Great Scientists of the World

S.N o 1. Name of the Scientist Aristotle Era (Period) 384-3 !" Inventions / Achievements As a Scientist# Aristotle made a $ood contri%&tion 'hich 'as ver( infl&ential for the develo)ment of the science over the (ear. *is nat&ral science oriented research incl&des %otan(# +oolo$(# )h(sics# astronom(# chemistr(# and meteorolo$(# $eometr( and man( more. *e 'as also the teacher of the ,reat 'arrior Ale-ander the ,reat. *e is %est 1no'n for his e-)lanation of 2niversal ,ravitation and three la's of motion# and he 'as a%le to )rove that the reason of %oth the motion of o%3ects on Earth and of celestial %odies are controlled %( the same Ne&tral la's. *e 'as )h(sicist# astronomer# and )hiloso)her and his %est 1no'n contri%&tions lie in the develo)ment of 5elesco)e# first t'o la's of motion and also in Astronom(. *e is also considered as the father of astronom(# father of )h(sics and father of science. *e is 1no'n for his theor( a%o&t ori$in of h&man %ein$s. 0ar'in stated that h&man %ein$s have evolved thro&$h man( chan$es and s&rvival of the fittest 'as in im)ortant factor in the develo)ment of animal 'orld. *is theor( of relativit( is considered as a revol&tionar( develo)ment of Ph(sics. *e $ot No%le Pri+e in Ph(sics in 17 1 for his e-)lanation of the Photoelectric Effect and for his research in 5heoretical )h(sics. Edison is the $reat inventor 'ho has over 1666 )atents and his inventions are in vario&s fields &sed in o&r dail( life. *is one of the most )o)&lar invention is the Electric !&l%. *e also develo)ed the tele$ra)h s(stem. *is invention of car%on tele)hone transmitter develo)ed the car%on micro)hone 'hich 'as &sed in the tele)honed till 1786. *e 'as Italian )h(sicist and he is %est 1no'n for his contri%&tion to the develo)ment of electric %atter(. 5his %enevolent scientist is also re$arded as one of the fo&nder of the electric a$e. 5he electric &nit 8olt 'as named after him. 5his famo&s scientist is considered as the $reatest scientist of the t'entieth cent&r( after Einstein. *a' 1in$:s %i$ %an$ theor( and %lac1 hole theor( has t&rned the attention of the 'orld. *e is one of the most famo&s contri%&tors in the medical science. *e first introd&ced the $erm theor( of diseases. 5his is re$arded as the %ase of toda(:s micro%iolo$(. Another im)ortant contri%&tion of Paste&r is to )rotect harmf&l micro%es in a 'a( called <Paste&ri+ation= 'here harmf&l micro%es are destro(ed %( hittin$ the food. *e 'as an im)ortant contri%&tor to the &se of commercial electricit(# and is %est 1no'n for develo)in$ the modern

Sir Isaac Ne'ton 3 ,alileo

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"harles 0ar'in Al%ert Einstein 5homas Alva Edison

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Alessandro 8olta Ste)hen *a'1in$ ;o&is Paste&r

1/4418 / A0 9rom 174 A0 18 1874 A0

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16

Ni1ola 5esla

184.1743

Great Indian Scientists S.A0 alternatin$ c&rrent (A") electrical s&))l( s(stem. Donath# Efor st&dies of the str&ct&re and f&nction of the ri%osomeE 3 Sir ".. Cno'n for his cr&cial role in the develo)ment of India:s missile and n&clear 'ea)ons )ro$rams. Steit+ and Ada E. Ph(sicist 'ho 'on No%el Pri+e in 1736 for his ?aman Effect. !iochemist 'ho 'on the No%el Pri+e in 17. 5heoretical )h(sicistA %est 1no'n as the chief architect of the Indian atomic ener$( )ro$ram @athematician and )h(sicistA %est 1no'n for his colla%oration 'ith Al%ert Einstein in form&latin$ a theor( related to the $asli1e B&alities of electroma$netic radiation. Astro)h(sicist 'on the No%el Pri+e in 1783 for his research on the evol&tionar( sta$es of massive stars. @athematician 1no'n for his %rilliant contri%&tions to mathematical anal(sis# n&m%er theor(# infinite series and contin&ed fractions.o%ind Chorana S&%rahman(an "handrase1ar 4 . 0ha'an 'as one of the most eminent researchers in the field of t&r%&lence and %o&ndar( la(ers# leadin$ the s&ccessf&l and in$enio&s develo)ment of Indian s)ace )r$ramme. / 8 7 Satish 0ha'an 16 8en1atraman ?ama1rishnan .?aman 4 *omi >ehan$ir !ha%ha Sat(endra Nath !ose A.N o Name of the Scientist >a$adish "handra !ose Srinivasa ?aman&3an Era (Period) 1848173/ 188/17 6 188817/6 176717.>. He is an Indian-%orn American and !ritish str&ct&ral %iolo$ist# 'ho shared the 667 No%el Pri+e in "hemistr( 'ith 5homas A.A%d&l Calam *ar .P.8 for demonstratin$ ho' the n&cleotides in n&cleic acids control the s(nthesis of )roteins. 187417/4 9rom 1731 17 611 17161774 17 666 9rom 174 Inventions / Achievements 1 Ph(sicist# %iolo$ist and archaeolo$ist 'ho )ioneered the investi$ation of radio and micro'ave o)tics.8.

V.ondon in 17 4 and the !ritish made him a 1ni$ht of the !ritish Em)ire in 17 7. e-amination# 'innin$ the first )lace and the $old medal in )h(sics.8. 5herefore# ?aman 3oined the Indian 9inance 0e)artment in 176/. *is f&ll name 'as "handrase1hara 8en1ata ?aman. !io$ra)h( "handrashe1hara 8en1ata ?aman 'as %orn on Novem%er /# 1888 in 5ir&chira)alli# 5amil Nad&. 0&rin$ those times there 'ere not man( o))ort&nities for scientists in India.Raman Born: Novem%er /# 1888 Died: Novem%er 1# 17/6 Achie ements: Sir ". o%tainin$ the hi$hest distinctions. . *e 'as elected to the ?o(al Societ( of . 5he discover( 'as later christened as ERaman !ffectE.Physics – Scientist – Sir C.8. In 176/# ". *e sta(ed there for the ne-t fifteen (ears. ?aman )assed his @.8. After his office ho&rs# he carried o&t his e-)erimental research in the la%orator( of the Indian Association for the "&ltivation of Science at "alc&tta. Fther ?esearch activities Fther investi$ations carried o&t %( ?aman 'ereG his e-)erimental and theoretical st&dies on the diffraction of li$ht %( aco&stic 'aves of &ltrasonic and h()ersonic freB&encies ()&%lished 1734-174 )# and those on the effects )rod&ced %( H-ra(s on infrared vi%rations in cr(stals e-)osed to ordinar( li$ht. Introd&ction ".A. In 1736# Sir ". ?aman 'as a'arded 'ith No%el Pri+e in Ph(sics for his 'or1 on scatterin$ of li$ht. ?aman Effect In 171/# ?aman 'as offered the )osition of Sir 5ara1nath Palit Professorshi) of Ph(sics at "alc&tta 2niversit(.A. 9or his )ioneerin$ 'or1 on scatterin$ of li$ht# ". ?aman is one of the most reno'ned scientists )rod&ced %( India. *e entered Presidenc( "olle$e# @adras# in 176 # and in 1764 )assed his !. *e 'as the second child of "handrase1har I(er and Parvathi Amma.8. ?aman 'on the No%el Pri+e for Ph(sics in 1736. 0&rin$ his ten&re there# he received 'orld'ide reco$nition for his 'or1 in o)tics and scatterin$ of li$ht. *e carried o&t research in aco&stics and o)tics. *is father 'as a lect&rer in mathematics and )h(sics# so he had an academic atmos)here at home.8.?aman 'as the first Indian scholar 'ho st&died 'holl( in India received the No%el Pri+e.

Bio%ra&hy Ramakrishnan was born in Chidambaram in Cuddalore district of Tamil Nadu. Ramakrishnan6s laborator published a 2. .. graduating with a B"c degree in &h sics in ()*(. degree in &h sics from -hio #ni$ersit in ()*. where he obtained his &h. Donath# Efor st&dies of the str&ct&re and f&nction of the ri%osomeE. This was followed b studies that pro$ided structural insights into the mechanism that ensures the fidelit of protein bios nthesis. India to C. V.Chemistry – Scientist – Ven"atraman Rama"rishnan Introd#ction: Ven"atraman $Ven"i$ Rama"rishnan is an Indian-%orn American and !ritish str&ct&ral %iolo$ist# 'ho shared the 667 No%el Pri+e in "hemistr( 'ith 5homas A. In ())). Steit+ and Ada E. Both his parents were scientists and taught biochemistr at the !aharaja "a ajirao #ni$ersit in Baroda.iego while making a transition from theoretical ph sics to biolog . his laborator determined the complete molecular structure of the 17" subunit of the ribosome and its comple8es with se$eral antibiotics.". Ramakrishnan is also known for his past work on histone and chromatin structure. where he had also been a sabbatical $isitor during ())(')5. and in ())).+. his laborator has determined the atomic structure of the whole ribosome in comple8 with its tRN+ and mRN+ ligands.2 +ngstrom resolution structure of the 17" subunit. Immediatel after graduation he mo$ed to the #. he did his undergraduate studies in the same uni$ersit on a National "cience Talent "cholarship. %ollowing his &re'"cience at the !aharaja "a ajirao #ni$ersit of Baroda. In ())2 he mo$ed to the #ni$ersit of #tah as a &rofessor of Biochemistr . !ore recentl . 4ngland. Career /e continued to work on ribosomes from ()01')2 as a staff scientist at Brookha$en National 3aborator . "an .. Achie ement A'arded No%el )ri+e for "hemistr( in 667. he mo$ed to his current position at the !edical Research Council 3aborator of !olecular Biolog in Cambridge./e then spent two ears stud ing biolog as a graduate student at the #ni$ersit of California. Ramakrishnan and Rajalakshmi. The following ear.