Animal Feed Science and Technology 137 (2007) 69–83

Effects of supplementing complexed zinc, manganese, copper and cobalt on lactation and reproductive performance of intensively grazed lactating dairy cattle on the South Island of New Zealand
L.M. Griffiths a , S.H. Loeffler b , M.T. Socha c,∗ , D.J. Tomlinson c , A.B. Johnson c
a

Riverside Veterinary Services Ltd., Riverside Industrial Park, 1 Smallbone Dr., Ashburton, New Zealand b Springs-Ellesmere Veterinary Services Ltd., 65 Station St., Leeston, New Zealand c Zinpro Corporation, 10400 Viking Dr., Suite 240, Eden Prairie, MN 55344, USA Received 5 May 2005; received in revised form 6 October 2006; accepted 17 October 2006

Abstract Five hundred and fifty-five healthy, pregnant, non-lactating Holstein–Friesian cows on an intensively grazed, commercial dairy were assigned to a study to determine effects of daily water treatment with Co glucoheptonate and amino acid complexes of Zn, Mn and Cu on lactational performance, fertility and claw hardness. Cows were randomly assigned to treatment based upon eartag number. At approximately 35 days prior to calving, cows began receiving either a diet containing no supplemental Zn, Mn, Cu and Co or a diet which provided daily 360 mg Zn, 200 mg Mn, 125 mg Cu and 12 mg Co from complexed sources (CTM). Cows continued to receive their respective treatments through 230 days postpartum. Treatments were delivered via a commercial concentrate, precalving and postcalving, by dispersing CTM (liquid) into water troughs. Cows were milked twice daily, milk weights were recorded and samples collected six times during lactation. All reproductive events
Abbreviations: ADF, acid detergent fiber expressed inclusive of residual ash; CTM, complexed trace minerals; CIDR, controlled internal drug releasing device; CP, crude protein; DM, dry matter; LIC, Livestock Improvement Corporation; SCC, somatic cell count ∗ Corresponding author. Tel.: +1 952 983 3840; fax: +1 952 983 4077. E-mail address: msocha@zinpro.com (M.T. Socha). 0377-8401/$ – see front matter © 2006 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved. doi:10.1016/j.anifeedsci.2006.10.006

6 kg/day). 2001).M. 1956. on a mg/kg DM basis. pasture contains insufficient levels of Cu and Zn to meet requirements of early lactation cows (Socha et al.58 kg/day) and milk solids (1. 1984.5 g/kg DM (NRC.10) to reduce incidence of non-pregnant cows (13 cases/100 cows versus 18 cases/100 cows) and mastitis cases (23. There was no effect of treatment on claw hardness. In many cases. Cu and Co intake of intensely grazed dairy cattle through CTM supplementation increased lactation performance. Cousins and Hempe.. Smart and Cymbaluk. 2001).3% when dietary Mo levels are 1 mg/kg DM and increasing dietary Mo concentrations from 1 to 10 mg/kg DM decreases Cu absorption by 48. formation of connective tissue and immune function (Miller et al. All rights reserved. 1988. seasonal spring calving may make it particularly difficult for cows to meet their Cu and Zn requirements. milk crude protein (0. Grazing dairy cattle. NRC.9 cases/100 cows).3 MJ/day).. Claws were examined on four separate occasions with liver and blood samples collected on three separate occasions during the study.05) controlled internal drug releasing usage (16 cases/100 cows versus 26 cases/100 cows) and tended (P≤0.05) as indicated by liver Cu and serum Vitamin B12 content. Cu and Co have important roles in protein synthesis. vitamin metabolism. 2001).31 kg/day). New Zealand dairy milk producers add Zn salts to the diet as a preventive therapy. milk energy (58. increasing the dietary S level from 2. 1981. Dewes.05) yield of milk (17. while Mo content of pasture tends to be highest (Socha et al. in areas where facial eczema is a problem in cattle. / Animal Feed Science and Technology 137 (2007) 69–83 were recorded. The supply of these trace minerals impacts several aspects of cattle performance and health. In addition to Zn and Cu deficiency.73 kg/day). Furthermore. For instance.0 to 4. Cousins and Hempe. milk fat (0. Andrews et al. Additionally.. There was no effect of treatment on milk composition or somatic cell content of milk. 1990). Griffiths et al.39 kg/day versus 1. © 2006 Elsevier B. Lactation. such as claw integrity. are highest in early lactation (NRC. 2001). Some mineral interactions in the digestive tract of ruminants have resulted in decreased intestinal absorption of dietary trace minerals.5 kg/day versus 16. Compared to the control. 1954). Increasing Zn. Mn.0 g/kg dry matter (DM) reduces Cu absorption by 54.3% when dietary S concentrations are 2. 1975.. . as Cu and Zn contents of pasture tend to be lowest in spring. increasing the risk of cows failing to attain adequate trace mineral status (NRC. some areas of New Zealand are deficient in Co and/or Se (Andrews. Supplementing CTM reduced (P≤0. Introduction Trace minerals such as Zn. Furthermore. 1988.. This added zinc has been shown to reduce release of Cu from the enterocyte to portal circulation (Towers et al. Keywords: Complexed trace minerals.V. resulting in reduced intestinal absorption of Cu (Goold and Smith. supplementing CTM increased (P≤0.. 2002).62 kg/day versus 0. lactation and immune function (Miller et al. 1990). Mn. Reproduction 1.. 1998). 1968. 2002). causing poor performance and diarrhea (Cunningham. Dewes et al. fertility and Cu and Vitamin B12 reserves. 1997.78 kg/day versus 0. fertility. 1994). 1990). Wichtel. Supplementing CTM increased Cu and Vitamin B12 status (P≤0. New Zealand pastures can contain up to 5 g S/kg DM and 20 mg Mo/kg DM (Grace.6 MJ/day versus 55.70 L.8 cases/100 cows versus 29. Cu and Zn requirements of cattle.

Approximately 35 days prior to calving.M. For instance. 200 mg Mn and 125 mg Cu as amino acid complexes. 1992... S and Mo. Kellogg et al. 1993) than inorganic sources of trace minerals. Paripatananont and Lovell. 555 non-lactating. Holstein–Friesian × Jersey cows (average parity 2. feeding cattle specific amino acid complexes of Zn reduced somatic cell counts (Kellogg et al.. Materials and methods 2. 2004) and improved claw integrity (Moore et al. 1993).. Merial. weighing approximately 450 kg at calving. such as Fe. MN. Kellogg et al. 2002. Paripatananont and Lovell. with even-numbered eartags assigned to the CTM treatment and odd-numbered eartags assigned to the control treatment.97) began receiving either the control treatment or daily feeding of 360 mg Zn. 1995).. Clinical responses to improved bioavailability and retention of zinc. / Animal Feed Science and Technology 137 (2007) 69–83 71 Specific amino acid complexes of trace minerals are more bioavailable (Wedekind et al.1. 1995) and are better retained by the body (Nockels et al. Availa® 4. were unaware as to whether they were observing or examining a treatment or control cow. claw scoring and reproductive exams were not aware of the methodology used to assign cows to treatment or control and. . Treatments/experimental design This study was completed from June 1998 to May 1999 on a commercial dairy farm on the South Island of New Zealand in accordance with applicable Codes of Ethical Conduct for animal research (New Zealand Animal Protection Regulations. The milking herd consisted of typical South Island Holstein–Friesian × Jersey cows. Cows continued to be fed their respective treatments through 230 days postpartum. Further improvements in milk production. Cows were randomly assigned to treatments based upon eartag number... milk production and reproductive performance. The objective of this study was to determine effects of supplementing these trace mineral complexes to intensively grazed dairy cattle in New Zealand on claw hardness. and 12 mg cobalt from Co glucoheptonate (CTM. 2003).9 ± 1.L. 2. manganese and copper amino acid complexes have been demonstrated in studies in the Northern Hemisphere. reproduction and claw integrity have been observed when Co glucoheptonate and specific amino acid complexes of Mn and Cu were added to diets of cows already containing specific amino acid complexes of Zn (Nocek et al. 1987). Mn and Cu to intensively grazed dairy cattle in New Zealand on lactation and reproductive performance. Those persons doing heat detection. therefore. Griffiths et al. increased milk production (Kellogg et al. USA). 1989). NZ) at dry off 60–120 days pre-calving. All cows received a 20 g bolus of CuO needles (Copacaps.. Eden Prairie. Mn and Cu replaced sulphate forms of these trace minerals (Ballantine et al... The magnitude of differences in bioavailability between complexed and inorganic sources of trace minerals are affected by level of antagonists (Wedekind et al. and stress (Nockels et al. 2004). 2003) or when Co glucoheptonate and amino acid complexes of Zn. there have been no controlled studies that examined effects of feeding Co glucoheptonate and amino acid complexes of Zn. To our knowledge. 1992. primiparous and multiparous. Zinpro Corporation.. 2000.

with the exception that the CTM concentrate contained CTM. as liver Cu levels of the control cows were dangerously low at 45 days post-partum. In addition to the above-mentioned treatments.M. 50 g/kg liquid molasses. 23 g/kg ryegrass offals. treatment groups were cycled through the paddocks such that Control and CTM cows grazed in the same paddock.72 L. Pasture samples were collected from representative paddocks monthly during August–November 1998 as well as January and March 1999. France) system for the duration of the study. Pasture samples were analysed for CP and ADF according to AOAC 984. Untreated water was sampled at the initiation of the study to determine its mineral content. Cows assigned to the control and CTM groups grazed separate paddocks. Dosatron International. predominantly Nui) and 150 g/kg white clover (Trifolium repens) species. Cows were fed 0. both treatment and control cows received 2. NZ) in the water supply via a Dosatron (D11. In the post calving period.5 kg/day of the commercial concentrate received 75 mg monensin per day. The remainder of the diet consisted of fresh pasture. Cows consuming 0. ANCARE. five sub samples were collected per sampling in a “W” pattern across the paddock. Composition of the concentrate fed to the two groups of animals was similar. which was a mixture of approximately 850 g/kg perennial ryegrasses (Lolium perenne. Mn and Cu in CTM are bound to an amino acid in a ratio of one atom of metal bound to a single unspecified amino acid. 60 g/kg field peas. Bordeaux.5 kg/day of a commercial concentrate (composition on an asfed basis: 410 g/kg barley grain. Auckland. Cows received approximately 1 kg of DM/cow/day in the form of good quality maize silage in the first 2 and last 2 months of lactation. liquid CTM was added to the drinking water of CTM cows via a Peta Dispenser (Peta Enterprises. filled with the cows’ daily allotment of CTM. Treatment groups were assigned to paddocks located similar distances from the milking facilities at all times. To insure samples were representative of the herbage in the paddock. Control cows received no other additional trace mineral supplementation. Flow of CTM from the dispenser was adjusted so that the daily allotment was dispensed in 7–8 h. 410 g/kg wheat grain. IN. 30 g/day Mg in the form of MgCl2 and 5 mL/day bloat oil (Blocare 4511. cows were divided into two groups and intensively grazed on separate paddocks. Post calving. 20 g/kg soybean meal. 1990). The Co in CTM is bound to glucoheptonate in a ratio of one atom of Co bound to two molecules of glucoheptonate.18 (AOAC. In addition. was placed in the water trough prior to the afternoon milking. The dispenser. Lastly. Neutral detergent fiber content of feedstuffs was determined . animal welfare considerations necessitated an injection of calcium Cu glycinate (120 mg) 2 weeks prior to mating for all control and treatment cows. Greenfield. cows remained in the groups to which they had been assigned prior to calving. but at different time periods during the grazing season. / Animal Feed Science and Technology 137 (2007) 69–83 The Zn. Prior to calving. inclusive of residual ash (ADF) on a DM basis. Pasture samples were cut pre-grazing at the expected grazing height. USA) containing 136 g/kg crude protein (CP) and 37 g/kg acid detergent fiber.5 mg/day Se in the form of Na2 SeO3 .13 and AOAC 973. Griffiths et al. in the paddock that cows were entering after the afternoon milking. NZ). 27 g/kg minerals and monensin sodium (Rumensin. Cows had access to their respective paddock for 24 h before rotating to a new paddock. Silage was fed on the paddock that cows were entering for the first time. Hamilton. Elanco Animal Health.

15 and 225 days postpartum using a Type D. K.M.1855 (NRC. NZ). Ltd. Blanchar et al. Scientific Equipment. Griffiths et al. Scientific Equipment.192)) × kg milk produced × 4. Zn and Cu content of pasture and water samples were determined using inductively coupled plasma optical emission (G.B. Sulfur content of pasture samples was determined using inductively coupled plasma optical emission (G. and somatic cell counts (SCC). The true breeding date was calculated from pregnancy testing and this information was entered into a farm management program (DairyWin. NZ) using a CombiFoss 6000 (FOSS.L. Victoria. Measurements were obtained by pressing the durometer against the claw wall approximately . 0. Australia) according to procedures outlined by Christian and Feldman (1970) and Anderson (1996). All cows were tail-painted and monitored daily for estrus. Seven days prior to the herd’s planned start of mating. Australia) according to procedures outlined by Garrido (1964). 2000 model durometer (Rex Gauge Company. Herd tests were conducted every 6–8 weeks beginning in October. / Animal Feed Science and Technology 137 (2007) 69–83 73 according to the procedure outlined by Van Soest et al.547 × g/kg milk crude protein) + (0. Buffalo Grove. Hamilton. IL.929 × g/kg milk fat) + (0.C. Neutral detergent fiber content of pasture was determined without heat stable ␣-amylase and included residual ash. Milk energy production was calculated using the equation ((0. 2. Cows were inseminated artificially during the first 6 weeks of the mating period.B. progesterone intravaginal implant. Claw evaluation Twenty-six cows (13 control. Cows with no palpable ovarian structures. and were artificially inseminated on expressed estrus signs. Both treatment and control cows were examined for pregnancy by manual rectal palpation 45–120 days following the last observed breeding. For mineral analysis. 2001). received a controlled internal drug releasing device (CIDR. Fe. using sodium sulfite in the neutral detergent. Australia). 2. Patterson and Pappenhagen (1978).C. Hamilton. Victoria. Scientific Equipment. Eden Prairie.2. Mn. USA). (1991). Livestock Improvement Corporation (LIC). 13 CTM) were randomly selected for determination of claw hardness. by the National Milk Analysis Laboratory (Hamilton. Cobalt content of the water sample and Co and Mo content of pasture samples were determined using inductively coupled plasma mass spectroscopy (G. NZ) for a period of 6 days. fat and crude protein content.3. Pty.B. each cow was injected intramuscularly with 1 mg estradiol benzoate. and then bulls were added to the herd at a rate of one bull per 50 cows for 8 weeks. USA). One day after removal of the CIDR. (1965). 45. Mg. All reproductive events were recorded.. Lactational and reproductive measurements Cows were milked twice daily. MN. Claw hardness was determined at –60. or with follicles <2 cm in diameter.C.200 g of dried and ground pasture samples were digested at 205 ◦ C in a 2:1 (v/v) mixture of concentrated nitric acid and perchloric acid. LIC. Victoria. Calcium. an experienced veterinarian manually palpated cows that had not had a visible estrous. Milk was analysed for solids. and individual milk weights recorded and samples collected at herd tests six times throughout lactation. Tabatabini and Bremner (1970) and Anderson (1996).

. Liver and blood sampling Blood samples and liver biopsies were collected from the same cows that were measured for claw hardness. CA. Liver samples were digested in a 2:1 (v/v) mixture of concentrated nitric acid and perchloric acid at 205 ◦ C. Zinc. Tubes were centrifuged at 2500 × g at room temperature (18–24 ◦ C) and the serum stored at 4 ◦ C until further analysis within 3 days. NZ) by courier. 2 ).74 L. 45 and 165 days postpartum. Griffiths et al. µ = overall mean. Tubes were immediately transported to the laboratory (Alpha Scientific. Liver. 1997) according to the model: Yij = µ + covj + Ti + cj + Eij where Yij = dependent variable.C. σe Categorical data such as mastitis cases per 100 cows and CIDR usage per 100 cows were analysed using PROC GENMOD of SAS (SAS.5. blood and claw data were analysed at each postpartum time point using fit model procedure of JMP (SAS. Significant treatment effects were accepted at P≤0. Ti = fixed effect of the ith treatment. Vitamin B12 content of serum was determined using a chemiluminesence immunoassay (Immulite. Ti = fixed effect of 2 ). µ = overall mean..M. and Eij = random residual ∼N (0. cj = random effect of the jth cow. 1995). Hamilton. 1997) according to the model: Yij = µ + Ti + cj + Eij where Yij = dependent variable. 1997) with cows as the experimental unit and treatment as the only effect in the model. Mn. Diagnostic Products Corporation. three measurements were made. Los Angeles. NZ) by courier. For each cow. Victoria.05 and trends to treatment effects if P>0. Blood samples were collected in sterile vacuum tubes with no anticoagulant (National Veterinary Supplies.05 and ≤0. Statistical analysis Milk production and milk composition were averaged across cow and analysed using fit model procedure of JMP (SAS. Scientific Equipment. Hamilton. Australia) according to procedures outlined by Christian and Feldman (1970) and Anderson (1996). 2.4. σe Data collected 60 days prior to calving was used as the covariate in analysis of postpartum liver. the ith treatment. at each time point. Liver biopsies occurred between the 10th or 11th right intercostals space by standard procedures (Arthington et al. NZ) by venipuncture of a vein in the ventral surface of the tail. cj = random effect of the jth cow. and the average value was recorded for that time point. and Cu content of samples were determined using inductively coupled plasma optical emission (G.10. USA). and Eijk = random residual ∼N (0. Christchurch. blood and claw data. / Animal Feed Science and Technology 137 (2007) 69–83 1 cm below the periople. Samples were placed in sterile tubes and transported to the laboratory (Alpha Scientific. Blood and liver samples were collected at –60. 2.B. covj = linear regression coefficient for the dependent variable 60 days prior to expected parturition for the jth cow. where they were stored at 4 ◦ C until analysed within 3 days.

11 0.5 58. Results 3.. lactating dairy cows Treatment Control Milk production (kg/day) Milk energy output (MJ/day) (kg/day) Fat yield (kg/day) Crude protein yield (kg/day) Solids yield (kg/day) Fat (g/kg) Crude protein (g/kg) Solids (g/kg) Mastitis (cases/100 cows) Somatic cell count (×103 mL−1 ) a b S.31 0.3 23. 3.08 0.a CTM 17.29 77. 0.3 0.7 2.23 2.83 ± ± ± ± ± ± ± ± ± ± ± ± ± 19.5 P 16.02 0. Pasture and water quality Overall quality of pasture was very good (Table 1) and typical for late spring and early summer pastures found in New Zealand (Holmes et al.102 1.31 44. Mn.1 79.M.93 0.01 Cu and <0.E.2 Mg. 3.5 11. Griffiths et al. 2002).4 3. Included residual ash. Categorical data.05 Fe.02 Mn.8 110 0. .3 2.62 1.73 0.31 0.5 80. Table 2 Effect of complexed Zn. water contained (mg/kg) 12.1.78 0.58 1.01 Mo. <0.01 0.83 4.5 3.9 126 0.4 29.01 0.3.0 0.9 35.50 0.1 0.023 0.36 0.04 0.22 Standard error of the mean from the model.0 Ca.68 0. 1.9 37. Pasture contained low levels of Mo.7 9. Cu and Co (CTM) on yield of milk and milk components. 0. As consumed.39 44.L.6 55.656 Included residual ash.93 –b 9.8 111 28 59 7 0.37 0.67 0.6 0. milk composition and cases of mastitis of intensively grazed. moderate levels of Fe and relatively high levels of S. / Animal Feed Science and Technology 137 (2007) 69–83 Table 1 Mean (±standard deviation) chemical composition (DM basis) of pasture Pasture (n = 6) Crude protein (g/kg) Acid detergent fiber (g/kg)a Neutral detergent fiber (g/kg)b Ca (g/kg) K (g/kg) Mg (g/kg) S (g/kg) Fe (mg/kg) Zn (mg/kg) Mn (mg/kg) Cu (mg/kg) Co (mg/kg) Mo (mg/kg) a b 75 242 259 494 5.010 0. <0.01 0. Water pH was 6.03 Zn.014 0.2 63.4 35. assayed using sodium sulfite and without heat stable ␣-amylase.0 K.

05) a 6. crude protein and solids content of milk produced by CTM supplemented cows were numerically (P≥0.10) higher than that produced by the control cows.05) CIDR usage by 38.2. Milk composition was not affected by treatment. . Cows failing to conceive following 6 weeks of artificial insemination and 8 weeks bull breeding.5% (Table 3).10) to reduce the portion of cows not pregnant and reduced (P≤0.76 L. There was no treatment effect on 21 and 28 days submission rates. although fat. There was no effect of treatment on SCC. Lactation responses Supplementing cows with CTM resulted in (P≤0. Reproductive responses Due to random allocation of animals.10 0. Average claw hardness seemed to vary within a narrower range for CTM cows. respectively (Table 2). lactating dairy cows Treatment Control Submission rate (cases/100 cows) 21 days 28 days First service conception ratea (cases/100 cows) Cows not pregnantb (cases/100 cows) Eight-week non-return rate (cases/100 cows) CIDR usagec (cases/100 cows) Cows failing to conceive within 48 days after initiating mating (cases/100 cows) a b c P CTM 69 72 75 13 73 16 34 0. there was no difference in average days from calving to start of mating between the treatment and control groups that could have confounded a treatment effect.5% improvement in crude protein yield and 5.19 0. Griffiths et al. although cows supplemented with CTM had a numerical reduction in SCC compared to the control cows (110. cows that did not exhibit estrus within 42 days of insemination. 3. Controlled internal drug releasing (progesterone vaginal implant given to non-cycling cows).10) for cows supplemented with CTM. 8-week non-return rates or cows failing to conceive 48 days after the planned start of mating (Table 3).4. Table 3 Effect of complexed Zn. first service non-return rates (42 days).23 66 71 70 18 67 26 39 Following first insemination. Mn.12 <0.3.M. Supplementing cows with CTM also resulted in (P≤0.83 0. 3.05) 6. / Animal Feed Science and Technology 137 (2007) 69–83 3.10) on claw hardness (Table 4) or incidence of claw disorders.000 cells/mL). There was a trend for a reduction in mastitis cases (P≤0.6% increase in production of milk and milk energy. Cu and Co (CTM) on reproductive performance of intensively grazed.8% improvement in production of milk solids (Table 2). Supplementing cows with CTM tended (P≤0. 6. Claw measurements There was no effect of treatment (P>0.000 cells/mL versus 126.4% improvement in fat yield.45 0.3% and 5.01 0.

8 0. Discussion 4. / Animal Feed Science and Technology 137 (2007) 69–83 77 Table 4 Effect of complexed Zn.M. the primary objective of the study was to examine the effect of CTM supplementation on reproduction and the categorical nature of most reproductive parameters.79 S. 4. results of this study should be interpreted with caution due to the potential of a paddock affect.32 <0.E.20 0.01 <0.a P 36 39 5.24 0.4 19.L.9 0.3 181 673 334 379 2. lactating dairy cows Treatment Control Claw hardness (durometer units) 45 days postpartum 165 days postpartum 225 days postpartum Liver concentration.8 6. .01 Twenty-six cows (13 per treatment) were selected for claw evaluations and liver biopsies.7 3.1 51.1. serum Vitamin B12 concentrations and mineral liver concentrations of intensively grazed.05) liver Cu concentrations and serum Vitamin B12 concentrations at 45 and 165 days postpartum (Table 4). requires a large number of animals in order to increase the potential of detecting treatment effects. a Standard error of the mean from the model. fresh weight Zinc (mg/kg) 45 days postpartum 165 days postpartum Manganese (mg/kg) 45 days postpartum 165 days postpartum Copper (␮mol/kg) 45 days postpartum 165 days postpartum Serum Vitamin B12 (pmol/L) 45 days postpartum 165 days postpartum 58 37 58 CTM 56 43 56 4. Griffiths et al.75 0. Cu and Co (CTM) on claw hardness.4 0.01 23.19 0. Liver mineral and Vitamin B12 concentrations There was no effect of treatment on liver Zn and Mn concentration.7 4.01 <0. However. While this limitation is understood. Mn.01 <0. Study limitations Due to treatments being applied to groups of cattle grazing separate paddocks. 3.3 4.3 24.16 0. although cows supplemented with CTM had higher (P≤0.3 88 275 246 247 41 52 5.5. groups were allocated to paddocks located a similar distance from the milking facility and both groups of cows were rotated through the same paddocks.29 0.2 3. to minimize the potential for a paddock affect. but at different time periods.

3.7%. Pasture and water quality Pasture comprised more than 90% of the diet during the times when cows were supplemented with 1 kg/day corn silage (DM basis) and 100% of the diet when cows were not fed corn silage. Furthermore.23 mg Co/kg of DM when corn silage was not fed. or in addition to levels of Zn. 59 mg Mn/kg. Kellogg et al. Assuming that the corn silage contained similar amounts of Zn. −0. 15–31 mg Cu/kg DM) and 1. on a DM basis.0%. Mn and Cu in place of inorganic sources of these trace minerals.. 10 to 13 mg Cu/kg. 83 mg Mn/kg DM (range. thereby indicating cows were consuming insufficient amounts of Zn and Cu to meet their Zn and Cu requirements. Mn. and Cu to the corn silage (normal) listed in the NRC (2001. in response to CTM supplementation. the potential response may have been suppressed as. 7 mg Cu/kg. resulted in an average increase in milk yield of 3. It is unclear what mechanism is involved in the improved fertility.2–2. 0.2 mg Co/kg DM). Previous research (Loeffler et al. Mn and Cu replaced sulphate forms of these trace minerals.5% to 4. Analysis of water. The number of cows assigned to this study was too small to examine the interaction of mastitis and fertility.2.6%. Zn. diets would have contained 28 mg Zn/kg. 57 mg Mn/kg and 7 mg Cu/kg of DM when corn silage was fed and 28 mg Zn/kg. and Co content of the control and treatment diets were similar...3% to 5.9% and 3. but that treated cows had fewer CIDRs used suggests earlier initiation of cyclicity and/or improved estrus expression. 24 mg Zn/kg. 2002). and 0.4. prior to the addition of CTM.M.2 mg Co/kg DM (range. 4. 36 mg Mn/kg. feeding Co glucoheptonate and specific amino acid complexes of Zn.0% (range. The larger response to CTM in our study may be partially attributed to the low Zn and Cu content of diets consumed by the cows. and 0.2% (range. 6 mg Cu/kg. 1999) has shown up to a 50% decrease in conception rates for mastitic cows during the first 21 days following breeding. In eight studies. showed that cows would have received minimal amounts of minerals from water. in five of the nine studies. respectively. NRC (2001) requirements for early and mid lactation cows producing similar amounts of milk and milk solids to cows in this study. the control diets averaged 97 mg Zn/kg DM (range. production of milk and milk energy increased 2.78 L.2%) and an average increase in milk energy of 3. Mn. 2003). differing only in trace mineral source. Reproductive responses Supplementing cows with CTM tended to improve fertility as indicated by reduced CIDR usage and portion of cows not pregnant 48 days after the planned start of mating. 4. When Co glucoheptonate and amino acid complexes of Zn. 14 to 20 mg Mn/kg.. −1. respectively (Ballantine et al. / Animal Feed Science and Technology 137 (2007) 69–83 4. and these responses were of larger magnitude than responses previously observed. Griffiths et al. Cu. from 30 to 70 mg Zn/kg. Lactation responses Production of milk and milk energy increased 6. In comparison. In the nine studies noted above. range. 44–155 mg Zn/kg DM). Co value not listed). but the trend for higher rate of mastitis in the control group could also affect fertility. . Cu and Co supplied by the control diet. 53–119 mg Mn/kg DM).11 mg Co/kg (Socha et al.3% and 5. 24 mg Cu/kg DM (range. Mn. 2002). depending upon stage of lactation.

found that supplementing Co glucoheptonate and specific amino acid complexes of Zn. abrasive surfaces such as concrete. Mn. 1997). Uchida et al. the horn capsule of the claw is a composite of horn produced over the past 12–30 months. Cu and Co. / Animal Feed Science and Technology 137 (2007) 69–83 79 Improvements in fertility in this study could be due to improved Zn.. Previous research with dairy cattle in free stall facilities.M. Cu. (1999) observed that feeding cows additional Zn. Mn. (2001) found that replacing inorganic sources of Zn. 1997). and Co with CTM in diets of dairy cows resulted in a 62-day reduction in days open and at 150 days postpartum. Mn. Griffiths et al. Ballantine et al. Zinc is also required for synthesis and maturation of keratin. and Cu plays an important role in the maturation of keratin and formation of connective tissue (Smart and Cymbaluk. sole haemorrhages and sole ulcers (Nocek et al. Similarly. It has been theorized that Zn improves claw (hoof) integrity by speeding wound healing. increasing rate of epithelial tissue repair and maintaining cellular integrity (Smart and Cymbaluk.5. Cows fed CTM also had fewer days to first breeding postpartum versus cows fed the control or sulphate diet. Swenson et al. Furthermore. Mn and Cu. such as white line disease and interdigital phlegmon when CTM replaced sulphate forms of Zn. Claw measurements There was no effect of treatment on the claw parameters. fed a combination of preserved forages and concentrate tended to have reduced incidence of claw disorders. lesion severity (as measured by level of pain and size of the lesion) was reduced.5 cm when measured from the apex to the coronary band (Greenough. thereby minimizing acidosis and associated feet problems. the absence of grainbased concentrate feeding postpartum. Based upon these measurements. with 95% of cows receiving CTM pregnant versus 61% of cows that received inorganic sources. if cows did develop a claw lesion. Furthermore. 1997). fed a combination of concentrate and preserved forages. as well as that the diet already contained sufficient minerals for optimal claw health and/or an insufficient duration of treatment to observe improvements in claws. heel erosion or sole ulcers. increased claw problems are observed in a Co deficiency due to decreased protein synthesis (Smart and Cymbaluk. Mn. Cattle received . 1997). such as white line disease. The lack of effect of CTM on claw hardness and disorders may be due to grazed cattle spending little time on hard. (1998) found that a higher proportion of cows fed CTM had ovarian structures at 45 days postpartum versus cows fed the control diet. (2002) observed that dairy cattle in free stall facilities in early lactation. Horn on the dorsal surface of the claw grows at an average rate of 2. Cu. In addition. double soles. Campbell et al. and Co in the form of Co glucoheptonate and specific amino acid complexes of Zn. and dirt corrals in mid lactation.5 mm/month in beef cattle and 5–6 mm/month in intensively fed cattle (Greenough.L. Thus our treatment period of 9 months may not have been sufficient to detect an effect of CTM on claw measurements. This was unexpected as Zn and Cu have critical roles in forming the horn of the claw. 4. 1997). reproductive response to additional trace minerals was magnified if cows retained their placenta. Cu and Co status of cows in response to CTM supplementation. reduced days to first estrus and tended to reduce days to first luteal activity. Mn and Cu for 12 months reduced incidence of claw lesions such as white line disease. starting at calving. 2000). Length of the dorsal wall of the medial claw is approximately 7.

as all cows had received a 20 g CuO bolus at 60–120 days prepartum. At 165 days postpartum. 1994). 1994). 2001). suggesting that amounts of Zn supplied by pasture may have been sufficient to meet daily Zn requirements. 1994. (1996) found that liver Cu levels of beef cattle increased from calving to 200 days postpartum. The treatments in this study were not designed to determine if the response was due to level. as Swenson et al. Griffiths et al. However. as dietary Zn and Cu levels were marginal to requirements. all cows were given an intramuscular injection of 120 mg Cu glycinate. Engle et al. only Cu content of liver was measured to assess Cu status of cows. while CTM supplemented cows had an adequate supply of Vitamin B12 (Puls. Although the control cows had low Cu liver values at 45 days postpartum. Kincaid et al. Liver mineral and Vitamin B12 concentrations According to Puls (1994). (2003) observed that Vitamin B12 reserves are depleted in high producing. while liver Zn levels of the control cows were essentially unchanged (Table 4). or level and source of trace mineral supplementation. Liver Zn levels of cattle appear to change at a much slower pace than liver Cu content. it is unlikely that these cows would have been Cu deficient at calving.6. Liver Zn levels of cows supplemented with CTM were increasing. source. 1988. early and mid lactation cows even when fed diets containing close to 10 times current NRC (2001) requirements for Co. At 45 days postpartum. while CTM supplemented cows had marginal Cu reserves (181 ␮mol Cu/kg liver). Serum Vitamin B12 concentrations indicated that control cows had a marginal supply of Vitamin B12 . Due to low liver Cu levels of control cattle at 45 days postpartum. 1994). with improvements in integrity of the white line being observed only after 3 months of supplementation.80 L. both control and CTM supplemented cows had adequate Zn and Mn reserves. suggesting that Co and/or Vitamin B12 requirements for lactation may be higher than current NRC (2001) requirements. Increases in liver Cu content may not be due solely to the Cu injection. as well as the liver not being the primary site of storage for Zn (Cousins and Hempe. Level of trace mineral supplementation may have contributed to the lactational and reproductive responses in this study. control cattle were Cu deficient (88 ␮mol Cu/kg liver. Liver Cu concentrations of the control cows increased substantially from 45 to 165 days postpartum. Thus. / Animal Feed Science and Technology 137 (2007) 69–83 treatments for 9 months. Ellison. (1997) observed no effect of feeding 40 or 17 mg/kg Zn for 21 days to growing calves on liver or serum Zn concentrations although calves fed the diet containing 17 mg/kg Zn had lower average daily gain and poorer feed conversion. 2002).. 1990). Cousins and Hempe. 4.. but inadequate to build Zn reserves.M. source . indicating that lactating cows failed to attain adequate Vitamin B12 supply despite consuming pasture that contained twice the Co requirement (NRC. 1990). Cu reserves of control cows was marginal (275 ␮mol Cu/kg liver) whilst CTM supplemented cows had attained adequate Cu stores (673 ␮mol Cu/kg liver). Similar boluses have been shown to release sufficient daily Cu into the rumen-reticulum to prevent deficiency for as long as 5 months (Parkins et al. despite receiving no supplemental sources of Cu. at least partially attributable to the high demand for Zn in numerous enzymes and proteins (Miller et al. Serum Cu or ceruloplasmin activity has been found to be a less reliable method of diagnosing Cu status than liver samples (Vermunt and West. Puls.

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