Sucrose

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Sucrose

IUPAC name[show] Other names[hide] Sugar; Saccharose; α-D-glucopyranosyl-(1→2)-β-Dfructofuranoside; β-D-fructofuranosyl-(2→1)-α-D-glucopyranoside; β(2S,3S,4S,5R)-fructofuranosyl-α-(1R,2R,3S,4S,5R)glucopyranoside; α-(1R,2R,3S,4S,5R)-glucopyranosyl-β(2S,3S,4S,5R)-fructofuranoside ((2R,3R,4S,5S,6R)-2-[(2S,3S,4S,5R)-3,4-dihydroxy-2,5bis(hydroxymethyl)oxapent-2-yl]oxy-6(hydroxymethyl)oxahexane-3,4,5-triol) Identifiers CAS number 57-50-1 PubChem 5988 ChemSpider 5768 UNII C151H8M554 EC-number 200-334-9

about 175 million metric tons of table sugar were produced world-wide. In 2013. odorless.[4] . crystalline powder with a sweet taste. The molecule is a disaccharide composed of the monosaccharides glucose and fructose with the molecular formula C12H22O11.76 Structure Monoclinic P21 Hazards ICSC 1507 not listed NFPA 704 1 0 0 Related compounds Lactose Related compounds Maltose (verify) (what is: / ?) Except where noted otherwise.30 g/mol white solid 1. The word "sucrose" was coined in 1857 by the English chemist William Miller[3] from the Latin sucrum = "sugar" and the chemical suffix -ose. decomposes at 186 °C 2000 g/L (25 °C) −3. The abbreviated term Suc is often used for sucrose in scientific literature. data are given for materials in their standard state (at 25 °C (77 °F).[2] A white.DrugBank ChEBI ChEMBL RTECS number Jmol-3D images DB02772 CHEBI:17992 CHEMBL253582 WN6500000 Image 1 SMILES [show] InChI [show] Molecular formula Molar mass Appearance Density Melting point Solubility in water log P Crystal structure Space group MSDS EU Index Properties[1] C12H22O11 342. it is best known for its role in food.587 g/cm3. 100 kPa) Infobox references Sucrose is the organic compound commonly known as table sugar and sometimes called saccharose. solid None.

The molecule exists as a single isomer.1 High-fructose corn syrup o 2.3.1 Structural O-α-D-glucopyranosyl-(1→2)-β-D-fructofuranoside o 1.3.4.1 Mill white  2.3 Hydrolysis o 1.2 Thermal and oxidative degradation o 1.1 Cane  2.5 Gout  3.1 Dissolved sugar content 3 Consumption o 3.4 Synthesis and biosynthesis of sucrose  1.3.3.2 Human health  3.6 Sucrose intolerance  3.7 UN dietary recommendation o 3.3 Diabetes mellitus  3. Structural O-α-D-glucopyranosyl-(1→2)-β-D-fructofuranoside .3.1 History of sucrose o 2.2 Glycemic index  3.3 Types  2.3.1 Cane versus beet  2.4.2.1 Metabolism of sucrose o 3.3.Contents        1 Physical and chemical properties o 1.3 Culinary sugars  2.2 Blanco directo  2.2 Current trends  2.3 Religious concerns 4 Trade and economics 5 References 6 Further reading 7 External links Physical and chemical properties Sucrose is a molecule with nine stereocenters and many sites that are reactive or can be reactive.3 White refined o 2.3.3.2.3.2.2 Beet  2.2.2.1 Tooth decay  3.2.2.2.2.4 Obesity  3.1 Chemical synthesis 2 Production o 2.4 Measurement  2.

47°. the glycosidic bond is formed between the reducing ends of both glucose and fructose. each of which having α and β isomers.73 60 2.59 55 2. and not between the reducing end of one and the nonreducing end of the other. Mixing sucrose with the oxidizer potassium nitrate[citation needed] produces the fuel known as rocket candy that is used to propel amateur rocket motors. temperature T (°C) S (g/mL) 50 2.87044 nm. it decomposes—at 186 °C (367 °F)—to form caramel.25 75 3. Glucose exists predominantly as two isomeric "pyranoses" (α and β). Fructose itself exists as a mixture of "furanoses".46 80 3. Sucrose does not deteriorate at ambient conditions.89 65 3. but only one particular isomer links to the glucosyl unit.69 85 3. What is notable about sucrose is that.77624 nm. This linkage inhibits further bonding to other saccharide units. Sucrose crystallizes in the monoclinic space group P21 with room-temperature lattice parameters a = 1.94 90 4.In sucrose. formed by the reaction of hydrochloric acid and potassium chlorate: 8 HClO3 + C12H22O11 → 11 H2O + 12 CO2 + 8 HCl .06 70 3. The specific rotation at 20 °C using yellow "sodium-D" light (589 nm) is +66. 48 KNO3 + 5 C12H22O11 → 24 K2CO3 + 24 N2 + 55 H2O + 36 CO2 Sucrose burns with chloric acid. Commercial samples of sugar are assayed using this parameter. it is classified as a non-reducing sugar.[5][6] The purity of sucrose is measured by polarimetry.08631 nm. the components glucose and fructose are linked via an ether bond between C1 on the glucosyl subunit and C2 on the fructosyl unit. Thermal and oxidative degradation Solubility of sucrose in water vs. c = 0. but only one of these forms links to the fructose. β = 102. Instead. through the rotation of plane-polarized light by a solution of sugar. Since it contains no anomeric hydroxyl groups. unlike most disaccharides. Like other carbohydrates. it combusts to carbon dioxide and water.20 Sucrose does not melt at high temperatures. The bond is called a glycosidic linkage. b = 0.938°.

while a European overseer watches in the lower right. carbon-rich solid. loading it on a boat for transport to the plant. Likewise. such as pineapple and apricot. Hydrolysis is. The lower image . both weak acids. such as grapes and pears. Sugar cane plantations (upper image) employed slave or indentured laborers. sucrose is the main sugar. fructose is the main sugar. so slow that solutions of sucrose can sit for years with negligible change. The picture shows workers harvesting cane. its chemical synthesis was first achieved in 1953 by Raymond Lemieux.[8] Production History of sucrose Table sugar production in the 19th century. In others. Chemical synthesis Model of sucrose molecule Although sucrose is invariably isolated from natural sources.[7] Hydrolysis can also be accelerated with acids. Synthesis and biosynthesis of sucrose The biosynthesis of sucrose proceeds via the precursors UDP-glucose and fructose 6-phosphate. gastric acidity converts sucrose to glucose and fructose during digestion.Sucrose can be dehydrated with sulfuric acid to form a black. however. catalyzed by the enzyme sucrose-6-phosphate synthase. Sucrose is formed by plants and cyanobacteria but not by other organisms. the reaction will proceed rapidly. If the enzyme sucrase is added. The energy for the reaction is gained by the cleavage of Uridine diphosphate (UDP). In many fruits. however. such as cream of tartar or lemon juice. Sucrose is found naturally in many food plants along with the monosaccharide fructose. Hydrolysis Hydrolysis breaks the glycosidic bond converting sucrose into glucose and fructose. as indicated in the following idealized equation: H2SO4(catalyst) + C12H22O11 → 12 C + 11 H2O + heat and H2O + SO3 as a result of heat.

" Sugarcane remained a limited crop for over a millennium. Venice. around AD 350. at the height of its financial power. On their return journey.shows a sugar plant with two furnace chimneys. and by the 19th century it had become a human necessity. inhumane work. The army of Alexander the Great was halted on the banks of river Indus by the refusal of his troops to go further east. where one of the earliest historical mention of sugar cane is included along with the fact that their knowledge of sugar cane was derived from India. Main article: History of sugar The production of table sugar has a long history. the demand for table sugar boomed in Europe. it remained a luxury in much of the world until the 18th century. In the local Indian language. sugar. Only royalty and the very wealthy could afford sugar. In the 18th century.[10] Further. and traders of sugar.[13] The use of sugar grew from use in tea. Sugar plants and plantations were harsh. was the chief sugar-distributing center of Europe.[12] Regardless of the particular century in which table sugar production was discovered. which is the source of the word candy. these crystals were called khanda (खण्ड). the Greek soldiers carried the "honey bearing reeds.[9] A sugarloaf was a traditional form for sugar from the 17th to 19th centuries. Some scholars claim Indians discovered how to crystallize sugar during the Gupta dynasty. . a rare commodity. The Spanish began cultivating sugarcane in the West Indies in 1506 (and in Cuba in 1523). to cakes. The Portuguese first cultivated sugarcane in Brazil in 1532. Only after the Crusades did it begin to rival honey as a sweetener in Europe. it appears that by about 500 BC. residents of present-day India began making sugar syrup and cooling it in large flat bowls to make raw table sugar crystals that were easier to store and transport.[11] Other scholars point to the ancient manuscripts of China.[10] Arabs started producing it in Sicily and Spain. dated to be from the 8th century BC. locally called sākhar (साखर). salt-like sweet powder. wealthy. pronounced as saccharum in Greek (ζάκχαρι). They saw people in the Indian subcontinent growing sugarcane and making granulated. Sugar nips were required to break off pieces.

and southeast Asia. in order to break off pieces. Natal. and producing table sugar in high temperature sugar mills was harsh. soon after.[16][17][18] Beginning in the late 18th century. Table sugar (sucrose) comes from plant sources. a large beet refinery producing around 1. first drove slave trade from Africa (in particular West Africa). The demand for cheaper table sugar drove. when France and the continent were cut off from Caribbean sugar. which required consumers to use a sugar nip. Pacific Islands. An expressway for transport is visible in the lower left. a pliers-like tool. The modern ethnic mix of many nations. such as solid cones. Growing sugar cane crop in hot humid climates. in which sugar can account for 12% to 20% of the plant's dry weight. colonization of tropical islands and nations where labor-intensive sugarcane plantations and table sugar manufacturing could thrive. The demand for cheap and docile labor for this work. the beet-sugar industry really took off during the Napoleonic Wars. Suppliers marketed sugar in novel forms. The boiler and furnace are in the center. The steam engine first powered a sugar mill in Jamaica in 1768. north and eastern parts of South America. and.) and sugar beets (Beta vulgaris).[20] Today. the production of sugar became increasingly mechanized. where table sugar crystals form. Indian Ocean.[9][14][15] Millions of slaves. about 20 percent of the world's sugar was produced from beets. inhumane work. However. During the same century. has been influenced by table sugar. In 2010.500 tonnes of sugar a day needs a permanent workforce of about 150 for 24-hour production. The tall diffusers are visible to the middle left where the harvest transforms into a sugar syrup. in part. Two important sugar crops predominate: sugarcane (Saccharum spp. settled in last two centuries. Minor commercial sugar crops include the date palm (Phoenix . Europeans began experimenting with sugar production from other crops. East Africa.confectionery and chocolates. followed by millions of indentured laborers were brought into the Caribbean. Andreas Marggraf identified sucrose in beet root[19] and his student Franz Achard built a sugar beet processing factory in Silesia (Poland). followed by indentured labor trade from South Asia (in particular India). Current trends A table sugar factory in England. in part. steam replaced direct firing as the source of process heat.

EU-27 is in second place at 18 million and China is third at above 16 million. China 14 million. In the northern hemisphere. with roughly 3% each. China. Sucrose is obtained by extraction of these crops with hot water. and Europe make up the remainder. South America comes in second place with 32% of global production.[4] Sugar production is a growth industry. while India produced 25 million. The United States. Asia predominates in cane sugar production. Thailand about 10 million. and other countries combining to account for 40% of global production in 2006.[21] Beet sugar comes from regions with cooler climates: northwest and eastern Europe. Part of this. from which solid sucrose can be crystallized. About 80 percent of sucrose is derived from sugarcane. Thailand. Harvesting and processing continues until March in some cases. the rest almost all from sugar beets. Brazil is the world's largest sugar exporter at 29 million tonnes in the year 2013. The availability of processing plant capacity and the weather both influence the duration of harvesting and processing – the industry can store harvested beets until processed. "quota" sugar.[4] . The country rankings for table sugar production change with each year's sugarcane crop harvest and as new sugar production plants are commissioned worldwide. grow only in cooler temperate regions and do not tolerate extreme heat. Brazil. Europe exports excess production quota (approximately 5 million tonnes in 2003).[21] Brazil produced about 40 million tonnes of table sugar in 2013. plus some areas in the United States (including California). and United States over 7 million. worldwide production of table sugar amounted to 175 million tonnes. China. because sugarcane does not tolerate frost. These subsidies and a high import tariff make it difficult for other countries to export to the EU states. the remainder (approximately half) sells as "C quota" sugar at market prices without subsidy. EU-27 countries 16 million. with large contributions from India.dactylifera). the Caribbean. Sugar beets. concentration of the extract gives syrups. northern Japan. or to compete with the Europeans on world markets. and a price. on the other hand. The United States sets high sugar prices to support its producers. In 2013. with the effect that many former purchasers of sugar have switched to corn syrup (beverage manufacturers) or moved out of the country (candy manufacturers). India consumes the most sugar at 26 million tonnes of table sugar in 2013. and United States were the major sugar-producing countries in the world. European Union. gets subsidised from industry levies. In 2010.[4] Most cane sugar comes from countries with warm climates. India. Africa and Central America each produce 8% and Australia 5%. Thailand. but a frost-damaged beet becomes effectively unprocessable. and the sugar maple (Acer saccharum). The Common Agricultural Policy of the EU sets maximum quotas for members' production to match supply and demand. the beet-growing season ends with the start of harvesting around September. sorghum (Sorghum vulgare).[4] The European Union (EU) has become the world's second-largest sugar exporter. Viewed by region.

industrial food production by HFCS and other non-sucrose natural sweeteners. The sucrose found in sugarcane produces ethanol when fermented and distilled. usually in the process of stirring. with exports forecast 4 percent higher at 59 million tons. High-fructose corn syrup (HFCS) is derived from corn. to produce sugar crystals. and subsidies for the production of maize (corn). while the scum rises to the surface for skimming off. The producers can then either sell the sugar product for use as is. The later processing may take place in another factory in another country. or process it further to produce lighter grades. In cooling.S.Low prices of sugar are expected to stimulate global consumption and trade. cane sugar producers have crushed the harvested vegetable material from sugarcane in order to collect and filter the juice.[22] This has led to sucrose being partially displaced in U. High-fructose corn syrup Main article: High-fructose corn syrup In the USA there are tariffs on the importation of sugar. and significantly cheaper there than sucrose as a sweetener. they can allow drink manufacturers to produce very low-cost goods.[23] . the liquid crystallizes. the country is a top producer of sugarcane products. Centrifuges usually remove the uncrystallized syrup. Used in combination with artificial sweeteners.[4] The low prices of glucose syrups produced from wheat and corn (maize) threaten the traditional sugar market. Brazil has implemented ethanol as an alternative fuel on a national scale. Sugarcane is a major component of Brazilian agriculture. Types Cane Main article: Sugarcane Harvested sugarcane from Venezuela ready for processing Since the 6th century BC. such as crystallized sugar and ethanol (ethanol fuel). They then treat the liquid (often with lime (calcium oxide)) to remove impurities and then neutralize it. Boiling the juice then allows the sediment to settle to the bottom for dredging out.

Beet Sugar beets Main article: Sugar beet Beet sugar producers slice the washed beets. While cane molasses is often used in food preparation. the manufacturer discards the remaining liquid. Tests are used to detect fraudulent abuse of European Union subsidies or to aid in the detection of adulterated fruit juice. One way is by isotope analysis of carbon. When economic constraints prevent the removal of more sugar. After filtration[clarification needed]. Cane versus beet It is difficult to tell the difference between fully refined sugar produced from beet and cane. . now known as molasses. evaporation concentrates the juice to a content of about 70% solids. resulting in a different ratio of 13C and 12C isotopes in the sucrose. A centrifuge removes the sugar crystals from the liquid. therefore some countries that traditionally produced cane sugar (such as Egypt) have built new beet sugar factories since about 2008. then extract the sugar with hot water in a "diffuser". and controlled crystallisation extracts the sugar. but the production of sugar cane needs approximately four times as much water as the production of sugar beet. Sugar cane tolerates hot climates better. The production of sugar leaves residues that differ substantially depending on the raw materials used and on the place of production. An alkaline solution ("milk of lime" and carbon dioxide from the lime kiln) then serves to precipitate impurities (see carbonatation). or sells it on to producers of animal feed. Cane uses C4 carbon fixation. Some sugar factories process both sugar cane and sugar beets and extend their processing period in that way. and beet uses C3 carbon fixation. Sieving the resultant white sugar produces different grades for selling. which gets recycled in the crystalliser stages.

is produced by precipitating many impurities out of cane juice using phosphoric acid and calcium hydroxide. crystal sugar. Once dried. after a few weeks. this product does not store or ship well. or superior sugar. or as animal feed. but less pure than white refined. is raw sugar whitened by bleaching through exposure to sulfur dioxide rather than removing colored impurities. either type of molasses can serve as fuel for burning. White refined White refined is the most common form of sugar in North America and Europe. a white sugar common in India and other south Asian countries. It is then further purified by filtration through a bed of activated . Refined sugar is made by dissolving and purifying raw sugar using phosphoric acid similar to the method used for blanco directo.humans find molasses from sugar beets unpalatable.[24] Culinary sugars Grainy raw sugar Mill white Mill white. Pure beet sugar is difficult to find. Blanco directo is more pure than mill white sugar. Although some brands label their product clearly as "pure cane sugar". Blanco directo Blanco directo. enabling beet sugar to be identified if the codes are known. The lot code can be used to identify the company and the plant from which the sugar came. and it consequently ends up mostly as industrial fermentation feedstock (for example in alcohol distilleries). The most common form of sugar in sugarcane-growing areas. or by various filtration strategies. a carbonatation process involving calcium hydroxide and carbon dioxide. also called plantation white. beet sugar is almost always labeled simply as sugar or pure sugar. Interviews with the 5 major beet sugar-producing companies revealed that many store brands or "private label" sugar products are pure beet sugar. in the marketplace. so labelled. its impurities tend to promote discoloration and clumping. similar to the carbonatation technique used in beet sugar refining.

familiar as table sugar. with a grain size about 0. it is sold as "superfine" sugar in the United States. confectioner's sugar (0. Granulated. such as sanding sugar (also called "pearl sugar". The manufacturer may add a small amount of anticaking agent to prevent clumping — either cornstarch (1% to 3%) or tri-calcium phosphate. "decorating sugar".    . Castor sugar can be prepared at home by grinding granulated sugar for a couple of minutes in a food processor. Caster (or castor[26]) (0. Beet sugar refineries produce refined white sugar directly without an intermediate raw stage[clarification needed]. White refined sugar is typically sold as granulated sugar.024 mm).[25] "Sugar cubes" are lumps for convenient consumption produced by mixing granulated sugar with sugar syrup. which has been dried to prevent clumping and comes in various crystal sizes for home and industrial use: Granulated sugar for table use  Coarse-grain.060 mm).5 mm across. or icing sugar (0. Commonly used in baking and mixed drinks. Its large reflective crystals will not dissolve when subjected to heat. 10X sugar. nibbed sugar or sugar nibs) is a coarse grain sugar used to add sparkle and flavor atop baked goods and candies.[25] a very fine sugar in Britain. Because of its fineness it dissolves more quickly than regular white sugar and is thus especially useful in meringues and cold liquids. so-named because the grains are small enough to fit through a castor. Powdered.carbon or bone char.35 mm). a form of sieve. produced by grinding sugar to a fine powder.

since sucrose in fact forms the majority of dried solids.[13] Eventually. because it will specifically measure dissolved sugar concentration instead of all dissolved solids. The Brix degrees are measured using an infrared sensor. although proper handling can reverse this. when sugar forms fine crystals with significant molasses content. one should report the result as "refractometric dried substance" (RDS). to put it another way. table sugar became sufficiently cheap and common enough to influence standard cuisine and flavored drinks. One might speak of a liquid as having 20 °Bx RDS. renders an accurate measurement of sucrose content. It became widely popular in 18th century. When using a refractometer. 25 grams of sucrose sugar and 75 grams of water exist in the 100 grams of solution. Measurement Dissolved sugar content Scientists and the sugar industry use degrees Brix (symbol °Bx). . This refers to a measure of percent by weight of total dried solids and. Brown sugar's color and taste becomes stronger with increasing molasses content. as does its moisture-retaining properties. This evolution of taste and demand for sugar as an essential food ingredient unleashed major economic and social changes. as units of measurement of the mass ratio of dissolved substance to water in a liquid. This measurement does not equate to Brix degrees from a density or refractive index measurement. Consumption Main article: History of sugar Refined sugar was a luxury before the 18th century. or from coating white refined sugar with a cane molasses syrup. introduced by Adolf Brix.Brown sugar crystals Brown comes from the late stages of sugar refining. Brown sugars also tend to harden if exposed to the atmosphere. then graduated to becoming a necessary food in the 19th century. The advent of in-line infrared Brix measurement sensors has made measuring the amount of dissolved sugar in products economical using a direct measurement. although not technically the same as Brix degrees determined through an infrared method. or. A 25 °Bx sucrose solution has 25 grams of sucrose per 100 grams of liquid.

which can contribute to an increased risk for chronic disease. and ice cream and sorbets." Metabolism of sucrose Granulated sucrose In humans and other mammals. has no association with hyperactivity. beneficial nutrients can be displaced from the diet. It is a common ingredient in many processed and so-called "junk foods. including sucrose. has an energy content of 3. Overconsumption of sucrose has been linked with adverse health effects.94 kilocalories per gram (or 17 kilojoules per gram). sucrose is digested by the enzyme invertase. but to the caffeine in chocolate. Sucrose is important to the structure of many foods. When large amounts of refined food that contain high percentages of sucrose are consumed. however.Sucrose forms a major element in confectionery and desserts.[28][29] The resulting glucose and fructose molecules are then rapidly absorbed into the bloodstream. cakes and pies. as a pure carbohydrate. such as persons with hypoglycemia or diabetes mellitus. glucose and fructose. Sucrose is an easily assimilated macronutrient that provides a quick source of calories.[30] In an experiment with rats that were fed a diet one-third of which was sucrose. Sucrose can contribute to the development of metabolic syndrome. Sucrose. In bacteria and some animals. which has no such effect. makes sucrose distinctively sweet in comparison to other carbohydrate foods. sucrose is broken down into its constituent monosaccharides. provoking a rapid rise in blood glucose upon ingestion. Dental caries or tooth decay may be caused by oral bacteria converting sugars. the observation that children become more "hyper" after eating candy is due not to sugar. from food into acids that attack tooth enamel. the sucrose first elevated blood levels of .[27] It can also act as a food preservative when used in sufficient concentrations. Sugar. which are located in the membrane of the microvilli lining the duodenum. candy. any more than does any calorie-rich food. Cooks use it for sweetening — its fructose component. The rapidity with which sucrose raises blood glucose can cause problems for people suffering from defective glucose metabolism. including biscuits and cookies. by sucrase or isomaltase glycoside hydrolases. which has almost double the sweetness of glucose.

fructose. The fructose is either bonded to cellulose and transported out the GI tract or processed by the liver into citrates. lactose.[37][38] All 6-carbon sugars and disaccharides based on 6-carbon sugars can be converted by dental plaque bacteria into acid that demineralizes teeth. WikiProject Health and fitness (or its Portal) may be able to help recruit an expert.[41] As with other sugars. and insulin resistance. but sucrose may be uniquely useful to Streptococcus mutans.[41][42] but has a relatively low glycemic index due to its content of fructose.[citation needed] .[citation needed] Tooth decay Tooth decay has become a prominent health hazard associated with the consumption of sugar. Studies have indicated potential links between consumption of free sugars including sucrose (particularly prevalent in processed foods) and health hazards. sucrose is digested into its components via the enzyme sucrase to glucose (blood sugar) and fructose.[40] Sucrose is digested rapidly. with which the bacteria glues itself to the tooth surface. hyperglycemia. and cooked starches[36]) into lactic acid. but also glucose. Such a special role of sucrose in the formation of tooth decay is much more significant in light of the almost universal use of sucrose as the most desirable sweetening agent. and. have not had access to the large quantities that characterize the modern diet. The dextran itself also acts as a reserve food supply for the bacteria. Oral bacteria such as Streptococcus mutans live in dental plaque and metabolize any sugars (not just sucrose. sucrose could enable Streptococcus mutans to adhere more strongly and resist attempts at removal.[34][35] It is also considered as a source of endogenous glycation processes. including obesity and tooth decay. Please add a reason or a talk parameter to this template to explain the issue with the article. but aside from wild honey.[33] Human health This article needs attention from an expert in Health and fitness. Thus. (April 2008) Human beings have long sought sugars. which has a minimal effect on blood glucose. which induced visceral fat and ultimately resulted in insulin resistance. The resultant lactic acid lowers the pH of the tooth's surface.[32] A 2004 study recommended that the consumption of sucrose-containing drinks should be limited due to the growing number of people with obesity and insulin resistance. Glycemic index Sucrose is a disaccharide made up of 50% glucose and 50% fructose and has a glycemic index of 65.[31] Another study found that rats fed sucrose-rich diets developed high triglycerides. lipid droplets (fat). stripping it of minerals in the process known as tooth decay. aldehydes.[39] Sucrose may be the sugar most efficiently converted to dextran.triglycerides. for the most part. The glucose component is transported into the blood (90%) and excess glucose is converted to temporary storage in the liver – named glycogen.

damaging many of the body's organs.1% 16.9% 16. .7% 2000 Female 51. the hormone that allows the metabolizing of sugar (Type 1 diabetes) 2.8% 15. that obesity may correlate better with sugar consumption than with fat consumption. The following table summarizes this study (based on the proportion of energy intake from different food sources for US Adults 20–74 years old. nerves. Authorities advise diabetics to avoid sugar-rich foods to prevent adverse reactions.9% 16. and soup. and/or heart. occurs when either: 1.3 mmol/l). overconsumption may cause an increase in blood sugar levels from a normal 90 mg/dL to up over 150 mg/dL. kidneys.6% 2000 Male 49. While expected in desserts.0% Added sugar is not always evident in food products. candies. frequent glucose build-up increases the acidity of the blood. in the long term.8% 15. and that reducing fat consumption while increasing sugar consumption actually increases the level of obesity. Hyattsville.5% 12. along with the United Nations report cited below. it is also added to a wide range of non-sweet items such as potato chips. Department of Health and Human Services.5% 27.[44] Obesity The National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey I and their follow-on studies as part of a series indicate that the population in the United States has increased its proportion of energy consumption from carbohydrates and decreased its proportion from total fat while obesity has increased. as carried out by the U. in the short term.1% 34. including the eyes.0% 32. This implies. When glucose builds up in the bloodstream.As the glycemic index measures the speed at which glucose is released into the bloodstream a refined sugar containing glucose is considered high-glycemic.S. the body's cells exhibit impaired responses to insulin (Type 2 diabetes). As with other sugars. Diabetes mellitus Diabetes mellitus.1% 1971 Female 45. a disease that causes the body to metabolize sugar poorly. and soft drinks. MD[45]): Year Sex Carbohydrate Fat Protein Obesity 1971 Male 42.6% 32. cells become starved for energy because they do not have access to the glucose 2.4% 36. National Center for Health Statistics. the body attacks the cells producing insulin.[43] (5 mmol/l to over 8.4% 36. it can cause two problems: 1. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. peanut butter.

it explains that this may be due to the underreporting of the consumption of added sugars.A 2002 study conducted by the U." is a measure of weight and height used to estimate body fat. it could not set a tolerable upper intake level." However.)[46] . (BMI.S. National Academy of Sciences concluded that. due to discrepancies in data from different studies. since "there is no clear and consistent association between increased intakes of added sugars and BMI. or "body mass index.