E NEWS

E-JETS

EMBRAER SERVICES & SUPPORT T E C H N I C A L P U B L I C AT I O N

83

NOVEMBER/2013

FAMILY

83
Editor: Thiago Cestari Editorial Designer: Marcell Marra

E-JETS/INFO

E-NEWS is a periodic publication aimed to provide technical information to Engineering and Maintenance personnel. This edition and earlier ones can be found at Flyembraer Portal: www.flyembraer.com > Download_center > Commercial Jets > Maintenance > Technical Support > E-Jets NEWS. Should you need any additional information, do not hesitate to contact us: +55 12 3927-8495 / technical.support@embraer.com.br

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SERVICES & SUPPORT

SUMMARY

E M B R A E R S E R V I C E S & S U P P O R T T E C H N I C A L P U B L I C AT I O N E J E TS F A M I LY - N U M B E R 8 3 - N O V E M B E R 2 0 1 3

SUMMARY
CALENDAR TECHNICAL

Choose your destination

1
11
REMINDER

Embraer hosts E-Jets Operators Conference in Rio de Janeiro

2

Embraer Technical Workshops (Webex) poll results

4

5

New FHDB Decoding Tool

6

E-Jets Tasks Optimization Process

Maintenance Cost Workshop (MCW) 2013 achievements

8

3

FOCUS ON

SNAPSHOT OF THE MONTH

12

DID YOU KNOW?

13

SHM (S-SHM) Challenges

27

08 What will happen E-Jets Working Group and Industry Steering Committee Fort Lauderdale.N U M B E R 8 3 .USA NOVEMBER2013 1 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 .CALENDAR E M B R A E R S E R V I C E S & S U P P O R T T E C H N I C A L P U B L I C AT I O N E J E TS F A M I LY .N O V E M B E R 2 0 1 3 CALENDAR E V E N TS NOVEMBER 04 . FL .

and Embraer”. Embraer promoted its e-Solutions platform of web-based tools on the FlyEmbraer website. said Johann Bordais. from October 13 to 15. and nearly 40 suppliers and business partners from five continents. Brazil.br Embraer hosts E-Jets Operators Conference in Rio de Janeiro With a focus on the airline operational efficiency of the E-Jets fleet. addressing the demand for continuously increased operational efficiency. Embraer also held the 13th edition of the Maintenance Cost Workshop (MCW). on October 16. Embraer’s Commercial Aviation Services & Support division hosted the global edition of the Embraer Operators Conference (EOC) in Rio de Janeiro. involving operators.Commercial Aviation fleet.N O V E M B E R 2 0 1 3 Fleet Performance Team Services & Support . totaling over 400 people. serving as both corrective and preventive maintenance. It is designed to maximize flight duration and avoid unnecessary operating costs and delays. Vice President. “These events provide an unparalleled occasion for collaboration and networking among the industry stakeholders.N U M B E R 8 3 . Along with the EOC.com. Service & Support – Embraer Commercial Aviation.E M B R A E R S E R V I C E S & S U P P O R T T E C H N I C A L P U B L I C AT I O N E J E TS F A M I LY . The MCW is an annual meeting designed to support operators in reducing their maintenance costs by sharing experiences. During the EOC. which is a single connecting point for Embraer’s customers to find a digital portfolio of services any time. suppliers. Both events were attended by more than 50 airlines and leasing companies.performance@embraer. service centers. on any device. 2 .

it also includes a web-based tool for monitoring results. JOHANN BORDAIS. In order to ImproVe operatIonaL effIcIency and achIeVe eXceLLence In customer serVIce. anytime and anywhere. VICE PRESIDENT. a consulting service that furnishes an accurate diagnosis to assist with decisionmaking for single. while increasing the fleet availability. ePerf is a stand-alone program and can be used offline during any flight phase. The first ePerf tool will be available by the end of 2013 for the E-Jets. driving down costs.or multi-fleet airlines that are looking for fuel savings. EOC opening session. requiring no media generation and allowing operators to significantly reduce both the time to find/ retrieve technical information and the cost of maintaining it. whILe debatInG maIntenance cost reductIon throuGh actIons InItIated two years aGo. landing speeds. Paulo Cesar Silva. and to more quickly and conveniently perform repair management and traceability.E M B R A E R S E R V I C E S & S U P P O R T T E C H N I C A L P U B L I C AT I O N E J E TS F A M I LY . developed for the deployment of tablets in the cockpit. by Mr. SERvICE & SUppORT Included in the Rio event are such e-Solutions as the eSRM web application based on SRM (Structural Repair Maintenance) approved data to allow E-Jets operators to increase damage assessment reliability. CEO Commercial Aviation 3 . It will economically eliminate the need for heavy books. compared to conventional Electronic Flight Bags (EFB).N U M B E R 8 3 . The Company also introduced the Embraer Fuel Efficiency Program. The AHEAD-PRO (Aircraft Health Analysis and Diagnosis) system analyzes and diagnoses aircraft health by continuously monitoring the E-Jets performance. The eTechPubs is an environmentally friendly system introducing a value-added paperless solution for Technical Publications. Apart from the unique manufacturer expertise. in real time. reduce structural repair costs. This application allows pilots to calculate aircraft performance and to obtain the maximum payload. One of the initiatives Embraer presented in both events is the new iPad ePerf application for the Commercial Aviation Market.N O V E M B E R 2 0 1 3 “ Our tarGet for both eVents was to share best practIces and eXperIence. and distances within seconds.

Embraer would like to thank the operators’ participation on the last Webex session held in September. duration.com. aiming at improving the next Webex sessions. All of them were internally discussed. we would like to reinforce that the objective of these workshops is to establish a transparent communication with Embraer customers related to technical issues verified in the field. including the Webex sessions.0 Q3: The overall skills of the Presenter were adequate Q2 Q3 . Commercial and logistic aspects should be addressed through the Customer Account Manager. for an easier identification of the participants. The following graphs show the results of the poll applied during each session. further information related to technical issues is published in the Follow-up (FUP) reports available at the E-Forum section of the Flyembraer website.N NU UM MB BE ER R8 83 3 -. it is recommended that all Webex attendees put their Company name right after their name in the “Your Name” field. Also. The sessions had the presence of about 30 E-Jets operators totalizing 240 attendees from all regions of the world. all presentations are available at the Flyembraer website for consulting and/ or downloading one week prior to the event.0 Q2: The web conference organization was adequate (conference invitation.TECHNICAL E EM MB BR RA AE ER RS SE ER RV VIIC CE ES S& &S SU UP PP PO OR RT TT TE EC CH HN NIIC CA AL LP PU UB BL LIIC CAT ATIIO ON N E EJ JE ETS TS F FA AM MIILY LY -. when joining to the conference. Also. Eder Rodrigues de Almeida Technical Support (EFTC) eder. It was a great opportunity to share experiences among all participants. Your feedback is very important to us and will be surely be used to improve our Services and Support. OVERALL AVERAGE GRADE 0 7 0 GRADES PER QUESTION BREAKDOWN 20 30 40 50 4 5.9 OVERALL 5. material availability at FlyEmbraer) 6. We would also like to thank for all comments posted in this survey.7 Q1: This technical Workshop session met your expectations OVERALL Q1 0 7 0 7 6. Thus and based on the last sessions comments.N NO OV VE EM MB BE ER R2 20 01 13 3 Embraer Technical Workshops (Webex) poll results Firstly. Usually.br WEBEX IN NUMBERS 30 EMBRAER E-JETS OPERATORS 240 7 10 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 ATTENDEES FROM ALL REGIONS OF THE WORLD In 2014 an annual “Calendar Events” section will be introduced in the E-News to highlight planned Embraer Service & Support events.almeida@embraer.

it is suitable to have an additional smart decoding data. Embraer has released two new FHDB decoding tools.xls).com) and CCTA (https://ccta. For further details regarding the smart FHDB decoding tools.br) interfaces. In an effort to add value to the customer’s health monitoring process.TECHNICAL E M B R A E R S E R V I C E S & S U P P O R T T E C H N I C A L P U B L I C AT I O N E J E TS F A M I LY .com.br New FHDB decoding Embraer is proud to announce two new FHDB decoding tools. These smart tools are available to the customers through AHEAD-PRO (www.N U M B E R 8 3 .flyembraer. it will be possible to merge CAS messages and maintenance messages in just one Excel file (.N O V E M B E R 2 0 1 3 Adriano Carvalho Technical Support (EFTC) adriano. for fleet reliability analysis. Those specific data provide an overall aircraft data focusing on health monitoring purpose only. please. refer to SNL 170-00-0075 and 190-00-0072 respectively. It is important to highlight that the main purpose of the two smart FHDB decoding tools is to deliver decoded FHDB files to support the aircraft maintenance activities. However. embraer. AHEAD-PRO FHDB Decoder 5 CCTA EMBRAER FHDB Fault History Database . Besides the decoding capability.com.gustavo@embraer.

leading the technical proposals development that will be presented during the meeting. their participation in this event is very important for technical discussions and approval of the tasks optimization proposals. for the operator’s deliberation about the new tasks that will be necessary for this modification in the E-Jets Family. The invitation for all operators and authorities is now in-progress and the agenda being done. This event is part of the MRB process. Many proposals from System and Power Plant will be discussed as Structural and Zonal Optimizations.N O V E M B E R 2 0 1 3 Pedro Augusto Maintenance Support maintenance. which includes the ICAs (instructions for continuous airworthiness) update and the Optimization Process of the E-Jets aircraft maintenance plan. Rodrigo Manzioni. who will be the one responsible for the meeting conduction and representing the ISC and WG Chairmen within the Maintenance Support Engineering Team. The ISC analysis is the last step before the MRB meeting that is scheduled to the beginning of next year. Since the operators are the first personnel affected by the maintenance tasks. And as the last goal throughout the reliability analysis. Some proposals for the E-Jets’ aircraft Enhanced wing tip will be presented too. Embraer will hold in the United States. to optimize the discussions time. the 7th GWG (General Working Group) next November 2013.com.br E-Jets Tasks Optimization Process Continuing the E-Jets Family Tasks Optimization. we congratulate the new Embraer’s ISC and WG Co-Chair. 6 6th GWG in SJK participants .support@embraer. the optimization of the maintenance tasks interval. This meeting will be led by WG Chair John Pearman (Flybe) and ISC Chair Dave Eccles (KLM Cityhopper).N U M B E R 8 3 . The ISC (Industry Steering Committee) will be realized to analyze the items that were presented during the 2nd SWG/ZWG held in Amsterdam (June/13) and 6th WG held in Sao Jose dos Campos (September/13).TECHNICAL E M B R A E R S E R V I C E S & S U P P O R T T E C H N I C A L P U B L I C AT I O N E J E TS F A M I LY . with the presence of many operators from all regions. Seizing the opportunity.

TECHNICAL EM MB BR RA AE ER RS SE ER RV VIIC CE ES S& &S SU UP PP PO OR RT TT TE EC CH HN NIIC CA AL LP PU UB BL LIIC CAT ATIIO ON N E EJ JE ETS TS F FA AM MIILY LY -.N NU UM MB BE ER R8 83 3 -.N NO OV VE EM MB BE ER R2 20 01 13 3 E Agenda for the 7th GWG/ISC Monday 4th Nov 8:30 10:00 Tuesday 5th Nov GWG System Optimization Items Wednesday 6th Nov GWG Structural/Zonal Optimization Items Break GWG Structural/Zonal Optimization Items Lunch GWG Structural/Zonal Optimization Items Break GWG Structural/Zonal Optimization Items Adjournment Thursday 7th Nov GWG Structural/Zonal Optimization Items Break GWG Structural/Zonal Optimization Items Lunch ISC 2nd SWG/ZWG 6th & 7th GWG Break ISC 2nd SWG/ZWG 6th & 7th GWG Adjournment Friday 8th Nov ISC 2nd SWG/ZWG 6th & 7th GWG Break ISC 2nd SWG/ZWG 6th & 7th GWG Lunch ISC 2nd SWG/ZWG 6th & 7th GWG Adjournment Welcome Meeting Introduction GWG MPEP Items Lunch GWG MPEP Items Break GWG MPEP Items Adjournment Break GWG System Optimization Items Lunch GWG System Optimization Items Break GWG System Optimization Items Adjournment 10:15 7 12:00 13:00 14:30 14:45 17:00 .

product performance (cost impact) and concrete deliverables.N U M B E R 8 3 . . service centers and Embraer.8% favorability of participants.com. on October 16th and with the presence of the Worldwide Fleet (WWF) Customers.N O V E M B E R 2 0 1 3 Eduardo Alves / Aljose Brito Maintenance Economics Engineer maintenance. Cooperative engagement among operators. 8 Sharing of experiences and best practices of maintenance daily operations. To conclude. the MCW 2013 was organized in a partnership way. Sharing of experiences and best practices of maintenance d a i l y operations. Brazil.cost@embraer.br Maintenance Cost Workshop (MCW) 2013 achievements The MCW 2013 took place in Rio de Janeiro. where operators requested focus on maintenance cost reduction. with results and valuable information.TECHNICAL E M B R A E R S E R V I C E S & S U P P O R T T E C H N I C A L P U B L I C AT I O N E J E TS F A M I LY . The event had the purpose of promoting an operator’s forum aiming at the effective maintenance cost improvements to the E-Jets community through: Debates on cost reduction opportunities. The preparation of the event took into account their perspectives collected in the MCW 2012 edition. leasing companies. resulting in 85. suppliers.

MCW MCW Presentation MCW 2013 The MCW counted with representatives from 36 Operators. Initially.61/FH. 6 Leasing Company. cost benefit analysis. please visit us on the FlyEmbraer site 5) Engine Maintenance Cost 6) Parts Repair Workshop Visibility of earnings and benefits of technical solutions. To consult the MCW 2013 presentations. 9 4) Maintenance Checks overview Maintenance Checks figures from worldwide fleet for Maintenance Planning Document (MPD) Intermediate and Basic Checks.TECHNICAL E M B R A E R S E R V I C E S & S U P P O R T T E C H N I C A L P U B L I C AT I O N E J E TS F A M I LY . the E-Jets Community discussed and debated possible solutions on the E-Jets Parts Repair Costs. mentioning average labor and materials invested on routines and non-routines activities. EMBRAER.00/FH. The outcome of the project has already achieved up to now the result of US$ 17. 2) Maintenance Plan Achievements 3) Maintenance Cost Experience Overview of main results obtained in 2013 aiming at reducing the maintenance costs and next steps. The Parts Repair Workshop came up with several ideas that will be analyzed by EMBRAER. The cost reduction initiatives under the product performance pillar are focused on changes in the product. From this point on. JetBlue Airways.N U M B E R 8 3 . Best practices focused on maintenance cost process management. maintenance checks overview and best practices.N O V E M B E R 2 0 1 3 Topics presented during the event 1) Maintenance Cost Reduction Project The project goal for 2013 is to reduce the E-Jets Direct Maintenance Costs (DMC) by US$ 20. to establish and reach potential savings on the Repair Prices pillar at the E-jets Cost Reduction Project. . The results of the Parts Repair Workshop and the MCW action items will be part of the next E-Jets Cost Reduction web conference on December 09th and 11th. UTC Aerospace Systems and Honeywell promoted an opened plenary on the E-Jets Parts Repair Costs subject. An innovative booklet with controlled copy was delivered to the customers with the main results achieved. Download center Commercial Jets Conferences E-Jets Maintenance Cost Workshop . It was presented the main benefits for each product modification and the cost benefit analysis (CBA) for technical solutions that brings greater cost reduction. the presenters highlighted their stand point on the subject from the perspectives of the Original Equipment Manufacturers (OEMs) and Airlines. 2013. Repair & Overhaul (MROs) Providers and the Embraer Team. to reduce the engine maintenance cost. 25 Supplier/Maintenance.

comments. Embraer takes the opportunity to thank our Operators for their attendance and participation during the MCW 2013 and counts on your participation in the next MCW edition. EMBRAER will present to Customers the rules. Others. initiatives and/or opportunities on E-Jets Costs Solutions to maintenance.N O V E M B E R 2 0 1 3 MCW 2014 Award What is it? The MCW Award is an EMBRAER and E-Jets Operator’s initiative which main idea is to stimulate the share of a good field experience and original solutions adopted by the Airlines. Your contribution would be greatly appreciated by the E-Jets Community! 10 + + + + + + Repair Procedures. The focus of this initiative is to identify. 2013. develop and share maintenance cost solutions through processes optimization. Enhancements. Ground Support Equipment (GSE)/ Tooling. bringing the opportunity to your employees to contribute with the E-Jets Cost Performance.TECHNICAL E M B R A E R S E R V I C E S & S U P P O R T T E C H N I C A L P U B L I C AT I O N E J E TS F A M I LY . Who can attend? All E-Jets Airlines and Leasing Companies personnel involved with maintenance and engineering activities are eligible to participate and to apply for the prize.com.N U M B E R 8 3 . cost@embraer. reader. analyze. which could be achieved by improvements on: When and How? In the next E-Jets Cost Reduction web conference on December 09th and 11th. in order to get ready to spread out the MCW 2014 Award into your companies. Maintenance. Prize? The prize for the best idea will be an EMBRAER visit tour + Trip to a tourist destination in Brazil with one companion. Alternative Maintenance Procedures. The EMBRAER Maintenance Economics team encourages you. Repair & Overhaul (MROs) Providers and Leasing Companies on Maintenance Cost issues. . to feel free to send any questions.br. EMBRAER suggests that you attend to the E-Jets Cost Reduction web conference. Workflow Optimization. roles and responsibilities to be part of the MCW 2014 Award. suggestions.

active) as a way to improve the reliability of the EMBRAER 190 bleed system.N O V E M B E R 2 0 1 3 Jose Cláudio S. Embraer released service bulletin (SB) 19036-0019 addressing Bleed Leak events on EMBRAER 190 due to the susceptibility of the overheat detectors (ODS) to vibrations at the pylon tip area.com. Embraer would like to remind the importance of incorporating bulletin 190-36-0019.br Reminder On Aug/2012.REMINDER & DID YOU KNOW? E M B R A E R S E R V I C E S & S U P P O R T T E C H N I C A L P U B L I C AT I O N E J E TS F A M I LY . which is free of charge (until Sep/2014.leal@embraer. reports from operators show a very low incorporation rate of this bulletin.N U M B E R 8 3 . Leal Technical Support (EFTC) jose. 11 . On the EMBRAER 190 models. Nevertheless. this is the major cause of the events.

REMINDER & DID YOU KNOW? E M B R A E R S E R V I C E S & S U P P O R T T E C H N I C A L P U B L I C AT I O N E J E TS F A M I LY .com.br Did you know? …that Embraer has prepared six videos with detailed procedures to identify shimmy events and take corrective actions? This initiative aims to improve and share the best maintenance practices related to the E170/175 aircraft main landing gear shimmy damper. lubricating. removal and installation tasks.leal@embraer.N O V E M B E R 2 0 1 3 Claudio Sade Brodt Technical Support (EFTC) jose.N U M B E R 8 3 . Video 5 Shimmy Damper Removal Video 6 Shimmy Damper Installation Video 4 Lubrication procedure Video 3 Servicing 12 Video 2 Corrective actions after a shimmy event The videos are available in both AVI and MP4 formats at FlyEmbraer site Download center Commercial Jets Maintenance Technical Support Video Training TV170003 Shimmy Damper Video 1 How to identify a shimmy event . The material also includes demonstrations of shimmy damper servicing.

This will be done in the next sections of this paper. When considering that at least half of all the maintenance activities of any commercial aviation aircraft 11-15% 2-4% 40-55% 2-4% 12-20% 27-36% CREW HULL INSURANCE ACFT OWNERSHIP that a significant reduction in the life cycle cost could result in an realistic return on investment. [2] recognize that their study was limited in some aspects. if correctly integrated as part of the scheduled structural maintenance program. Nevertheless. in order to deliver cost effective solutions for their customers. Renee et al. 13 FEES (LAND/NAV) MAINTENANCE FUEL Figure 1: Direct Operating Cost Breakdown .N U M B E R 8 3 . One possible way to accomplish this is reducing the complexity of the scheduled inspection tasks as well as the necessary time to execute them. starting with the fact that it is not necessarily clear to airlines what would be the real benefits of introducing the SHM in their operations and how such applications can be implemented successfully in their aircraft and maintenance programs. reduction of maintenance costs are always a fundamental part of any airline plan to increase competitiveness and profitability. as well as indicated the benefits from a non-economic perspective.com.N O V E M B E R 2 0 1 3 Introduction of Scheduled SHM (S-SHM) Challenges for the Introduction of Scheduled SHM (S-SHM) applications into Commercial Aviation Maintenance Programs INTRODUCTION model is related to the inspection of metallic and composite structures. Although Renee et al.santos@embraer. Therefore. we can consider it a valid indication that there are ways to the OEMs to develop consistent business cases around the SHM. Although other cost drivers such as aircraft ownership and fuel represent a much larger portion of DOC (refer to figure 1). may have a significantly contribution to the reduction of operators DOC and their fleet downtime. Regarding the benefits of introducing the SHM in commercial aviation. for a 30 to 40% replacement of traditional maintenance requirements by the SHM solutions.FOCUS ON E M B R A E R S E R V I C E S & S U P P O R T T E C H N I C A L P U B L I C AT I O N E J E TS F A M I LY . it is important to focus now on how the SHM applications can be successfully implemented by airlines in their fleets as well as in their correspondent maintenance programs. According to this study. there are several challenges for this to happens. [2] provided cost benefits analysis for 3 different structures (trailing edge. EMBRAER is continuously looking for opportunities to respond to this need of maintenance cost reduction by its customers.br Maintenance activities are responsible for at least 12% of airline direct operational cost (DOC) [1]. the time to recover the cost of the initial investment for both the engine mount and the trailing edge structure would be 2 to 3 years. technologies such as the Structural Health Monitoring (SHM). vertical stabilizer and engine mount). showing Luís Gustavo dos Santos Technical Services and Training luis. As an original equipment manufacturer (OEM).

or at least. the S-SHM information contained in the A4A MSG-3 2009. DET and SDI) by S-SHM procedures. ..N U M B E R 8 3 . Detailed Inspection – DI or DET – and Special Detailed Inspection – SI or SDI – that are directly associated with qualification required for the inspector). Additionally. + Select (or maintain) a traditional inspection over the S-SHM task to be listed in the MRBR. but by itself it was not considered sufficient to convince OEMs to bear the development and certification costs to make real S-SHM solutions available to their customer.g.1 [3].N O V E M B E R 2 0 1 3 IntrodUction of SchedUled SHM (S-SHM) CHALLENGE 1 Replacement of traditional structural inspections with new SHM maintenance procedures The first part of a successful implementation of SHM solution in a commercial aviation program is to design structural monitoring systems that can be effectively certified by the OEM as a part of the type certificate of their aircraft models. delamination and disbonding) for all non-metallic Structural Significant Items (SSIs). The concept of S-SHM is already included in A4A MSG-3 since release 2009. Detailed and Special Detailed Inspections – respectively GVI.1 would be understood as adequate to support a SWG and ISC making one of the following decisions when evaluation an MSG-3 analysis of a Structural Significant Item (SSI): + List the S-SHM task as an alternative to the relevant ED. Damage (AD). + Introduction of S-SHM as new maintenance task category (separating it from the traditional MRBR inspections / tasks: General Visual Inspections – GV or GVI –. 14 + Revision of the MSG-3 structural analysis logic to evaluate the use of S-SHM as a task for timely detections of Accidental Once incorporated as part of a Policy and Procedure Handbook (PPH). the certification of such solutions must happens in a way that make it possible to OEMs to effectively replace or complement current structural inspections procedures (such as General Visual. as part of a supplemental type certificate. The A4A MSG-3 revision can be summarized as follows: + Definition of Scheduled SHM (S-SHM) as “the act to use/run/read out a SHM device at an interval set at a fixed schedule”. AD and/or FD inspection in the MRBR (S-SHM listed together with the traditional inspections). + Replace a traditional inspection on the MRBR with the S-SHM task.FOCUS ON E M B R A E R S E R V I C E S & S U P P O R T T E C H N I C A L P U B L I C AT I O N E J E TS F A M I LY . Fatigue Damage (FD) and Environmental Deterioration (ED) for all metallic and damage (e.

Therefore. certification process. but well known. SAE ARP 6461 serves as a common reference for the OEMs. reliability and continued airworthiness.N O V E M B E R 2 0 1 3 IntrodUction of SchedUled SHM (S-SHM) As the use of the S-SHM technologies are part of a new approach for scheduled maintenance practices. its acceptance by the Regulatory Authorities may generate additional difficulties to the OEMs during the naturally demanded.Guidance on Structural Health Monitoring for Aerospace Applications in September 2013. it is fundamental that the OEM can refer to clear requirements or guidelines on how to develop and certify such systems. This was addressed by collaborative effort of several members of the SHM community under the coordination of the Society of Automotive Engineers (SAE) that culminated in the issue of the new Aerospace Recommended Practice (ARP) 6461 . it is fundamental that the SHM community increase its support to the continuous improvement of SAE ARP 6461 contents. to revise the applicable analyses to select the S-SHM tasks and finally start taking advantage of the introduction of the SHM concepts in the MSG-3 methodology since 2009. 15 . This will ultimately support the activities of systems and structural working groups involved in the MRB process of a given aircraft program.N U M B E R 8 3 . In the EMBRAER’s perspective. in order to convince the regulatory authorities that all the relevant aspects related to the S-SHM systems safety. to replace or complement traditional structural inspections tasks were properly covered. Regulatory Authorities and other parties involved in the development and certification of the SHM solutions for a given commercial aviation program.FOCUS ON E M B R A E R S E R V I C E S & S U P P O R T T E C H N I C A L P U B L I C AT I O N E J E TS F A M I LY .

the introduction SHM concepts on the MSG-3 methodology. where the SHM systems must be properly evaluated in this aspect as part of the MRB process. which is used to develop maintenance programs for commercial aviation aircraft models.N U M B E R 8 3 . SOURCE DOCUMENTS EMBRAER ISC AIRLINES REG. the instructions for continued airworthiness must be developed for aircraft. AUTHORITIES OEM AIRLINES (EVENTUALLY) 16 MSG . A general approach to gradually introduce the SHM solutions into scheduled maintenance programs was proposed by Santos [5]. where he mentioned that to successfully introduce a SHM system into a commercial aviation maintenance program.3 METHODOLOGY POLICY & PROCEDURES HANDBOOK (PPH) PROPOSAL MAINTENANCE TASKS & INTERVALS APPROVAL DEVELOPMENT OF MSG-3 ANALYSIS & TASKS MRB REPORT APPROVAL AC 121-22A MRB REPORT PUBLISHING & DISTRIBUTION PPH APPROVAL .FOCUS ON E M B R A E R S E R V I C E S & S U P P O R T T E C H N I C A L P U B L I C AT I O N E J E TS F A M I LY . run or read-out a SHM device at an interval set at a fixed schedule [3].N O V E M B E R 2 0 1 3 IntrodUction of SchedUled SHM (S-SHM) CHALLENGE 2 How to adjust the process to develop a structural maintenance program in order to introduce scheduled SHM tasks? A scheduled SHM (S-SHM) task is defined as the act to use. As explained by Wenk [4]. AUTHORITIES OEM WGs AIRLINES REG. AUTHORITIES OEM MRB REG.1529 and Appendix H [6]. was the result of a collaborative effort of OEMs and other representatives of the SHM community. the SHM system developers must have in mind that as per 14 CFR part 25 § 25.

Therefore. The damage tolerance and fatigue analysis for fatigue damage is quantitative and assumes a precise knowledge of crack growth. Figure 2 summarizes the MRB Process. System and Powerplant. is able to deliver equivalent probability of detection (POD) and confidence level. by definition. Additionally. it must be adapted to allow selection of S-SHM inspections instead of traditional tasks. Once the OEM identify the structural significant items (SSI) . An EMBRAER PPH complies with FAA Advisory Circular 121-22A [7] and is a guide to be used by the EMBRAER. the OEM should clearly indicate in the part of the PPH. MRB Advisors and WG members (including representatives of vendors or OEM partners) that will participate in a given Structural Analysis Procedures The MSG-3 procedures for structural analysis are aimed at developing an effective aircraft structural maintenance ¹ A SSI is any detail. Fatigue effect must be then checked for the damage tolerant SSI. and discussing failures. how to identify and document the inspection requirements for the so called “other structures” and what is the criteria the Structural WG and ISC members must use.N O V E M B E R 2 0 1 3 IntrodUction of SchedUled SHM (S-SHM) As the MRB process is governed by a Policy and Procedure Handbook (PPH). could affect the structural integrity necessary for the safety of the aircraft. 17 Maintenance Development and Technical Training An OEM must provide MSG-3 maintenance task development training to all ISC. In addition to the damage tolerance analysis. and detectability. the OEM and its partners/ vendors must also provide general familiarization training about the aircraft model being evaluated. Maintenance Review Board. This is the first opportunity to use the S-SHM tasks instead of traditional inspection tasks. In these training it is fundamental that the details of each S-SHM solution being implemented are made available for all MRB Advisors and WG members. pressure. sensitivity to damage propagation (established basically by the stress level and the material of the SSI). critical structural elements. . as they will not cover. to verify if a given S-SHM system designed to be installed in some or all of those “other structures”. or assembly which contributes significantly to carrying flight. Different methodology and documentation to conduct a MSG-3 analysis (Structures. estimated residual strength after fatigue damage and probability of crack initiation. the concept of S-SHM and additional related information must be covered by the training material so this new task type will be considered by MSG3 analysts while performing their activities and will be properly evaluated by the other WG and ISC members. considering the following indexes: SSI Visibility (related to the visibility of the structure for inspection). program. with a cumulative effect with respect to aircraft usage (flight cycles). Zonal etc) must be explained to the training participants. an FD rating is developed. Fatigue Damage (FD) is the initiation and subsequent propagation of a crack or cracks. their annunciations and consequences. element. the selection criteria to accept S-SHM tasks will be naturally less restrictive than to cover SSI. or accidental damage. supervised by an Industry Steering Committee (ISC). to detect and prevent the degradation caused by fatigue.FOCUS ON E M B R A E R S E R V I C E S & S U P P O R T T E C H N I C A L P U B L I C AT I O N E J E TS F A M I LY . The MRB process activities are conducted by different Working Groups (WG). environmental deterioration. and therefore. residual strength. it is necessary to define what will be the inspections that will cover the remaining structures (designated “other structures”. if it remains undetected. in opposition to the definition of SSI). including specific lectures with the purpose of analyzing the design and function of the systems and structures. due to cyclic loading. Therefore. ground. and whose failure. The PPH states the policies and procedures to be followed by these groups for the development of the initial minimum scheduled maintenance requirements and their subsequent revisions. or control loads.N U M B E R 8 3 . different from the ones of the traditional inspection tasks selected to cover structures. customer airlines and regulatory authorities (RA) representatives during the MSG-3 process.

the following indexes are considered: SSI visibility. cleaning fluids. 18 . spillage. the results are consolidated in order to select. as well as by the material susceptibility to corrosion and stress corrosion. runway debris. The environmental deterioration may be time dependent or may be a random discrete event. foreign objects. galley spillage. the following aspects must be considered: SSI visibility. Therefore. all fatigue limitations generated by the damage tolerance analysis. estimated residual strength after damage and likelihood of damage. for each item of analysis. When the OEM receives the approval of its damage tolerance analysis (DTA) report by the appropriate regulatory authority (certification) and the latest results of the on going full fatigue test. the FD tasks which are associated to any limitation generated by DTA (SSI inspection level. sensitivity to corrosion/deterioration (metal and non-metals). shall be evaluated by the WG. the final requirement that shall be included in the MRB report proposal.FOCUS ON E M B R A E R S E R V I C E S & S U P P O R T T E C H N I C A L P U B L I C AT I O N E J E TS F A M I LY . and the protection applied to the structural components. Then. The environmental deterioration (ED) analysis procedure considers that the aircraft structure may be subject to damage caused by its exposure to adverse environments such as cabin condensation. or maintenance. water entrapment and human error during aircraft manufacture. The requirement is composed of threshold (T) and repetitive interval (I). sensitivity to damage propagation. For the damage susceptibility assessment and its timely detection. Subsequently. shall be classified as an ALI and be listed in a dedicated section or appendix of the MRBR. environment and accidental damages. erosion from rain. The Accidental damage (AD) analysis procedure considers that the aircraft structure may be subject to damage caused by the contact or impact with foreign objects. for the SSIs categorized as an airworthiness limitation item (ALI). and interval). the PPH must clearly indicate which criteria must be used to verify if a S-SHM task can provide equivalent probability of detection (POD) and confidence level that the correspondent traditional inspection that was select to cover those structures.N U M B E R 8 3 . System Analysis Procedures System Analysis Procedures.N O V E M B E R 2 0 1 3 IntrodUction of SchedUled SHM (S-SHM) Environmental deterioration and accidental damage must be evaluated for all SSI. MSG-3 procedures for system and powerplant analysis provides procedural steps for the development of tasks and determination of their intervals. associated with the aircraft certificated operating capabilities. interval an threshold are applicable and most effective to limit or eliminate the effects of fatigue. in order to determine if the correspondent inspection level remains practical and effective. After the completion of the FD. The final goal of the previous procedures is to determine which task type. as indicated before for the “other structures”. The accidental damage analysis takes into account the susceptibility of each SSI to accidental damage based on damage exposure frequency and location of one or more sources of damage such as ground/cargo equipment. or caused by inadequate operation or maintenance practices. toilet spillage. Each proposed task must be assessed in accordance with an applicability and effectiveness criteria. threshold. ED and AD analysis. among others. To develop an efficient analysis. protection (of the structure against the environment) and environmental effects (related to the exposure to adverse environment). operation. lightning. hail. the associated inspection tasks and their subsequent intervals and thresholds should be established for each item of analysis.

19 Industry and Regulatory Authorities participation The ISC and WG are formed by representatives of aircraft operators. It is chaired by an airline representative and co-chaired by an OEM representative. In EMBRAER perspective. and ISC Chairman and CoChairman. and its partners and major vendors. The regulatory authority maintenance review board (RA MRB) has the authority to approve the proposed initial inspection requirements that will be published in the MRB report. in accordance with the PPH guidelines.N U M B E R 8 3 . MRB members and advisors. be hidden to the operating crew (pilots and flight attendants). In our perspective the best way to make what was suggested in this subsection is that the SHM community increases the involvement of representatives of the major regulatory authorities around the world.N O V E M B E R 2 0 1 3 IntrodUction of SchedUled SHM (S-SHM) Similarly to the structural analysis procedure. or have a significant potential economic or operational impact. any pure S-SHM systems design will never be classified as a MSI² and therefore. EMBRAER understands that built-in tests (BIT) must be implemented as part of any ground support equipment (GSE) that will interrogate the S-SHM sensors installed in the aircraft. no scheduled task would be selected for the S-SHM systems components that will be installed in the aircraft. Consequently. ² A MSI is one whose failure could affect safety. the ISC participation must ensure that the Structural WG properly evaluated the use of available S-SHM systems to replace or complement traditional inspections. This board is formed by the MRB Board Chairman and MRB Executive Chairman (both are representatives of the regulatoryauthorityofOEM’scountry). it is necessary to define maintenance significant items (MSI) among all systems of the aircraft model being evaluated. and B. OEM. Regarding the S-SHM. Offer guidance and assistance to the ISC and WGs. . to promote the structural health monitoring solutions not as a promise for the future but as a concrete option for improvement of the maintenance programs of the current commercial aviation fleet.FOCUS ON E M B R A E R S E R V I C E S & S U P P O R T T E C H N I C A L P U B L I C AT I O N E J E TS F A M I LY . including the aspects/requirements that will be observed in order to accept S-SHM tasks as replacement or complement of traditional ones. in order to evaluate if the data collection and analysis that will be performed as an inspection tasks are valid. There are two responsibilities that have a direct effect on the acceptance of S-SHM tasks as part of MRB Reports: A. Nevertheless. no MSG-3 system analysis will be required.foreign authorities’ representatives. To review and confirm acceptance of the PPH (concurrently approved by the ISC and obviously containing all the guidelines for the evaluation of S-SHM tasks). but regulatory authorities’ representatives are included as advisors to the ISC and WGs.

571.FOCUS ON E M B R A E R S E R V I C E S & S U P P O R T T E C H N I C A L P U B L I C AT I O N E J E TS F A M I LY . and lubricated. A) Scheduling information (maintenance instructions) for each part of the airplane and its engines. and the degree of inspection. The MRBR. In the following paragraphs more details about the possible changes in the above mentioned documents for the introduction of the S-SHM will be presented. but not limited to the following information [6]: C) Details for the application of special inspection techniques including radiographic and ultrasonic testing where such processes are specified. respectively). inspection interval. to clearly indicate the scope and frequencies of each approved S-SHM task. replacement time.N U M B E R 8 3 . accessories. to inspect the internal structure of both the LH and RH elevators. and how they will replace. tested. B) Airplane maintenance manual. maintenance tasks types such as general and detailed visual inspections (GVI and DET. and work recommended at these periods. maintenance planning document (MPD) and the aircraft maintenance manual Maintenance Review Board Report (MRBR) The contents of the MRBR will need to be revised.N O V E M B E R 2 0 1 3 IntrodUction of SchedUled SHM (S-SHM) CHALLENGE 3 Changes on the Instructions for Continued Airworthiness The instructions for continued airworthiness (ICA) of a given airplane must contain a series of manuals containing. Other considerations may apply for other ICA. auxiliary power units. the applicable wear tolerances. and equipment that provides the recommended periods at which they should be cleaned. (AMM) are some of the ICA used by EMBRAER in its programs and in our perspective it would not be necessary dramatic changes in their current layout and content to cover the S-SHM solutions. replacing a special detailed inspection (SDI) that uses a borescope. structural inspection interval. and each mandatory replacement time. 20 Therefore. and related structural inspection procedure approved under 14 CFR part 25 §25. such as the ones related to the airworthiness limitation items. inspected. related inspection procedure. introducing information that includes an explanation of the airplane’s features and data to the extent necessary for maintenance or preventive maintenance. adjusted. instruments. complement and/or be an alternative means of compliance for the more traditional . to use S-SHM solution as part of any commercial aviation maintenance program it is necessary to revise the correspondent ICA with information related to S-SHM inspections. Figures 3 and 4 show examples of a hypothetical S-SHM system being introduced respectively in the MRBR and MPD. D) A section titled Airworthiness Limitations that must set forth each mandatory modification time. but will not be discussed in this paper.

FOCUS ON E M B R A E R S E R V I C E S & S U P P O R T T E C H N I C A L P U B L I C AT I O N E J E TS F A M I LY .25 man-hour will be used for the complete accomplishment of this inspection (the SDI takes much more than that only to open the access panels for the borescope). In the MPD.N U M B E R 8 3 . 21 Figure 3: Example of an S-SHM replacing a SDI in a MRBR. but the inspection threshold and interval remain the same as in the original task (the values were purposely removed from the example). it will be also necessary to indicate that while the number of technicians required to perform the S-SHM is still one (as originally indicated for the SDI). only 0. . the term “S-SHM” replaced the term “SDI”.N O V E M B E R 2 0 1 3 IntrodUction of SchedUled SHM (S-SHM) Notice that in the MRBR example.

N U M B E R 8 3 .FOCUS ON E M B R A E R S E R V I C E S & S U P P O R T T E C H N I C A L P U B L I C AT I O N E J E TS F A M I LY .N O V E M B E R 2 0 1 3 IntrodUction of SchedUled SHM (S-SHM) 22 Figure 4: Example of an S-SHM task replacing a SDI in a MPD .

then activate it and wait for the results (including the selfdiagnostics results that will be necessary before assessing the monitored structure condition). Depending on the positioning of the S-SHM design and its GSE connection point.FOCUS ON E M B R A E R S E R V I C E S & S U P P O R T T E C H N I C A L P U B L I C AT I O N E J E TS F A M I LY . Also. the Airplane Maintenance Manuals (AMM) will need to be revised to include specific S-SHM procedures on how to perform the intended inspection.N U M B E R 8 3 . the correspondent maintenance procedure in the AMM could be significantly simplified.N O V E M B E R 2 0 1 3 IntrodUction of SchedUled SHM (S-SHM) Airplane Maintenance Manual Additionally. how to proceed when degradation is detected in the monitored structures and how to repair such systems in case of failures. Additionally. the current SDI procedures would be then considered as readily available alternative maintenance procedures in case the S-SHM is defective. the technician would not need to open several circuit breakers or use a rear fuselage workstand to perform the inspections. or even set the elevator a neutral position. The mechanic would connect the GSE to the S-SHM system. as indicated in figure 5. S-SHM procedure replacing a SDI in an AMM without SHM 122334 122334 334 122334 122334 334 with SHM 122334 122334 334 122334 122334 122334 122334 334 334 122334 122334 334 23 122334 122334 334 122334 122334 334 Just an alternative means of compliance (AMOC) High downtime due to assembly/disassembly Complex/Time Consuming Inspections High probability of induced damage during inspections Minimal downtime/simple access panel removals Simple/quick inspection procedures (’plug in play’) No induced damage in the inspection areas .

The CVM is based on the principle that a vacuum maintained within a small constant volume is extremely sensitive to any leakage. when a crack connects a vacuum gallery to an air gallery. EMBRAER is evaluating 2 different types of S-SHM system: Comparative Vacuum Monitoring (CVM) and Lamb Waves Monitoring (LW). several other built in tests such as continuity are performed automatically for damage detection . as it can be seen in the figures below.N U M B E R 8 3 .FOCUS ON E M B R A E R S E R V I C E S & S U P P O R T T E C H N I C A L P U B L I C AT I O N E J E TS F A M I LY . indicating that some damage occurred. with the same or higher safety and reliability levels of traditional inspections. the system will be able to sustain the vacuum in the correspondent galleries. Comparative Vacuum Monitoring sensor functioning Sensor on Intact Structure (no crack) PRESSURE DIFFERENTIAL SYSTEM IN BALANCE SIGNAL BASE LINE PRESSURE PRESSURE Crack Initiated PRESSURE DIFFERENTIAL SYSTEM OUT OF BALANCE INITIATION CURVE 24 TIME TIME Besides Pressure Differential. when the mechanic connects the CVM GSE to test the structure. Therefore. Currently.N O V E M B E R 2 0 1 3 IntrodUction of SchedUled SHM (S-SHM) EXAMPLE EMBRAER is evaluating the structures and structural inspections of the current E-Jets in order to determine the one that. would allow customer airlines to have significant reductions in direct maintenance costs and higher aircraft availability. once monitored by S-SHM system.

All PZT used for LW act as actuator AND sensors in order to generate a baseline reading of the health structure. as it is today!). CFII. AILERON) and 78 – Thrust Reverser. it is both technically and economically possible to install CVM or LW S-SHM systems (during. SPAR. w2 25 b1<b2 w1>w2 TIME (ms) INPUT Paths OUTPUT . which contains structural tasks of the following ATA chapters 52 – Doors. CFIII. the total time to perform the inspection (including simple access to connect the S-SHM GSE in different points of the aircraft) would be minutes (instead of hours. These two SHM technologies are used in Service Bulletins 190-00-0027 (S-SHM TEST INSTALLATION IN THE WING STRUCTURE). a Basic 2 check. The S-SHM systems that are installed consist of onboard unpowered sensors for the detection of cracks and accidental damages in the monitored structures. This baseline will be compared with the data collected every time a LW inspection is performed to determine if damage occur.40% of the traditional inspections of the E-Jets Basic 3 check. For several of those tasks. for data acquisition purposes. 53 – Fuselage (FWD. CFI. 55 – Stabilizers. For these bulletins.N U M B E R 8 3 . representing a significant reduction in downtime and maintenance costs. only part of the S-SHM Lamb Waves Monitoring sensor functioning b2 SIGNAL (v) BASELINE DAMAGE system (CVM and LW sensors. for example.FOCUS ON E M B R A E R S E R V I C E S & S U P P O R T T E C H N I C A L P U B L I C AT I O N E J E TS F A M I LY . where several access panels are removed). harness and connectors) are being installed. It would be possible to replace up to 64. 56 – Windows. Assuming that for all tasks that require elaborate access. 190-00-0028 (S-SHM INSTALLATION IN THE FORWARD FUSELAGE STRUCTURE) and 19000-0029 (S-SHM INSTALLATION IN CENTRAL FUSELAGE II STRUCTURE). They are being used by EMBRAER as part of the SHM development process. 57 – Wings (STUB. let’s take into consideration the current E-Jets Basic 3 check inspection package. Please contact EMBRAER for more information on the SBs or your company is interested participating in this initiative. FTE. REAR). To examplify the concrete results EMBRAER is aiming with S-SHM.N O V E M B E R 2 0 1 3 IntrodUction of SchedUled SHM (S-SHM) LW uses piezoelectric transducers (PZT) to generate waves in the monitored structure that are sensitive to cracks on it. It is important to emphasize that the accomplishment of the above mentioned Service Bulletins does not affect or change the maintenance plan (MRBR) of modified aircraft. tubing.

p103.com [2] Kent.airweb. NASA / CR-2000209848. “Status of MSG-3 (Maintenance Steering Group 3) Guidance on Using SHM for Scheduled Maintenance” 7th International Workshop on Structural Health Monitoring. A. EMBRAER S. 2000. Available at https://www.1.. dated 3/7/97. L. 2011 [6] Appendix H to Part 25 of Title 14 of the . Murphy. [4] Wenk. Different approaches for the introduction may be used. Sept 9. make adjustments on the process to develop maintenance programs and revise instructions for continued airworthiness affected by the introduction of the S-SHM tasks.N U M B E R 8 3 . “Embraer Perspective On The Introduction Of SHM Into Current And Future Commercial Aviation Programs” 8th International Workshop on Structural Health Monitoring.A.gov 26 [3] MSG-3: Operator / Manufacturer Scheduled Maintenance Development. but whatever they are it will be necessary to propose a method to certify the S-SHM inspections regulatory authorities as a valid replacement for more traditional tasks.gov/ [7] Advisory Circular 121-22A – Maintenance Review Board Procedures. References [1] Maintenance Cost Management – A Reference Guide.flyembraer. Federal Aviation Administration (FAA). D. Airlines for America (A4A). Federal Aviation Administration (FAA).N O V E M B E R 2 0 1 3 IntrodUction of SchedUled SHM (S-SHM) Conclusion There are challenges for the immediate introduction of the S-SHM tasks as part of any commercial aviation maintenance program. faa. Revision 2009..org. Sept 9. [5] Santos.. Available at http://rgl. Stanford CA. Code of Federal Regulations. available from A4A at http://www.airlines. Three of them were presented in this paper along with suggestions on how to overcome them. 2009. Available at http://www. Stanford CA.FOCUS ON E M B R A E R S E R V I C E S & S U P P O R T T E C H N I C A L P U B L I C AT I O N E J E TS F A M I LY . p103. L. Health Monitoring System Technology Assessments – Cost Benefits Analysis. G. Renee M.faa.

SNAPSHOT OF THE MONTH Air Dolomiti E190 jet flying above the Alps Credits: Luc Van Den Avyle Credits: Rodrigo Jacoby .

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