FRAUNHOFER I NSTI TUTE F OR MANUFACTURI NG AND ADVANCED MATERI AL S I FAM

CASTING TeChNoloGY
InnovatIve SoLUtIonS FoR InteLLIGent CaStInGS
Our offer includes component design and optimization,
computer simulation of shaping processes as well as technical
implementation in the industrial production and providing the
related training for customer staff.
Our R&D activities on functional materials deal with improving
the properties and processing of materials. Functional mate-
rials can either be directly integrated into components during
the manufacturing process or applied later by printing or
sputtering them onto the components’ surfaces. They provide
additional or completely new characteristics, for example
electronic or sensory functions. Cellular materials have special
properties that are in demand for energy absorption, noise
absorption and heat exchangers. Additional research focuses
on biomaterials made from metals, ceramics or polymers and
their biological interaction with the environment.
Based on these two areas of expertise, we are expanding into
the new application feld of electric mobility, with a special
focus on energy storage and electrical power trains. Analyzing,
testing, evaluating and optimizing the complete system is the
main objective of our work.
© Fraunhofer - Institut für Fertigungstechnik und
Angewandte Materialforschung IFAM
Formgebung und Funktionswerkstoffe
T H E F R A U N H O F E R - G E S E L L S C H A F T
Practice-oriented research and development is the principal task
of the Fraunhofer-Gesellschaft. Founded in 1949, the research
organization performs applied research and development for
the beneft of economy and society.
The customers and contractual partners of the Fraunhofer-
Gesellschaft are industrial enterprises, service providers and
public authorities. At present, the Fraunhofer-Gesellschaft
operates 60 research institutes with a total staff of 17 000, the
majority of whom are qualifed scientists and engineers.
S H A P I N G A N D F U N C T I O N A L MAT E R I A L S
The Shaping and Functional Materials Division of the Fraunhofer
Institute for Manufacturing and Advanced Materials IFAM,
with its facilities in Bremen and Dresden, develops innovative
materials and adapts and improves existing manufacturing
processes. Our R&D work ranges from material engineering,
shaping and manufacturing technologies to functionalizing
components and systems. We develop individual solutions for
customers in various industrial sectors including automotive
industry, medical technology, aviation and aerospace, mecha-
nical, electrical and environmental engineering, as well as the
electronics industry.
In the area of shaping the focus is on the cost- and resource-
effcient production of increasingly complex-shaped, or mini-
ature precision components. Using innovative manufacturing
processes in both powder and casting technology, we give
additional functionality to components.
We UNDeRSTAND MATeRIAlS
C O N T E N T
C A S T I N G T E C H N O L O G y 3
F U N C T I O N I N T E G R AT E D C A S T I N G S 5
C A S T I N G S WI T H C O MP L E X G E O ME T R I E S 7
D E V E L O P ME N T O F C A S T I N G T E C H N O L O G y 9
O U R S E R V I C E S | E Q U I P ME N T 1 0
2
The department of Casti ng Technol ogy at Fraunhofer I FAM, a technol ogi cal do-
mai n wi th a l ong tradi ti on and appl i cati ons i n every sphere of i ndustry and l i fe,
serves as a research partner i n appl i cati on-ori ented proj ects.
With state-of-the-art casting facilities, our scientists and engineers develop solutions for our
customers. Know-how and technologies are merged in international project teams in order to
reach new market segments with innovative products. Our research is focused on:
• Function integrated castings
Integration of electronic components during the casting process
• Castings with complex geometries
Technological development to manufacture highly complex geometries
• Material and technological research
Enhancement of material properties and casting procedures to address the
requirements of industrial manufacturing and the purpose of the fnal product
We analyze, optimize and refne all stages of the process chain from the production of the
prototype up to series manufacturing. In particular, the department of Casting Technology
offers conceptual design suitable for casting, from CAD via simulation-supported dimensioning
of cast parts, selection of manufacturing techniques up to the testing of the pre-series and
beginning series production. Throughout this process, we use new approaches that permit
new functionalities, and thus additional advantages, to this classic technology. During these
development processes, the requirements of industrial manufacturing, as well as conservation
of resources, are always taken into consideration.
Innovative approaches open up new product ranges and felds of application to the casting
technology, such as in part logistics and –tracing or electric mobility. Fraunhofer IFAM‘s
engineers are developing trendsetting technological solutions that were inconceivable just a
few years ago.
CASTING TeChNoloGY
InnovatIve SoLUtIonS FoR InteLLIGent CaStInGS
Contact:
Franz–Josef Wöstmann
Phone +49 421 2246 -225
franz-josef.woestmann @ ifam.fraunhofer.de
3
The CAST
TRONI CS
®
t echnol ogy enabl es t he i n- process i nt egr at i on of el ect roni c
and adaptroni c functi onal components duri ng the casti ng process. Thus, compared
to conventi onal casti ngs, extended el ectroni c, sensor or actuator functi onal i ti es
can be i nt roduced.
Advantages and sample applications for the CAST
TRONICS
®
technology include, for instance, the
unique identifcation of cast parts by means of embedded RFID transponders (radio frequency
identifcation) without the necessity for intervisibility, their tracking and tracing throughout
the consecutive process chain and protection against plagiarism. Embedded piezo-sensors
measure compressive and tensile stresses, deformations and vibrations inside the casting. This
functionality offers the possibility to directly monitor the life time cycle of the part. Sensor data
can be evaluated in real-time for structural health monitoring to prevent overload or damage
of the casting – a crucial advantage for safety parts. Moreover, the vibration characteristics
of components and their acoustics may be actively infuenced by integrated piezo-actuators
(structural health control).
After the casting procedure, the embedded electronic component is protected against
contamination, damage or loss, either during subsequent machining processes on the casting,
during assembly and in operational use. Furthermore, the connection of sensor and actuator
components to the materials structure can be improved. Due to the in-process integration,
additional machining and joining steps for the application of electronic components can be
omitted, offering the potential for cost reduction in the manufacturing of cast parts with
integrated sensors, actuators or RFID technology.
The department of Casting Technology at Fraunhofer IFAM can offer you support along the
entire process chain of the CAST
TRONICS
®
technology. For further information, please visit our
website www.casttronics.de.
FUNCTIoN INTeGRATeD CASTINGS
4 | 5
Large fgure: Pressure diecast pedal
crank with integrated piezo-sensors
and data transfer module.
Figure 1: X-ray image of the function
integrated pedal crank.
Figure 2: Pressure diecast part with
embedded RFID transponder for part
identifcation and protection against
plagiarism.
Contact CAST
TRONICS
®
:
Christoph Pille
Phone +49 421 2246 -227
christoph.pille @ ifam.fraunhofer.de
1 2
At Fraunhofer IFAM, we engineer various technologies to manufacture components with
complex geometries that are not feasible using conventional casting technology either because
of intricate release properties or due to other manufacturing constraints.
In Lost Foam technology, it is possible to produce complex near-net-shape castings directly.
Complexity is achieved by joining polymer foam segments to a uniform pattern. During the
casting process, the thermal energy of the melting decomposes the foam pattern and flls the
formed cavity of the mold in every detail. In this way it is possible to generate unique complex
castings with angular channels without draft angles and burr. Fraunhofer IFAM offers research
and development services to support all felds of the process chain:
• Sampling of components and models
• Non-destructive determination of the density distribution of translucent models
• Engineering of alternative raw materials for pattern making
• Measuring equipment to determine specifc parameters during mold flling
In the feld of lost cores (non-permanent cores) lies an additional area of research. In
conventional casting techniques, such as die-, permanent mold and sand casting, complex geo-
metries can only be achieved by using cores. In particular for pressure diecasting, these cores
need to have extreme stability and compressive strength; however, at the same time, they have
to be easy to remove from the casting. Salt cores have high thermal and mechanical stability
and may be applied in diecasting technology; however, they must be individually modifed for
each component. Engineering is focused on the following areas:
• Production of salt cores by pressing, compaction and sintering
• Test engineering: Determining the density distribution
• Fastening devices: Retainers | core prints
• Casting technology: Adaption of the casting parameters,
avoiding fow peaks in the salt core region
• Fixtures / methods to remove the cores and fnishing treatment
CASTINGS WITh CoMPleX GeoMeTRIeS
Large fgure: Detail view of a part
with complex geometry produced
using the Lost Foam casting tech-
nique.
Figure 1: Simulation of how the non-
permanent core is “bypassed” during
die casting.
Figure 2: Tiny salt core (injection
molded) to be used in diecasting.
Contact Lost Foam:
Daniela Schmidt M. Sc.
Phone +49 421 2246 -108
daniela.schmidt @ ifam.fraunhofer.de
Contact lost cores:
Marco Haesche M. Sc.
Phone +49 421 2246 -119
marco.haesche @ ifam.fraunhofer.de
6 | 7
1 2
The department of Casting Technology at Fraunhofer IFAM is also involved in research and
development in the following areas:
Material design and process development
In this area, our research is related to the casting technologies as well as the materials applied
to them. Particularly in diecasting and Lost Foam process, development is focused on the
modifcation and optimization of casting processes and –parameters, in order, for instance, to
enhance the mechanical properties or to reduce manufacturing, casting and structural defects.
The range of services also involves engineering of materials and alloys tailored to each applica-
tion, as well as the qualifcation of new alloys. Thus, we modify an alloy system by treatment of
the melt e. g. to adjust mechanical parameters or special wear characteristics. In addition to this
activity, we design or enhance special materials, such as metal-matrix composites. This way, we
are exploring new ranges of application for casting technologies and cast parts.
Numerical simulation
For all manufacturing techniques investigated at Fraunhofer IFAM we have available the
corresponding software and hardware to support the entire process chain, from the drafting /
design of a workpiece to dimensioning, optimizing and manufacturing it, as well as subjecting
such parts to stresses by using suitable numerical simulation methods. We use state-of-the-art
software, which we improve and upgrade in co-operation with the software developer.
Component analytics
The department of Materialography and Analytics at Fraunhofer IFAM provides many opportu-
nities to investigate the composition of alloys, material characteristics, component and failure
analysis, as well as surface analysis, microscopy and density measurement.
DeVeloPMeNT oF CASTING TeChNoloGY
Large fgure: Microsection of a Lost
Foam cast structure (Al alloy), with
a dendrite arm distance of about
20 µm.
Figure 1: Al-infltrated polymer matrix
and resulting open porous Al foam.
Figure 2: EPS model of a valve lid for
casting in Lost Foam, with superim-
posed infrared absorption image for
density determination.

Contact simulation:
Dr. Hermann Pleteit
Phone +49 421 2246 -199
hermann.pleteit @ ifam.fraunhofer.de
8 | 9
1 2
Casting technology
• Market analyses | feasibility studies
• Consulting and engineering to dimension complex castings
(choice of the suitable casting technology, design, dimensioning, etc.)
• Consultation in material selection or design
• Numerical simulation of mold flling and solidifcation
as well as structure-mechanical component characteristics
• Optimization and improvement of casting techniques, molds and parts
• Test series for parameter determination | pre-series engineering
• Measuring instruments during molding
• Sampling of molds
• Engineering of function integrated castings
Casting technologies | Equipment
• Industrial-scale cold and hot chamber die-casting machines
• Complete Lost Foam process chain incl. pattern making, as well as sand casting
equipment and molding systems on an industrial scale
• Equipment for permanent mold casting and sand casting
• Casting of aluminum, zinc, magnesium, iron, steel and their alloys
• Equipment for heat treatment
Analytics | Equipment
• Equipment for treatment of the melt, analysis of the melt
• X-radioscopy system for non-destructive materials testing
and computer tomography of components
• Materialography and materials testing
• Measuring equipment to record thermophysical data
(temperature, thermal conductivity, gas porosity, decomposition enthalpy, etc.)
Numerical simulation
• Hardware and software for numerical simulation of flling the mold,
solidifcation, as well as mechanical and thermal component characteristics
oUR SeRVICeS | eQUIPMeNT
10
Figure 1: Microsection of a compo-
site material made from aluminium
and microsized hollow glass spheres
(40% weight reduction compared
with solid Al).
Figure 2: Thermographic image of a
test mold for optimized tempering
with increased heat entry or removal.
1 2
Fraunhofer Institute for Manufacturing and
Advanced Materials IFAM
Managing Director
Prof. Dr. - Ing. Matthias Busse
Phone +49 421 2246 -100
matthias.busse @ ifam.fraunhofer.de
Biomaterials Technology
Prof. Dr. - Ing. Kurosch Rezwan, Dr. - Ing. Philipp Imgrund
Phone +49 421 2246 -216
philipp.imgrund @ ifam.fraunhofer.de
Processing and characterizing of biomaterials; injection mol-
ding, extrusion and micro-structuring of metals, bioceramics,
polymers and nanocomposites.
Electrical Systems
Dr. - Ing. Gerald Rausch
Phone +49 421 2246 -242
gerald.rausch @ ifam.fraunhofer.de
Electric mobility; electric vehicles; E-motor-test stand up to
100 kW; test stand for batteries up to 50 kWh; driving cycle
analysis; determination of cruising range; system evaluation of
electric powertrain.
Functional Structures
Dr. rer. nat. Volker Zöllmer
Phone + 49 421 2246 -114
volker.zoellmer @ ifam.fraunhofer.de
Nanocomposites; nanosuspensions; nanoporous layers;
Functional integration; INKtelligent printing
®
: ink-jet-printing
and aerosol printing; hybrid materials; specialty equipment.
Casting Technology
Dipl. - Ing. Franz-Josef Wöstmann
Phone +49 421 2246 -225
franz-josef.woestmann @ ifam.fraunhofer.de
Zinc, aluminium and magnesium pressure diecasting; cast iron and
cast steel; cast parts with integrated function (CAST
TRONICS
®
);
lost-foam processes; simulation; rapid prototyping.
Materialography and Analytics
Dr. - Ing. Andrea Berg
Phone +49 421 2246 -146
andrea.berg @ ifam.fraunhofer.de
Failure analysis; examination of metallographic micrographs;
Powder characterization; scanning electron microscopy with
EDX analysis; thermal analysis; dilatometry; trace analysis;
emission spectrometry.
Powder Technology
Dr. - Ing. Frank Petzoldt
Phone +49 421 2246 -134
frank.petzoldt @ ifam.fraunhofer.de
Powder-metallurgical shaping; metal powder injection molding;
process- and material development; rapid manufacturing;
laser sintering; screen printing; production processes for metal
foam components (FOAMINAL
®
); simulation.
D R E S D E N B R A N C H L A B
Powder Metallurgy and Composite Materials
Prof. Dr. - Ing. Bernd Kieback
Phone +49 351 2537-300
Winterbergstraße 28 | 01277 Dresden
www.ifam-dd.fraunhofer.de
Cellular Metallic Materials
Dr. - Ing. Günter Stephani
Phone +49 351 2537-301
guenter.stephani @ ifam-dd.fraunhofer.de
Fiber metallurgy; high-porosity structures; metallic hollow
sphere structures; open cell PM foams; screen-print structures.
Sinter and Composite Materials
Dr. - Ing. Thomas Weißgärber
Phone +49 351 2537-305
thomas.weissgaerber @ ifam-dd.fraunhofer.de
High temperature materials; nanocrystalline materials; materials
for tribological exposure; sputter targets; materials for
hydrogen storage.
oUR CoMPeTeNCe
ShAPING AND FUNCTIoNAl MATeRIAlS
11
Fraunhofer Institute for Manufacturing
and Advanced Materials IFAM
Shaping and Functional Materials
Wiener Strasse 12
28359 Bremen | Germany
Phone +49 421 2246 -0
Fax +49 421 2246 -300
info @ ifam.fraunhofer.de
Managing Director
Prof. Dr. - Ing. Matthias Busse
Casting Technology
Franz-Josef Wöstmann
Phone +49 421 2246 -225
franz-josef.woestmann @ ifam.fraunhofer.de
© Fraunhofer - Institut für Fertigungstechnik und
Angewandte Materialforschung IFAM
Formgebung und Funktionswerkstoffe
WWW. I FAM. FRAUNHOFER. DE