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The Internet Journal of Biological Anthropology Volume 4 Number 2 Original Article Munda Speaker are the !lde t "opulation in India C Winters #ey$ord haplotype, macrohaplogroup, munda, phylogenetic %itation C Winters. Munda Speakers are the Oldest Population in India. The Internet Journal of Biological Anthropology. 20 0 !olume " #um$er 2. Ab tract The %unda li&e in #orth India among &arying populations and linguistic groups. 'esearchers ha&e assumed that the %unda represented the earliest Indian population. This theory has $een recently disputed $y researchers (ho claim a ).*. Asian origin for the %unda spea+ers. The ).*. Asian origin hypothesis is not supported $y %unda mt,#A phylogeny, archaeology and linguistics. This e&idence suggest an ancient presence of %unda spea+ers in India $efore the ,ra&idian and Indo-Aryan spea+ing populations. Introduction The %unda li&e in #orth India among &arying populations and linguistic groups. 'esearchers ha&e assumed that the %unda represented the earliest Indian population. This theory has $een recently disputed $y researchers (ho claim a ).*. Asian origin for the %unda spea+ers. The ).*. Asian origin hypothesis is not supported $y %unda mt,#A phylogeny, archaeology and linguistics. This e&idence suggest an ancient presence of %unda spea+ers in India $efore the ,ra&idian and Indo-Aryan spea+ing populations. Munda Speaker The ./0O 1an-Asian )#1 Consortium has done much to $ring the genetic data for India in line (ith the archaeological, anthropological and linguistic data . The archeological e&idence indicated that the first settlers of India (ere pro$a$ly Austro-Asiatic 2%unda3 spea+ers , then ,ra&idian spea+ers and finally )outheast Asians spea+ers2-4. There are three $ranches of Austro-Asiatic 2AA35 %unda, %on-6hmer and #ico$arese. The %unda are classified into )outhern and #orthern $ranches situated in Central and *astern India. The 6hasi-Aslian spea+ers li&e in the %eghalaya state. Although Chau$ey et al argue for a )* Asian origin for the %unda spea+ers the linguistic and genetic data fails to support this conclusion ". The linguistic e&idence ma+es it clear that e&enthough %unda is placed in the AA )uperfamily it is recogni7ed as a separate $ranch8. The AA languages pro$a$ly originated in India8-9. The present linguistic e&idence suggest that AA spread from northeast India to %yanmar and Bangladesh. %oreo&er, as noted $y Blench linguist ha&e not $een a$le to reconstruct protoAustro-Asiatic:. 0i&en the lac+ of ana$undance of cognate terms (ithin AA (e can not truly descri$e the relationship $et(een the mem$ers of this language family as a genetic linguistic relationship.

The %unda languages are &ery old. )outh %unda dates to ;."+y <-2."+y. The age of Indian 6hasi-Aslian is 0.9<- .9+y, (hile %unda generally dates to 2."<.4+y;. The %unda share similar $iological $ac+grounds (ith other Indian spea+ers =. >et, the genetic e&idence also indicates that the %unda homeland, can not $e determined solely on the ancestral home of spea+ers of )outheast Asian languages, including 6hasi Aslian. This is supported $y the large genetic &ariance found among and (ithin %unda spea+ers 0. Chau$ey et al argues that $ecause the phylogeography of mt,#A ': and ychromosome mar+er %=8 specific to O2a is found among 6hasi-Aslian spea+ers, the %unda spea+ers pro$a$ly originated in )outheast Asia 2)*A3". But Chau$ey et al admit that there is a clear distinction $et(een the %unda and )outheast Asian 6hasi-Aslianspea+ing groups yet they place the origin of %unda spea+ers in )*A ". ?or e@ample, Chau$ey et al generally found that the 1C-s clustered the %unda (ith ,ra&idian spea+ers, rather than the 6hasi-Aslian spea+ers (ho are closer to )outheast Asian populations" The mt,#A of %unda spea+ers sho( a deep rooted ancestry in India. The %unda specific mt,#A haplogroups include %"0a, %"8, ': and '9a. The %unda spea+ers cluster predominately in ':. The spread of ': is centered (ithin the AA AheartlandB . Complete mt,#A seCuence $ased typology disco&ered the deep rooted ':al su$clade. The presence of ':a among Indo-*uropean and ,ra&idian spea+ers pro$a$ly is the result of their li&ing in close pro@imity to AA spea+ers is $et e@plained $y language shift gi&en the antiCuity of y-chromosome O2. ThangaraD et al using coalescence time and archaeological e&idence illustrated that the T'%CA for mt,#A '; (hich is found among %unda spea+ers ha&e the follo(ing dates 5 '; 2" .: +ya3, ';a 2 8." +ya3 and ';$ 22:.: +ya3 4. The dating for mt,#A '; indicates that this haplogroup and ': are pro$a$ly autochthonus to India. The mt,#A of %unda spea+ers also includes deep rooted haplogroups from macrohaplogroup %. In addition to mt,#A haplogroup %2, (e also find %8;, %4 , %9a2 and %"2 among %unda spea+ers. The %unda y-chromosome is O2a 2%=83. 6umar reports a coalescent rate of 98+ya for Indian %=84 There is a clear distinction of Indian %unda and )outheast Asian 2)*A3 %on-6hmer spea+ers. The predominate )*A O clades are O4 and O a. If )*A males had carried the y-chromosome O haplogroup to India there should $e e&idence of these clades among the %unda spea+ersE$ut they are nil;. On the otherhand, )*A males carry Indian y-chromosomes such as ?,., 62 2T3 and etc;. This indicates an early migration of %unda spea+ers to )*A. It suggest that %unda spread mt,#A ': and y-chromosome haplogroup O to )*A. %any Indians carry %unda haplogroups. The spread of %unda haplogroups are pro$a$ly the result of conCuest and intermarriage. The mythology of some Indian populations support this proposition. %unda mythology claims that (hen they arri&ed in the Chotanagpur 'egion the Asuras (ould not allo( %unda to stay in their territory =. And as a result, the %unda gods punish the Asuras $y ma+ing Asura (omen $ecome a part of the %unda tri$e, and the Asura males (ere $urnt to death in the Asura iron smelting furnaces =. This myth implies that the %unda too+ Asura territory after &iolent conflict.

A good e@ample of this e@change comes from the Chotanagpur region. .ere the %unda play an important role in the society, $ecause they granted land to migrants (ho settled the 'anchi district=. According to the Oraon traditions they had to gi&e up their gods and language to settle on %unda lands=. In conclusion , the molecular &ariance of the mt,#A of %unda spea+ers fails to support a )outheast Asianorigin for this population. The pro$a$le dating of ychromosome O2a at 98+ya: and mt,#A '; at " .: +ya 4 suggest a deep rooted ancestry for %unda spea+ers in India. The presence of %unda mt,#A ': among ,ra&idian and 6hasi Aslian groups is pro$a$ly the result of gene flo(. This &ie( is supported $y the fact that the ,ra&idian spea+ers only arri&ed in India 8+ya from Africa "- 8. This (ould e@plain (hy ,ra&idian tri$al populations and Africans share se&eral y-chromosomes 9. &eference . The ./0O 1an-Asian )#1 Consortium. 200=. %apping .uman 0enetic ,i&ersity in Asia. )cience , 42928=8=35 8" F 8"8. 2. Cordau@ ', )aha #, Bentley 0', Aunger ', )iraDuddin )%, et al. 2004. %itochondrial ,#A analysis re&eals di&erse histories of tri$al populations from India. *ur J .um 0enet 5 284F29". 4. 6umar !, 'eddy A#), Ba$u J1, et al. 200:. >-chromosome e&idence suggests a common paternal heritage of Austro-Asiatic populations. B%C *&olutionary Biology, :5":. ". Chau$ey 0G %etspalu %G >ing ChoiG %agi 'Get al. 220 03. 1opulation 0enetic )tructure in Indian Austroasiatic spea+ers5 The 'ole of Handscape Barriers and )e@specific Admi@ture .%olecular Biology and *&olution 20 0G doi5 0. 0=4Imol$e&ImsC2;;. http5IIm$e.o@fordDournals.orgIcontentIearlyI20 0I 0I29Imol$e&.msC2;;.full.pdfJ iD+eyKfC; #,B8=$.y+ImL+eytypeKref 8. ,iffloth,0. 2008. The contri$ution of linguistic paleontology and Austroasiatic. In Haurent )agart, 'oger Blench and Alicia )anche7, eds., The 1eopling of *ast Asia 5 1utting Together Archaeology, Hinguistics and 0enetics. 1p.::-;0. Hondon 5 'outledge Cur7on. 9. 1riyadarshi, 1. 20 0. 'ecent )tudies in Indian Archaeo-linguistics and Archaeogenetics ha&ing $earing on Indian 1rehistory, Joint Annual Conference of Indian Archaeology )ociety, Indian )ociety for 1rehistoric and Muaternary )tudies, Indian .istory and Culture )ociety, Huc+no(, 40 ,ecem$er, 20 0. :. Blench,'.200=. 'econciling reconstructions of su$sistence and archaeological dates for the transition to agriculture in ).*. Asia Hanguage 1hyla. ;. roger$lench.infoIArchaeologyN20dataI)*N20AsiaI)iemN20'eap N20200=IBlenchN20)iemN20'eapN20200=N20paper.pdf =. 1riyadarshi, 1. 20 . ,id Austro-Asiatic spea+ers originate in ChinaI)outheast Asia and then migrate to India (ith rice agriculture. 'etrie&ed 5 %arch :, 20 0 at 0. docstoc.comIdocsI:2::=8:=I'e&ie(-of-Chau$ey . 0hosh, A. 200=. 1rehistory of the Chotanagpur 'egion 1art "5 *thnoarchaeology, 'oc+ Art, Iron and the Asuras.Internet Journal of Biological Anthropology, &ol. 4, #o. . 2. Chandrase+ar A, 6umar ), )reenath J, )ar+ar B#, /rade B1, et al. 200= /pdating 1hylogeny of %itochondrial ,#A %acrohaplogroup % in India5 ,ispersal of %odern .uman in )outh Asian Corridor. 1Ho) O#* "2 035 e:"":.

doi5 0. 4: IDournal.pone. http5II(((.plosone.orgIarticleIinfo5doiI 0. 4: IDournal.pone.000: 4. Chau$ey, 0. 20 0$. The demographic history of India5 A perspecti&e $ased on genetic e&idence. ,issertationes Biologicae /ni&ersitatis Tartuensis. August = 20 0. Tartu /ni&ersity 1ress. ". Chau$ey 0, 6arnum %, %etspalu %, ,eepa )'. 200;. 1hylogeography of mt,#A haplogroup ': in the Indian 1eninsula. B%C *&olutionary Biology, ;522:.doi5 0. ;9I ": -2 ";-;.22: 8. $iomedcentral.comI ": -2 ";I;I22: 9. ThangaraD 6, #andan A, )harma !, )harma !6, *aas(ar+hanth %, et al. 200= ,eep 'ooting In-)itu *@pansion of mt,#A .aplogroup '; in )outh Asia. 1Ho) O#* "2;35 e98"8. doi5 0. 4: IDournal.pone. http5II(((.plosone.orgIarticleIcitationHist.actionGDsessionidK;02A =AA 2 ,B2:9; 0"9A:2982=*A??9.am$ra0 Jarticle/'IKinfoN4Adoi N2? 0. 4: N2?Dournal.pone.00098"8 :. Winters, C.200:. ,id the ,ra&idian )pea+ers Originate in AfricaJ Bio*ssays, 2:2835 "=:-"=;. ;. Winters, C. 200;. A'* ,'A!I,IA#) O? A?'ICA# O'I0I# =. +repu$lishers.comI02-JournalsIIJ.0IIJ.0-0;-0-000-000-200;-We$IIJ.0-0;"-4 :-49;-200;-A$st-1,?IIJ.0-0;-"-428-0;-492-Winder-CIIJ.0-0;-"-428-0;492-Winder-C-Tt.pdf 20. Winters, C. 220 03. >-Chromosome e&idence of an African origin of ,ra&idian Agriculture International Journal of 0enetics and %olecular Biology, 22435 040 F 044. http5II(((.academicDournals.orgIIJ0%BI1,?Ipdf20 0I%arIWinters.pdf