1) How were the Chinese books made long long ago?

ans: Books in China were printed by rubbing paper – also invented there – against the inked surface of woodblocks. As both sides of the thin, porous sheet could not be printed, the traditional Chinese ‘accordion book’ was folded and stitched at the side. Superbly skilled craftsmen could duplicate, with remarkable accuracy, the beauty of calligraphy. 2) For what purpose books were printed in Imperial china? ans:The imperial state in China was, for a very long time, the major producer of printed material. China possessed a huge bureaucratic system which recruited its personnel through civil service examinations. Textbooks for this examination were printed in vast numbers under the sponsorship of the imperial state. 3) How did the development of urban culture in China help in increase of printed materials? ans: i)By the seventeenth century, as urban culture bloomed in China ii) Print was no longer used just by scholar-officials. iii) Merchants used print in their everyday life, as they collected trade information. iv) Reading increasingly became a leisure activity. 4) What types of books were in china? ans: The new readership preferred fictional narratives, poetry, autobiographies, anthologies of literary masterpieces, and romantic plays. Rich women began to read, and many women began publishing their poetry and plays. 5) when and what changes took place in the printing sphere in china? ans: i)This new reading culture was accompanied by a new technology. Western printing techniques and mechanical presses were imported in the late nineteenth century as Western powers established their outposts in China. ii) Shanghai became the hub of the new print culture, catering to the

Book fairs were held at different places. v) Libraries and bookstores were packed with hand-printed material of various types – books on women. 8) How did book production increase in Europe? ans: i) the demand for books increased. iv)In the late eighteenth century. iii) From hand printing there was now a gradual shift to mechanical printing. musical instruments. 7) when and how did Italians begin to produce printed books ? ans: i)in 1295. containing six sheets of text and woodcut illustrations. illustrated collections of paintings depicted an elegant urban culture. booksellers all over Europe began exporting books to many different countries. . involving artists. in the flourishing urban circles at Edo(later to be known as Tokyo). and soon the technology spread to other parts of Europe. and books were cheap and abundant. ii) Production of handwritten manuscripts was also organized in new ways to meet the expanded demand. printed in AD 868. poets and prose writers were regularly published. iii)In medieval Japan. and teahouse gatherings. Marco Polo. tea ceremony. is the Buddhist Diamond Sutra . proper etiquette. Scribes or skilled handwrites were no longer solely employed by wealthy or influential patrons but increasingly by booksellers as well. calculations. Now Italians began producing books with woodblocks. 6) Write a note on printing in japan ? ans : i)Buddhist missionaries from China introduced hand-printing technology into Japan around AD 768-770 ii) The oldest Japanese book. a great explorer.Western-style schools. courtesans. cooking and famous places. returned to Italy after many years of exploration in china ii) Marco Polo brought this knowledge back with him. flower arrangements.

became a master goldsmith. and could not be carried around or read easily iv). iii) Manuscripts were fragile. iv) In the books printed for the rich. 10) How did Gutenberg develop a printing press? ans: i)Gutenberg was the son of a merchant and grew up on a large agricultural estate. v) The olive press provided the model for the printing press. Gutenberg adapted existing technology to design his innovation. space for decoration was kept blank on the printed page. ii) The metal letters imitated the ornamental handwritten styles. iii) He learnt the art of polishing stones. 11) Describe the earliest printed book of Europe after Gutenberg invented the printing press? ans.9) what were the limitations of handwritten books? ans.Their circulation therefore remained limited. i)But the production of handwritten manuscripts could not satisfy the ever-increasing demand for books. laborious and time-consuming business. woodblock printing gradually became more and more popular. iv) This knowledge. vi) By 1448. iii) Borders were illuminated by hand with foliage and other patterns. awkward to handle. and also acquired the expertise to create lead molds used for making trinkets. ii) From his childhood he had seen wine and olive presses. The first book he printed was the Bible. i)printed books at first closely resembled the written manuscripts in appearance and layout. and molds were used for casting the metal types for the letters of the alphabet. and illustrations were painted. . Gutenberg perfected the system. ii) Copying was an expensive. v) With the growing demand for books.

12) the shift from hand printing to mechanical printing led to the print revolution . reaching out to an ever-growing readership. It influenced popular perceptions and opened up new ways of looking at things. 13) what is meant by the print revolution ? ans : It was not just a development. book production boomed. seeking work and helping start new presses. iii) As the number of printing presses grew.v) Each purchaser could choose the design and decide on the painting school that would do the illustrations. changing their relationship to information and knowledge. iii) Multiple copies could be produced with greater ease. 14) in what ways printing press increased no. printing presses were set up in most countries of Europe. ii) Knowledge was transferred orally. . and with institutions and authorities. iv)20 million copies of printed books flooding the markets in Europe. ballads recited. ii) Printers from Germany travelled to other countries. iv) Books flooded the market. it transformed the lives of people. 15)how was knowledge transformed before the age of print? ans: i)They heard sacred texts read out. ii) The time and labor required to produce each book came down. or saw a performance. a new way of producing books.of readers? ans: i)Printing reduced the cost of books. comment. and folktales narrated. ans: i) In the hundred years between 1450 and 1550. iii) People collectively heard a story.

Oral culture thus entered print and printed material was orally transmitted. How? ans: i)the rates of literacy in most European countries were very low till the twentieth century. "or" the hearing public and reading public became intermingled. This had significance in different spheres of life. 17) Why some people of Europe criticized the production and circulation of printed books? ans: i)Even those who disagreed with established authorities could now print and circulate their ideas. and such books would be profusely illustrated with pictures. iii)It was feared that if there was no control over what was printed and read then rebellious and irreligious thoughts might spread. ii)Through the printed message. the religious reformer Martin Luther wrote Ninety Five Theses criticizing many of the practices and rituals of the Roman Catholic Church. Comment. ii) A printed copy of this was posted on a church door in Wittenberg. ii)So printers began publishing popular ballads and folk tales. 18)who was martin Luther ? How did he use print technology to initiate religious debates? ans: i)In 1517. iii) Luther’s writings were immediately reproduced in vast numbers and read . It challenged the Church to debate his ideas. These were then sung and recited at gatherings in villages and in taverns in towns.16) what did publishers do so that illiterate people could also become book readers? "Or" oral culture thus entered print and printed materials was orally transmitted. they could persuade people to think differently. and move them to action. iv) If that happened the authority of ‘valuable ‘literature would be destroyed.

When the Roman Church began its inquisition to repress heretical ideas. and sold for a penny.widely. He reinterpreted the message of the Bible and formulated a view of God and Creation that enraged the Roman Catholic Church. began to read books that were available in his locality.’ ii) Convinced of the power of print in bringing enlightenment and destroying the basis of despotism. 20) write a note on the new form of literature in 18th and 19th century. Manocchio was hauled up twice and ultimately executed. and the more substantial ‘histories’ which were stories about the past. a miller in Italy. Voltaire and Jean Jacques Rousseau were also widely printed and read. iv) This lead to a division within the Church and to the beginning of the Protestant Reformation. v)The periodical press developed from the early eighteenth century. vi)Ancient and medieval scientific texts were compiled and published.000copies within a few weeks and a second edition appeared within three months. ans: i)There were almanacs or ritual calendars. iv) There were the romances. Minocchio. iii) In France. . ii)In England. v) Luther’s translation of the New Testament sold 5. so that even the poor could buy them. a novelist in eighteenth-century France. which were low-priced small books printed on poor quality paper. combining information about current affairs with entertainment. declared: ‘The printing press is the most powerful engine of progress and public opinion is the force that will sweep despotism away. 21)who was Louise Sebastian Mercier? ans: i)Louise-Sebastian Mercier. were the ‘Biliotheque Bleue’. and bounding cheap blue covers. vii)The writings of thinkers such as Thomas Paine. printed on four to six pages. along with ballads and folktales. penny chapbooks were carried by petty peddlers known as chapmen. and maps and scientific diagrams were widely printed. 19) give an example of assent against church? ans: In the sixteenth century.

All values. They interpreted things their own way.This press published new works as well as old fairy tales and folk tales. norms and institutions were re-evaluated and discussed by a public. ii) Penny magazines were especially meant for women. ii) If they read the ideas of Voltaire and Rousseau. 25)how did women help in the development of printed literature? ans: i)Women became important as readers as well as writers. superstition and despotism. Explain. they were also exposed to monarchical and Church propaganda. but it did open up the possibility of thinking differently. it raised questions about the existing social order. children became an important category of readers. ii) Second: print created a new culture of dialogue and debate. 24)How was children’s literature developed in Europe? ans: i)from the late nineteenth century. was set up in France in 1857. devoted to literature for children alone. their writings provided a critical commentary on tradition. iii)A children’s press. 23) Print did not lead to French revolution. ans: i)we must remember that people did not read just one kind of literature. iv) Print did not directly shape their minds. Cartoons and caricatures typically suggested that the monarchy remained absorbed only in sensual pleasures . as were manuals teaching proper behavior and housekeeping iii) Some of the best-known novelists were women: Jane Austen. the Bronte . iii) They accepted some ideas and rejected others. Collectively. ii) Production of school textbooks became critical for the publishing industry.22)how far is it true that print culture created conditions for thr french revolution? ans: i)First: print popularized the ideas of the Enlightenment thinkers. iii) There was an outpouring of literature that mocked the royalty and criticized their morality. In the process. iv) print recorded old tales but also changed them.

publishers feared a decline in book purchases. iii) They wrote political tracts and autobiographies in large numbers. ii)Pages were sometimes beautifully illustrated. 27)what technical changes took place in printing technology in19th -20th century? ans: i)Richard M. lending libraries in England became instruments for educating white-collar workers. called the Shilling Series. artisans and lower-middle-class people. A series of other developments followed. electrically operated presses accelerated printing operations. This press was particularly useful for printing newspapers. iii) The dust cover or the book jacket is also a twentieth-century innovation.000 sheets per hour. George Eliot. 26)how did workers contribute in the development of printed literature? ans: i)In the nineteenth century. determination and the power to think. 29)how did manuscripts become the basis of spread knowledge in India before the age of print? ans: i)Manuscripts were copied on palm leaves or on handmade paper. . the quality of plates became better. iv) With the onset of the Great Depression in the 1930s. strength of personality. ii) popular works were sold in cheap series. Their writings became important in defining a new type of woman: a person with will. which gave birth to a particular way of writing novels. This was capable of printing 8. ii) Sometimes. iv) Methods of feeding paper improved.sisters. Hoe of New York had perfected the power-driven cylindrical press. 28)how did publishers plan to sell their products? ans: i)Nineteenth-century periodicals serialized important novels. ii) the offset press was developed which could print up to six colors at a time. iii)the turn of the twentieth century. automatic paper reels and photoelectric controls of the color register were introduced. self-educated working-class people wrote for themselves.

30)what were the limitations of manuscripts? ans: i)Manuscripts. were highly expensive and fragile. iii) New ideas emerged through these clashes of opinions. ii) Printed tracts and newspapers not only spread the new ideas. 32) who began to print in English language in India? ans: i)From 1780. The first to appear was the weekly Bengal Gazette. i)Some criticized existing practices and campaigned for reform. iv) in 1713 the first Malayalam book was printed by them. ii) By 1674. iv)This was a time of intense controversies between social and religious . while others countered the arguments of reformers. however.iii)They would be either pressed between wooden covers or sewn together to ensure preservation. who was close to Rammohun Roy. ii) They had to be handled carefully.a weekly magazine. but they shaped the nature of the debate. and they could not be read easily as the script was written in different styles. 31) which languages were used for the first time when printing press was introduced in India? ans: i)The printing press first came to Goa with Portuguese missionaries in the mid-sixteenth century. James Augustus Hickey began to edit the Bengal Gazette . brought out by Gangadhar Bhattacharya. about 50 books had been printed in the Konkani and in Kanara languages. ii) There were Indians. too. iii) Catholic priests printed the first Tamil book in 1579 at Cochin. who began to publish Indian newspapers. 33 )how did printing press help in the reform of Hindu society in India? ans.

but it also connected communities and people in different parts of India. experiences. The novel. monotheism. published Persian and Urdu translations of holy scriptures. ii) They could also be read out to large groups of illiterate men and women. ideally catered to this . Brahmanical priesthood and idolatry. they wanted to see their own lives. published thousands upon thousands of fatwas telling Muslim readers how to conduct themselves in their everyday lives. and printed religious newspapers and tracts. emotions and relationships reflected in what they read. ii) The Deoband Seminary. creating pan-Indian identities. a literary firm which had developed in Europe. iii) Urdu print helped them conduct these battles in public. i)In their printed and portable form. 35) which Hindu press spread religious printed texts in India in the 19th century? What were its effects? ans: the Naval Kishore Press at Lucknow and the Shri Venkateshwar Press in Bombay published numerous religious texts in vernaculars.reformers and the Hindu orthodoxy over matters like widow immolation. 36)how did novel became popular in India? ans: As more and more people could now read. these could be read easily by the faithful at any place and time. and explaining the meanings of Islamic doctrines. 34) how did Muslims react to the introduction of printing press in India? ans: i)they used cheap lithographic presses. founded in 1867. effects: i)Print did not only stimulate the publication of conflicting opinions amongst communities. ii)Newspapers conveyed news from one place to another.

and were employed by print shops. It soon acquired distinctively Indian forms and styles. iii) Poor wood engravers who made woodblocks set up shop near the letterpresses. ii) Painters like Raja Ravi Varma produced images for mass circulation. commenting on social and political issues. short stories. and gave a vivid sense of the diversity of human lives. it opened up new worlds of experience. 37) What varieties of new literature forms were introduced in India? What did they emphasis? ans: Other new literary forms also entered the world of reading –lyrics. ii) Some caricatures ridiculed the educated Indians’ fascination with Western tastes and clothes. religion and politics. caricatures and cartoons were being published in journals and newspapers. they reinforced the new emphasis on human lives and intimate feelings. For readers. Indifferent ways. v)These prints began shaping popular ideas about modernity and tradition. 39) Write a note on cartoons and caricatures in Indian print media . 38)write a note on development of new visual culture in India? ans: i)visual images could be easily reproduced in multiple copies. about the political and social rules that shaped such things. ans: i)By the 1870s. essays about social and political matters. while others expressed the fear of social change. iv) Cheap prints and calendars.need. easily available in the bazaar. and society and culture. .

41) how did conservative Hindus and Muslims families react to women’s education? ans: Conservative Hindus believed that a literate girl would be widowed and Muslims feared that educated women would be corrupted by reading Urdu romances.iii) There were imperial caricatures lampooning nationalists. . 42)write a note on women writers in india in 19th century? ans: i)Rashsundari Debi. rebel women defied such prohibition. as well as nationalist cartoons criticizing imperial rule. and explained why women should be educated. iv)They also carried a syllabus and attached suitable reading matter which could be used for home-based schooling. Later. a young married girl in a very orthodox household. ii) Liberal husbands and fathers began educating their womenfolk at home. Sometimes. she wrote her autobiography Amar Jiban which was published in 1876. and sent them to schools when women’s schools were set up in the cities and towns iii)Many journals began carrying writings by women. learnt to read in the secrecy of her kitchen. It was the first full-length autobiography published in the Bengali language. 40)how did women's reading increased in India ? ans: i)Lives and feelings of women began to be written in particularly vivid and intense ways.

44)what is the significance of battala in publishing? ans: i)In Bengal. iii) In the1880s. iii) Peddlars took the Battala publications to homes. especially widows. kept in ignorance. iv) Many of these were in the form of dialogues about the qualities of a good woman. Tarabai Shinde and Pandita Ramabai wrote with passionate anger about the miserable lives of upper-caste Hindu women. forced to do hard domestic labour and treated unjustly by the very people they served. in present-day Maharashtra. . as well as literature that was considered obscene and scandalous.ii)Kailashbashini Debi wrote books highlighting the experiences of women – about how women were imprisoned at home. enabling women to read them in their leisure time. ii) Here you could buy cheap editions of religious tracts and scriptures. an entire area in central Calcutta – the Battala – was devoted to the printing of popular books. 43)what development took place in Punjab regarding women and print ? ans: i) folk literature was widely printed from the early twentieth century. ii) Ram Chaddha published the fast-selling Istri Dharam Vichar to teach women how to be obedient wives. iii)The Khalsa Tract Society published cheap booklets with a similar message.

the Maratha pioneer of ‘low caste’ protest movements. ii) In 1878. the Vernacular Press Act was passed. a Kanpur millworker. ans: i) Jyotiba Phule. wrote powerfully on caste and their writings were read by people all over India. ii)B. modeled on the Irish Press Laws. the newspaper was warned. wrote about the injustices of the caste system in his Gulamgiri (1871). iv) When a report was judged as seditious. were brought together and published in a collection called Sacchi Kavitayan. better known as Periyar. Ramaswamy Naickerin Madras. who wrote under the name of Sudarshan Chakr between 1935 and 1955.R. and if the warning was ignored. wrote and published Chhote Aur Bade Ka Sawal in 1938 to show the links between caste and class exploitation. the press was liable to be seized and the printing machinery confiscated. Ambedkar in Maharashtra and E. 46)what were the features of vernacular press act of 1878? ans: i)As vernacular newspapers became assertively nationalist. iv)The poems of another Kanpur millworker. iii)It provided the government with extensive rights to censor reports and editorials in the vernacular press.V. iii) Kashibaba.45)enlist the authors and their works who wrote about caste system during 19th _2Th century. the colonial government began debating measures of stringent control. 47) did the repressive measures on press prevent nationalists in India to spread the message of the colonial government and its repressive policies? .

provoking in turn widespread protests all over India. v) This led to his imprisonment in 1908. iii) Attempts to throttle nationalist criticism provoked militant protest. ii) They reported on colonial misrule and encouraged nationalist activities. nationalist newspapers grew in numbers in all parts of India. This in turn led to a renewed cycle of persecution and protests. . Balgangadhar Tilak wrote with great sympathy about them in his Kesari .ans: i)Despite repressive measures. iv) When Punjab revolutionaries were deported in 1907.