Senator Hanna stated. we got through in good shape and the ticket is all right. Hanna made his speaking tour in the West. who had pursued a reformist agenda in his year and a half in office. New York Senator Platt disliked his state's governor. McKinley. to talk him out of the trip. Hanna hoped to persuade McKinley to use patronage to get this Judge magazine cover shows it the delegates to vote for another candidate.[144] Hanna summed up the Republican campaign in four words. Don't any of you realize that there's only one life between that madman and the Presidency? Platt and Quay are no better than idiots! What harm can he do as Governor of New York compared to the damage he will do as President if McKinley should die?[141] On his return to Washington after the convention nominated McKinley and Roosevelt. Hanna rapidly discerned that Smith had been sent by the President. did not want him on the ticket. New Jersey. "Do whatever you damn please! I'm through! I won't have anything more to do with the convention! I won't take charge of the campaign! I won't be chairman of the national committee again!"[141][142] When asked what the matter was. and alleged that McKinley had been lax in their enforcement. President McKinley was content to leave the choice of a vice presidential candidate for 1900 to the upcoming Republican convention." McKinley and Hanna met in Canton several days later and settled their differences over lunch. Roosevelt was a popular choice in any event because of his well-publicized service during the Spanish-American War.[147] Roosevelt. and the corporations were willing to give. where Hanna then was. "Return to Washington and tell the President that God hates a coward. traveled widely across the nation giving speeches. it was a nice little scrap at Phila[delphia].[152] In September. and wanted to campaign for the Republicans in the western states. booth from which he had tried and failed to get McKinley to agree. The Democratic candidate also urged increased use of the antitrust laws. Hanna. however. Platt hoped to sideline Roosevelt politically by making him vice president. as Hanna had varied from the administration's position on trusts in a recent speech. Not exactly to my liking with my hand tied behind me. former Assistant Secretary of the Navy Theodore Roosevelt.[150] According to Hanna biographer Thomas Beer. After emerging from the telephone still played its part in the campaign. Hanna replied.[151] Hanna spent much of his time based at the campaign's New York office. everybody's gone crazy! What is the matter with all of you? Here's this convention going headlong for Roosevelt for Vice President. This time. a strike by the United Mine Workers threatened a crisis which might cause problems 17 .000€km) in the campaign. Hanna wrote to the President. the formal acceptance of his nomination in Canton in July."[143] The Democrats nominated Bryan a second time at their convention. though many viewers were surprised he did not wear suits decorated with the "dollar mark". "Let well enough alone. Hanna's tour was a great success. Your duty to the country is to live for four years from next March. and Platt had little trouble persuading state delegations to vote for Roosevelt after McKinley's renomination. Matter! Matter! Why.and attacked McKinley as an imperialist for taking the Spanish colonies. was reluctant. "Well."[145] Hanna was called upon to do only small amounts of fundraising this time: no great educational campaign was required. on the other hand. Quay was a close Platt ally in the effort to make Roosevelt vice president. who felt Roosevelt was overly impulsive. However.[146] The President gave only one speech.[148] The New Yorker traveled 21. As many of the delegates were Although the currency question was not as prominent in 1900 as in 1896 political appointees. but did not realize that the efforts were serious until he was already at the convention in Philadelphia.

and in September 1901. Hanna believed that the miners' grievances were just. I'll call you Teddy. President McKinley died. the new president.[156] Panama Canal involvement Hanna was a supporter of building a canal across Central America to allow ships to pass between the Atlantic and Pacific oceans without making the lengthy journey around Cape Horn. the senator exclaimed. Roosevelt. which would authorize the construction of a canal on the Nicaragua route. with eight red ones. who despised his nickname. In his speech. Although the two had not been allies."[158] The Nicaragua route had many supporters and a bill sponsored by Iowa Congressman William Peters Hepburn. as were others close to the President. which were displayed in the Senate Chamber as he spoke. you have convinced me. while receiving the public in the Temple of Music on the Exposition grounds. 1901. left Buffalo for an encampment of the Grand Army of the Republic in Cleveland. he referred to enormous maps.[154] As the President lay. . Hanna warned Roosevelt. along with many of the President's close allies. McKinley appeared to be improving. and Hanna. though he imperfectly carried out the second condition. and as he awaited the end. There he found an unconscious McKinley. and on June 5 and 6. 1900. and that the President cease from his habit of calling Hanna "old man". McKinley took six states that Bryan had taken in 1896 while holding all the states he had won. The senator believed a route across the Colombian province of Panama to be superior to its Nicaraguan rival. had passed the House of Representatives. went to the library in the Milburn House where the President lay. How he came to support this route is uncertain. Hanna. and the maps showed active volcanoes marked with red dots and extinct ones with black. With Hanna's aid. who took 51. reached out to Hanna. "Monsieur Bunau-Varilla. and hurried back to Buffalo. journeyed to the Pan-American Exposition in Buffalo. New York. "If you don't. Abner McKinley. made the necessary plans and arrangements to return his friend's remains to Canton. no dots were placed on the map of Panama. hurried to his bedside. and he persuaded the parties to allow him to arbitrate.[157] This was disputed by the French canal promoter.Mark Hanna for McKinley. though attorney and lobbyist William Nelson Cromwell later claimed to have personally converted Hanna to the Panama cause in 1901. "in light of the election results since the Civil War. however. There was an almost continuous band of black dots through Nicaragua. something which greatly annoyed the senator.[154][155] 18 Roosevelt years and death (1901€04) McKinley's death left Hanna devastated both personally and politically. especially as he referred to the possibility of active volcanoes on the Nicaragua route in his speech. who stated that at the end of his meeting with Hanna at the Arlington Hotel.7% of the popular vote.[153] On November 6. McKinley was shot by an anarchist. Hanna was allowed to see the dying man. the two sides arrived at a negotiated settlement. On the evening of September 13. wounded. This was a novel technique."[156] Roosevelt. Hanna made a speech against the Hepburn Bill. Hanna indicated that he was willing to come to terms with Roosevelt on two conditions: that Roosevelt carry out McKinley's political agenda."[148] Assassination of McKinley McKinley traveled much during his presidency. agreed to both terms. While there. it was considered by the Senate. at which Hanna was to speak. it was an impressive mandate. the doctors told him that Senator Hanna was present. he received a telegram stating that the President had taken a turn for the worse. whose sickbed had become a deathbed. Gould in his study of the McKinley presidency. Hanna. hoping to secure his influence in the Senate. Leon Czolgosz. On September 6. according to historian Lewis L. he enquired "Is Mark there?". weeping. with the doctors' reassurance. but that he should not exert himself with an interview. a slight increase from 1896. Although the majority was not large by later standards. At 2:15€am on September 14. In June 1902. Philippe Bunau-Varilla. the voters re-elected McKinley. such as his wife and his brother. He won 292 electoral votes to Bryan's 155.

and combed the stock of Washington stamp dealers until he found enough to send to the entire Senate. The Foraker faction was allowed the nomination for lieutenant governor. broke away from Colombia. who later became president. responded "Not good. those friendly to his administration would naturally vote for such a statement. and was rewarded with an overwhelming Republican victory. Cleveland On January 30."[159] At the end. for I am very tired. another power would finish the Panama route.Mark Hanna Hanna pointed out many advantages of the Panama route: it was shorter than the Nicaraguan route. Harding.[162] The 1903 convention also endorsed Hanna for re-election to the Senate. With no drama."[167] He never again left his Washington residence. rumors of a presidential run. and death At the 1903 Ohio Republican convention. who disliked Roosevelt's policies. Morgan. a much larger margin than Foraker had received in 1902. Hanna wired Roosevelt.[167] having fallen ill with typhoid fever. 1904. would require much less digging. In November 1903. offered to finance the Hanna presidential campaign when he hosted the Hannas at Thanksgiving. Hanna saw this as an unsubtle attempt by the President to ensure that Hanna would not oppose him. given to Warren G. with the support of the United States. if he opposed it. Hanna was in poor health as he gave the speech. Hanna warned that if the US built the Nicaragua canal. eight days after Hanna's death. Hanna was re-elected in January 1904 for the term 1905€1911 by a legislative vote of 115€25. that he intended to oppose it and would explain all when both men were in Washington.[160] The United States Senate was called upon to ratify the treaty in February 1904.[163] Despite the differences between the two men. close to . "I do not want to be interrupted.[161] Re-election. though the senator remained silent at the offer. Panama. he risked Roosevelt's wrath. Hanna and Roosevelt had a lengthy meeting and resolved many of their differences. Roosevelt agreed that Hanna would not have to serve another term as chairman of the Republican National Committee. This in theory freed Hanna to run for president. the Senate sponsor of the Hepburn Bill. politicians began to wait in the Arlington lobby. a treaty was signed but was rejected by the Colombian Senate. This would normally have been introduced at the 1904 convention. and was slow to respond to his request. Foraker filed a resolution to endorse Roosevelt for re-election. tried to ask Hanna a question. He neither ate nor drank. The bill was amended to support a Panama route. and the bill authorizing a Panama canal passed. Roosevelt responded that while he had not requested support from anyone. the representative of the new government in Washington. The resolution placed Hanna in a difficult position: if he supported it. 1904. and Bunau-Varilla. signed a treaty granting the US a zone in which to build a canal.[166] 19 Hanna mausoleum. The House afterwards agreed to the Senate amendment. although he did not plan to run. but Roosevelt could see that Hanna was an exhausted man and would not run. he proclaimed he would not run for president. Hanna campaigned for several weeks for the Republicans in Ohio. In the interim.[165] In December. but Foraker hoped to use the resolution to take control of the Ohio party from Hanna. Hanna attended the Gridiron Club dinner at the Arlington Hotel. and nominated Hanna's friend Myron Herrick for governor. Hanna resignedly supported the resolution. and when asked how his health was. The treaty was ratified on February 23. who was on a western trip.[159] The US entered into negotiations with Colombia for rights to build a canal.[164] Financier J. Roosevelt in November 1903 asked Hanna to run his re-election campaign. only to be met with.[168] As the days passed. Lake View Cemetery. One senator stated that he had been converted to the "Hannama Canal". P. he allowed talk of a Hanna for president campaign to continue. and had existing harbors at either end. according to some accounts in part because Cromwell remembered that Nicaragua depicted volcanos on its postage stamps. the debate began as Hanna lay dying. Alabama Senator John Tyler Morgan.

. on the morning of February 15. ask them whether I ever asked them whether they belonged to a union or not€. he had made seven million dollars. that labor.[169] Hanna drifted in and out of consciousness for several days. urging him to drop a lawsuit against the Standard Oil Company.. "the one solid absolute in [Hanna's] life was a profound belief in the living standard capitalism had brought to America. which tried to foster harmonious relations between business and labor. Cleveland Go to any of the five thousand men in my employ€. This phrase supposedly appeared in a letter by Hanna to Ohio Attorney General David K. which determined Hanna's electors for his 1898 re-election bid. informed his political views once he turned to that field. who wrote an article about the controversy."[171] According to Wolff. Professor Thomas E. He responded in a speech. met the striking laborers on the docks at Ashtabula Harbor. but refused to discuss the matter further with reporters. Hanna was often depicted by Davenport during the 1896 campaign with his foot on a skull labeled "Labor".. At 6:30€pm.[170] According to Croly. However. Wolff. Statue of Mark Hanna by Augustus Saint-Gaudens.. Senator Hanna died. Roosevelt visited at 3€pm. Ask them whether I ever pay less than the highest going wages. Hanna stated that the efforts of labor to organize into unions should be considered no more shocking than those of businesses organizing into trade groups.[170] Despite his efforts at harmonious worker relations. government officials. came to me with a complaint if I ever refused to see them€. a number of later works attribute the quote to Hanna. and the crowd of congressional colleagues. when any men or any committee of men.. and management could be ordered for the benefit of all". it also resisted businessmen who sought to entirely prevent regulation.. Hanna always did his best to foster good relations with his workers. his heart began to fail. It recognized labor's right to organize to seek better wages and conditions. unseen by the dying man. after the coal strike.Mark Hanna Hanna's house. I never did. Watson in 1890. "He had not done badly in either field.[172] During the following year's Ohio legislative elections. and government should work together cooperatively for the benefit of society. Watson. a letter from the President. of Rhodes & Co. Roosevelt biographer Edmund Morris noted Hanna's achievement in industry and in politics. as strong in body and as vigorous in your leadership as ever" was never read by the recipient.[174] Hanna became the first president of the National Civic Federation (NCF). Hanna "tried diligently to show by example how relations between labor.[170] A phrase sometimes attributed to Hanna is: "No man in public office owes the public anything". Ask them if I ever in my life intentionally wronged any workingman. a Republican. and after consultation the men accepted the terms offered and resumed work. like many conservative businessmen of his time. Felt."[169] 20 Views and legacy According to Professor Gerald W.[173] After Hanna issued the challenge. The NCF opposed militant labor unions. which had coalesced in Hanna by the 1876 coal strike. believed Hanna unlikely to use such an inflammatory phrase to a . Ask them whether. for news. University Circle. Hanna's early biographers.. many sobbing. and diplomats who had gathered in the lobby of the Arlington left the hotel."[170] Hanna believed. capital. and a President of the United States. old fellow. These views. business. "May you soon be with us. The phrase became an issue against Hanna in the 1897 campaign in Ohio. unions representing his workers confirmed his statement. Croly and Beer. found the supposed quote dubious but as they did not definitely deny that Hanna had written it. In a 1903 speech to a labor convention. 1876: "This morning Mr. the biographer proffered in support of his statement a quote from the Cleveland Leader of April 28. he was accused of being harsh to his employees. denied that Hanna had written the phrase. Hanna.

Hanna is recognized for his innovative campaign work. liking for Hanna. In it. and a tiny. mentioned that when he was being interviewed in high school. and until his departure from the White House in 2007. and by some reports. writer Jack Kelly in a 2000 column incorrectly stated that McKinley's front porch campaign was at the direction of Hanna to ensure the candidate did not vary from campaign themes. media members often suggested that Rove was able to manipulate Bush. as state legislatures elected senators until the ratification of The 17th Amendment in 1913. the Democrat mentioned having written a high-school report on Hanna•his history teacher. a cigar-smoking man clad in a suit covered with dollar signs who stood side by side with a gigantic figure representing the trusts. "As they go to the polls" 1900 Homer Davenport cartoon suggesting a cozy relationship among Hanna.Mark Hanna man with whom he was not close. a former basketball player. Time Present. Bradley alleged that since 1896. Bradley wrote that he regretted that he could not find a Hanna-like figure who could play an analogous role in advancing his political career. who was believed by some to hold a Svengali-like influence over the Texas governor. Bush successfully ran for the presidency. During the campaign. and which. Time Past in 1996. the media compared Hanna and Bush adviser Karl Rove. a cutthroat attack dog for the "Trusts". Texas Governor George W. he stated that Hanna was one of his heroes. As the campaign progressed. and that he did his best to disrupt Roosevelt's presidency. These comparisons were fueled by Rove's interest in. Nevertheless. childlike William McKinley. For example. and the trusts.[179] Electoral history All elections are by the Ohio General Assembly. Bradley also stated what Horner terms mischaracterizations of Hanna: that he was the Republican boss of Ohio. Bradley.[176] 21 Public image today New Jersey Senator Bill Bradley published a volume of memoirs. who was almost invariably presented negatively and at variance with historical fact. McKinley. Bush's advisor was deemed a present-day incarnation of Hanna.[177] In 2000. and believes that Hanna's influence has been overrated.[178] According to Horner. and that Rove exerted considerable control over the government. in any event. rather than McKinley deciding that it was his best response to Bryan's national tour. as well as for its fundraising success. Despite his condemnation of Hanna. Republicans have raised money easily from the rich. Davenport's depiction of Hanna still lingers as the modern image of the former senator: The portrait of Hanna that has stood the test of time is of a man who was grossly obese. historians agree that McKinley dominated the relationship between the two. By the time he wrote the book. told him that the lesson of the 1896 campaign is that money is power. His campaign for McKinley in 1896 broke new ground because of its highly systematized and centralized nature. did not accurately represent his political views. Bradley had come to believe in limits on campaign spending and blamed Hanna for a sharp escalation in campaign costs. Gould.[175] Hanna is often credited with the invention of the modern presidential campaign. He will forever be known as "Dollar Mark". Bradley related. Although Hanna has been depicted as the first national political boss. Rove studied the McKinley administration at the University of Texas under McKinley biographer Lewis L. however. .

Governor Asa Bushnell appointed Mark Hanna as senator. U. McKisson 49.14 John H. pp. Clarke 21. 1899. March 5. 11. pending a meeting of the Ohio legislature. 1899 for six years. Lentz 1. 1898. Senate. United States Senate special election in Ohio. pp. 1898 Mark Hanna Republican 73 50.€22€23. 1904 for the remainder of the term ending in 1905.Mark Hanna 22 Election Political result [180] Republican Candidate Party Votes % €% January 12. p. pp. hold Special election necessary because of the resignation of John Sherman to become United States Secretary of State. no vote in joint convention would be necessary. He was declared elected in joint convention following the reading of the journals. Instead. [10] Croly.€43. March 4. [12] Croly. As the two houses did not give the same individual a majority in both. Hanna 86.69 Robert Republican McKisson John J. A total of 73 votes were needed for election. [14] Croly. [9] Croly.€32. to expire March 4.€29€30.€22. F. [2] Croly. United States Senate election in Ohio. Congressman Charles W. The breakdown was: House. From March 4. [16] Croly.69 January 12. Hanna 56. pp. pp. Aquila Wiley 1. [8] Croly.€54€55. 1904 [181] Republican hold Mark Hanna Republican 115 82. Hanna 17.€3€6. Dick of Akron. "Short term" election. Hanna 29. . McKisson 19. pp. this required a roll-call vote in the joint convention of the two houses. McKisson 51. Hanna died before this term commenced. in the Ohio House of Representatives: Hanna 56. [7] Croly. Otherwise.€52. pp. and for the full term ending in 1911.61 John J. Lentz 1. p. 1898 [180] Republican Republican 73 50. 36. [4] Croly. 71 votes needed for election. [15] Beer. 1898. from March 4.€19. [3] Beer.86 References [1] Croly. p. Each house met on January 12 and gave a majority of its vote to Hanna. McKisson 19. Senate. pp. a roll-call vote would take place. Ohio was elected by the legislature on March 2. Each house met on January 11 to vote on both the short and long term Senate elections. 1905 for six years. pp. [11] Croly. [6] Croly.€36€40. pp.69 January 13. The results were those at right. Warner 1. Adoniram J.€40. Lentz Democratic 1 0. Clarke 4. p. In the Ohio Senate.€461. Lentz Mark Hanna Democratic 70 48. Hanna 17. Hanna was elected on the first joint convention ballot. Hanna was elected on the first joint convention vote (73 votes needed for election). 1897. the individual would be declared elected for that term after the journals of each house were read in the joint convention. if both houses gave the same individual a majority vote in either contest. p. [13] Croly.€44€46.61 1 0. The results on the 11th were. United States Senate election in Ohio. 1897. [5] Croly. Vote totals were the same for both the short and long term. Clarke Democratic 25 17.€23€24. "Long hold term" election. p.S. broken down: House.€53€55. See note to the long-term vote in next box for additional information as the votes on both elections were identical.€66€68.69 Robert Republican McKisson 70 48. 1904.

Morgan.€150. p. Horner. pp. p. pp.€150. Horner.€179€181.€51. pp. Morgan. Horner.€55€56. pp. p. Morgan.€58€59.€129€134. pp.€111€112.€8. p.€41. Williams. pp. Beer. Horner. Croly.€47€48.€96€97. Horner. p. pp. pp.€4.€78€80. pp. pp. pp.€128€129. Stern. pp. Beer.€75€76. Croly. Beer. pp. Croly. Morgan. p.€128.€86€89. p. pp.€126€127. p. Stern. Leech. Williams. Horner. Horner. Morgan.€151€153. Horner.€68. p.€125. Horner.€67. p. . Morgan.€135€139. Beer. Croly. [75] Rhodes.€70€77. Morgan. pp. pp. Morgan.€96€97. pp. pp.€13€16. pp. pp. Beer. p. Morgan. Horner. pp.€42.€175€176. Croly. 23 [73] Rhodes. p. pp. Horner.€5.€164€165. pp. pp. Horner.€82€87. pp.€60.€187. p. 206. pp. Croly. p.€25€26. Horner.€144. p.€69.€173€174.€118€120. 132€133.€64. Croly.€56€62.€156€159. Horner. p. p. p. pp. pp. Leech. Morgan. Croly. pp.€143€144. pp. Morgan. pp. Morgan. pp. Horner.€191€193. Horner. Horner.€74€75. pp.€50€53.€141. Horner. Stern.€110€111.€78€79. pp. p.€53€54.€129.€55.€36€37. pp.€131. Croly. Morgan. p.€144€145.€11.€95€96.Mark Hanna [17] [18] [19] [20] [21] [22] [23] [24] [25] [26] [27] [28] [29] [30] [31] [32] [33] [34] [35] [36] [37] [38] [39] [40] [41] [42] [43] [44] [45] [46] [47] [48] [49] [50] [51] [52] [53] [54] [55] [56] [57] [58] [59] [60] [61] [62] [63] [64] [65] [66] [67] [68] [69] [70] [71] [72] Croly.€55€56. [74] Horner.€57€60. p. Morgan. pp. Morgan. Stern. pp. p.

€254€255.€218. pp.€372. p. [131] Gould.€181.€76.€214€216. pp. p. pp. Horner. p. [114] McCullough. Rhodes. p. [116] Hatfield. p. p. pp. Horner.€233. Horner. [104] Croly. Croly.€230.€16€18. p. Horner.€185€186.€187. Morgan. p. p. Morgan. [117] Gould. [126] Croly.€33. p. [119] Horner. p.€289€293. pp. pp. 237.€254€255. [134] Horner. [106] Rhodes. p. p. p. p. pp. [130] Gould. [112] Horner. Croly.€91.€30. p. p. pp. [111] Croly. 259. p.€31. p.Mark Hanna [76] [77] [78] [79] [80] [81] [82] [83] [84] [85] [86] [87] [88] [89] [90] [91] [92] [93] [94] [95] [96] [97] Williams.€231€232. [118] Gould.€253. [122] Morgan. p. Croly. [110] Horner.€235.€51. pp. p.€248. [124] Morgan. pp. pp.€74€75.€32. Rhodes. pp. p.€245. pp. pp. Morgan.€252€253. [113] Horner.€181.€162€166.€248. p.€193€204. [115] Croly.€458€459.€276.€31€32. p.€533. [127] Horner.€251€252. p.€203€204.€29. [107] Horner. Jones.€166. [100] Horner. . Morgan. [99] Rhodes.€34.€222. p.€220. p. [125] Morgan. Rhodes. 424.€25.€62. p.€74. [128] Phillips. pp.€274.€52. pp. 24 [98] Rhodes. Morgan. pp. p. Rhodes. pp. [129] Leech. Kazin.€35. pp.€25. Rhodes. [109] Croly. p. p.€222€227. [121] Leech. pp. Morgan. [120] Horner.€250. [103] Rhodes. Horner.€237€239. [132] Horner. p. p.€184. [105] Horner.€277. [123] Morgan.€221. [101] Rhodes.€19.€231. [133] Morgan. p.€127. [102] Rhodes.€177€179. [108] Horner. p. pp. pp. p.€258€259. pp.

€276.€397€398. p. Beer. p.€270€271. p. p. Beer. Horner. p. pp. pp.€381.€296€303.Mark Hanna [135] [136] [137] [138] [139] [140] [141] [142] [143] [144] [145] [146] [147] [148] [149] [150] [151] [152] [153] [154] [155] [156] [157] [158] [159] [160] [161] [162] [163] [164] [165] [166] [167] [168] [169] [170] [171] [172] [173] [174] [175] [176] [177] [178] [179] [180] [181] Gould.€205. pp. McCullough. pp. Legislature 1904. Croly. ebooks?id=N2koAAAAYAAJ). H.€86€88. Putnam's . Arthur Wallace (1922). pp. Leech.€5.€266. T.€73€85. Thomas (1929). W. Herbert (1912).€147. R.worldcat. Wolff. ‚ Croly. ‚ Brands. p.€299.: The Last Romantic. pp. Horner. pp. Gould. pp. org/oclc/715683).€492.€662€665.€39€41.€260€266.€553.€554€557. Horner. Morris. Croly. McCullough. p. From Harrison to Harding (http://books.€202. 25 Bibliography ‚ Beer. pp. p. p. p.€247.€229. Beer.€299€300. p. Wolff. Morgan. Croly. Morris.€543. Schmidt. p. Morris.€286. 246586946). p. Hanna.€358€360. pp. Horner. Miller.€54€55.€304.€320. New York: The Macmillan Company.€205€206. Croly. Morris.€228.€15€18. Retrieved March 14.€ books?id=VUcTAAAAYAAJ&pg=PA335#v=onepage&q=matter hanna&f=false) 1. McCullough. 232.€272. Morris. Horner.€230€233. Beer. pp. pp. Gould.€334€335. Leech.worldcat. New York: Basic Books. p. Legislature 1898.€232€233. Estill. 2012. Brands.€319€324.€433. p. New York:€309. pp. Felt. Morgan.€256. pp.€311. P. pp. pp. New York: Alfred A.€300. McCullough. McCullough. Horner. p. p. pp. (1997). OCLC€ 246586946 (http://www. OCLC€ 715683 (http://www. p. Wolff. Leech. Marcus Alonzo Hanna: His Life and Work (http://books. pp. Croly. pp. ‚ Dunn. Dunn. Morris. p. ISBN€978-0-465-06958-3. p. p.€454.€146€147. p. p. Croly. Knopf.

OCLC€ 256810656 (http://www. ISBN€978-0-7567-0968-6. (October 1963). "Marcus Alonzo Hanna" in Research Guide to American Historical Biography 2. Florida: Beacham Publishing. ISBN€978-0-8214-1894-9. worldcat. Edmund (2001).pdf). Michigan: Edwards Brothers. Leech. ISBN€978-0-7006-0206-3. Clarence A. ‚ Felt. ‚ Schmidt. R. ISBN€978-0-933833-09-8. McCullough. Retrieved October 28. Horner.€30. Robert. New York: Random House. Stanley L.worldcat. Muccigrasso. In the Days of McKinley. 1897€1909 (http://books. Kevin (2003). OCLC€ 445683 (http://www. Retrieved November ‚ Morris. H. Gerald W. ohiohistory. A Godly Hero: The Life of William Jennings Bryan. ‚ Stern. Lawrence. worldcat. Robert R. Theodore Rex. ‚ Journal of the [Ohio] House of Representatives. Retrieved October 27. Margaret (1959). Ohio: Ohio Historical Society) 79 (3 and 4): 138€151.Mark Hanna Sons. Robert (November Madison. 2011. Lewis L. Ann Arbor. ‚ Williams.html&StartPage=138&EndPage=151& volume=79&notes=&newtitle=Volume 79 Page 138). New York: Simon and Schuster Paperbacks. Hal (2010). Miller. (1997).cfm?action=detail&Page=0079138. William T. The President and the Assassin. ISBN€978-0-394-55509-6. Mark O. The McKinley and Roosevelt Administrations.html&StartPage=293&EndPage=302& volume=72&notes=notes 344&newtitle=Volume 72 Page 293). Michael (2006). Knopf. 1898. Kent. 2011. Ohio: The Springfield Printing Company. ISBN€978-0-375-41135-9. William McKinley. Realigning America: McKinley.worldcat. The Presidential Election of 1896. Wayne (2003). 1789€1993 (http://www. Jones.C. 1977). Kazin. Ohio: The Laning Printing newspapers?id=v3JTAAAAIBAJ&sjid=9IUDAAAAIBAJ&dq=panama revolution 1903&pg=5388. New York: The Macmillan Company. William McKinley and His America (revised ed. James Ford (1922). OCLC€ 457006 (http://www. ISBN€978-0-87338-765-1. ‚ ‚ artandhistory/history/resources/pdf/garrett_hobart. ‚ Rhodes. (1964). Resurgent Republicanism: The Handiwork of Hanna (1968 ed. Washington. "Teddy Roosevelt Defended Canal Treaty" (http://news. Ohio History (Columbus.cfm?action=detail&Page=0072293. p.: United States Government Printing Office. Thomas E. New York: Times Books.5016879). American Presidency. ISBN€978-0-671-24409-5. D. Oh. ISBN€978-0-7006-1721-0. David (1977).google.). Kansas: University Press of Kansas. ohiohistory. (Summer/Autumn 1970). Ohio History (Columbus. Norwalk.: Ohio University Press. The Path Between the Seas.senate. Ohio's Kingmaker: Mark Hanna. com/books?id=4E8TAAAAYAAJ). Ohio: The Kent State University Press. 26 ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ Morgan. Wisconsin: University of Wisconsin Press. Tenn. Hatfield.). (1963). New York: Alfred A. Man and Myth. 344 (notes). ‚ Journal of the [Ohio] House of Representatives. 1904. OCLC€ 456809 (http://www. Kansas: University Press of Kansas. ISBN€978-0-8050-6953-2. (2010). (1988).org/ohstemplate. "What Mark Hanna said to Attorney General Watson" (http://publications. Vice Presidents of the United States. Bryan and the Remarkable Election of 1896. (1980). The Presidency of William McKinley. . ed. Springfield. "Mark Hanna's goal: American harmony" (http://publications. Gould. New York: Random House. Ohio: Ohio Historical Society) 72 (4): 292€302. Athens. ISBN€978-1-4000-6752-7. The Daily News (Kingsport. Scott (2011). Other sources ‚ Estill. New York: Harper and Brothers. Lawrence.).

Foraker Party political offices Preceded€by Thomas H. F. Dick . Carter Chairman of the Republican National Committee 1896€1904 Succeeded€by Henry Clay Payne Succeeded€by Charles W.Mark Hanna 27 United States Senate Preceded€by John Sherman U. Senator (Class 1) from Ohio 1897€€1904 Served alongside: Joseph B.S.

Brianboulton.png €Source: http://en. Codram. The Mystery Man.jpg €License: Public Domain €Contributors: W. Root. Mkativerata. Wikiscott2. Iridescent. Br'er Rabbit. Artoasis. Orlady.wikipedia.png €Source: http://en.php? Yot File:Foraker as governor. Reboot.png €License: Public Domain €Contributors: Homer Davenport File:McKinley campaign. Jappalang. Boleyn2. Kelly. Cliftonian. Chrisminter. Stude62. Little Mountain 5. EurekaLott.svg €Source: http://en. ƒ0-8-15! File:McKinley 1892 card.wikipedia. Crosbiesmith. Papppfaffe.jpg €Source: http://en. Roseohioresident. Iamwisesun. Magioladitis. Scooteristi.png €License: Public Domain €Contributors: Ras67.wikipedia.png €License: Public Domain €Contributors: Not known. €License: Public Domain €Contributors: not known File:Two Wehwalt. Burton. Masterpiece2000.s. Jonathan. Ground Zero. Kalosar.0/ . Sopoforic.wikipedia. Rupertslander. Thismightbezach. R'n'B.png €Source: http://en. PaulHanson.wikipedia. 86 anonymous edits Image Sources. Durindaljb. Slowking4. Bookandcoffee. Slazenger. Tomas417. Maduskis.php?title=File:McKinley_campaign. Chicago File:Mark Hanna Signature._1896_cropped.jpg €Source: http://en. Madmedea. Mav. €Source: http://en. Kaisershatner.php?title=File:Davenport_Hanna_McKinley.wikipedia. Easter John K. Stan Shebs.kt.jpg €License: Creative Commons Attribution-Sharealike 3.wikipedia. Ground. Frymaster. Wehwalt. Marktunstill. Connormah. Andrewspy007. Ucucha. Rajah.svg €License: Public Domain €Contributors: Mark Hanna File:Mark Hanna as boy. Choster.php?title=File:Bryan_Wellsville. Blakecarlile. Jack Cox. Mathonius. Springfield. SLY111.php?title=File:Front_porch_campaign_2. Francine3. JW1805. Another Believer. Gerda Arendt.php?title=File:Mark_Hanna_by_WJ_Root. Rjwilmsi. Escape Orbit. Dank. Tom. Jonxwood.wikipedia. Robth. BD2412. Extransit. Btphelps. sculpture by Augustus Saint-Gaudens (died 1907) File:As they go to the polls. BusterD.jpg €Source: http://en. P. Flcelloguy.jpg €License: Public Domain €Contributors: Duke Tobacco Company File:William-Jennings-Bryan-speaking-c1896.wikipedia. Maximus €License: Public Domain €Contributors: not known File:Hanna turkey.php?title=File:Mckin. StevenHW. Montanabw. WolfmanSF.0 €Contributors: Wehwalt File:Hanna Alansohn. GoldRingChip. WilliamJE. Ai.0 //creativecommons.jpg €License: Public Domain €Contributors: Evrik. Chris the Katieh5584. File:Bryan Wellsville. Joseph Solis in Australia. Stwalkerster. Woodshed. Nishkid64. ChrisGualtieri. Antonio Lopez. Byelf2007. Floydspinky71.jpg €License: Creative Commons Attribution-Share Alike €Contributors: Image taken by Wehwalt.wikipedia. CommonsDelinker.php?title=File:As_they_go_to_the_polls. Postdlf.wikipedia. Kamila1077. Closedmouth. Cmguy777.jpg €Source: http://en.jpeg €Source: http://en. Good Olfactory. DadaNeem.wikipedia. €Source: http://en.png €Source: http://en. 1896 cropped.wikipedia. Jengod. S. Stefanomione. Kelly. Mass. Kumioko (renamed). Brenont. Coemgenus.jpg €License: Public Domain €Contributors: Luke C. 1 anonymous edits File:Mckin.php?oldid=595562600 €Contributors: 8th Ohio Volunteers. All Hallow's Wraith. Packerfansam.png €Source: http://en.jpg €Source: http://en. Dillon (1844-1904) File:Davenport Hanna McKinley.php?title=File:Hanna_grave. FeanorStar7. Van Norman. Jun Nijo. Rjensen. Davidcannon. Maxim. Pmanderson. Licenses and Contributors File:Mark Hanna by WJ Root.D.php?title=File:William-Jennings-Bryan-speaking-c1896. Wapcaplet.png €License: Public Domain €Contributors: not known File:Front porch campaign 2. Thegreenj. Mark Arsten.jpg €Source: http://en.jpg €License: Public Domain €Contributors: Homer Davenport License Creative Commons Attribution-Share Alike 3. Dave Farquhar. D6. WikHead.php?title=File:Mark_Hanna_Signature.png €License: Public Domain €Contributors: Staff of "Judge" magazine File:Hanna grave. AmericanLemming. Twelsht.jpeg €License: Public Domain €Contributors: Copyright by Geo. Hmains. Ravenswing. WOSlinker. Rande M Sefowt. Billy Hathorn.wikipedia. Mangojuice.png €Source: http://en. The ed17. Bender235. Johnlp.Article Sources and Contributors 28 Article Sources and Contributors Mark Hanna €Source: http://en. Brianhass. Meelar.php?title=File:McKinley_1892_card. Tassedethe. Canuckian89.png €Source: http://en. Tbhotch.wikipedia. Kevin Hayes. Dimadick. Duffy2032. Esszet. Jwillbur. Colonies Smallfixer. Mangoe.php?title=File:Two_Bills. H. Tktru. BlueMoonlet.jpg €Source: http://en. Kumioko. Minesweeper.png €License: Public Domain €Contributors: not known File:Hanna €License: Public Domain €Contributors: Jbarta. EamonnPKeane.php?title=File:Mark_Hanna_as_boy. Buffbills7701. Sjkoblentz.

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