European Spiritual Life in the 19th Century

The Development of Thought from the 4th to the 19th Century
By Rudolf Steiner Translated by ! Collison "# $%&

This lecture series consists of the first two lectures in the cycle of six lectures entitled, Natural Science and Human History since Ancient Times. Published in German as, Die Naturwissenschaft und die Weltgeschichtliche Entwickelung der Menschheit Seit dem Altertum . They were given at Dornach in mid-May, 1 !1. "rom a shorthand re#ort unrevised by the lecturer. Presented here with the $ind #ermission of the Philosophisch Anthroposophischer !erlag, Dornach, %wit&erland. 'nglish translation by #ermission of (. )ollison.
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/ecture 1 The Develo#ment of Thought from the 0th to the 1 th )entury 1Part 12 /ecture ! The Develo#ment of Thought from the 0th to the 1 th )entury 1Part !2 ,ay 1&( 19%1 ,ay 1-( 19%1

Le)ture 1
Dornach, 13th May, 1 !1
/ecture given at Dornach, 13th May, 1 !1. "rom a shorthand re#ort unrevised by the lecturer. -ll rights reserved by the Philosophisch Anthroposophischer !erlag, Dornach. 'nglish translation by #ermission of (. )ollison, by whom all rights are reserved .

4')'5T lectures given at the Goetheanum have laid re#eated em#hasis on the fact that the %#iritual %cience cultivated here must wor$ fruitfully u#on the whole scientific mind of to-day and also u#on the various branches of science. This is #erha#s brought home to us most strongly of all when we realise the light that is shed by %#iritual %cience u#on the #roblems of history. -nd so far as the limits of two brief lectures allow, we will try to go into this matter. 6n many sides to-day it is being said that the science of history is facing a crisis. 5ot so very long ago, among certain circles in the days of the historian 4an$e, it was held that history must be made into an 7exact8 science 9 exact in the sense in which this ex#ression is used in connection with ordinary scientific research. :e often hear it said by those to whom 7exact research8 im#lies the methods current in the domain of external science, that all historical writings are inevitably coloured by the nationality, tem#erament and other #ersonal #ro#ensities of the historian, by the element of imagination wor$ing in the condensation of the details, by the de#th of his intuitive faculty and the li$e. -nd as a matter of fact in the most recently written histories it is abundantly evident that the #resentation of ob;ective facts and events varies considerably according to the nationality of the historian, according to his #ower of synthesis, his imagination and other faculties. <n a certain res#ect, %#iritual %cience is well fitted to cultivate an ob;ective outloo$ in the study of history. <t is, of course, not to be denied that the measure of talent #ossessed by the historian himself will always #lay an im#ortant #art. 5evertheless, in s#ite of what our o##onents choose to say to the contrary, it is #recisely in the study of history that a =uality essentially characteristic of %#iritual %cience comes into #lay. >y its very nature %#iritual %cience must begin with a develo#ment of the inner, sub;ective faculties in the being of man. "orces otherwise latent in the soul must be awa$ened and transformed into real faculties of investigation. The sub;ective realm, therefore, is necessarily the starting-#oint. >ut in s#ite of this, the sub;ective element is gradually
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#hysics and #hysiology we find evidences of the $ind of thin$ing that is current in the modern age. -nd if we study the whole tem#er and outloo$ of %aint-%imonAs mind. (e loo$s bac$ to times which.ective truth. <t is the same in mathematics. chemistry. %aint%imon was well aware of all that the develo#ment of industry and industrial science meant in the evolution of humanity. as it were.few definite exam#les will show that this changes entirely in the second half of the century.overcome in the course of genuine s#iritual research@ de#ths are o#ened u# in the soul in which the voice of ob. >etterment and #rogress 9 so thought %aint-%imon 9 will come about in the social life of 'uro#e through the co-o#eration of individuals who have both understanding and strength of will. it is clear that he was a firm believer in the fact that $nowledge can ultimately lead to ideas which will be fruitful for the social life. (e witnessed the gradual emergence of what. chemistry. in his o#inion. and s#ea$ about their origin in the light of %#iritual %cience. -nd so he tries to base all his wor$ u#on the s#iritual and mental conce#tions of his day. is em#loyed in #hysics. %aint-%imon was imbued with the firm belief that it is #ossible to convince human beings when oneAs own mind has gras#ed the truth and is ca#able of #resenting it to others in the #ro#er scientific form. of the "rench 4evolution.ective truths are #roclaimed. '=uality. is s#ea$ing. to em#hasise the im#ortance of the results achieved by science and. and that they would res#ond to $nowledge born of enthusiasm for the betterment of social life and #resented to them in a form suited to the conditions of the age. Peo#le began to as$ =uestions about the nature of the im#ulses underlying social life in the #ast and #resent. <n astronomy. to deal with the de#ression which had so obviously cre#t into the life and im#ulses of the soul. <n earlier times the nobles and the military class had their #ur#ose and function. "or long ages the instruction and education of the #eo#le were in the hands of the #riesthood and the #riests were the bearers of the s#iritual life. The nobles and the military class. /eading minds in the first half of the nineteenth century were all characterised by certain s#iritual and idealistic as#irations. (e had ex#erienced the aftermath of the "rench 4evolution and had heard the cry for /iberty. on the one hand. regular course. but this we shall try to do. -nd on the other hand. we find a re#resentative #ersonality in Saint Simon. #rovided always that these ideas are in inner harmony with the demands of the times. a son. in s#ite of the fact that they were the offs#ring of the $ind of thought that had become habitual in the domain of natural science. <t is only #ossible to-day to indicate these things in a few characteristic stro$es. and who had thoroughly imbibed the scientific thought of his time. :e shall have to select ty#ical re#resentatives of scientific thought at that time who set themselves the tas$ of clarifying the #roblems of the social life which had become more and more insistent in the course of the nineteenth century. (e said to himself. This industrial develo#ment will in its turn give rise to a $ind of thin$ing that has already been ado#ted by natural science. The mode of thin$ing and outloo$ of men underwent a metamor#hosis. became the burning social =uestion.ective feeling. >ut 9 thought %aint-%imon 9 in earlier times the #riesthood too was a factor of great significance. may be ta$en as a ty#ical exam#le of the scientific thin$ing of the day. %aint-%imon was one whose mind. <n following u# this #articular line of develo#ment we shall not be able to concentrate u#on those who were either scientists or artists in the narrower sense. not that of sub. Page ! of 1? . These leading minds were still. and will inevitably s#read to the other sciences. when ob. To-day < #ro#ose to deal with the more exoteric as#ect 9 if < may use this ex#ression 9 and #ass on in the next lecture more into the realm of the esoteric connections and dee#er causes underlying the facts of the s#iritual and mental life of humanity. later on. >ut it had also been his lot to ex#erience the disa##ointments suffered by 'uro#e alter the 4evolution. "raternity resounding from the de#ths of the human soul. nay even the #riesthood. conscious of their de#endence u#on an inner guidance . "rom this #oint of view < want to s#ea$ to you of a cha#ter of history which cannot but be of the dee#est interest to us in this modern age. on the other. >ut those who go more dee#ly into the real facts discover that this was by no means the case. an entirely new line of activity has established itself in civilised life. to a certain extent. (e was also dee#ly concerned with the social #roblem. -bout the middle of the century a very radical change came about in the develo#ment of thought. and says to himself.ective effort. The nobles #rovided military forces for the #rotection of those who desired to devote their energies to the so-called arts of #eace. -s we loo$ bac$ to the nineteenth century 9 and the character of the first twenty years of the twentieth century is really very similar 9 the im#ression usually is that thought in the nineteenth century develo#ed along an even. understanding and enthusiasm for the tas$s of social life would lead to the discovery of something which could be communicated to men. < will choose from the wide field of history the more s#iritual forms of thought which came to the fore in the nineteenth century. at the end of the eighteenth and beginning of the nineteenth centuries. <n the first half of the nineteenth century. in s#ite of the fact that they are discovered by sub. More and more it was borne in u#on eminent thin$ers that the only way of a##roach to the #roblems of the social life was. (e was convinced that study. biology. had already fulfilled their mission@ he thin$s of the #ower once #ossessed by the nobles and the military class. >ut this state of things has long since #assed away. have lost their raison d"tre.

The conflict. is inca#able along these lines of discovering a #racticable form of the social organism.uris#rudence. They obtain also in the being of man. said %aint-%imon. sim#ly remains as a system of meta#hysical traditions. did not only ma$e itself manifest in individual minds. %aint-%imon considered that this $ind of thin$ing was evitable because of the overwhelming im#ortance which industrial life was beginning to assume in his day. demand individual freedom. in other words. be sub. even in the s#here of #olitics. the $ind of thought that is fitting in the modern age. the demand for individual freedom which was at that time arising from the very de#ths of manAs being.ection of the older. of $ee#ing faith with science and. and is reflected in many a mental conflict. firstly. for freedom of the individuality.>ut it is also essential to inaugurate a science of man. >ut again and again he was baffled by the incom#atibility of these two demands of his age. -t the same time %aint-%imon indicated that all these changes were to be regarded as #hases. whereas the =uest of the new age. <n trying to solve the #roblems of social life it was a =uestion. -lthough in former times a s#iritual conce#tion of life was thoroughly . is of a different character. we realise that the mind of %aint-%imon and others li$e him was faced continually with these great #roblems. #hysics and #hysiology. 6n the one side we find the urge to discover natural law everywhere and to admit nothing as being 7scientific8 which does not fall into line with this natural law. as a matter of fact. 6ver the whole of the thought-life and its offs#ring. but he will not admit it because within this body of scientific law he cannot find his freedom as an individual. Men li$e Goethe. and it is this element that is found above all in the new form of . -t the beginning of the nineteenth century there is a feeling of des#air in face of the fact that human thin$ing. Man must be his own matter and be able in freedom to find a #lace in the world that is consistent with the dignity of manhood. -nd if we study the structure of the life of thought in the nineteenth century.ustified.8 and he set out to build u# a science of social life and action that should be in line with the #rinci#les of chemistry. he said. >ut something always remains over from earlier times. now vested in the scholars and the industrialists. on the one side. To %aint%imon. The views of a man li$e %aint-%imon are born of the scientific mode of thin$ing which had become so wides#read in the eighteenth century. law should be as su#reme as in the world of nature and which.ect 9 with the demand for human freedom. namely. the #olitical and economic life of the beginning. 6n the one side men yearn for unsha$able law and.cardinal demand had thus obtruded itself in the life of the times. %aint-%imonAs re. of the nineteenth century. -nd so at the beginning of the nineteenth century. The #roblem was to discover a form of social life in which. devoid of real life. -nd so %aint-%imon #rescribes a social system directed by science and in line with scientific habits of thought. he said. sounding over into the nineteenth century. and the conce#ts on which it was based. after all. which led men li$e %aint-%imon to this bitter conflict in the realm of $nowledge. <t is a mode of thin$ing which directs all inner activity in man to the external world of material facts. not $nowing where to turn and yet see$ing for a reconciliation of these two o##osing #rinci#les. The #rinci#les of #hysics must be introduced into #olitical science and then it will be #ossible to wor$ and act effectively in the domain of social life. moreover. there loomed the shadow of this conflict. secondly. find themselves condemned to a life of inner loneliness. 9 The laws established by natural science hold good and are universal in their a##lication. #sychology and sociology. must be for #hiloso#hy concerned as directly with concrete facts as industrial life is concerned with the facts of the external world. (e s#o$e of the old sacerdotal culture as a system of abstract meta#hysics.uris#rudence. :hat is needed 9 so said %aint-%imon 9 is a $ind of 7#olitical #hysics. was influenced by yet another factor. 9 -nd on the other side there is the insistent demand for individual freedom. %aint-%imon tried hard in every direction to find ideas for the institutions of industrial life and of human life in general which might bring him satisfaction. The shrewdest minds of the age 9 and %aint-%imon was certainly one 9 were not able to find ideas ca#able of #ractical a##lication in social life. on the other. however. men li$e %aint-%imon stood as it were without ground under their feet before two irreconcilable #rinci#les. <n the "rench 4evolution a materialistic view of the universe had been mingled with the inner demand for individual freedom. (ow can < reconcile natural law 9 to which man too must. -nd it was the voice of the "rench 4evolution.uris#rudence and in what has cre#t into #olitical life through . on the other. These two demands are. in s#ite of every effort. The old sacerdotal culture. -nd the conse=uence of this is that minds of another character altogether begin to ma$e a stir Page + of 1? . of discovering a form of social life wherein the freedom of true manhood is #reserved and maintained. in diametrical o##osition to one another. and he was convinced that no further #rogress would be #ossible in industry if it remained under the old conditions of subordination to the military class and to the #riesthood. 9 >ut the demand for individual freedom finds no fulfilment. should offer man the #ossibility of individual freedom. namely. sacerdotal culture was due to his intense #reoccu#ation with the industrialist mode of thin$ing that had come to the fore in his day. . . and even before that time. were remnants and shadows of the time when sacerdotalism and militarism had a real function to #erform in the life of the #eo#le. The #riests and the nobility had had their function to #erform in days gone by and the same significance was. %aint-%imonAs attitude.

the ancient. -nd yet we must admit that there was an idealistic tendency too in the thought of -uguste )omte. and he lays it down as an irrefutable #rinci#le that no social order worthy of the name can arise unless the civilisation of 'uro#e is imbued once again with the old )atholic s#irit of the early centuries of )hristendom. <n this social structure there is. in line with the idea of %aint-%imon. #utting humanity in the #lace of God. but on the surface only. he had considerable admiration. that he can discover in the social structure something that will be a blessing to man@ he believes. -nd if no counterbalance is created this influence will #lay a more and more decisive Part in our declining civilisation. <t is. -nd su##ort is forthcoming for a man li$e de Maistre who #oints bac$ to conditions as they were in the early centuries of )hristendom in 'uro#e. when men elaborated systematic thoughts relating to things su#er-#hysical. )omte outlines a form of society directed by #ositive thin$ing. :e must be able to see with the eyes of one who is convinced that no true social science can be born of modern scientific thought and that if no s#iritual im#ulse can find its way into the social organism. true that neither de Maistre himself nor those who listened to his im#assioned words #erceived the reality of a new s#iritual im#ulse. be ca#able of calling forth from chaos a #ossible 1although for the modern age not desirable2 social order.8 is a true disci#le of de Maistre for whom. (e calls the attention of those who are willing to listen to the chaos that must gradually ensue if men #rove inca#able of evolving ideas u#on which a social order may be built u#. mythological #eriod 9 the theological stage 9 when su#remacy was vested in the #riesthood. >ut in the way in which )omte builds u# his system. and thus. This. 9 There is. De Maistre #ointed bac$ to olden times. -n ob. li$e an illegitimate child of modern culture. (e believes. chemistry. )omte s#ea$s of three #hases in the evolution of humanity. (e gave an entirely different turn to the ideas of de Maistre but we must not forget that the actual content of a thought is one thing and the mode of thin$ing another. This stage too has #assed away.strange situation has arisen at this #oint in the life of modern thought. following the same methods. and it may be said with truth that the reactionary #rinci#les of de Maistre a##ear. in his o#inion. <n the world of scientific thought to-day his voice has to all intents and #ur#oses died away. among them.9 minds not fundamentally under the influence of scientific thought nor desirous of a##lying the abstract demands of the "rench 4evolution but who aim at establishing some #ermanent #rinci#le in the social life of a 'uro#e sha$en by the 4evolution and the deeds of 5a#oleon. the way in which he substitutes the authority of the senses for the su#ersensible authority of the )hurch. who realise how traditional religions are stretching out their tentacles once again and trying des#erately to 7modernise8 $now how strongly the attitude of men li$e de Maistre is influencing ever-widening circles of reactionary thought. when the building of social order had actually been within the ca#acity of men. reactionary thought of de Maistre is wor$ing in the #ositive #hiloso#hy of -uguste )omte which is directed entirely to the things of the material world. was su#erseded by the meta#hysical #hase. in an unex#ected #lace. on the other. furthermore. >ut there must be an ascent from #hysics. This will not readily be #erceived by those who concentrate on the actual content of the thoughts instead of u#on the whole trend and bent of the mental life. in his view. declaring that it is the individual who acts but humanity who guides 9 all this is sim#ly another way of saying. of course. Those who #erceive what is really ha##ening below the surface of civilised life. "rom this #oint of view he criticises with considerable acrimony those whom he considers res#onsible for the chaos in modern thought. by thought based entirely u#on the material facts of the external world. to sociology. 6n the one side. (e has wor$ed out the #rinci#les of a social system which would. Man thin$s and God guides. that this can be brought home to men and that a beneficial and desirable form of social life may thus be achieved. (e is the most universal mind among the reactionaries in the first half of the nineteenth century 9 a shrewd and ingenious thin$er. that is to say. <n a certain sense. %cience of given facts 9 this alone is worthy of the name of science. biology. another man who is also a ty#ical re#resentative of modern thin$ing came strongly under the influence of de Maistre. firstly. -ll this goes to show that the essentially )atholic.ective study of de Maistre ma$es it abundantly evident that there is in him no single trace of a new s#irit but that he is sim#ly an ingenious and shrewd inter#reter of the ideas of 4oman )atholicism. <m#licit in every thin$er during the first Page 0 of 1? . not a single trace of )atholic credulity to be found. born in the %outh of "rance. sometimes called the 7father of modern society. De Maistre. wrote his stri$ing wor$ on the Po#e and also his Soir#es de St$ Peters%ourg. )atholic thought is being #romulgated in this sociology. naturally. Auguste &omte. :e must be absolutely ob. 5ot from the #oint of view of content but from that of the whole configuration of thought. The transition must now be made to a $ind of #olitical #hysics. directed by ecclesiasticism. . #rovided always that his thought is in conformity with the s#irit of the age. issued his call to the "rench 5ation in the nineties of the eighteenth century. to a $ind of #olitical #hysics. /oc$e. chaos must become more and more wides#read.ective in our study here and try to #ut ourselves in the #lace of a man li$e de Maistre and of those who even to-day still thin$ more or less as he did. )omte is a disci#le of %aint-%imon. moreover. of de Maistre.

%chelling. < can lead them in such a way that the inauguration of a new age is #ossible. These men have instincts which ex#ress themselves as class instincts. during the first half of the nineteenth century. (e thin$s of the masses of the #roletariat and says to himself. of course. %o far as Darl Marx is concerned. once the conviction has been aroused. so too was faith lost in the s#here of the $nowledge of nature. could not be there. when this attitude cree#s into the realm of social science. 4ussell. Darl Marx has really given u# the belief that it is #ossible to convince others of something that is true and ca#able of being #ut into #ractice. and militaristic methods in men li$e Darl Marx who being out-and-out strategists have given u# the belief that men can be convinced and through their conviction bring about a desirable state of affairs. )onsider for a moment how men li$e %aint-%imon. < will organise their class instincts and that will achieve the desired result.half of the nineteenth century there is a certain confidence in ideas that can be born in the mind of man and then communicated to others. the way in which the #roblems of industrial life are interlin$ed 9 all these things which he has learnt from the others. "rom many #oints of view. -nd so we find the old sacerdotal methods in men li$e %aint-%imon. 'conomic and industrial thin$ing. 6n the basis of scientific and economic thin$ing (erbert %#encer evolves a $ind of 7su#er-organism8. men still had faith in the s#irit and believed that the s#irit would hel# them to fathom the world of nature@ they believed that nature was in some way directed by the s#irit.amin Didd. tries to give to the social life a lead based u#on modern scientific thought. eminent minds in the first half of the nineteenth century were all #ossessed of a certain confidence that the #ower of the s#irit would ultimately lead them to the right #ath.very radical change had come about in the course of the nineteenth century and anyone who studies this change dee#ly enough will realise that it ta$es #lace with considerable ra#idity and is. (erbert %#encer. >ut the attitude of Darl Marx is very different from that of %aint-%imon. (e does not systematise li$e %aint-%imon and )omte. Darl Marx. < must ta$e those whom < can organise . >uc$le and many others in the first half of the nineteenth century had this inner belief. he does not believe that it is #ossible to convince men by teaching. however. of (erbert %#encer. but when it becomes a =uestion of raising the concrete to a higher level sim#ly by using the #refix 7su#er8 9 as was usual at one time 9 then one is stumbling about in a realm of confused thoughts and ideas. systematising.ust as faith in the creative s#irit was lost in the domain of sociological thin$ing. in his own way. They wor$ entirely with the intellect and reasoning faculty. There is a certain confident belief that if only men can be convinced of the truth of an idea. deeds of benefit to human life will s#ring from a will that is guided by intelligence. %uch thin$ers say to themselves. in the study of the evolution of man. >en. <n s#ite of this habit. a##arent in another s#here as well. but this attitude is none the less universal. and indeed it became a habit in the nineteenth century to #lace the #refix 7su#er8 before anything of which they were unable to form a concrete idea. -nd there is really no difference between drilling soldiers and then the masses in order to #re#are them for the field of battle. never de#arting from the #rinci#les of mathematical calculation. <n their days. and marshalling the class instincts that already exist in human beings. <n the second half of the nineteenth century there is a com#lete change. This may be =uite harmless in the realm of lyrical thought. of -uguste )omte. (erbert %#encer is absolutely ty#ical of the 'nglish outloo$. Their individual views are. )omte. %aint-%imon and )omte are li$e #riests who have been trans#orted into the conditions of the modern age. Page 3 of 1? . the scientific mode of observation is a##lied. but s#ea$ing =uite generally this trust in the s#irit was sim#ly non-existent. (uxley. >ut later on. Marx is the most radical exam#le. . -nd then thin$ of a man li$e Her%ert Spencer in 'ngland during the first half of the nineteenth century. %aint-%imon. building u# statistics and orderly systems with a certain elegance and grace. sets to wor$ li$e a strategist. -nd then. and confidence in the creative s#irit died away entirely. then < can do something with them. 'arl Mar( may be regarded as an outstanding figure of this #eriod. moreover. he then #roceeds to build u# into a social science. :e have only to thin$ of men li$e "ichte. They at least believe that conviction can be aroused in the hearts of men. :allace and others in the second half of the nineteenth century are ty#ical re#resentatives of this $ind of thin$ing The s#irit is materialised and identified with external things both in the realm of social life and in the realm of $nowledge. as in Darwinism. This attitude of confidence ex#resses itself in many different ways and is a##arent in all the thin$ers of the first half of the nineteenth century. The s#irit. but in the second half of the century it was not. however. The natural scientific mode of thin$ing came to the fore in the modern age. nor does he wor$ with statistics. )omte or BuCtelet conceive of the social order. (e himself does not use this ex#ression but many other thin$ers ado#ted it. #artly influenced by nationality and #artly by other factors. (egel.ust as they are. (erbert %#encer. -uguste )omte. is ca#able only of recording the results of observation and ex#eriment. (e too. if < organise them and wor$ with what is ex#ressing itself in these class instincts. or a General who never gives a thought to the factor of conviction but sim#ly sets out to organise the masses. and this was actually the case in the first fifty years of the nineteenth century. Men #laced reliance alone u#on observation and ex#eriment. . they said. for it is not #ossible to convince human beings. <f < gather together those in whom these class instincts are living.

and more strongly so in earlier times. before the fifteenth century. there is something that corres#onds in a certain sense with the laws at wor$ during the #eriod of embryonic develo#ment. it was =uite natural that this demand should be made of those who were in any way wor$ing with the #rocesses of nature. from the time of conce#tion until birth.ect to the laws and Page E of 1? . for instance. but my ob. "or it is only by inde#endent research that we can understand the character of a mental outloo$ =uite different from our own. and above all he tried to bring home the difference between the conce#ts of sin and of crime. 9 -nyone who genuinely tries to understand writings which deal with the world of nature. <n outer nature. in s#ite of a realisation that the goal was im#ossible of achievement. however. >efore the fifteenth century. we $now that they are not to be found in outer nature. <t is #ossible. This is mere su#erstition. >ut the evolution of the human being must not be sub.<t is strange how in the nineteenth century the human mind is beset by a $ind of inner agnosticism. >ut . that conce#ts and ideas are invariably intelligible to us as thin$ers living in the nineteenth and twentieth centuries. -nd above all there was no understanding of the meaning of 7original sin. too. a form of modern su#erstition to believe that all the #rocesses at wor$ in the being of man can also be found in the animal. -ccording to de Maistre. from the time he draws his first breath. conce#ts that had really lost the vital meaning once attaching to them. sixteenth and fifteenth centuries.ect we are sim#ly reading so many words and we are dishonest with ourselves if we imagine that the words convey any real meaning. from the time of his birth.ect in s#ea$ing of it is to give an exam#le of how %#iritual %cience can throw light u#on conce#tions of earlier times. "rom birth until death the organism of the human being is #ermeated by forces of soul. :e must here turn to fundamental conce#tions resulting from s#iritual investigation. There was a radical increase of this agnosticism in the middle of the nineteenth century. but we shall find nevertheless that the change which too$ #lace in menAs thin$ing in the middle of the nineteenth century had been gradually wor$ing u# to a climax since the fifteenth century.ect of nature indicate =uite clearly that anyone who ex#eriments with #rocesses of nature must be filled with a certain inner reverence. the $nowledge gleaned from a study of external nature enables us to understand the #rocesses at wor$ during the embryonic #eriod of the life of a human being. <t was the aim of a man li$e de Maistre to bring to life again in the modern age. 5ot of course with clear consciousness. < could tell you of many ideas and views which would #rove to you the difference of outloo$ in these earlier centuries. as a matter of fact. The human being. The idea would be ridiculed. :e find too. :hen we #eruse boo$s on the sub. 'x#eriments with mineral substances. that his soul must first be suffused with a mood of #iety. must only be carried out in a mood that finds favour in the eyes of certain Divine >eings. but some measure of understanding at least must be #resent in studying the develo#ment of thought through the centuries. >ut this is no longer the case as soon as we get bac$ to the time #receding the fifteenth century and towards the Middle -ges. <t is. but < will give one exam#le only. <n those days 9 and < re#eat that these things can only be discovered nowadays by %#iritual %cience 9 it was said. Modern thought is altogether unfitted to gras# the real meaning of original sin. because the laws of the animal organisation are different from those of the human organism. The #rocesses at wor$ in the being of man between birth and death are not to be ex#lained in the light of the #rocesses of outer nature. 6uter nature lies there before me. but out of dim feeling. all the writings on the sub. dating from the time #receding the fifteenth century. a man engaged in the investigation of nature before the fifteenth century said to himself. <n this sense there is something in the inner being of man that is o#enly manifest in outer nature. if it is rightly a##lied. but the laws of this outer nature wor$ only in the #rocesses of my #hysical body as it was before birth. the men of his day 9 he is s#ea$ing of the beginning of the nineteenth century 9 had no insight into the difference between sin and crime. The two conce#ts had become #ractically synonymous.ust thin$ of what would ha##en to-day if it were demanded of someone wor$ing to #roduce a chemical reaction in a laboratory. Those who observe the way in which thoughts are ex#ressed 9 and when it is a matter of discovering historical connections this is far more im#ortant than the actual content of the thoughts 9 will realise that these voices of the nineteenth century were the offs#ring of a tendency that was already beginning to ma$e itself felt in the eighteenth century. 5evertheless. until his death. as we follow the develo#ment of thought bac$ to the time of the fifteenth century. :e shall not there find direct evidence of the urge that became so insistent in the nineteenth century to unfold a new conce#tion of the social order. will find that he must a##roach them with an attitude of mind =uite different from that which he will naturally bring to bear u#on literature of the eighteenth or nineteenth centuries. -nd when we understand the nature of the laws and forces at wor$ in the human organism. <t is not easy for the modern mind to gras# this idea. These inner #rocesses are not the same as those at wor$ in the world of nature outside the human being. 'nlightened minds before the fifteenth century would have set no store by such definitions of original sin as are given by modern theology. how it gradually loses faith even in itself. to follow the line of develo#ment bac$ into the seventeenth. #asses through certain #rocesses and #hases in his inner life. 5evertheless. 'x#eriments with the #rocesses of nature must be accom#anied by a moral attitude of soul 9 so it was said.8 /et me now try to describe the idea men had of original sin before the days of the fifteenth century.

it wor$s an so strongly that when Goethe had com#leted his early training and #roduced his first wor$s. :e on our side have no desire to use these methods. <n this century too we find the onslaught of those forces by which the 4oman 'm#ire was ultimately su#erseded. no longer that of sin in its original meaning. 'uro#e begins to be astir with the activities of the Goths and the Gandals. eleventh. :e will ensure for ourselves a realm where we need sim#ly faith and #ersonal conviction 9 not scientific $nowledge. Page H of 1? . The death of Fulian the -#ostate. in the o#inion of de Maistre. the only #ossible way of #reserving this conce#t of original sin was to bring about an even more radical se#aration of religion and scientific $nowledge. but that things are not at all the same in earlier centuries. <t begins to a##ear a few hundreds of years before the fifteenth century but becomes more and more decisive as the centuries #ass. had been absorbed by )hristianity but in the fourth century were a##roaching their final #hase of decline. the movements $nown as the 4enaissance and the 4eformation. in the nineteenth century. <ts significance will be brought home to us all the more when we realise that events after the turning-#oint in the fifteenth century. %uch were the views of an earlier time. if he does not ma$e his being fit to become #art of a world of su#ersensible law 9 then he falls into sin. >ut if. through the twelfth. the conce#t of crime alone. is little by little lift ed away from its hinges and disa##ears as an influence.D. The Goths ma$e their way into the 'astern 4oman 'm#ire. for these forces wor$ as do the forces of nature outside the human being. until. :e can go bac$ century alter century. into the moral world order and the outcome is the birth of a conce#t li$e that of 7original sin8 which was an altogether scientific conce#t before the days of the fifteenth century. Direction of the whole of the s#iritual and mental life falls into the hands of the #riests@ s#irituality in its universal. to the idea of the mingling of the natural with the moral world order. after birth. however. to ma$e a connecting lin$ between natural science and the moral world. unfolding its blossom in the outer world of s#ace. seventh and sixth centuries. <t was said that man falls into sin when he gives himself over to the forces by which his develo#ment in the motherAs womb was #romoted. bear witness to unbro$en #rogress. cosmic as#ect vanishes. The history of this fourth century of our era is truly remar$able. but no trace of #rogressive evolution in the world of thought such as begins in the fifteenth century and in the middle of the nineteenth century undergoes the radical change of which we have s#o$en. Dnowledge was relegated to science and religion set out to secure the realm of faith because the #owers of the human soul were not strong enough to combine the two. The headway made by )hristianity was such that )onstantine had been obliged to #roclaim religious freedom for the )hristians and to #lace )hristianity on an e=ual footing with the old #agan forms of religion. suddenly. :e find there a more stationary condition of the world of thought and then. :e come finally to a most significant #oint in the s#iritual life of 'uro#e. -nd so. <n the nineteenth century. ex#ressing itself in the thought of men li$e Galileo and )o#ernicus and ultimately leading on to the radical turning-#oint in the nineteenth century. denote a $ind of return to conditions as they were in the fourth century of the )hristian era. +H? there ta$es #lace the momentous battle of (adriano#le. brought to light once again by the 4enaissance. mar$s the #assing of one who strove with might and main to restore to the civilised #eo#les of 'uro#e im#ulses that had reigned su#reme for centuries. for the conce#t of sin could only have meaning when men understood the inter#lay between the natural and moral worlds. tenth. and how the remnants of its thought #ass over to the 4oman )atholic )hurch. The blood of the so-called barbarians is set u# in o##osition to the dying culture of anti=uity in the %outh of 'uro#e. :e see. man gives himself over to the forces of nature. during which we find no such #rogress in the realm of thought as is a##arent from the fifteenth century onwards. Processes which belong to outer nature are woven. the fourth century -. Man would be an evil being if he grew as the #lant grows. and we find =uite a different state of things. The develo#ment of thought that has ta$en #lace since the days of Galileo and )o#ernicus. in the fourth century of our era. /et science carry out its own methods of exact research. <n the year -. a final attem#t being made by Fulian the -#ostate to reinculcate into the civilised humanity of 'uro#e the views and conce#tions of ancient Paganism. as it were. in the year +E+. these forces are wor$ing in their #ro#er s#here. ninth. conveyed any meaning to the modern mind. Going bac$wards from the fifteenth century. This exam#le shows us that the conce#ts and ideas of men in the time immediately #receding the fifteenth century were =uite different from ours. namely. -nd so we find great em#hasis being laid u#on the cleft between faith and $nowledge. :e see how the culture of Greece. for exam#le. he yearned with all his heart and soul for ancient 'uro#ean--siatic culture. This is the decisive time in the #rocess of the decline of the 4oman 'm#ire. :e see the gradual s#read of )hristianity.#rocesses of external nature. Gradually it dawns u#on us that it is #ossible to follow stage by stage the #rogressive develo#ment beginning in the middle of the fifteenth century with 5icolas )usanus. This century is a #eriod of the greatest significance in 'uro#ean thought and civilisation. religion says. too. De Maistre wanted to bring this conce#t of original sin again to the fore. This thought leads one to the conce#t of original sin.D. until. with its belief in the Gods and its #hiloso#hy. <n earlier times no such cleft existed. eighth. everything changes. we come to a lengthy #eriod generally referred to as the dar$ Middle -ges. <n nature outside the human being. but in the time #receding the fifteenth century we cannot s#ea$ of #rogress in this sense at all. leading u# to the achievements of the nineteenth century.

tragic struggle is waged in the soul of -ugustine. of which. >ut he finally ta$es refuge in the 5eo#latonic #hiloso#hy which #lainly shows that it has no insight into the inter#enetration of %#irit and matter and. 0JJ. /ater on. to begin with.D. to his )atholic view of life. an eminent rhetorician and 5eo#latonist. he cannot acce#t )hristianity. :ith might and main he struggles to find truth. (e struggles bitterly. even in its decadence. nor could they be reunited. -nd it was only after inner struggles of uns#ea$able bitterness. (e was imbued with ManichKan conce#tions but in an age when the ancient 'astern wisdom had been romanised and dogmatised to such an extent that no fundamental under standing of ManichKan teaching was #ossible. is the state of things in the age immediately following the fourth century -. :hat. but it is already decadent. and the #easantry. -ncient culture is still alive in -ugustineAs environment. to discover the immediate reality of divine forces in cloud and mountain. together with the landowning #o#ulation in %outhern 'uro#e. is the essence of ManichKismI The teachings that have come down to us in the form of tradition do not. by a #rofoundly significant occurrence. -n inner. These im#ulses die down and vanish. religious tolerance is #roclaimed by the 'm#eror )onstantine@ in the year +E+. -ugustine writes his &onfessions. a man li$e -ugustine ex#erienced the death of the 'astern view of the world. then. this conce#tion came to be $nown by the name of dualism. <n the fourth century -. the last ho#e of a restoration of ancient thought and outloo$ falls to the ground@ (adriano#le is con=uered by the Goths in the year +H?.D. but it led him out of his de#th@ the mind of his time was no longer ca#able of rising to ideas which had been accessible to an older. but which humanity had now outgrown. nebulous %#irit. The old communal life is su#erseded by a system of commerce a$in to that #revailing among the barbarians of the 5orth. had a##eared in another garb in the culture of Greece and 4ome. 5o cleft must divide %#irit from nature. as it were on tables of stone. and there remain the #easantry. has #assed into its #eriod of decline.I 'ducation and culture had vanished into the cities. -nd what ha##ensI Fust when he has reached the #oint of doubting truth itself. The only ho#e of understanding ManichKism is to bring the light of %#iritual %cience to bear u#on it. Then. and. bringing as it were to a $ind of culmination the inner struggles in the life of soul through which it was the destiny of 'uro#ean civilisation to #ass. having no #ossibilities for the future. in all existence. (e ex#erienced it in ManichKism. <n the year 0JJ. %#iritual life in the real sense ma$es no headway. The aim of those who adhered to the teachings of Mani was to #erceive the %#iritual in all things material. are inculcated into the uneducated #easant #o#ulation of 'uro#e@ and not until these im#ulses have been inculcated does the blood now flowing in the veins of the #eo#le of 'uro#e wor$ in the direction of awa$ening the s#irit which becomes manifest for the first time in the fifteenth century. nor can they ever ma$e it really intelligible to us. of 5eo#latonism and even with Gree$ sce#ticism. The ManichKans strove to attain a living $nowledge of the inter#lay between the s#iritual and the material worlds. that he finally found his way to the thought and outloo$ of 4oman )atholic )hristianity. he had been an ardent adherent@ he ex#erienced it too in 5eo#latonism. but to no #ur#ose. fused with the #eo#les who were #ressing downward from the 5orth. 6riental thought had already fallen into decadence but in the teachings of Mani we find a note that is both familiar and full of significance. :e must realise the im#ortance of this world-historic event. in s#ite of its greatness and ins#iration. /iving in the midst of the fading culture of anti=uity. 9 <n the year +++. then. having wrestled with the teachings of Mani. The im#ulses of an earlier s#irituality which had been ta$en over and remoulded by the #riesthood. does no more than reach out towards abstract. The wor$ of the #riesthood is carried on =uite inde#endently of the Gree$ elements which gradually fade out. living in the #eo#les who were coming down from the 5orth into the Graeco-4oman world. :hile -ugustine is gradually resigning ho#e of understanding a s#irit-filled world of nature. -ugustine writes these &onfessions in the year -. but torn with gnawing doubt. in the following centuries. -ugustine is a ty#ical re#resentative of the life of thought as it was in the fourth century -. more instinctive form of cognition. The two must be realised as one. he is led. (is mind is stee#ed in what this wisdom. This attitude of mind made a dee# im#ression u#on the young -ugustine. with the last remnants of this culture surviving in ManichKism and 5eo#latonism. originating in the ancient 'ast. we find many ty#ical re#resentatives of the forces and im#ulses wor$ing at such a momentous #oint of time in the evolution of humanity. with the murder of Fulian the -#ostate. while he is even #assing through the #hase of des#ising the world of sense and idolising the abstract s#irituality of 5eo#latonism. we find the 4oman #riesthood s#reading )hristianity among this #easant #eo#le who #ractically constituted the whole #o#ulation. of losing his bearings altogether along the tortuous #aths of the decadent learning of anti=uity in the fourth century Page ? of 1? .:hat. as a young man. in #lant and animal. The next stage is the gradual fading away of that s#iritual life which. The significance of this century is at once a##arent when we thin$ of the following dates. the landowning #o#ulace and the element with which they have now fused. <n the light itself they sought to find both wisdom and goodness.D. %#irit and nature 9 once ex#erienced as a living unity 9 were se#arated. has to offer.D. (e stands there.

of -rian )hristianity as o##osed to the -thanasian )hristianity of -ugustine. after they had mingled with the #easantry and the landowning classes.8 -nd he turns to the 5ew Testament. They #ictured (irn with their faculties of ancient clairvoyance as the invisible. There could be no more stri$ing exam#le of this than the boc$ that has remained as a memorial of the ancient Goths 9 :ulfilaAs translation of the >ible. Gairthai vil. we find the human mind involved in the com#licated networ$ of :estern culture but also in an element which constitutes the starting-#oint of a new im#ulse. Fah aflet uns. in this fourth century of our era. through the voice of a child. The /ordAs Prayer. is built u#. un#olished soul of these #eo#les there emerges an element of lofty. Geihnai namo thein@ Buimai thiudinassus theins. Gairthai vil.a theins. we can feel in :ulfilaAs translation of the >ible how dee#ly the #agan thought of anti=uity is #ermeated with -rian )hristianity. 7Dingdom8 was the su#reme Power. (laif unsarana thana sinteinan.ah vulthus in aivius. sve in himina. .a theins. Fah ana aerthai. there is something else at wor$. :e feel Thee above in the %#irit-(eights. Paul. 75ame8 9 as a study of %anscrit will show 9 im#lied the outer manifestation or revelation of the >eing. . Lnte theina ist thiu dangardi. he becomes the #aramount influence in subse=uent centuries. men beheld the %#irit of the su#ersensible worlds in (is three-fold as#ect. The mind of -ugustine is laden with the oriental wisdom which had now become decadent in the :est. 9 :e must be able to feel what these words ex#ress. out of the confusion of thought of which -ugustine was so ty#ical a re#resentative. (e is a ty#ical re#resentative of this learning and then. but whose instructors. -tta unsar thu in himinam. as a man reveals himself in his body. fragment by fragment. Fah ni briggais uns in fraistubn. sve in himina. Gairthai vil.ah veis afletam thaim s$ulam unsaraim. <n the de#ths. To this %#irit they #aid veneration in the words . to the '#istles of %t. 7:ill8 indicated the %#irit shining through the Power and the 5ame. 7Ta$e and read. to which the civilisation of ancient 4ome was giving #lace. is as follows. he thin$s he hears the voice of a child calling to him from the next garden. to ta$e one exam#le. and is led through the voice of the child to 4oman )atholicism. however. -nd so. su#ersensible Ding who rules (is Dingdom as no earthly Ding. but they may be rendered thus. <t is an im#ulse that mingles with what has come over from the 'ast and from the seemingly barbarian #eo#les by whom 4oman civilisation was gradually su#erseded. May Thy Dingdom come to us.ah mahts. :ulfilaAs translation of the >ible is the offs#ring of an archaic form of thought. %omething that is #regnant with inner life echoes down to us from these barbarian #eo#les and their -tta unsar thu in himinam. Geihnai namo thein@ Buimai thiudinassus theins. were the #riests of the 4oman )hurch. of the -llsustaining "ather of humanity in the heights of s#iritual existence.of our era. Men were aware of the existence of a #rimordial >eing. 6ut of the raw. archaic s#irituality. . . thatei s$ulans si. sve in himina. :e must try to unfold a sensitive understanding of the language used in this translation of the >ible. 9 Thus as they ga&ed u#wards. (laif unsarana thana sinteinan. 5o actual brea$ occurs until the fifteenth century and it may truly be said that the ultimate outcome of this brea$ a##ears as the change that too$ #lace in the life of thought in the middle of the nineteenth century. . an the 'arth even as it is in (eaven. gif uns himma daga. veihnai namo thein@ Buimai thiudinassus theins. svasve .aima. -men. a$ lausei uns af thamma ubilin. Perha#s more strongly than anywhere else. -ll "ather of men. when innumerable =uestions are hurtling through his mind.ah ana aerthai. -mong the Goths this >eing was venerated as Ding and their veneration was #roclaimed in the words . Ta$e and read. -tta unsar thu in himinam.ah ana aerthai. gif uns himma daga. 9 The words of this wonderful #rayer cannot really be translated literally into our modern language. May Thy :ill be su#reme. suddenly. May Thy 5ame be hallowed.ah ana aerthai. May Thy 5ame be hallowed. Page of 1? . This #rimordial >eing was venerated in (is three as#ects.a theins. The /ordAs Prayer rendered by :ulfila.

-men. -nd so the #rayer #asses from the 75ame8 to the 7Dingdom8. :e will recognise this s#iritual 6rder u#on 'arth. . from which )ei% 1)ei%Mbody2 is derived. subsisting as it does through the food which it receives and transmutes. <n our social life may we not be debtors one of another. 9 -ll-"ather. 9 Deliver us from the evils arising when the %#irit sin$s too dee#ly into the bodily nature. verily. -nd then from the outer. there is the confirmation. #hysical nature of the body to the element of soul in the social life and thence to the %#iritual.ah veis afletam thaim s$ulam unsaraim. we can realise in history the existence of law higher than natural law can ever be. without in any way distorting the facts. May earthly nature too be full of Thee. but live as e=uals. for this will show us how events have sha#ed themselves in this #eriod which stretches from the fourth century -. Le)ture % Dornach. we desire that this threefold order shall reign in the social life as it reigns with Thee in the heights.9 %o may it be on 'arth. shall be holy. <t mingled with those #easant #eo#les whose mental life is regarded by history as being almost negligible. Lnte theina ist thiu dangardi. The #rayer s#ea$s then of the 7Dingdom8 that is to reign su#reme from the su#ersensible worlds. . The word debt among the Goths means debt in the moral as well as in the #hysical. <n saying the words. whose :ill shall reign. and our body daily renewed through earthly nourishment. < wanted.D. -nd again. but rather drawing the real threads that bind them together. -men.9 Fah aflet uns. be radiant with s#iritual light. from the bodily manifestation in the %#irit. 9 Theina ist thiu dangardi. thatei s$ulans si. Nea. so may that which in us becomes outwardly manifest and must daily be "or Thine is the Dingdom. social life. .ah vulthus in avius. -men. <t finally came to a climax and led on then to the fundamental change in thought and outloo$ of which we have heard in this lecture. <n this su#ersensible 7Dingdom8 men are not debtors one of another. 1Eth May. The Trinity in the su#ersensible world is thus to #enetrate into and find ex#ression in the social order of the Material world. 9 < have given only one exam#le of how. /ater on we will consider their esoteric connections. no being over which the rulershi# is not Thine. . whose 5ame beto$ens the out er manifestation of the %#irit. "or the %u#ersensible shall reign. %uch are the connections.ah mahts. to describe the facts from the exoteric #oint of view. whose Dingdom we will recognise.ah vulthus in aivius. svasve . #roceeding from the body. Fah ni briggais uns in fraistubn. and how the im#ulses of this e#och live within us still. 9 'ven as Thy 75ame8 denotes thy body. . not the #ersonal 9 shall reign. a$ lausei uns af thamma ubilin. Lnte theina ist thiu dangardi. -nd this is confirmed in the words . The %u#ersensible 9 not the material. Thus the second #art of the #rayer declares that the order reigning in the s#iritual heights must be im#licit in the social life u#on 'arth. to our own age. :e must try to understand the meaning of the Gothic word Hlaif. . so too may our body be s#iritualised. to the 7Dingdom8. May we stand firm in s#irit and in body. the form in which Thou art outwardly manifest. 9 Thine is the Power and the /ight and the Glory. %uch was the im#ulse living among the Goths.aima. 9 "or on 'arth there is no thing.ah mahts. shall be 'm#eror and Ding. in the first #lace. 7Give us this day our daily bread. and may the trinity in the social life of 'arth be lin$ed with the su#er-earthly Trinity. the Power and the revealed Glory.ah mahts. 1 !1 Page 1J of 1? . >ut this im#ulse unfolded with increasing ra#idity as we reach the time of the nineteenth century. and so leads on to the social order among men. at the end. lead the %#irit into dar$ness@ deliver us from the evils by which the %#irit is cast into dar$ness.ah vulthus in aivius. and the all-su#reme /ove between men in the social life. :e shall realise then that an understanding of these connections is essential to the attainment of true insight for our wor$ and thought at the #resent time.8 we have no feeling for what the word Hlaif denoted here. 9 May we not succumb to those forces which. 'ven as Thy 5ame.

:e drew attention to a distinguishing feature of that time. >ut these ancestors first began to be worshi#ed long after they had #assed away. these men had s#iritual life away in the 'ast which culminated in a certain religious insight. -nd if we loo$ bac$ to the teachers and the #riests of these #eo#les we find that they were advanced s#irits whose foremost tas$ was to inter#ret what the individual saw in his dream-#ictures. 5ow it might at first sight a##ear as if we were trying to show too close a connection between two #eriods that are so very widely se#arated in #oint of time. To-day we will begin where we left off yesterday. but u#on what was instinctively ex#erienced as dreamli$e clairvoyant ideas. :e must try to form a concrete idea of it. 1 !1. -ll rights reserved by the Philosophisch Anthroposophischer !erlag. the /ombards. "or there were certain ideas which arose in =uite another way from the way our ideas of to-day are formed. albeit dream-#ictures which he ex#erienced in his awa$e consciousness. whose inner #rocesses they felt. and this worshi# was in no way based u#on abstract ideas. -t that time men who sought a higher culture only found it through contact with the #hiloso#hy. notably in the %lav world. "or it is not only in the chemical retorts that cosmic #rocesses wor$ according to law. :e have to be =uite clear that -ugustine was altogether the child of the conditions which had develo#ed in the southwestern #arts of the 'uro#ean--frican civili&ation of the day. This s#iritual life was reflected in sagas which have been handed down. when they #ressed forward from the east of 'uro#e towards the west.ust briefly outlined. had ex#erienced at a much earlier time@ they ex#erienced what we can call a religion which was closely connected with the blood relationshi#s of the #eo#le. < (-G' tried to show how about the middle of last century a radical transformation too$ #lace in s#iritual life. who grew entirely out of the %outh-:est@ and we com#ared them with another #ersonality. with the downfall of ancient culture and of the 4oman em#ire. Dornach. )ollison. <t was entirely an inner ex#erience that was still closely bound u# with ideas arising in the body. 1Eth May. Persian and succeeding cultures s#rang. which #ervaded everything@ and the effects of these ex#eriences influenced every as#ect of daily life.D. which had its life in dreamli$e ideas. :e #laced before our souls two re#resentative #ersonalities@ one of them was -ugustine. forced to migrate by the forward #ressure of the -siatic hordes. by whom all rights are reserved . >efore the migrations had begun. if < can use the ex#ression without causing misunderstanding. These tribes had still this $ind of ancestor-worshi#. the Gandals. This was of course derived more from the native stoc$ left behind at an earlier stage of evolution than that of the u##er class. -nd now the migrations began. :e no longer feel the seething of the body. >ut one must not thin$ that there was therefore no s#iritual life in the masses. literature. to #enetrate into the mysteries of the cosmos. so these men too tried through what they had ex#erienced inwardly. (istory $nows very little about it. art and science which had for a long time been #ursued in a certain u##er level of society. and in these sagas you will find confirmation of what < have . -nd still less can we thin$ of 4oman culture without wides#read slavery./ecture given at Dornach. During the #eriod of the migrations it was their greatest s#iritual consolation that they had this inner clairvoyant life which was inter#reted by their #riests. These #eo#le had a certain intensive inward sense that in what too$ #lace in their bodies all sorts of cosmic mysteries were active. the (erules. >efore the migrations began these #eo#le have had a long #eriod of settled life. -nd out of these ideas which were called forth by what we might describe as the inward seething of the organism. but it is also echoed in the sagas and myths < lived in these #eo#les. which is for us such an im#ortant turning-#oint. from whom the <ndian. :hat they worshi##ed were the ancestors of certain families. Ta$e. :ulfila. <t was their ancestors whose voices they heard for centuries in these dream formations. <t was while they were thus settled that they first ex#erienced the southern oriental #eo#les. there develo#ed the #ictorial imaginations which these men connected with their ancestors. The life of this culture de#ended u#on its #ossessors being remote from the thought and feeling #revailing in the masses. and with the s#iritual stream out of which :ulfila s#rang. in certain religious ideas. Page 11 of 1? . through their own organism. :e even have to thin$ of Gree$ culture as the #ossession of an u##er class which relegated its more menial wor$ to slaves. that of the Gothic translator of the >ible. for instance. "rom a shorthand re#ort unrevised by the lecturer. :hen we have ideas nowadays our soul life comes into #lay more or less inde#endently of our bodily constitution. >ut this very thought will serve to call attention to certain interconnections in the history of humanity.ust as to-day. 'nglish translation by #ermission of (. -ncestors were the rulers of #eo#le living in =uite small communities. but it was nevertheless a s#iritual life. They were inter#reters of what the individual ex#erienced.D. but in the human body also. <t is only through s#iritual science that this can be observed. the #eo#le who over-ran the 4oman 'm#ire 9 the Goths. but it was very li$e what was carried into the southern #arts of 'uro#e by the barbarian tribes. thus before the fourth century -. -nd . There was an exce#tionally strong s#iritual life among them. in village tribal communities. and how moreover the #eculiar configuration of the nineteenth century thought and the s#iritual life in general that underwent this transformation can be traced bac$ to another crucial turning #oint in the west which we have to loo$ for in the fourth century -. by means of the #rocesses which ta$e #lace in their retorts chemists see$ with their abstract reason to understand the laws of the universe.

some mountain which contained let us say. -nd what was it that the church had doneI <n these southern regions the #eriod of transition from the time conce#tion to the s#atial conce#tion of the world was long since #ast. and the inter#reter. and the signs read from the s#ecial forms into which the twigs fell. The lower classes of the 4oman #eo#le #rovided good material for such a birth of ritual. this ritual could also be im#lanted among them. our inter#reters of a corres#onding life of the soul. -nd at this #oint develo#ment begins again. the #ictorial ex#ression of what in earlier times was a direct ex#erience of the su#ersensible world. who was in fact the leader of the whole s#iritual life. the inter#reters of inner soul-ex#erience. :hen the transition ta$es #lace from the time-outloo$ to the s#ace-outloo$. The other stream must be characterised differently. <n the O6ur "atherP of :ulfila we see that in these nomadic #eo#les )hristianity was absorbed into the ancestral cults and the cults connected with locality. with a de#th of feeling left to them from their old ancestor-imaginations and dreams. Thus these tribes became more and more susce#tible to the influence which the 4oman )atholic )hurch.D. men felt something holy to be connected with the #lace. %o long as men continue to live in their time-conce#tions. had con. They were able to do that because men lived in small village communities. had been accustomed to exercise over the southern #eo#les. The Goths were among the tribes absorbed in this way.ured before the soul the #icture of the revered forefather. s#ecial treasures of metal.5ow shortly after the end of the fourth century these tribes settled down again. in that the living /ast %u##er became the symbolic rite. They became. <t is most remar$able what a radical change now ta$es #lace in the s#iritual life of these #eo#le through their #eculiar talent. which was now to reveal the su#ersensible world in symbol. The transition from the ancient celebration of the /ast %u##er into the sacrifice of the Mass arose. %ome of them were absorbed into the #eo#les who had already for a long time inhabited the southern #eninsulas. from the other side. but with a much greater freshness as a fol$ for ex#eriencing s#iritual reality in dreams@ something which in the southern regions had long since been transformed into other forms of s#iritual life. The entire s#iritual life became attached to the #lace. now became the guardians what one might call the signs c 9 the #eculiar reflection of the sun in this or that waterfall or other feature of nature. 4eligious #erce#tions lost their time a character and too$ on a s#atial character. They were engaged in ex#laining what man ex#erience. wherever there was a #lace from which one could watch storms and so on. for their u##er classes had been swe#t away in the time of -ugustine. where twigs were #luc$ed from trees and thrown down. >ut now they have become settled. that is to say they were absorbed into the lower classes of these #eo#les. it is true. Thus we see that after the fourth century the #ossession of a fixed dwelling #lace becomes an essential characteristic of these #eo#les. could address himself to the individual. now attached itself to the #lace. and something of extraordinary im#ortance always ha##ens in a #eriod of transition from a time outloo$ to a s#atial outloo$. for they began to meet it with understanding. 4eligion underwent a metamor#hosis into a religion of s#ace. but mainly those Goths who #eo#led the countries of middle and western 'uro#e@ those who settled in the northern regions of southern 'uro#e maintained their own existence and ac=uired a #ermanent home there. or to a small grou#. then this living element is more or less su##ressed. <nto this sacrifice of the Mass. he inter#rets the symbol. They were gifted not only with s#ecial racial dis#ositions. This had already ta$en #lace for the lower classes of the #eo#le in the southern regions. -nd that constitutes the Page 1! of 1? . :herever there was some s#ecial grove. that is to say over the lower classes which had been left behind after the u##er classes have been swe#t away. -nd thus ritual gradually arises. :hat in earlier times had ex#ressed itself in ancestor-worshi#. the #riests. and through their #eculiar endowment a new $ind of s#iritual life develo#ed in them.ects of inter#retation. (e can no longer treat of what the individual tells them and ex#lain to him what he has ex#erienced. christianised. those who in the sense of ancient times we can call learned men. something which then became transformed into the system of 4unes cultivated in certain #laces. These #ractices were now #ermeated with the new conce#tions )hristianity brought. so to say. -nd the gods that used to be ancestral became gods of #lace. the #henomena of the cloud-drifts in certain valleys and so on 9 these are now the ob. -nd now the whole s#iritual life begins to change. :hat the 4oman )atholic )hurch built u# as cult was built u# with exact $nowledge of this worldhistoric course of human evolution. -nd as the northern tribes had also made the transition to a s#iritual life associated with #lace. there. The #riest can no longer refer to what the individual has ex#erienced. a certain living ex#erience #asses over into an ex#erience through symbol and cult. flowed #rimeval holy mystery usages which had been handed down in the lower classes of the #eo#le. so to say. :hat is something living is thus transformed into something bound to a #lace. < have described how the ancient ancestor-worshi# lived on. The human being now sees the symbol. rolling over from the east u#on the declining 4oman 'm#ire. since it had become the state church in the fourth century. This is the bases of one of the streams which start in the fourth century -. Those who had been #reviously the inter#reters of dreams.

These #eo#le. li$e Pelagius and some others.P These men were within a much more real element of inner ex#erience. the sentence. how to form his sentences rightly. inner intelligence. < will hear what the other man has to say@ #erha#s something else will emerge from his organism. one entered what was called the grammar class. then he #assed on from the study of grammar to the study of rhetoric. s#ecially coming to the fore. The im#ortant thing for this -rian )hristianity. /ogic arose through -ristotle. This was what the #eo#le who as#ired to culture had to #ractice. :hat -ugustine ex#erienced was something which had risen into the u##er class through many filtrations. The dogmatic conflict in the bac$ground is not so im#ortant. and the 6riental s#iritual life which had animated Greece and still animated 4ome was not won through thin$ing. was essentially 4oman culture. This habit of living not in oneself but in an external element ex#resses itself in the education that was given. <t is essential to see this culture as it was at that time and as it then lived on through the centuries. 6n the other hand the )hristianity that -ugustine ex#erienced had #assed through the culture of the u##er classes of the southern #eo#les.ect was to train the #u#il above all in the a##ro#riate use of symbol. through the ado#tion of )hristianity. in rhetoric. 6ur #resent-day educational system is something which remains over from the real culture of that time. <t is a mere su#erstition very commonly to be found in history to su##ose that men have always thought in the way they thin$ today. :hen we discuss things to-day we have a feeling that we ma$e use of a certain activity of thought. There the ob. and one can see how in this res#ect -ugustine was a re#resentative of his time. < have gone into this to a certain extent in my 74iddles of Philoso#hy. :e see #eo#le deriving from the life of the common #eo#le. it came. the culture of the )atholic clergy. -nd if anyone reached a higher stage of culture. they were inwardly revealed thoughts. is that in it )hristianity becomes stee#ed in a living s#iritual life which has not yet reached the stage of ritual. The latter arose out of the most elemental forces of the fol$-soul life. -nd that was the #rimary characteristic of this ancient culture. <t shows how differently these #eo#le conducted an argument in the fourth or beginning of the fifth century from the way we should do so to-day. in southern 'uro#e. we can see clearly this #rocess of externali&ation. -nd this was now ta$en over and #reserved by the 4oman )atholic clergy. as dream #ictures come. 6ne must be able to sense what such a training develo#s in a human being. -nd in the fourth century. The ideas that were formed in -sia. "or what we to-day call intelligent thought did not at that time exist. :hen these #eo#le discussed. The heathen -ugustine had grown u# amidst these religious ideas and had turned from them towards )hristianity in the way < have described. Grammar and rhetoric were the things that students had to learn.essence of -rian )hristianity. as we should say to-day. with the #leasure it gives. already had the character of thought. (e stands within a s#iritual stream which was ex#erienced by the individual in =uite a different way from the stream < have already mentioned. < have formed my own view about a certain #oint. Moreover its content is far less im#ortant for the #rogress of history than the whole configuration of soul that constituted first Greco-4oman culture and then. for even at that time =uite a lot of $nowledge was $e#t secret by certain mystery schools. and had to encounter all sorts of oriental cults and religious ideas. which traveled with the Goths and the other German tribes from the 'ast towards the :est by a #ath which did not lead through 4ome. even when it was thought. -nd the oriental and south-euro#ean scholars only differed from those of the north in that the #ictures that came to the northerners at first stimulated ideas of their ancestors. and later were associated with #articular localities and became more or less ritualistic. but with structure. the form of s#eech. -nd what lived in beauty of s#eech. which flowed together in a great city of 4ome. The entire thought of the Gree$ e#och right u# to the fourth century -. the man became externalised by this culture. (e #ays much more attention to the structure of s#eech and to the connection of thought. Then one assimilated all other $nowledge that was not $e#t secret. The corres#ondence between Ferome and -ugustine is illuminating in this res#ect. although they believe themselves to be entirely Page 1+ of 1? . #articularly how to lead his sentences to a certain climax. but they were not thoughts won by inner soul activity. -fter one had mastered the first elements of $nowledge. that is closely related to the dream ex#erience. <n short. This difference is seen also in -ugustineAs attitude in condemning heretics of various sorts. at that time -ugustine was a student. -nd there was good reason for this. Through this #urely grammatical and rhetorical $ind of education he is brought into a certain connection with the surface of his nature. that it was not concerned with the inner soul ex#erience. :hat was not $e#t secret was im#arted through grammar. which we should to-day call #rimary education. but thought came to the human being of itself li$e a dream. #eo#le li$e the #riests of Donatism. in the form of ex#ression. 6ne ex#erienced what one called $nowledge and elaborated for oneself only the word. but #erha#s my organism does not give me the right view. <n the grammar classes one was taught structure of s#eech@ one learned how to use s#eech #ro#erly in accordance with the usages established by the #oets and the writers. when Greece was already decadent. the discourse. was =uite different. There is no logical activity. Particularly was this the case in the 'ast. as is the case to-day. he is within what sounds through his mouth far more than is under the influence of thought. but through the medium of s#eech. and became the culture of )atholic )hristianity. if you will not misunderstand the ex#ression.8 Thought was not hatched out of inner soul activity.D. this living in the turn of words. one of them would have the feeling 9 O:ell. as for exam#le -ugustine. to the clairvoyant ex#erience.

ustice. but that there exists an external ordnance of the )hurch which is fulfilled in ba#tism. in contrast to the other bac$ground that originated in the north-east. (ence from #resent-day historical literature we get no idea of what too$ #lace among the wide masses of the #eo#le.ectivity. %omething was at wor$ which indicated a =uite s#ecial dis#osition of soul in two res#ects. so to say an astral sacrament. must come from the man himself. <t was something =uite a#art from their #artici#ation in the s#read of )atholic doctrine. something which hovered above the essential evolution of humanity. western and even of southern 'uro#e the towns #layed a very small #art. in which a certain #o#ular element lived. we see how Pelagianism wins adherents. >ut something very remar$able #ermeated this remains of an ancient #ro#hetic and clairvoyant dream-life. These #remonitions ex#ressed themselves in sagas. half-slee#ing ex#eriences. should be #oured out over man$ind. in a far dee#er sense than the ancient Mysteries were $e#t secret. The #oint is not that ba#tism signifies something for the soulAs ex#erience. of the three members of the human being it was not so much the nerve-system 9 which is more connected with the outer world 9 but the rhythmic system which was active@ and in that the rhythmic system was drawn forth out of the organism it showed itself in clairvoyant dreams which #assed by word of mouth from one to another. to sin. The im#ortant =uestion is not what is in the child. with matters in which their s$ill #layed a #art. one sees that when men began to #onder and to dream and to build u# their legendary sagas in their mythologies. but through the ritual wor$ing suggestively u#on them@ however. (e re. is to #lace things a false light. only give the traditional descri#tion of what lea$s out into greater #ublicity from the /atin ecclesiastical stream. but what the )hurch as external ordnance bestows u#on it. but it is a =uestion of admitting into the Dingdom of God which has ob. this was the )hurch. which at the same time laid claim to all science coming from the ancient culture and clothed it in the /atin tongue. :hat too$ #lace among the masses was something li$e this. :e see ob. in mysterious hints as to what one or another had ex#erienced s#iritually in the course of his wor$. these dreams are always connected either with events. :hat went on in these village communities was an inner soul life through which echoed the omens of the divinity or s#irituality associated with the #lace. (ence he wor$s to bring about gradually the #assing over of the )hurch into the external institution.oy.D. or with tas$s which were im#osed u#on them.ective existence. a s#iritual life which stood first and foremost under the influence of human nature itself. The external history boo$s. ha##iness and beauty. 'verywhere human beings had #remonitions. for it is not a =uestion of what the human being inwardly wills. The value of the human soul living in the body matters less than that the universal s#irit that lives in the sacrament. stress the #oint that manAs relation to . -t first there were only village communities@ in the coloni&ation of the whole of middle. when they describe their halfwa$ing.ects the view that a relation to the s#iritual world or to )hrist can come from an individual human im#ulse. as a true re#resentative of the )atholic element. To -ugustine it seems #articularly dangerous to believe that the human being should first be #re#ared to receive ba#tism. The individual #lays no #art. for instance. did nevertheless develo# a s#iritual life of their own. -nd above all it attains this ex#ansion through the exclusion of the wide masses of the #eo#le from the essential substance of religious culture. -nd the centuries between the fourth and the fourteenth stand under the sign of these two #arallel streams. The very rich s#iritual life develo#ed throughout 'uro#e at that time. -nd thus we see a whole series of #eo#le one after the other who cannot believe that it has any sense to ba#ti&e children and thereby to bring about forgiveness of sins. <n all this there was always an element of Page 10 of 1? . their most significant dreams 1these were always associated with #laces2. who watched something which they could not understand. <t is a matter of tremendous significance that in the centuries which follow this substance is #ro#agated in the /atin language. and in this way the villagers shared with one another fear and . <t was this that made it #ossible for the )hurch to s#read in this 'uro#ean element. "rom the whole character of these stories. and told their fellows about them. which continued to flourish in the village communities whilst )atholic doctrine #assed over their heads.ections made against the )hristianity issuing from 4ome. That goes on right u# to the fifteenth century. and one can see that everywhere in 'uro#e the organi&ation of the human being was involved in this characteristic s#iritual life. and how -ugustine.ected a conce#tion of sin connected with human sub. onward )hristianity is #ro#agated in the /atin tongue. which were still to be found among the common #eo#le in the nineteenth century. :hen #eo#le told of their weightiest #remonitions. who #artici#ated in the cult. (e re. "or only the outer ritual #enetrated the masses. "or what history usually relates is only the outer form of what went on in the souls of men. >ut the )hurch understood how to clothe the abstract element in the ritualistic form which again arose from below. but the im#ortant thing is the web of abstract dogmas and ideas which is s#read over humanity. attac$s it. They develo#ed a magical life. -nd from the fourth century -. -nd what was transmitted. way over the heads of men. these men who only saw the symbolic rite. )hristianity was $e#t secret by those who taught at right u# to the eleventh and twelfth centuries. from which the ancient culture had vanished. -nd that is essentially the setting in which -thanasian )hristianity lived.)hristian. with =uestions which were as$ed them from out of the s#iritual world. <t is as it were a stream flowing over the heads of men. even the histories of the mind. 'verywhere #eo#le saw intimations from one or other of these. The most significant life develo#ed in small village communities@ such towns as did exist were really only large villages@ in these large village communities there was the )atholic )hurch. "or to associate everything with the #ersonality of >oniface.

-nd this s#iritual life goes on right into the ninth. ma$es his way u# into the world of culture. little by little. in these towns another $ind of thin$ing began to develo#. There was constant trading in both directions #articularly in the middle of the middle ages. Thus we see how this /atin element develo#ed in the towns in a more and more abstract form. became mixed u# with what s#rang directly out of the #eo#le. something of what has develo#ed in the heads of men in the u##er strata of society gradually tric$les down into the lower strata. tenth. and although they still have forms of thought derived from nature. the abstract ecclesiastical element. That is the #hysiological basis of the wides#read s#iritual ex#erience of these men who lived in village communities. but also. then you must bear in mind that they s#rang from #eo#le who had develo#ed without any understanding of the /atin culture which #assed over their heads. of course. Paracelsus and many others. -nd if you want to understand figures such as Facob >oehme. There is a great to-do when Dante. brought to the householder not only s#ices. :hat they brought with them was an inner #ersonal life which was an echo of what was ex#erienced in the country. They are not the main thing. for some of the #eo#le who settled in the towns came from the villages and they with very s#ecial s#iritual endowment made their own contribution. astrology. <nto this. fortune telling. #enetrated the deeds of )harlemagne of which history tells you@ but those are only surface ex#eriences. Then we see the great outburst of #eo#le from below u#wards in various countries. but which now manifested itself in a more abstract form. 6f course. <t was always something of the riddle in this dream life. <t is of course true that the main streams of s#iritual life. therefore. in the ninth. we see life centering itself in the towns. we see crusades arise. as it Page 13 of 1? .delicate =uestioning which came from the s#iritual world. :e see other events light u# in this stream. twelfth and thirteenth centuries there develo#ed the first trace of that intelligence which we see arise in the fifteenth century among the leading 'uro#ean #eo#les. and there. <n the towns of the eleventh. and the ghostly and magical character of the stories men recount gets charmingly mixed with the )hrist and (is deeds. -ll that develo#ed as #o#ular alchemy. had to overcome something or other. because < want to lay the greatest stress u#on the things that external history #laces in a false light@ and too little im#ortance is attached to other currents that were #resent. their attention was more directed towards what was human. -nd someone who had #robably never been in the east himself but had only traded with men from the east. because it too$ over everything from the constitution of the 4oman em#ire. These men were cut off from nature. and built u# the alliance between )hurch and %tate which in the eleventh and twelfth centuries was very close. :hen we come to the tenth and eleventh centuries we see a change in the external life. with what came over from the east as decadent oriental life. which so to say carried the others. >ut the human element which develo#ed of the towns was still under the influence of this earlier state of mind. -s. but s#iritual life. had to carry out s$illful actions. and what comes from the human being himself is sometimes overlaid with what comes from the >ible or the Gos#el. but at this time more mar$edly so. and eleventh centuries. <n this way oriental ideas in an advanced stage of decadence were brought over into 'uro#e. <t had less influence on /atin culture. they already began to develo# the $ind of thin$ing which was gradually directed towards intelligence. This traffic went on throughout the whole of 'uro#e. they no longer #artici#ated in the life of nature. The logic of -ristotle had a##eared. >ut then we see that it is #rimarily into social thin$ing that the )hristian element is received. >ut even that is only one instance of many similar outbursts which ha##ened because of the #eculiar manner in which the /atin culture came u# against the #o#ular element in the towns. eleventh and twelfth centuries the whole country became covered with larger towns. Peo#le had to solve riddles half in dreams. clothed in the /atin tongue. The im#ortant thing is what ta$es #lace in the village communities. <n the towns and in the surrounding villages there was a living intercourse with the east which was not merely a matter of listening to tales of adventure that which dee#ly influenced s#iritual life. tenth. though they do of course enter dee#ly into individual destiny. side by side with the economic life. far more on the wide masses of #eo#le who understood no /atin. That life of #icture-li$e wa$ing dreams which < have described to you is altogether bound u# with the soil. :e must not forget that still other streams entered into what was ta$ing #lace at that time. who came later. 'ven earlier. 5or within the /atin culture have the will to thin$ been able to ma$e any headway. "irst of all there is the commercial traffic which had in fact always existed in 'uro#e between the Danube basin and the 'ast. told in wa$ing dreams. They were cut off from the #laces in which their local cults had develo#ed. a s#iritual life tinged with 6rientalism. who controlled the s#iritual life. if somewhat abstractly and over the heads of the #eo#le. but who were in a certain way stee#ed in 6rientalism. Men living in towns had a different $ind of thought. a s#iritual life develo#ed such as < have described. assisted by his teacher. had develo#ed out of the union of what < described above as the inner ex#erience of the riddle. was the one that continued the s#iritual tradition in which -ugustine had lived@ that controlled everything and finally not only gave the towns the bisho#s. ended by giving the civil government also. who meet it with a s#irituality of their own. >ecause life in the towns was more abstract. which < need not describe to you. :e see it in 7Der (eliand8 and other #oems which arose out of )hristianity but always we see something s#iritual brought to the #eo#le.

were. gathers strength side by side with the 4oman #riesthood. but clothes thought in abstractions. They wor$ together and it is very significant that the ancient culture was transmitted in a dying language. and carried on the -cademy of Gondisha#ur. and men ac=uired mastery over that. brings its influence to bear u#on the current which we have already described as #assing over the heads of men. The two currents existed side-by-side right on into the fifteenth century. the other in their hearts. and now in the new age which dawned in the fifteenth century it . the one at wor$ above. such movements could no longer ha##en@ the only thing that could find ex#ression was what merged with the 4oman-administrative element. That now becomes inward human thin$ing. There is a cleavage in the s#iritual life. Thus we see how from the fifteenth to the nineteenth century the con=uest of natural law was the achievement of a thin$ing that was em#ty Page 1E of 1? . and became )hristian #hiloso#hy. that saved -ristotelianism. )hristian s#iritual life. >y the fourth century interest had been withdrawn from Greece. and with the aid of 5ominalism next came the con=uest of nature. grammar and dialectic develo#ed further and further in a dead language. <n the towns #eo#le were #roud of their individualism. seventeenth. made u# of the country #arishes@ thus the country con=uered the towns again. >ut at first 5ominalism had the victory. This current over the heads of men had been able to s#read everywhere in a most systematic way first in the villages. Thus we see that the fol$-element which had won for itself the reality of thought. clothed in /atin form. -nd this birth of thought out of the dreamli$e mystical element too$ #lace somewhere about the fifteenth century. there develo#ed 4ealism. -nd thus we see how Gondisha#ur. but in itself it had no content. for which universal conce#ts are merely names. found in the #rinces their leaders. The teaching that they had from -ristotle was driven into -sia. which held its own in o##osition to the 4oman-/atin element. had ex#ressed itself among the 4ussian #easants in the (ussite movement. 5ow one could thin$ thoughts. Then something ha##ened of extraordinary im#ortance. active thin$ing was born. in :ycliffism. and became itself #ermeated by what came out of the /atin element has 4oman law. :e see that even -ugustine was little influenced by this logic. < have described to you both these streams. these formulae can be called logical formulae.ective activity 9 for the first time in human evolution. its transformation into an entirely new form.oined forces with that other current which now arose. 4omanism lived on. -nd it was from the country. -nd the Gree$ #hiloso#hers were driven out. and eighteenth centuries are #rimarily under the influence of thought born from out of the ancient Gothic Germanic way of life. -nd the fifteenth. There arose the modern state.D. out of which the modern university system develo#ed. and we see that the abstract element becomes all the stronger because it is carried by the dead /atin language right u# to the fifteenth and sixteenth centuries. which had for its main ob. ins#ired thought which was half vision. 6ut of the /atin element develo#s 5ominalism. The Gree$ #hiloso#hers founded centre in -sia. There was a dim #erce#tion of 4ealism but a belief in 5ominalism. li$e a meteor. which ex#erienced thought and ex#ression of something real. <n this grammatical-rhetorical atmos#here not thought. but the garment of thought. -nd those who outside in the villages gradually came to be in o##osition to the towns. which does contain a living world-conce#tion. >ut the village communities were shut off from all this. -ll that ha##ened in the historical evolution of humanity is in a sense necessary. clothed however in 4oman formulae. although it is =uite abstract. and is then fructified by thought. in the >ohemian >rotherhood. at the same time cosmic mysteries. 6f course there then flows into all this what came through the 4enaissance. >ut u# to that time the system of 4oman law. %o that thought still had content right u# to the fourth century -. >ut < cannot describe everything to-day. the time in which rhetoric. then in the towns. where there still remained a s#ar$ of the fol$-element.ective the #ermeation of the old decadent oriental s#iritual culture with -ristotelianism. of the earlier s#iritual life. remained to begin with a faint glow under the surface. of their freedom. together with the inward ex#erience. Then came the time which as it were bore the future in its womb. -ll the old world-conce#tions contained. Thus the latter had now become so strong that what was stirring among the common #eo#le could find no further outlet@ what in the times of unrest. %#ain and the west of 'uro#e. in the heads of men. sixteenth. who had brought with him into )hristianity much of oriental culture. -ristotelianism was not transmitted through )hristianity. Thought as inner soul life brought no content with it. into which then came 4oman law. it came into /atin-ecclesiastical life by way of -frica. from the villages that the im#ulse came which drew the towns into the wider administrative structure. has to rec$on with the birth of thought. evo$ed through sub. Then the medieval #rinces rose to #ower. The thought of anti=uity. which above all had its life in the inter#retation of natural #henomena. >ut in the #o#ular stream thin$ing was born. This content had to be sought from without. as they were called. < want to #oint out some of the main things which are of s#ecial interest to us. 6ne can see this in the #ortraits #ainted at that time. but the thoughts had no content. mingled with 6rientalism. this #hiloso#hic form of -rabism. Fust as this was an inevitable develo#ment from grammar and rhetoric. became gradually clothed in abstract forms of s#eech. rhetorical formulae. Then that was fructified by the force of thought which came from below. and later the 'm#eror Fustinian had closed the %chool of Philoso#hy at -thens. <t was the -cademy of Gondisha#ur wherein a logical form of thought develo#ed with giant strides. so. 6ut of this ghostly-magical element of #resentiment. as was the case with -lbertus Magnus and Thomas -=uinas. in grammatical. >ut now that they have been fructified by thought. This led to the condemnation for heresy of 6rigen. the %cholastic #hiloso#hy.

:e see how everywhere s#irituality is driven bac$. it could a##ly itself to the sense-#erce#tible. -rt is something within the whole structure of the s#iritual life. The foundation of thought was laid. (e yearns toward Greece. laws which would never be revealed without her. There the historian says 7ignorabimus8.P -rt unveiled for him the s#irituality of the world which he was trying to ex#erience. :hy was it that in the #ortentous dreams of village #o#ulations over the whole of 'uro#e right u# to the twelfth century there was always something of this riddle-solving element. 9 he s#ea$s therein for a content. art. in :agnerian music. :e shall only understand it aright if we follow its origin from the fourth century -. Goethe says O(e to whom nature begins to unveil her o#en secrets feels an irresistible longing for her worthiest inter#reter. du >ois-4eymond. there du >ois-4eymond formulates his seven universal riddles@ they are he #ronounces his 7ignorabimus. . is a revelation of natureAs secret laws. if we $now that in it 5ominalism is living. he writes OThat is necessity. in the age of em#ty intellect. even of the time in which )hristianity begins to s#read@ one has to #ay attention to what is ta$ing #lace in the world around one #olitically and socially and culturally. in the cult of 5iet&sche. -nd now we see how in the second half of the nineteenth century there is utter des#air. 4an$e the historian of the second half of the nineteenth century is very ty#ical in this res#ect. They found their life in religious faith which was su##osed to have nothing to do with scientific $nowledge. said that scientific investigation could not #enetrate to the consciousness of matter. something which has nothing to do with reality. <t is thus that we have to understand modern s#iritual life. which still lived on. -nd such men as Goethe are li$e modern hermits. such as (egel. was born. -nd with the same rigidity and dogmatism with which once the scholastics had said that reason could not rise to the su#ersensible. the latter suffers through what is ta$ing #lace in the world of 7ignorabimus8. filled only with the im#ression of the external world of the senses.P -nd thus we see the second half of the nineteenth century run its course. but was born as a ca#acity out of all that 'uro#e had brought forth as her own. still believed that they could reach a #hiloso#hy. not in the tem#oral sense. -nd when in 4ome he finds still something of what Gree$ art has fashioned out of the de#ths of its #hiloso#hy. -nd anyone who wishes to do anything #ositive but relies not on any $ind of gnosticism. -gnosticism becomes fashionable. < mean that #reviously the barrier had been set u# in relation to this su#ersensible@ now it referred to what was su##osed to hide behind the senses.P -rt. but thought itself is ma$ing no #rogress. :e have seen that the scientist du >ois-4eymond says 7ignorabimus8 as regards matter and consciousness. out of their inner soul ex#eriences. the historian who wor$s in the same s#irit says OL#on all the wealth of existing documents historical investigations can #our its light@ but behind what is at wor$ as external historical fact there are events which seem to be #rimeval. but u#on agnosticism. how agnosticism becomes the formative reality. that is God. says Goethe. even a social #hiloso#hy. for exam#le. different from that of other men. <n the second half of the nineteenth century men thought that no longer. sha#es the state.8 -nd /eo#old von 4an$e.of all content. and religious ideas find their ex#ression in wor$s of art. -ccording to him history has to investigate the external events. becomes #olitics. >ut by the time of the 4enaissance -rt begins to be ta$en more externally.P 'verything which thus lies at the base of history he calls the 7Lrwelt8. 5atural %cience can go #retty far@ but what is there where matter lur$s. :herever you meet the s#iritual life. The content of faith was to be #rotected because it had to do with the su#ersensible. -nd it is worthy of note that Goethe has a way of turning to the #ast. because their thin$ing has become void of content and had to fill itself only with external facts and natural entities. <f one loo$s bac$ to earlier times. the religious mysteries of all #eo#les. reflection. The former is driven to ta$e refuge in certain musical dreams. <n the middle of the nineteenth century men began to be aware O:ith your thought you are con=uering natural law. >ut more and more men have a obscure ill-defined feeling OThis thin$ing of ours is all right for the external world. what is there where consciousness arises. <ndeed in the nineteenth century we see more and more how men are ha##y to be offered a #ure #hantasy in art. >ut because this em#ty thin$ing had no content. the wor$ of thin$ing. everywhere this mood is to be found. <t was the same with art. 'verywhere we find statements as to the boundaries of $nowledge..D. -s < remar$ed yesterday. you are con=uering the external world. the winds of the first half of the nineteenth century. one finds art closely associated with religion. something which they need not acce#t as a reality. not u#on something which it wants to bring forth of su#er-earthly nature. the #urely legalistic and logical@ and thought has been born in the way < have Page 1H of 1? . The strategy of Marxism builds u#on what lies in the instincts. >ut this faith in which man lived could only fill itself with old traditions. >ut in all manner of other s#heres we see the same #henomena emerge. but it is not suited to attain to an inner s#iritual content. :ithin that s#here lie the )hristian mysteries. with the content of the oriental culture of the #ast. 6ne sees how their ideas about the Gods find ex#ression in the Gree$ dramatists or the Gree$ scul#tors.P -nd men gradually got into the way of eliminating from their thought everything that did not come from outside. :hat however has ta$en #lace through )hrist in the course of human evolution 9 that 4an$e assigns to the original world 1Lrwelt2.ust as does du >ois-4eymond the world lying beyond the limits of natural science. this cleverness which ex#resses itself in all sorts of cunningI <t was because thought. >ut something of what had given birth to thought out of the unconscious was still at wor$. %aint-%imon or even %#encer. but to the world behind what can be investigated. 7<gnorabimus8 ali$e from scientist and historian@ that is the mood of the entire s#iritual life of the second half of the nineteenth century.

in the time of need. This thought. but out of clarity of thought. is still only so far born as to be able to ma$e use of formalism. must strengthened itself. -nd certainly thought has become fruitful and natural science because it has been fructified by thought born out of human nature in the way < have described. not out of vague mysticism. but also by a right treatment of history. but its essential force still lies dee# beneath the consciousness of human evolution. -nd the thoughts of such a s#iritual science will #ass over into action. :hat goes forth from this #lace goes forth in search of such a new vision. <t slumbers in the de#ths of civilised humanity. if we illuminate with the light of s#iritual investigation what has hovered over us since the fourth century. of em#ty thin$ing. :e are constantly saying that history should be our teacher. This thought is there. Then we can $now what is above. -nd it can find its . must become ri#e for vision. That we must recogni&e as a historical fact. man$ind needs to remember that thought which to begin with could only fructify formalism 9 em#ty thought that receives $nowledge of nature from outside 9 has exhausted itself in natural scientific agnosticism. it has already #layed a #art in natural scientific $nowledge. <t cannot be our teacher by #utting before us what is #ast and over. Page 1? of 1? . >ut now in the time of #overty. then we shall establish a s#iritual science. then we shall develo# trust in the inner force of s#irituality. <t must be brought out into the o#en. they will be able to wor$ into the human social and other institutions. but by ma$ing it ca#able of discovering the new in the de#ths of existence. :e learn how really to study history.described. must raise itself into the su#ersensible world.ustification not only in the inculcation of s#iritual scientific method. however.