# Introduction

Friction is defined as The resistance that one surface or object encounters when moving over anotheri. This can be related to fluids flowing in pipes as the surface of water interacts with the inner surface of the pipe. This friction causes the pressure in the pipe to decrease. As the pressure decreases so too does the velocity of the fluid along the walls, but the fluid in the centre of the pipe will be of a higher velocity. Within a system of pipes there are a wide range of fittings and other components that also contribute to the flow of water. This will be investigated using a Venturi meter, an orifice plate assembly, and a pitot tube. Within fluid we have two different types of flow, namely:  Turbulent  Laminar

The Darcy- Weisbach Formula

- Head Loss in Pipe - Factor of Friction - Pipe Length - Velocity of Fluid in Pipe - Inner Diameter of Pipe

(m) (m) (m/s) (m)

1|Page

6mm and 2.207m² on the right half section A piezometer.2075m² on the left half section and an area of 0. as well as the head loss ( ). A U-tube Manometer containing mercury( 13600kg/m³) A stop-watch. Method:  The left half of the tank’s valve was closed.43m length A pump A measuring tank: area of 0. consequently affecting the flow rate. This is done by conducting an investigation of turbulent flow of water through a galvanized steel pipe. Hypothesis It is probable that there will be a head loss across the pipe owing to friction. Apparatus Galvanized steel pipe with a 15. attached to the tank. in the pipe. 2|Page . This loss owing to friction will affect the velocity of water across the entire pipe.Aim The aim of the experiment is to investigate and determine the factor of friction ( ).

114 0.046 0.134 0.057 0.152 0. The flow of water was switched back to the left half of the tank until a slightly less level of water was filled in the tank than at the beginning.02 0.5 9.166 0.0707 0.0493 0.5 9.152 0.066 0.014 0.0398 0.134 0.5 Head loss.0443 0.041 0. Manom.013 0.0079 0.0553 0.6mm ) was opened to full and the readings were recorded on the left and right hand side of the U-tube mercury manometer.01 0.0214 0. Results and observations: Reading Manom. the readings on the left and right hand side of the mercury manometer were recorded.0632 Hm Tank Start Height 0 0.046 0.8 9.0649 0.     The valve connected to the galvanized steel pipe (15.0779 0. using the left hand scale of the measurements.8 15.0739 0.189 h Time 0. Left Right 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 0.0808 0.0482 0.9 11.0336 0. After 10 seconds.089 0.067 0.025 0.056 0. The valve of the galvanized steel pipe was closed slightly to reduce the flow rate subsequently.1 9.089 0.179 0. After 10 seconds.166 0.018 0.043 0.8 11. The pump was switched on and water filled the left half of the tank. The above steps were repeated 8 times.0044 0. the height of the water in the tank was recorded using the piezometer.114 0.0257 0.179 Tank Stop Height 0. the flow of water was switched to the right half of the tank and the height of water was recorded using the piezometer.0588 0. flow rate and velocity calculations: 3|Page .046 0.01 23.0117 0.

V= 2. . . .. First reading: Head loss: h= h= hf=0.01 Velocity: V= V= . .098 m/s2 Second reading: Head loss: 4|Page . Flow Rate: Q= Q= Q= 4.501m .

. Flow Rate: Q= Q= Q= 5. . V= 3. .324m .01m/s2 Third reading: Head loss: h= h= hf=0.76 Velocity: V= V= . Flow Rate: Q= 5|Page .423m .h= h= hf=0.

27m . .Q= Q= 5.66 Velocity: V= V= . .46 Velocity: V= V= . . V= 2. . V= 2. Flow Rate: Q= Q= Q= 5.96 m/s2 6|Page . .86 m/s2 Fourth reading: Head loss: h= h= hf=0. .

126m . .353 m/s2 Sixth reading: Head loss: h= h= hf=0. V= 1. . . Flow Rate: 7|Page .Fifth reading: Head loss: h= h= hf=0.585 Velocity: V= V= .147m . Flow Rate: Q= Q= Q= 2.

09954m .Q= Q= Q= 2. . .108 Velocity: V= V= . V= 1.503 m/s2 Seventh reading: Head loss: h= h= hf=0. V= 1. . . . .103 m/s2 8|Page .873 Velocity: V= V= . Flow Rate: Q= Q= Q= 2.

Eighth reading: Head loss: h= h= hf=0. . . Flow Rate: Q= Q= Q= 1 Velocity: V= V= .235 m/s2 Friction factor calculations: First reading: f= f= . . . 9|Page .05544m . . . . V= 5. .

. . . . . . . . . fifth reading: f= f= f= . . . . Fourth reading: f= f= f= . . . Third reading: f= f= f= . . . . . .f= . 10 | P a g e . . . . . . . Second reading: f= f= f= . . . .

.501 0. . hf 0. . . Seventh reading: f= f= f= .01 2. . Eight reading: f= f= f= .324 v 2. .098 3. . . . .86 11 | P a g e . .423 0. . . . . . .sixth reading: f= f= f= . . . .

269 0.098 3.278 0.3 0.023 12 | P a g e . Head Flow v 2.1 0.5 0.2 0.96 1.5 2 1.327 0.5 0 0 0.01 2.873 1.147 0.126 0.308 0.873 1.96 1.103 1 f 0.353 2.434 0.301 0.103 1 v 3.6 v Velocity Vs.86 2.4 0.0.09954 0.27 0.5 3 2.616 0.5 1 0.353 2.05544 2.

This is due to a decrease in the pressure head (h) within the U-Tube manometer. It is seen that the pressure head affects the pressure by the following formula P= .00 0. After each reading a reduction in flow rate was noted.00 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 f v Velocity Vs. 13 | P a g e .30 0.20 0.40 0.70 0. Friction Discussion It is apparent that friction occurs along the walls of the pipe from the calculations.10 0.90 0. where the head loss was calculated. showing a decrease in pressure in the galvanized pipe.50 0.1.60 0.80 0.

This experiment was not conducted in a closed environment. This needs to be done because different materials have different friction factors. Velocity decreased in the pipe due to the head loss because of friction in the pipe. velocity (V) graph shows that as the velocity in the pipe decreased due to the reduction of flow rate. and flow rate within channels or pipes. as the flow rate was reduced. pressure. Another factor is the size of the pipe. seeing that it was not a closed system. Human error in the form of inaccurate readings taken could have resulted in wrong substitution and ultimately. the greater the flow rate of the fluid flowing through. When designing systems.e. affecting the calculations. this shows that there are errors within our readings and calculations This experiment is imperative when designing piping systems as friction will affect the velocity. with regard to both maintenance and to run. certain external factors may have come into play i. which is generally a more expensive option. If the wrong material is selected. v The graph does not fully obey this. the friction factor increased after each reading was taken. Conclusion The hypothesis of this investigation was proved correct as head loss was noted during this experiment due to friction in the pipe. therefore the material with the lowest friction factor will need to be used. the greater the area of the pipe. materials of the pipe and the sizes need to be taken into consideration. The experiment can be improved by: Taking more readings Using digital measuring equipment Using clean and well serviced equipment The friction factor (f) Vs. it will require an increase in the power of the pump. 14 | P a g e .

F.Meyer (CFM Publications)1995.google.com/search?q=friction+definition&rls=co m. 15 | P a g e .microsoft:en-za:IE-SearchBox&ie=UTF-8&oe=UTF-8&sourceid=ie7&rlz=1I7ADFA_en Principles of Fluid Mechanics.References i http://www.C.