Brief History of Education in India

by V.A.Ponmelil
The education in India has a rich and interesting history. It is believed that in the ancient days, the education
was imparted orally by the sages and the scholars and the information was passed on from one generation to the other.
After the development of letters, it took the form of writing using the palm leaves and the barks of trees. This
also helped in spreading the written literature. The temples and the community centers formed the role of schools.
Later, the Gurukul system of education came into existence.
The Gurukuls were the traditional Hindu residential schools of learning which were typically in the teacher's
house or a monastery. Even though the education was free, the students from well-to-do families paid the Gurudak-
shina which was a voluntary contribution after the completion of their studies. At the Gurukuls, the teacher imparted
knowledge on various aspects of the religion, the scriptures, the philosophy, the literature, the warfare, the statecraft,
the medicine astrology and the history. This system is referred as the oldest and the most effective system of educa-
tion.
In the frst millennium and the few centuries preceding, there was a fourishing of higher education at Nal-
anda, Takshashila University, Ujjain, and Vikramshila Universities. The important subjects were mainly the art, the
architecture, the painting, the logic, the grammar, the philosophy, the astronomy, the literature, the Buddhism, the
Hinduism, the arthashastra, the law, and the medicine. Each university specialized in a particular feld of study. For
instance, the Takshila specialized in the study of medicine, while the Ujjain laid emphasis on astronomy.
The Nalanda, being the biggest centre, had all the branches of knowledge, and housed up to 10,000 students
at its peak. The British records reveal that the education was widespread in the 18th century, with a school for every
temple, mosque or village in most regions of the country. The main subjects were the arithmetic, the theology, the law,
the astronomy, the metaphysics, the ethics, the medical science and the religion. The school had the student represen-
tatives from all classes of the society.
The present system of education was introduced and founded by the British in the 20th century, by the recom-
mendations of Macaulay. It has western style and content. The British government did not recognize the traditional
structures and so they have declined. It is said that even Gandhi described the traditional educational system as a beau-
tiful tree which was destroyed during the British rule.
The frst medical college of Kerala was started at Calicut, in 1942-43, during World War II. As there was a
shortage of doctors to serve the military, the British Government opened a branch of Madras Medical College in Ma-
labar, which was under Madras Presidency then. After independence, the education became the responsibility of the
states and the Central Government coordinated the technical and higher education by specifying the standards.
In 1964, the Education Commission started functioning with 16 members of which 11 were Indian experts and
5 were foreign experts. The Commission also discussed with many international agencies, experts and consultants in
the educational as well as scientifc feld. Later in 1976, the education became a joint responsibility of both the state
and the Centre through a constitutional amendment.
The central government through the Ministry of Human Resource Development's Department of Education
and the governments at the states formulated the education policy and planning. NPE 1986 and revised PoA 1992
envisioned that free and compulsory education should be provided for all children up to 14 years of age before the
commencement of 21st century. Also, the Government of India made a commitment that by 2000, 6% of the Gross
Domestic Product (GDP) will be spent on education, out of which half would be spent on the Primary education.
In November 1998, Prime Minister Atal Behari Vajpayee announced setting up of Vidya Vahini Network to
link up universities, UGC and CSIR. The general marks-based education system is now being replaced by the grades-
based system.
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