Writing Research Papers and Presenting at Conferences

A series of two lectures at Istanbul Technical University November ! and "# $%& 'rgani(ed by )ditage

Program on November ! and " *lectures are identical on both days+
,ecture %- Writing a .cientific Article Break ,ecture - /a0ing 'ral and Poster Presentations at Conferences

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cientific Article Part %.'verview of ..cientific Writing .ecture %.Writing a ..cholarly Publishing Part .

Part %.'verview of .cholarly Publishing %3 3 &3 63 !3 "3 93 Why publish )thics of publishing Impact Target 7ournal Peer reviews 8ealing with setbac0s :eyond publication .

%3 Why Publish< = Publishing in 7ournals has been the gold standard of communicating scientific discoveries for over &!$ years3 = >our research will be – – – – – Ta0en seriously 8ocumented permanently and be part of the scientific record Reach the right people Influence further research /ay lead to fundamental advances in 0nowledge and 4uality of life3 ..

%3 Why Publish< = Not the right reasons– – – It?s 7ust the way it is3 All researchers seem to be doing it3 I need to publish to graduate 2 get a 7ob 2 get tenure333 ..

. 3 )thics = /ain areas in which ethics are relevant in research communication– – – 8ata Authorship Writing .

cience3B The New >or0 Times /ay % # $$" .)thics in 8ata @8r3 Awang was hailed as a global stem cell pioneer and treated as a national hero until investigations late last year showed that he had fabricated 0ey data in two papers published in the 7ournal .

of the following– @..)thics in Authorship = IC/C) guidelines for authorship *mainly for medical researchers but useful for other fields as well+ = An author should do A.ubstantial contributions to the conception or design of the wor0D or the ac4uisition# analysis# or interpretation of data for the wor0D AN8 8rafting the wor0 or revising it critically for important intellectual contentD AN8 1inal approval of the version to be publishedD AN8 Agreement to be accountable for all aspects of the wor0 in ensuring that 4uestions related to the accuracy or integrity of any part of the wor0 are appropriately investigated and resolved3B – – – .

ummari(ing Citing = Cite previous wor0 by paraphrasing or summari(ing it# and avoid plagiarism3 .)thics in Writing = 1our 0ey concepts– – – – Plagiarism Paraphrasing .

)ditage Eideo on Plagiarism Available on >ouTube *search for @tips to avoid accidental plagiarismB+ .

&3 Impact = Impact is not the same as impact factor3 = Impact factor F specifically the @7ournal impact factorB F is a metric owned by Thomson Reuters3 – – A fre4uently used *and abused+ measure of determining impact of 7ournals :ut not of individual papers or of researchers = 'ther measures of impact..)igenfactor# AGindeH .

@.i0e nuclear energy# the impact factor is a miHed blessing3B )ugene Iarfield 'riginator of the impact factor .

What Impact< = About &J#$$$#$$$ publications between %K$$ and $$! were analy(ed for citation fre4uency distribution3 = About !$L of these were not cited even onceM Source: The Agony and the Ecstasy—The History and Meaning of the Journal Impact actor! Eugene "arfield .

63 Target Cournal = The choice of the target 7ournal can ma0e all the difference3 – – Publication or re7ection Upta0e of the wor0# or neglect = Choosing the right 7ournal is important to get your research published soon3 ..

cope Readership Impact .1actors to Consider = = = = = = .imilar papers published already Nuic0ness of review Access model .

oo0 at all available information on the 7ournalOs website3 – Impact# readership# indeHing# etc3 = Use 0eywords from your research to find out if similar articles have been published in the 7ournal3 .Tips on Choosing = Read the instructions to authors closelypay particular attention to the scope of the 7ournal3 = .

!3 Peer Review = The sta0eholders in research communication are connected– – – – Authors need readers3 Readers are attracted to 7ournals that are relevant and consistently publish highG4uality research3 Cournals need an unbiased 4ualityGcontrol mechanism to connect authors with readers3 This mechanism is peer review3 ..

AC. Chemical :iology Community .Image source.

8ealing with It = 8onOt pay attention to the tone of the message3 = 8onOt be afraid to disagree with reviewersO comments3 = Respond to comments completely# and always be polite and clear *even if the reviewer was neither+3 = Remember that very few papers are accepted in @as isB condition3 .

aureate in )conomics .@PAfter three re7ectionsQ I may have despaired# but I did not give up3 I sent the paper off to the #uarterly Journal of Economics# where it was accepted3B Ieorge A3 A0erlof $$% Nobel .

etbac0s = Common reasons for re7ection – – Wrong target 7ournal 1undamentally flawed research = Wrong target 7ournal is possibly a common reason for researchers wor0ing in established environments3 ."3 8ealing with ..

Ta0ing Action = Re7ection is not absolute3 – I went from re7ection in one good 7ournal to @accept as isB in another good one3 = Ta0e a brea0 before ta0ing action3 = Review your paper before resubmitting it to another 7ournal3 – Consider incorporating comments from the reviewers of the first 7ournal3 .

.93 :eyond Publication = The proliferation of 7ournals has led to great demands on readersO attention and time3 = ItOs not a good idea to sit bac0 after publication and wait for your wor0 to be pic0ed up3 = Promote your publicationsM .

Tips = /a0e your papers available to the world– 'pen access archiving in institutional repositories# ResearchIate# or other portals = Tweet about your publications3 = /aintain a science blog3 = Update your .in0edIn profile with your publications3 .

Part ..cientific Writing .

%"K *Aighest ran0ed living chemist+ .@Writing the paper is an integral part of the research process3B Ieorge /3 Whitesides hGindeH.

The Writing Process = /any ways to write the paper = The outline method *suggested by Prof3 Whitesides+– – – /a0e an outline as soon as you have interesting results3 8evelop your research for the goal.oo0 for @Whitesides outline methodB on Ioogle for more information .writing a paper for publication3 8o not put off writing the paper until you have @completedB your research3 ● .

tructure.Writing concisely Irammar.Citing previous wor0 3 Clear – Eisual aids.1ollowing the typical or prescribed structure Citations.8esigning good figures and tables – – – Coherence.Using proper grammar &3 Reader centered ..hould :e333 %3 Well organi(ed – Compliance.Complying with instructions to authors – – .Writing coherently :revity.cientific Writing .

We?ll first loo0 at compliance. )Htracts from the instructions to authors given by some 7ournals are presented in the following slides3 .

Cournal of Applied Physics G Information for contributors .

title# author# affiliation# abstract# teHt# ac0nowledgments# appendices# and references3 Papers should not be lengthened by unnecessary descriptions and repetitions# but neither should authors use a telegraphic style detrimental to the clarity and understanding of the paper3 . The title page should contain the title of the article# the names and affiliations of the authors# and a short abstract3 Parts of the manuscript should be arranged in the following order.The Manuscript# including the abstract# references# and captions# should be set up for %3" H J cm *JG%2 H %% in3 or A6+ pages with ample margins3 It should be carefully proofread by the author3 The manuscript must be in good scientific American )nglishD this is the author?s responsibility3 Number all pages in single sequence.

Abstract The Abstract should be selfGcontained *contain no footnotes+3 It should be ade4uate as an indeH *giving all sub7ects# ma7or and minor# about which new information is given+# and as a summary *giving the conclusions and all results of general interest in the article+3 It should be about !L of the length of the article# but less than !$$ words for fullGlength articles and correspondingly shorter for $ommunications3 The abstract should be written as one paragraph and should not contain displayed mathematical e4uations or tabular material3 .

)4uations Equations should be punctuated and aligned to bring out their structure and numbered on the right3 /athematical operation signs indicating continuity of the eHpression should be placed at the left of the second and succeeding lines3 Use H rather than a centered dot# eHcept for scalar products of vectors3 The solidus *2+ should be used instead of builtGup fractions in running teHt# and in display wherever clarity would not be 7eopardi(ed3 Use ReHpR for complicated eHponents3 .

References References and footnotes are treated ali0e3 They must be numbered consecutively in order of first appearance in the teHt and should be given in a separate doubleGspaced list at the end of the teHt material3 Reference should be made to the full list of authors# rather than to first author followed by an abbreviation such as et al3 References within tables should be designated by lowercase Roman letter superscripts and given at the end of the table3 1or the proper form# see recent issues of this 7ournal3 Preprints of cited unpublished wor0 by the authors should be sent with the manuscript3 .

Chemical :iology F Information for Authors .AC.

Introduction Clearly state the purpose and significance of the research# and put it into the conteHt of earlier wor0 in the area3 Aistorical summaries are seldom warranted3 8o not attempt a complete survey of the literature3 If a recent article has summari(ed wor0 on the sub7ect# cite that article without repeating its individual citations3 In general# an introduction should be S9!$ words for a letter and S%$$$ words for an article3 .

References References and footnotes are treated ali0e3 They must be numbered consecutively in order of first appearance in the teHt and should be given in a separate doubleGspaced list at the end of the teHt material3 Reference should be made to the full list of authors# rather than to first author followed by an abbreviation such as et al3 References within tables should be designated by lowercase Roman letter superscripts and given at the end of the table3 1or the proper form# see recent issues of this 7ournal3 Preprints of cited unpublished wor0 by the authors should be sent with the manuscript3 .

tyle Iuide for guidance on style# wordGusage conventions# nomenclature# physical 4uantity symbols and units# abbreviations# use of italics# and punctuation3 The AC. .pelling and use of periods and commas in numbers should conform to U3.Writing .tyle Iuide also provides information about copyrights and insight on what editors and reviewers loo0 for in evaluating papers3 .3 usage3 Any author who is not fully fluent in idiomatic )nglish is urged to obtain assistance with manuscript preparation from a colleague whose native language is )nglish3 . .tyle and .anguage Usage Clarity and conciseness are critical re4uirements for publications3 Authors should consult The AC.

.

ome .tyle *used in social sciences+ = Chicago /anual of .tyle *used in medical sciences+ = APA .cientific .tyle *generic+ .tyle and 1ormat *used mainly in biological sciences+ = A/A /anual of .ociety+ F freely available = AIP ..tyle /anual *for 7ournals published by the American Institute of Physics+ F freely available = I))) )ditorial .tyle Iuides = Physical Review .tyle /anual F freely available = .tyle and Notation Iuide *for 7ournals published by the American Physical .

Methods. 3 .. and Discussion Ac0nowledgments References .tructure Title Authors Abstract Teywords IMRAD: Introduction. Results.

'ther :ody 1ormats = = = = = = = I/Ra8C IR8a/ I/R8R8U I./Ra8 I./Ra8C No headings Custom headings .

A .uggestion = Immerse yourself in papers published in your target 7ournal3 – Preferably written by leading researchers or highly cited papers = Iet a feel of the structure# writing style# eHpressions used# length of the sections# etc3 .

&3 Citations = )ven the most novel research ideas or the most groundbrea0ing research outcomes must be reported on the foundation of past research3 = Tey sections of the paper for citations– – Introduction 8iscussion = Cite only what you have read3 8o not cite a paper after reading only the abstract3 ..

@If I have seen further# it is by standing on the shoulders of giants3B Isaac Newton .

imilar wor0 done before .What and Where to Cite = Introduction – – :ac0ground to the research .ame or similar methods used before Aow the results compare with those in previous research = /ethods – = 8iscussion – .

Used in most scientific papers = Tables F for presenting detailed and important information = 1igures *graphs+ F for presenting trends in data = 'ther types of figures F photographs# schematic diagrams# maps# etc3 .63 Eisual Aids = Tables and figures..

@A picture is worth a thousand words3B .

Points to Remember = Readers often loo0 at tables and figures in a paper before reading the body of the paper3 = Tables and figures should convey 0ey information without the support of the teHt3 = Aim to ma0e tables and figures crystalGclear3 .

!3 Coherence = )verything should be logically connected3 = Nothing should be out of place3 = 8o not write words# eHpressions# or sentences that can distract the reader3 ..

In /ore 8etail = )very sentence must have a logical connection to the previous one3 = )very paragraph must be about a specific points# or two or more closely connected points3 = An appropriate miH of transition words and phrases# clauses# and causeGandGeffect structures should be used3 .

)Hample of 1ragmented Writing India has a large population3 It is a large country3 The population density is low in some rural areasD it is very high in urban areas3 The disparity in population density is one of the highest in the world3 There are numerous challenges for planning bodies3 /ore investment is needed to improve the functioning of such bodies3 .

'vercompensation India has a large population# but it is also a large country3 While the population density is low in some rural areas# it is very high in urban areas3 In fact# the disparity in population density is one of the highest in the world3 As a result# there are numerous challenges for planning bodies3 Therefore# more investment is needed to improve the functioning of such bodies3 .

:etter India is a large country with a large population3 The population density is low in some rural areas and high in urban areas3 :ecause the disparity in population density is one of the highest in the world# there are numerous challenges for planning bodies3 Therefore# more investment is needed to improve the functioning of such bodies3 .

."3 :revity = Consider the 6 sentences below– If you can say the same thing in one word instead of two words# say it in one word3 – If you can say something in one word instead of two# say it in one3 If you can use one word instead of two# use one3 If possible# use one word instead of two3 – – .

@I have made this letter longer than usual# because I lac0 the time to ma0e it short3B :laise Pascal

Why :revity /atters
= Cournals often prescribe a length range or word limit3 = .cientists donOt have time to navigate an ocean of teHt3 = Readers are li0ely to drop your paper if they?re not able to get to the main point or the essence of your paper soon enough3

;93 Irammar
= ,eading 7ournals demand good grammar and punctuation3 = Researchers who have )nglish as a second or foreign language easily outnumber native )nglish spea0ing researchers3 = .o proper written eHpression is a challenge for many scientists3

The panda eats shoots and leaves3 The panda eats# shoots and leaves3 .

uggestions = Respect grammar and conventional )nglish usage3 = Read the freely available classic @The )lements of ..tyleB for an introduction to good writing style3 = Pay attention to any writing advice given by 7ournals3 = Read style guides in your field3 .

uggestions = = = = = Write short sentences3 1iH pronouns with unclear references3 Avoid a bureaucratic style of writing3 Use a miH of the active and passive voice3 8o a careful spelling and grammar chec0 on your wordGprocessing software3 ..pecific .ome .

uggestions for Revising = )very now and then# stop to read what you have written before continuing to write3 – ..ome people prefer to write everything down so that the flow of thought is not interrupted3 = Read and proofread your paper after you write it *and repeat+3 = 8onOt hesitate to stri0e out chun0s of teHt3 = 8onOt be afraid to start over3 = Revise# revise# revise3 .

8esigning good figures and tables – – – Coherence.Writing coherently :revity.Using proper grammar 3..tructure.cientific Writing .Citing previous wor0 3 Clear – Eisual aids. Reader centered .Complying with instructions to authors – – .hould :e333 %3 Well organi(ed – Compliance.1ollowing the typical or prescribed structure Citations.Writing concisely Irammar.

ReaderGcentered Writing ● 8eveloping a @readerGcentered attitudeB is more than about learning to write well3 – – – Who is the reader< Why would they want to read your paper< If they read 7ust the abstract# would they be motivated to read the paper< If they read the paper# what useful information will they get< *>ou do want your paper to be cited# right<+ Will they have to struggle to get to the essence of your paper< – – .

ReaderGcentered Writing ● Thin0 about yourself as a reader3 – Recall the papers you en7oyed reading3 Why were they interesting< Thin0 about the characteristics of writing that appeal to you as a reader3 Are those characteristics appropriate in an international )nglishGlanguage conteHt< *Clear# concise# straightforward+ Can you impart those characteristics in your writing< 'r would you need help to do so< – – – .

Chec0s :efore Paper .ubmission = Are you absolutely sure that your paper follows all the instructions to authors given by your target 7ournal< = Aave you chec0ed the numerical and statistical information< = Aave you numbered all the tables and figures correctly# and have you referred to all of them in the teHt< = 8o your citations and references match< = Aave you proofread the paper one last time< .

Eddy! http://www.Than0 youM or presentation%related &uestions: Ravi /urugesan Publishing Consultant# )ditage )mail.!&$ &K$ " %" )mail.ravim5cactusglobal3com or any other &uestions: Than0 you )ylem Turan Ravi /urugesan Look for tips from Dr.editage.eylem3turan5editage3com .com/subscribe Phone.editage.com/insights/ ravim5cactusglobal3com Subscribe to our newsletter: http://www.