2 BAET 3

. . 1. . . .AIRCRAFT DEFUELING. . . . .CONTENTS PAGES INTRODUCTION. . . .1 . . . . .1 . . . . . . . 2. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . <2> GENERAL PROCESS. . . . 1. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .3 -AIR-FLIGHT REFUELING.2 PROJECT. . . 2. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .2 -REFUELING SIGNALS . . . . . . . . <1> -AIRCRAFT REFUELING. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2. . .REFUELING PROCESS . . . . . . . . 2.4 .

. . . .The plane need stopped at certain time and condition to be refuel. <3> REFERENCES . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Spills can also be caused by the sudden pressure surge that comes when pumping from another nozzle in the system is completed.5 -SAFETY REQUIREMENT (REFUELING/DEFUELING) .there are several types of refuel : a. . . as well as rain. . . . . . . . . Open-port refueling is refueling by inserting an automotive-type nozzle into a fill port of larger diameter. . . . .-DEFUELING PROCESS. . and ice can get into the fill port during refueling. . . snow. . . fuel vapors can escape through the fill port during open-port refueling opera. . 2.The plane has to be refueled every thousand miles. . 2. . . . throwing the whole pressure of the pump to the operating nozzle. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .6 CONCLUSION. .Airborne dust and dirt. . . . Open-Port Refueling. Because the port is larger than the nozzle. .tions. . . For the military aircraft. . . . . . . . . . . . <4> AIRCRAF T REFUELING To supply an aircraft with more fuel.

the M559 tank truck with a 2. failure of fuel system components. The M49A2C tank truck with a 1. . Defueling may be necessary for many reasons.200 gallon stainless steel tank. this operation may be used for helicopters when the requirements of the tactical mission and the benefits of reducing ground time outweigh the inherent risks of this method of refueling. some of which are fuel cell repairs. electrical power on. In combat operations. Rapid Hot Refueling. In noncombat situations. and with any computer systems operating that would require reprogramming if shut down. c.b.000 gallon tank are used to fuel Army aircraft AIRCRAFT DEFUELING Aircraft often need to be defueled to performing certain types of maintenance or repairs.500 gallon stainless steel tank. removal of external fuel tanks. and changing fuel loads. weapons system on with safety covers/ guards/switches in safe position. Aircraft may be rapid (hot) refueled (with engines running). radios on. Open-Port Hot Refueling. Fuel Truck Operations. and the M857 semitrailer with a 5. helicopters may be refueled by this method when there are compelling reasons to do so.

Many large aircraft. . bottom sumping (removing most of the remaining fuel from the bottom of the fuel cells—traditionally done by some type of gravity feed) 3. resulting in low drain rates and long drain times. All sources of ignition should be prohibited in the area. There are generally three stages of aircraft defueling: 1. All shop doors leading into the hangar should be closed. it maybe necessary to insert the defueling hose in the filler port. More recent defueling systems include a vacuum assist to increase the defueling rate. depending on the amount of fuel remaining in the tanks. the use of such vacuum assist systems is limited to certain aircraft and certain personnel trained to match an inventory of attachments with the design requirements of fuel drain systems of particular aircraft. Thus. many vacuum assist systems are useful only with specific fuel drain configurations. A number of aircraft defueling systems have traditionally been available to handle the various stages of aircraft defueling. pumping (removing the majority of fuel from the aircraft fuel cells) 2. No work should be done on or around the aircraft during the defueling operation. residual fuel can be emptied or drained through the fuel cell water drain valves. Normally. Usually. it can take up to several hours to fully defuel the aircraft using a gravity dependent system. Most defueling systems require some type of gravity feed. Nevertheless. When external fuel tanks are defueled. Some residual fuel will often be left in the bottom of the fuel cell following defueling. Vacuum assist defueling systems can evacuate airplane fuel tanks in a fraction of the time normally allocated to a gravity system.Some older aircraft have one or more defueling valves. defueling operations are done outside the hangar and under controlled conditions. depuddling (which involves removing the small puddles remaining in the fuel cells).

. Do not drive the refueler directly at the aircraft because brake failure could cause a serious accident. underground fuel pipes allow refuelling without the need for tank trucks.REFUELING PROCESS After the aircraft parks and its engine or engines are shut down. (a) Check the interior of the aircraft. but no fuel. the rotor blades are secured. Trucks just carry the necessary hoses and pressure apparatus. the sequence of the refueling operation can start. No one should be aboard during refueling unless the pilot or copilot are on board to monitor the quantity of fuel to be loaded (b) Drive the tank vehicle into position in front of the aircraft. Figure:At some airports. and armaments are set on SAFE.

Do not detach a tank semitrailer from its tractor when refueling an aircraft. Check the sight glass of the filter/separator to make sure all water has been drained out. There must be at least 10 feet between the refueler and rotor blades of a helicopter.ers the pump) and set the brake. Keep a distance of at least 20 feet between the exhaust pipe of the pump engine (or truck engine) and the aircraft fill port and tank vent as shown in figure. (e) Stop the refueler engine (unless it pow. (f) Check the fuel in the tank to make sure it is the right type for the aircraft. Chock the tires of the refueler and of the aircraft if appropriate.gency. Figure:Fuel Truck Backing Approach Figure:Refueler and helicopter (d) Park the refueler so that it has a clear and open path to drive away from the aircraft in an emer. .(c) Keep a distance of at least 10 feet between the refueler and the aircraft. the tractor must be ready to pull the trailer away from the aircraft if the need arises.

use the plug. Figure:Aircraft refueling & bonding (k) Open the aircraft fill port and remove the nozzle dust cap. drive the refueler ground rod into the earth to the required depth and attach the clip to the rod. If refueling where no ground rod is installed. (j) Bond the nozzle to the aircraft before taking the dust cap off the nozzle and the cap off the fill port. .(g) Place the truck fire extinguisher by the pump. (i) Ground the aircraft by attaching one end of a ground cable to the ground rod (either the rod that grounds the refueler or a separate ground rod) and the other end to a bare metal part of the aircraft. clip the alligator clip to a bare metal part of the aircraft. if not. Place a fire extinguisher provided at the refueling point by the aircraft fill port. (h) Unreel the ground cable and attach its ground-rod clip to the nearest ground rod. If the aircraft has a receiver for the bond plug.

(p) Release the clip on the ground rod and reel up the grounding cable.(l) Refuel into the oil tank. Replace the fire extinguisher in the refueler REFEULING SIGNALS . Do not drag the cable clips across the ground. (o) Undo the clip that grounds the aircraft Replace the fire extinguisher used at the nozzle. (n) Remove the nozzle bond plug or undo the alligator clip.Do not drag the nozzle across the ground. (m) Replace the cap on the fill port and then replace the nozzle dust cap before disconnecting the nozzle bond.Reel up the hose and nozzle. If the refueling operation is over and the refueler ground rod was used. pull the rod up and stow it in the refueler.


The check valve prevents pressure surges in the hydraulic return system from unlocking the probe-actuating cylinder during flight. 2. This electrically actuates the solenoid selector valve to supply restricted hydraulic flow to the extend port of the probe-actuating cylinder. causing it to retract and lock the probe into place. With the engines operating or external electrical and hydraulic power applied. . The restrictor valves control the rate of cylinder extension and retraction. 4.AIR-FLIGHT REFEULING Air refueling systems permit complete in-flight or on the ground refueling of the aircraft fuel system. the probe is extended by placing the refueling probe switch in the EXTEND position. 1. hold the air refueling switch in RETRACT to actuate the solenoid selector valve to supply pressure to the retract port of the probe actuating cylinder. After disengaging the probe nozzle from the tanker drogue. 3.

. 10. If operation of the probe is not smooth. ensure that all personnel and equipment are clear of the area of probe travel. 9. Position the fuel probe switch to EXTEND. rigging and adjusting. 7. check for air in the system. The floodlight goes out when the refueling probe switch is placed in RETRACT or OFF. troubleshooting. and removal and installation of components. which illuminates the probe tip for visual contact with the refueling drogue at night. Before actuating the system. external electrical power applied. Check for proper probe extension and probe locking. A probe floodlight. 6. is on whenever the refueling probe switch is in EXTEND and exterior lights are on. and the in-flight refueling circuit breaker engaged. To perform an operational check of the air refueling probe system. The extension cycle rotates the probe from its stored locked position to an extend locked position. 8. A cockpit advisory panel transit light goes out whenever the probe is locked in the extended or retracted position.5. the hydraulic system must be pressurized to 3. 11. Organizational maintenance of the air refueling probe system normally consists of operational checks.000 psi.

suspect or nonsuspect (defuel truck operator). that is. 2. Troubleshooting of the system should include a thorough knowledge of the malfunction compared to proper system operation and referral to system schematics and troubleshooting tables provided in the MIM. with the retraction cycle taking from 9 to 11 seconds. component removal and installation. System rigging.12. 13. The person requesting the defueling operation will . Prior to starting the defuel operation. Determine the status of the fuel. The complete extension cycle should be from 5 to 7 seconds. DEFUELING PROCESS Aircraft defuelings are to be performed in the following sequence: 1. take samples of the fuel to be defueled from the aircraft’s drains and visually inspect them for contamination (qualified squadron personnel under the observation of the driver/operator). Position the fuel probe switch to RETRACT and check for proper probe retraction. 15. 14. and all other maintenance should be in accordance with the procedures and safety precautions outlined in the MIM.

remember that sufficient fuel must be in the defueling tank to maintain a flooded suction above the anti-vortex splash plate. Select the defueling equipment to be used. Position the defueler (defuel truck operator). 5.sonnel). Verify that the defueling request chit corre. 8. Always check the remaining capacity of the defueler or refueler/defueler to make sure there is adequate room to hold the fuel being defueled. that is. defueler for suspect product or refueler/defueler for nonsuspect fuel (FMO and station operator). Check for possible sources of ignition (all per. and connect the defuel hose to the aircraft and the defueling stub on the defueler (plane captain). 7. 10.sponds to the instructions from the dispatcher (defuel truck operator). . 9. Again. 3. Connect the bonding wire from the defueler to the aircraft (defuel truck operator). Verify that the aircraft is spotted properly (all personnel). In addition. Determine the amount of fuel to be removed from the aircraft (defuel truck operator). Fuel is considered suspect if the aircraft has malfunctioned and the fuel is believed to have contributed to the problem or the fuel is thought to be of the wrong type. the squadron personnel requesting the defueling operation will provide this estimate as part of the official request. Unload. 6.confirm that the fuel is or is not suspect. position. 4.

When nearing completion of the defuel process. Figure 1Aircraft Defueling Certificate . Upon completion of the defuel operation.cure all equipment and CHECK THE AREA FOR FOD (all personnel). Maximum defuel rate gpm (defuel truck operator). very close attention should be paid to the defuel rate to prevent pump cavitation and/or loss of prime. Discontinue defueling of an aircraft if pump cavitation is a persistent problem. se.11. 12. Adjust the valve downstream of the pump to optimize the defuel rate. 13. Start defueling upon signal from the nozzle operator (defuel truck operator).

SAFETY REQUIREMENT Gasoline is Dangerous – Gasoline and fuel oils are designed to cause an explosion. All the procedure should be adhered to at all times. in addition to being an environmental issue – Fuel fumes can cause nausea Refuel/Defuel Safely – Always concentrate on the task at hand – NEVER smoke while refueling – Don’t refuel/refuel near any open flames – Always turn off the engine – Make sure the fire extinguisher is within reach – Be sure to chock the wheels if you feel the equipment may roll – Don’t overfill the fuel tank – On hot days allow for the fuel to expand Refueling/Defueling Areas – Be sure the area is clearly marked – Always clean up all spills as quickly as possible – Keep an extinguisher close – Make sure that all garbage is picked up and that equipment can easily enter and leave the area CONCLUSION Servicing aircraft with fuel and defueling aircraft requires the utmost precaution due to the highly flammable characteristics of fuel. Personnel performing fueling and defueling operations must be thoroughly maintenance manual. preferably in the engine – Fuel Spills can be dangerous. Personnel must also be completely familiar with the aircraft being serviced. .

com 5.wikimedia.flight-wood.com/content/aviation 3.tpub.co.easternsupplies.http://commons. CAIP PART 2 http://www.REFERENCES 1.New Zealand Qualifications Authority 2006 . 2.www.org/wiki/Aerial_refu eling 6.http://www.uk 4.