1
KL3202 Struktur Baja
Semester II 2013/2014
Rildova / Paramashanti
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Perancangan Elemen Tarik
Capaian belajar mahasiswa:
Memahami keruntuhan leleh dan
fraktur pada batang tarik dan mampu fraktur pada batang tarik dan mampu
merencanakan elemen tarik.
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Topics
Tension failure: yield and fracture.
Tensile strength. e s e st e gt .
Net and effective area.
Block shear failure.
Tension member design.
3
Typical Tension Members
Cables
Tension
chord in a
truss
Slide # 4
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Cross Section of Tension Member
In bridge, roof and floor trusses, bracing systems,
towers, and tie rods
Consist of angles, channels, tees, plates, W or S
shapes, or combinations
Round bar Flat bar Angle Double angle Starred angle
5
Double
channel
Channel
Latticed
channels
Wsection
(wideflange)
Ssection Builtup box
sections
Fig. 3.1 Crosssection of typical tension members
Concepts
Stress: The tensile stress in the crosssection can
be calculated as:
=
P
f
f  assumed to be uni for m over the enti r e cr osssecti on.
P  the magni tude of load
A  the crosssecti onal ar ea nor mal to the load
The st ess i a te sio e be is niform
= f
A
The stress in a tension member is uniform
throughout the crosssection except:
◦ near the point of application of load
◦ at the crosssection with holes for bolts or other
discontinuities, etc.
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For example, consider a 200 × 10 mm bar
connected to a gusset plate and loaded in
tension as shown in Fig. 3.2.
b
b
Gusset plate
7/8 in. diameter hole
Section bb
b
b
Gusset plate
7/8 in. diameter hole
b
b
Gusset plate
7/8 in. diameter hole
Section bb Section bb
7
a
a
8 x ½ in. bar
Section aa
a
a
8 x ½ in. bar
a
a
8 x ½ in. bar
Section aa Section aa
Fig. 3.2 Example of tension member
Area of bar at section a – a = 200 × 10 = 2000
mm
2.
Area of bar at section b – b = (200 – 2 × 20 )
× 10 = 1600 mm
2
Therefore, the reduced area of section b – b will
be subjected to higher stresses.
The unreduced area = gross area = A
g
The reduced area = net area = A The reduced area net area = A
n
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Steel StressStrain Behavior
S
t
r
e
s
s
,
f
F
y
F
u
E
S
t
r
e
s
s
,
f
F
y
F
u
S
t
r
e
s
s
,
f
F
y
F
u
E
Strain, c
c
y
c
u
c
y
c
u
Strain, c
c
y
c
u
c
y
c
u
c
y
c
u
c
y
c
u
Fig. 3.3 Stressstrain behavior of steel
9
FromFig. 3.3:
◦ E  the elastic modulus = 200 GPa.
◦ F
y
 the yield stress F
u
 the ultimate stress
◦ c
y
 is the yield strain c
u
 the ultimate strain
◦ Deformations are caused by the strain c. The deformation
will be small as long as the material is elastic (f < F
y
).
D f ti d t th t i ill b l ft th ◦ Deformations due to the strain c will be large after the
steel reaches its yield stress F
y
.
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Tension Strength
The strength or capacity of any structural element is
usually determined based on possible scenarios of
f il (li it t t ) failure (limit state).
The strength of a tension member is the lowest of the following
limit states:
T T
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Net
Area (A
n
)
Gross
Area (A
g
)
A) Yielding of the Gross Area (A
g
)
B) Fracture on the Net Area (A
n
)
Yield Strength
To prevent excessive deformation, the stress
on the gross section is less than the yield stress g y
F
y
.
Therefore, nominal yield strength:
y
g
F
A
P
f < =
12
y g n
F A P =
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Fracture Strength
To prevent fracture, the stress on the net
section must be less than the ultimate stress
F
P
F
u
Therefore, nominal fracture strength:
u
e
F
A
P
f < =
u e n
F A P =
where, A
e
is the effective net area = UA
n
,
which may be equal to the net area or
smaller. U = Area reduction factor
The topic of A
e
will be addressed later.
13
LRFD: the factored tensile load P
u
is compared to
the design strength.
LRFD & ASD for Tension Members
n t u
P P  s

t
= 0.9 for yielding

t
= 0.75 for fracture
ASD: the total service load P
a
is compared to the
allowable strength.
n
a
P
P
O
s
O
t
= 1.67 for yielding
O
t
= 2.00 for fracture
The smaller resistance factor for fracture (
t
= 0.75 as compared to 
t
= 0.90
for yielding) reflects the more serious nature & consequences of reaching the
fracture limit state.
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t
O
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Net Area, A
n
Net area is calculated by deducting the width of
the “bolts + some tolerance around the
bolt”
b
t
d
hole
d
bolt
tolerance d d
bolt hole
+ =
( )  t d n b A
hole holes n
÷ =
15
A hole is drilled (or punched) by 1/16 inch greater
then the normal diameter of the fastener (rivet or
bolt). Hole punching causes some damage to the p g g
edges of the hole to the amount of 1/32 inch from
each side.
Thus the normal hole diameter
1 1 1
diameter bolt + + +
inch
8
1
diameter bolt
32 32 16
diameter bolt
+ =
+ + + =
16
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What is the net area A
n
for the tension member
as shown in the figure?
Example 1. Net Area, A
n
S l ti
T T
A ( ) i
2
Standard Hole for a in. diambolt.
4
3
4
4
1
× Plate (inches)
Soluti on: A
g
= 4(0.25) = 1.0 in
2
.
Width to be deducted for hole in
A
n
= [W
g
– (width for hole)] (thickness of plate)
8
7
8
1
4
3
= + =
( )
2
in 78 . 0 25 . 0
8
7
4 =
(
¸
(
¸
÷ =
A ½ x 5 plate of A36 steel is used a tension member. It
is connected to a gusset plate with four5/8inch
di t b lt h i th fi A th t th
Example 2. LRFD & ASD for Tension Member
diameter bolts as shown in the figure. Assume that the
effective net area equals the actual net area.
a. What is the design strength for LRFD?
b. What is the allowable strength for ASD?
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(i) Calculation of nominal strength, P
n
For yielding of the gross section:
( )
2
5 . 2 2 / 1 5 in A
g
= =
For fracture of the net section:
( )( )
2
4
3
2
1
75 . 1 2 5 . 2 in holes x A A A
holes g n
= ÷ = ÷ =
( ) kips A F P
g y n
0 . 90 5 . 2 36 = = =
2
75 . 1 in A A
n e
= =
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( ) kips A F P
e u n
5 . 101 75 . 1 58 = = =
(ii) Calculation of design strength for LRFD
Design strength based on yielding:
( ) kips P
n t
0 . 81 0 . 90 90 . 0 = = 
Design strength based on fracture:
The design strength for LRFD is the smaller value:
( ) p
n t

( ) kips P
n t
1 . 76 5 . 101 75 . 0 = = 
The design strength for LRFD is the smaller value:
20
kips P
n t
1 . 76 = 
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(iii)Calculation of allowable strength for ASD
Allowable strength based on yielding:
kips
P
n
9 53
90
= =
Allowable strength based on fracture:
kips
t
9 . 53
67 . 1 O
kips
P
t
n
8 . 50
00 . 2
5 . 101
= =
O
The allowable strength for ASD is the smaller value
= 50.8 kips
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t
The connection has a significant influence on the
performance of a tension member. A connection
l t l k th b & f
Effective Net Area, A
e
almost always weakens the member & a measure of
its influence is called joint efficiency.
Joint efficiency is a function of:
• material ductility
• fastener spacing
• stress concentration at holes
• fabrication procedure
• shear lag.
All factors contribute to reducing the effectiveness
but shear lag is the most important.
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Shear lag occurs when the tension force is not
transferred simultaneously to all elements of the
crosssection. This will occur when some elements
of the crosssection are not connected of the crosssection are not connected.
For example, see the figure below, where only one
leg of an angle is bolted to the gusset plate.
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The connected element becomes overloaded &
the unconnected part is not fully stressed.
Lengthening the connection region will reduce this Lengthening the connection region will reduce this
effect.
Research indicates that shear lag can be accounted
for by using a reduced or effective net area A
e
Shear lag affects both bolted & welded
connections Therefore the effective net area connections. Therefore, the effective net area
concept applied to both types of connections.
• For bolted connection, the effective net area is A
e
= U A
n
• For welded connection, the effective net area is A
e
= U A
g
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Area Reduction Factor “U”
To account for this stress concentration in stress, an
area reduction factor “U” is used.
There are five categories in determining U:
1. A general category for any type of tension member except plates
and round HSS with l >1.3D
2. Plates
3. Round HSS with l >1.3D
4. Alternative values for single angles 4 g g
5. Alternative values for W, M, S, and HP shapes
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1. A general category for any type of tension
member except plates and round HSS with l >
1.3D:
The reduction factor U is given by:
the distance from the centroid of the connected area to the
plane of the connection
the length of the connection in the direction of the load
If the member has two symmetrically located planes of connection,
1 = ÷
x
U
x
x
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If the member has two symmetrically located planes of connection,
is measured from the centroid of the nearest one – half of the area.
x
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The distance L is defined as the length of the
connection in the direction of load.
• F b lt d ti L i d f th t f th b lt • For bolted connections, L is measured from the center of the bolt
at one end to the center of the bolt at the other end.
• For welded connections, it is measured from one end of the
connection to other.
• If there are weld segments of different length in the direction of
load, L is the length of the longest segment.
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2. Plates:
In general, U = 1.0 for plates (cross section has only
one element and it is connected).
Special cases:
a. Connected with longitudinal welds on each
side and no transverse weld.
0 . 1 2 = > U W L
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75 . 0 5 . 1
87 . 0 2 5 . 1
= s s
= s s
U W L W
U W L W
b. For any member connected by transverse welds
alone.
U = 1.0 and A
n
= area of the connected element of
h i the crosssection.
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3. Round HSS with l > 1.3D:
U = 1.0
4. Alternatives for Single Angles:
a For four or more fasteners in the direction of a. For four or more fasteners in the direction of
loading, U = 0.80.
b. For two or three fasteners in the direction of
loading, U = 0.60.
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5. Alternatives for W, M, S, HP, or Tees Cut from
These Shapes:
a. Connected through the flange with three or
more fasteners in the direction of loading, with
b
f
/ d > 2/3, U = 0.90.
b. Connected through the flange with three or
more fasteners in the direction of loading, with
b
f
/ d < 2/3, U = 0.85.
c. Connected through the web with four or more
fasteners in the direction of loading, U = 0.70. g, 7
For shapes such as angles, double angles, and WT,
the value of U should not be less than 0.60.
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35
Determine the net effective area A
e
for the tension
member shown in the figure.
Example 3. Effective Net Area, A
e
S l ti Soluti on:
holes g n
A A A ÷ =
( )
2
in 02 . 5 2
8
1
8
5
2
1
77 . 5 =
(
¸
(
¸
+ ÷ =
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Only one leg of the cross section is connected, so the
net are must be reduced.
in x 67 . 1 =
l
The length of the connection is:
in l 6 3 3 = + =
7217 . 0
6
67 . 1
1 1 =

.

\

÷ =


.

\

÷ =
l
x
U
( )
2
623 . 3 02 . 5 7217 . 0 in UA A
n e
= = =
The alternative value of U = 0.60 (this angle has three
bolts in the direction of the load).
( )
2
012 . 3 02 . 5 60 . 0 in UA A
n e
= = =
Either U value is acceptable. The first method is more
accurate. Specification permits the larger one to be
used.
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Staggered Fasteners
c
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For a bolted tension member, the connecting bolts can
be staggered for several reasons:
• To get more capacity by increasing the effective net area
• To achieve a smaller connection length g
• To fit the geometry of the tension connection itself.
For a tension member with staggered bolt holes (see
example figure above), the relationship f = P/A does not
apply & the stresses are a combination of tensile &
shearing stresses on the inclined portion bc.
N t ti f t l i Net section fracture can occur along any zigzag or
straight line. For ex., fracture can occur along the
inclined path abcd in the figure above. However, all
possibilities must be examined.
39
P
g
A A÷ B B ÷
S
Stresses on inclined planes are a mix of tension and
shear and thus a correction is needed.
¿ ¿
S
2
t W A =
¿ ¿
+ ÷ =
g
S
d W W
g n
4
All possible failure paths passes shall be examined. The
path that yields the smallest area governs.
t W A
n n
=
40
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Compute the smallest net area for the plane shown in
the following figure. The holes are for 1in diameter
b lt
Example 4. Staggered Fastener
bolts.
41
Solution.
The effective hole diameter is 1 + 1/8 = 9/8
1) Line abde :
( ) in w
n
75 . 13 125 . 1 2 16 = ÷ =
2) Line abcde :
( )
( )
( )
in w
n
52 . 13
5 4
3 2
125 . 1 3 16
2
= + ÷ =
The second condition will give the smallest net area
42
The second condition will give the smallest net area.
( )
2
1 . 10 52 . 13 75 . 0 in tw A
n n
= = =
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Angles:
When holes are staggered on two legs of an angle, the
gage length (g) for use In the (s
2
/4g) expression is
obtained by using length between the centers of the
holes measured along the centerline of the angle holes measured along the centerline of the angle
thickness, i.e., the distance AB in Fig: 3.4.3. Thus the
gage distance g is
t g g
t
g
t
g g
b a b a
÷ + = ÷ + ÷ =
2 2
Gage dimension for an angle
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Usual Gages f Angles (in):
Every rolled angle has a standard value for the location Every rolled angle has a standard value for the location
of holes (i.e. gage distance g
a
and g
b
), depending on the
length of the leg and the number of lines of holes.
Table shows usual gages for angles as listed in the
AISC Manual*.
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Staggered holes for other shapes:
45
Block Shear
For some connection configurations, the tension
member can fail due to ‘tearout’ of material at the
connected end This is called block shear connected end. This is called block shear.
For example, the single angle tension member
connected as shown in the figure below is susceptible
to the phenomenon of block shear.
For the case shown above, shear failure will occur
along the longitudinal section ab & tension failure a o g t e o g tud a sect o a b & te s o a u e
will occur along the transverse section bc.
AISC Specification on tension members does not
cover block shear failure explicitly. But, it directs the
engineer to the Specification on connections
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47
Block shear strength is determined as the sum of
the shear strength on a failure path & the tensile
t th di l t strength on a perpendicular segment.
◦ Block shear strength = net section fracture strength on
shear path + net section fracture strength of the tension
path
◦ OR
◦ Block shear strength = gross yielding strength of the shear
path + net section fracture strength of the tension path p g p
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R
n
= (0.6 F
u
A
nv
+ U
bs
F
u
A
nt
) ≤ (0.6 F
y
A
gv
+ U
bs
F
u
A
nt
)
 = 0.75, O = 2.00 (for ASD)
U
bs
= 1.0 for uni form tensi le str ess; = 0.5 for nonuni for m
tensi le str ess
A
gv
 gr oss ar ea subj ect to shear
A
gt
 gr oss ar ea subj ect to tensi on
A
nv
 net ar ea subj ect to shear
A
nt
 net ar ea subj ect to tensi on
F
u
 ulti mate str ength of steel
F
y
 yi eld str ength of steel
49
Compute the block shear strength of the tension
member shown in the following figure. The holes are
f /8 i di t b lt d A 6 t l i d U
Example 5. Block Shear
for 7/8indiameter bolts, and A36 steel is used. a. Use
LRFD, b. Use ASD.
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Solution.
The shear areas are:
( )
2
813 . 2 5 . 7
8
3
in A
gv
= = ( )
8
gv
and since there are 2.5 hole diameters:
The tension area is
2
875 . 1
8
1
8
7
5 . 2 5 . 7
8
3
in A
nv
=
(
¸
(
¸

.

\

+ ÷ =
51
The tension area is
2
375 . 0
8
1
8
7
5 . 0 5 . 1
8
3
in A
nv
=
(
¸
(
¸

.

\

+ ÷ =
Since the block shear will occur in an angle, U
bs
= 1.0.
nt u bs nv u n
A F U A F R + = 6 . 0
( )( ) ( )( ) ki 0 87 375 0 58 0 1 875 1 58 6 0
with an upper limit of:
The nominal block shear strength is therefore:
( )( ) ( )( ) kips 0 . 87 375 . 0 58 0 . 1 875 . 1 58 6 . 0 = + =
( )( ) ( )( ) kips A F U A F
nt u bs gv y
51 . 82 375 . 0 58 0 . 1 813 . 2 36 6 . 0 6 . 0 = + = +
52
82.51 kips
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a. The design strength for LRFD
( ) kips R
n
9 . 61 51 . 82 75 . 0 = = 
b. The allowable strength for ASD
kips
R
n
3 . 41
00 . 2
51 . 82
= =
O
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Design of Tension Members
LRFD:
The design of a tension member involves finding
c
The design of a tension member involves finding
the lightest steel section (angle, wideflange, or
channel section) with design strength (P
n
) greater
than or equal to the maximum factored design
tension load (P
u
) acting on it.
◦  P
n
≥ P
u
◦ P
u
is determined by structural analysis for factored load
combinations
◦ P
n
is the design strength based on the gross section
yielding, net section fracture & block shear rupture limit
states.
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To prevent yielding
u
g u g y
F
P
A or P A F
90 0
90 . 0 > >
y
F 90 . 0
To prevent fracture
u
u
e u e u
F
P
A or P A F
75 . 0
75 . 0 > >
55
ASD:
To prevent yielding
P P
y
a
g
t
a
g
F
P
A or
F
P
A
6 . 0
> >
To prevent fracture
a a
P
A or
P
A > >
56
u
e
t
e
F
A or
F
A
5 . 0
> >
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Slenderness Requirements
Although tension elements are not likely to buckle, it is
recommended to limit their slenderness ratio to 300
c
The slenderness limitation of tension members is not for
structural integrity as for compression members.
A
I
r
r
L
min
min
min
max
300
=
s = ì
structural integrity as for compression members.
The reason for the code limitation is to assure that the member
has enough stiffness to prevent lateral movement or vibration.
This limitation does not apply to tension rods and cables.
57
A tension member with a length of 5 feet 9 inches must
resist a service dead load of 18 kips and a service live
l d f ki S l t b ith t l
Example 6. Design of Tension Member
load of 52 kips. Select a member with a rectangular
crosssection. Use A36 steel and assume a connection
with one line of 7/8indiameter bolts.
Solution. LRFD
( ) ( ) kips L D P
u
8 . 104 52 6 . 1 18 2 . 1 6 . 1 2 . 1 = + = + =
58
( ) ( ) kips
u
8 . 0 5 6 . 8 . 6 . .
Required
( )
2
235 . 3
36 90 . 0
8 . 104
90 . 0
in
F
P
F
P
A
y
u
y t
u
g
= = = =

Required
( )
2
409 . 2
58 75 . 0
8 . 104
75 . 0
in
F
P
F
P
A
u
u
u t
u
e
= = = =

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Try a 1 x cross section
2
1
3
hole g n e
A A A A ÷ = =
( ) ( ) ( ) ok in in x
2 2
409 . 2 5 . 2 1
1 7
5 . 3 1 > =



+ ÷ =
( )
2
5 . 3 5 . 3 1 in A = =
Check the slenderness ratio
( )
4
3
min
2917 . 0
12
1 5 . 3
in I = =
( ) ( ) ( ) ok in in x 409 . 2 5 . 2 1
8 8
5 . 3 1 >

.
\
+
59
( )
) ( 300 239
2887 . 0
12 75 . 5
ok
r
L
< = =
in
A
I
r 2887 . 0
5 . 3
2917 . 0
min
min
= = =
Solution. ASD
kips L D P
a
70 52 18 = + = + =
For yielding, ( ) ksi F F
y t
6 . 21 36 6 . 0 6 . 0 = = =
Required
2
24 . 3
6 . 21
70
in
F
P
A
t
a
g
= = =
Required
y g, ( ) ksi
y t
6 . 36 6 . 0 6 . 0
For fracture,
( ) ksi F F
u t
0 . 29 58 5 . 0 5 . 0 = = =
2
414 . 2
70
in
P
A
a
= = = Required 414 . 2
0 . 29
in
F
A
t
e
The rest of the design procedure is the same as for LRFD.
The numerical results may be different.
60