Swami Vivekanand Institute of Engineering & Technology

Chandigarh-Patiala Highway Sector-! "amnagar #anur $istrict Patiala %P&'(

)T$-*+,

Page , of *

TO STUDY TWO STROKE AND FOUR STROKE PETROL AND DIESEL ENGINES -#.ECTIVE/ To Study Two stroke and Four stroke Petrol and D esel en! nes )PP)")T0S/ Two stroke and Four stroke Petrol and Diesel Engines'. THE-"1/ The purpose of internal combustion engines is the production of mechanical power from the chemical energy contained in the fuel. This energy is released by burning or oxidizing the fuel inside the cylinder. T2- ST"-3E PET"-4 E56I5E In 1 ! " Dugald # clerk" a $ritish engineer introduced a cycle which could be completed in two strokes of piston rather than four strokes. In this suction and exhaust strokes are eliminated. %ere instead of &al&es" port are used. The exhaust gages are dri&en out from the engine cylinder by the fresh charge of fuel entering the cylinder nearly at the end of the working stroke.

Intake Stroke/

P'EP('ED $) /($ (00I0T(1T

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+ Power: At t"e to* o# t"e stroke t"e s*ark *lu! !n tes t"e #uel % &ture+ T"e (urn n! #uel e&*ands. so%e o# t"e #res" #uel % &ture s usually e&*elled as well+ Compression: T"e * ston t"en r ses. 'ou*led w t" t"e r l !"ter. un'o)ers t"e trans#er *ort and t"e e&"aust *ort+ T"e #res" a r#lows nto t"e en! ne 'yl nder #ro% t"e 'rank'ase+ 3.E*TI-E D(TE . allow n! t"e 'o%*ressed #uel$a r % &ture n t"e 'rank'ase to es'a*e around t"e * ston nto t"e %a n 'yl nder+ T" s e&*els t"e e&"aust !asses out t"e e&"aust *ort. t"e * ston e&*oses t"e ntake *ort. s*rayers et' TWO STROKE DIESEL EN INE A two stroke D esel en! ne also "as one work n! stroke a#ter e)ery re)olut on o# t"e 'ranks"a#t+ All t"e #our sta!es o# two stroke d esel en! ne are des'r (ed (elow3 4+ Su!tion Sta"e: In t" s sta!e. a two stroke en! ne s usually %ore *ower#ul t"an a #our stroke en! ne o# e/u )alent s 0e+ T" s.. %akes two stroke en! nes *o*ular n '"a nsaws. l ne tr %%ers. t"e * ston w" le !o n! down towards 5D6 -5otto% dead 'entre. Page 7 of * TO STUDY TWO STROKE AND FOUR STROKE PETROL AND DIESEL ENGINES T"e #uel$a r % &ture s # rst drawn nto t"e 'rank'ase (y t"e )a'uu% 'reated dur n! t"e u*ward stroke o# t"e * ston+ T"e llustrated en! ne #eatures a *o**et ntake )al)e. E. dr ) n! t"e * ston downward. usually lo'ated on t"e o**os te s de o# t"e 'yl nder+ Un#ortunately. dr )en (y #lyw"eel %o%entu%. to 'o%*lete t"e 'y'le+ S n'e t"e two stroke en! ne # res on e)ery re)olut on o# t"e 'ranks"a#t. and 'o%*resses t"e #uel % &ture+ -At t"e sa%e t %e. Inn this stage" the inlet port opens and the fresh air enters into the crank case 5.D.-ED $) %. snow%o( les. 1et2sk s. (fter that the air is compressed as the piston mo&ing upwards. "owe)er %any en! nes use a rotary )alue n'or*orated nto t"e 'ranks"a#t+ Dur n! t"e downward stroke t"e *o**et )al)e s #or'ed 'losed (y t"e n'reased 'rank'ase *ressure+ T"e #uel % &ture s t"en 'o%*ressed n t"e 'rank'ase dur n! t"e re%a nder o# t"e stroke+ Transfer/Exhaust: Toward t"e end o# t"e stroke.. anot"er ntake stroke s "a**en n! (eneat" t"e * ston. E98ansion Stage4 0hortly before the piston reaches the TD* 6Top dead center7 during compression stroke" the fuel oil is in8ected in the form of &ery fine spray into the engine cylinder through the nozzle P'EP('ED $) /($ (00I0T(1T *%E*+ED $) /($ I1*%('2E (PP'..Swami Vivekanand Institute of Engineering & Technology Chandigarh-Patiala Highway Sector-! "amnagar #anur $istrict Patiala %P&'( )T$-*+. l !"t %otor'y'les. Com8ression Stage4 In this 0tage" the piston mo&es upwards first co&ers the transfer port and then exhaust port. s %*ler 'onstru't on. and %odel a r*lanes+ Un#ortunately %ost two stroke en! nes are ne## ' ent and are terr (le *olluters due to t"e a%ount o# uns*ent #uel t"at es'a*es t"rou!" t"e e&"aust *ort+ NOTE: T"e two stroke *etrol en! ne are !enerally e%*loyed n )ery l !"t )e" 'les su'" as s'ooters. out(oard %otors.

D. During the expansion" some of the heat energy produced is transformed into mechanical work 9.D. 7' Com8ression Stroke4 In this 0troke" the piston mo&es towards T. This completes the cycle "(nd the engine cylinder is ready to suck the air again 5-TE/ The two stroke Diesel Engine is mainly used in marine propulsion where space and lightness are the main considerations.*7 to the bottom dead centre. It is during this stroke we get work from the engine" the other three strokes namely suction" compression and exhaust being idle.' Suction or Charging Stroke/ During this stroke 6also known as induction stroke7 the piston mo&es from top dead centre 6T. The products of combustion from the engine cylinder are exhausted through the exhaust port into the atmosphere..* the exhaust &al&e opens.D. The four strokes of the Petrol engine are discussed below4 . *' E9haust Stroke/ %ere the gases from which the work has being collected become useless after the completion of the expansion stroke and are made to escape through exhaust &al&e to the atmosphere. E9haust Stage4 In this stage " the exhaust port is opened and the piston mo&es downwards.D.Swami Vivekanand Institute of Engineering & Technology Chandigarh-Patiala Highway Sector-! "amnagar #anur $istrict Patiala %P&'( )T$-*+. The inlet &al&e opens and proportionate fuel. The fuel oil is assumed to be burnt at constant pressure . . E. The fuel oil is continuously in8ected for a fraction of the crank re&olution.air mixture drawn in the engine cylinder during suction. It suddenly increases the pressure and temperature of the products of combustion.. . (t this moment" temperature of the compressed air is sufficiently high to ignite the fuel.E*TI-E D(TE .D.* and the exhaust gases are dri&en out the engine cylinder this is also called sca&enging.D. $oth the &al&es remain closed during the start of the stroke but when the piston 8ust reaches the $.air mixture is sucked in the engine cylinder. <ust before the end of this stroke the operating #plug initiates the mixture and combustion takes place at constant &olume.tto *ycle.D.-ED $) %.D.* and thus the work is obtained in this stroke. $oth inlet and exhaust &al&e remains closed in the stroke :' Power Stroke or E98ansion Stroke/ =hen the mixture is ignited by the spark plug the hot gases are produced which dri&e or throw the piston from T. The piston mo&es from $.Due to increased pressure "the piston is pushed with a great force. Page : of * TO STUDY TWO STROKE AND FOUR STROKE PETROL AND DIESEL ENGINES known as fuel in8ection &al&e..* to $. It re:uires four strokes to complete one cycle of operation. The pressure of the mixture rises in the cylinder to a &al&e of about bar. The flywheel mounted on the engine shaft strokes energy during this stroke and supplies it during idle strokes.our Stroke Petrol Engine4 It is also known as . The exhaust &al&e remains closed through out the stroke.* and compresses the enclosed fuel.our Stroke $iesel Engine P'EP('ED $) /($ (00I0T(1T *%E*+ED $) /($ I1*%('2E (PP'.* to T.

The inlet &al&e opens and air at constant atmospheric pressure is drawn inside engine cylinder. The hot gases in the cylinder expands adiabatically" thus work on the piston *' E9haust Stroke/ / %ere the gases from which the work has being collected become useless after the completion of the expansion stroke and are made to escape through exhaust &al&e to the atmosphere. E.D.-ED $) %.. The four strokes of the Diesel engine are discussed below4 .*7.' Suction Stroke/ During this stroke the piston mo&es from top dead centre 6T.* .* to T.* a matered :uantity of fuel is in8ected into the hot compressed air in fine sprays by the fuel in8ector and fuel starts burning at constant pressure. 7' Com8ression Stroke4 (ir drawn at atmospheric pressure during suction stroke is compressed to high temperature and pressure" the piston mo&es from $. P'EP('ED $) /($ (00I0T(1T *%E*+ED $) /($ I1*%('2E (PP'.D.D.* and the exhaust gases are dri&en out the engine cylinder. The fuel is in8ected at the end of compression stroke but in actual practice the ignition of the fuel starts before the end of the compression stroke.E*TI-E D(TE .D.D.D. The piston mo&es from $.* to T.D. The exhaust &al&e remains closed through out the stroke.D..$oth inlet and exhaust &al&e remains closed in the stroke :' E98ansion Stroke/ (s the piston stars mo&ing from T.*7 to the bottom dead centre6$.Swami Vivekanand Institute of Engineering & Technology Chandigarh-Patiala Highway Sector-! "amnagar #anur $istrict Patiala %P&'( )T$-*+. Page * of * TO STUDY TWO STROKE AND FOUR STROKE PETROL AND DIESEL ENGINES It is also known as compression ignition engine because the ignition takes place due to the heat produced in the engine cylinder at the end of compression stroke..