The rotor blade rotates at a constant speed. it has the lowest data transmission rate. The stator blade is moved $rotated% to a certain degree only. negative pulse and continuous wave. There must be enough pressure differential between the tool and the annulus for it to wor* properly. #s illustrated. The positive pulse is more tolerant of &'M and mud solids. !implified pulser diagrams are shown in Figure " They are positive pulse. The negative pulse system has a slightly higher data transmission rate and pump noise is still not as much of a problem. Depending upon the MWD tool.ump noise is more difficult to filter out. . The surface computer deciphers the binary code and displays the survey data. The pressure pulses will travel up the drill string and a transducer on the standpipe will change the mechanical pressure pulses to an electronic signal. there is less restriction in the flow stream and the pressure is lower. which means bit +et selection can be limited. The continuous wave has a set of stator and rotor blades. The microprocessor will then send a signal to the pulser. The negative pulse allows some of the drilling fluid to be bypassed into the annulus. There are some advantages and disadvantages to each system. The position of the pulser will determine if the tool is sending a one or ero. This has the same effect as a hole in the drill string and the surface pressure is reduced. The significant advantage of the continuous wave is that the data transmission rate is much higher. there is a restriction in the flow path and the surface pressure increases. The layout of a typical positive pulse MWD is shown in Figure 2. (t is also less affected by pump noise) however.MEASUREMENT WHILE DRILLING (MWD) TOOL The MWD uses the same accelerometers and magnetometers as the steering tool and the electronic multishot. There are three different pulser systems used in the petroleum industry. When the blades are lined up. resulting in pulse position modulation. (t also uses less power. the positive pulse causes a restriction in the flow path for the mud resulting in an increased surface pressure. The electronic sensors in the MWD tool record the raw directional data. The difference is that it sends information to the surface on mud pulses through the drill string as illustrated in Figure 1. a microprocessor converts the data to a binary code or calculates the survey and converts the survey to a binary code. When the rotor blades are not lined up with the stator blades. 2 MWD .

Figure 1. The battery powered MWD will operate up to ". !ome MWD tools have both. 2lectromagnetic MWD does not wor* as deep as mud pulse MWD and is a function of the resistivity of the formation. F $10. # transmitter in the tool transmits the electromagnetic waves and the waves are pic*ed up at the surface with an antenna array. The turbines used to power the alternator can plug with lost circulation material. Data transmission rates are not substantially different than mud pulse MWD. o o (f the tool is powered by an alternator. (t wor*s better in fresh water formations. hours depending upon temperature and the tool used. it will wor* again. -atteries also have a temperature limitation of around ". 4nce the transmitter get below the one. '%. Simplified Diagram of MWD Tool The MWD can be powered by an alternator as illustrated in Figure 2 or by lithium batteries. Schematic of MWD Transmission System Figure 2.. There is also a ma1imum pump rate. The tool life is a function of how fre/uently the information is sent to the surface especially when combined with logging while drilling. the tool will only operate for a finite period of time before the batteries are drained. The data are collected with a surface computer and the surface computer displays the survey data. 3 MWD . The data are sent to the surface using electromagnetic waves $low fre/uency radio waves% as shown in . 2lectromagnetic MWD3s use the same directional pac*age as the mud pulse MWD.. The signal is attenuated across from evaporite formations such as salt and does not wor* while in the evaporite one. the tool does not have power unless the pump is on and there is a minimum pump rate at which they will function. -attery operated tools can function with the pump off) however.

The tools eliminate the need to condition the hole prior to surveying because they transmit data with the pump on. The surface computer corrects the toolface reading of the MWD to that of the motor. The data can still be transmitted in air. and they can be substituted for the non6magnetic collar used with other survey methods. ". serviced and replaced. The MWD comes pac*aged in a non6magnetic drill collar and loo*s li*e a non6magnetic drill collar that you cannot see through. The drill string can be rotated with the MWD in the hole. (t reduces the time necessary to orient downhole motors. because the tools transmit a new toolface at least every 2 minutes. The tools will also perform the same function as a steering tool.: 4 MWD . 5se of a downhole motor in air and mist drilling is still very hard on the MWD e/uipment. where a portion of the tool can be pulled from the non6magnectic drill collar with a wireline. Most MWD3s ma*e up to the deflecting tool and the toolface of the MWD tool usually does not align with the toolface of the downhole motor. (t ta*es three to five minutes to obtain a survey with an interruption in drilling of less than two minutes usually on connections. 2. at least a portion of some tools can be retrieved with the wireline. (f the MWD tool fails. it must be pulled from the hole with the drill string. the MWD enabled the development of the steerable . # savings in rig time.motor assembly . they can be very e1pensive. seconds to one minute depending upon how the tool is preprogrammed. 'irculation is maintained while surveying and only 19 minutes without pipe movement are re/uired to ta*e the survey. The tools are housed in their own non6 magnetic drill collar. The difference between the tools is measured and entered into the surface computer. (f MWD tools are lost in the hole. The tools do not need any special devices or procedures for installation. 7ars are usually run with the MWD tool) although. Without a wireline in the hole. foam and aerated fluid. +arring with an MWD tool may damage the tool. Thus. mist. if the MWD tool becomes stuc* in the hole.The main advantage of the electromagnetic MWD is that it will wor* in underbalanced drilling operations. The ris* of stic*ing the pipe is reduced. Toolface data is usually updated every ". The significant advantages of the MWD tool are8 1. There are some MWD3s. The tools are compatible with current drilling operations. The declination is also entered into the surface computer and the surface computer automatically corrects the surveys. # reduction in drilling ha ards. so the need for a steering tool and wireline operations are eliminated. There needs to be sufficient fluid to dampen the vibrations if a motor is used. #lso. the drill string can be rotated. MWD tools also give toolface data along with the survey.

The MWD is only cost effective if the overall cost of the drilling operation is reduced.ulser diagram of MWD transmitter Figure : 2lectromagnetic MWD Though the MWD system can save rig time. 5 MWD . The higher the daily operating cost.Figure 2 . (n almost any normal directional drilling operation. the MWD is cost effective. the more li*ely an MWD system will be economical. the cost of the MWD also has to be considered.