A77

ASIA

C

en

tre

fo r

www.cteindia.weebly.com

Tr

ad

iti

on

al

Ed

uc

at

io

n

CO*tNBLL UNlVERiiTJi

C

en

tre

fo r

www.cteindia.weebly.com

Tr

ad

iti

on

al

Ed

Libraries ITHAfeA. N. Y. 14853

uc

at

io

n

^Education and Psychology Extension Series
No.
11

^FfR

Universities in Ancient India

fo r

D. G.

FACULTY OF EDUCATION AND PSYCHOLOGY
Haharafa Sayajirao University of Baroda

C

en

tre

www.cteindia.weebly.com

Tr

ad

APTE

iti

on

al

Ed

uc

at

'f^^^f

io

n

Re. 1

Ce nt fo rT ra di tio na lE du ca

re

www.cteindia.weebly.com

tio

n

Education and Psychology Extension Series
No.
II

^HtH

rT

re

fo

D. G.

ra

Universities in Ancient India

APTE
J

Ce nt

di

tio

na

.

lE du
%
?^;
'

FACULTY OF EDUCATION AND PSYCHOLOGY '4;
Maharaja Sayajirao University of Barod^

''.M^^^^^"

www.cteindia.weebly.com

ca
'.

tio

n

The
tine

tio

original of

na
tiiis

book

the United States on the use of the

rT

There are no known copyright

ra

di

Cornell University Library.

Ce nt

http://www.archive.org/details/cu31924005633130
www.cteindia.weebly.com

re

fo

lE du
is in

restrictions in
text.

ca

tio

Cornell University Library

n

Editor's
to

Note

Ce nt

The Muslim universities had taken a broad sweep including in their curriculum not only the liberal arts, but also medicine, philosophy and theWhen they were closed, Christian Europe ology. felt the need for universities of their own and established them during the middle ages. The oldofficial among them which received recognition est were the Universities of Paris and Bologna founded

re

fo

rT

ra

fairly be said have possessed universities in which all the higher learning' of the time was imparted. Such institutions existed during 200 B.C. in Alexandria, Athens and Constantinople and later at Berut, Bordeaux, Lyons, etc. But the growth of Christian sjipernaturalism and mysticism, and the inroads of the barbarians from the north and south had mostly put an end to these before 800 A.D. After that the Eastern Muslims founded universities in Bagdad, Basra, Cairo and other places, but most of these centres of learning came to an end early in the twelfth century. Then arose in Spain at Cordova, Toledo, Sevilla, the universities of the Western Muslims which after lasting for about a century were suppressed by orthodox fanaticism about 1200 A.D.

The ancient western world may

di

tio

in

the twelfth century.

It

that the University of Oxford dates back to the
its

ninth century and

foundation has been attributis

ed to King Alfred.
claim
is

This

not substantiated by sufficient documentary

www.cteindia.weebly.com

na
is,

not unlikely though the

lE du

however, claimed

ca

tio

n

evidence.
in

The majority Europe and America The
universities

of the present universities

are the offsprings of the

medieval universities of Europe.
of

ancient

India

have a

prouder history than that of their counterparts in the ancient western world. At least one of them,
viz.,

Takshaiila, flourished several centuries before

the Universities of Alexandria, Athens and Con-

di

The universities of ancient India had more impressive teaching and research programrne. The teachers who taught in the hallowed precincts of Takshaiiia, Nalanda and Vikrama^ila were scholars of high eminence and repute. This is not all. The cordial relationship that existed between them and their students was indeed sublime. Such ideal teacher-student relationship has no
stantinople.
also a

tio

na

parallel in the long history of educational

and

practice.

rT

Today we have

Ce nt

knowledge of the universities in ancient India, their teachers and students and the studies pursued in those centres of learning. This brochure dealing with these aspects of universities in ancient India

is

It is

general reader.
T. K. N.

re

meant primarily for our own university students. hoped that it would be useful also to the

fo

with an enrolment of about 400,000 students. It is doubtful whether our university students have any

ra

in India over thirty universities

www.cteindia.weebly.com

lE du

Dean,

ca

thought

Menon,

tio

n

Ce nt fo rT ra di tio na lE du ca

re

www.cteindia.weebly.com

tio

n

Ce nt fo rT ra di tio na lE du ca

re

www.cteindia.weebly.com

tio

n

tJniversities in Anciefit India
Introduction
The brochure contains a brief account of the famous universities in Ancient India. The term!
" university " as used here simply means a centre
dents.

It

does not connote

all

the different features

possessed by the universities in the East and the

West to-day.
parallel in our

There were a number of important

features in these universities, which do not find a

modern

institutions going under the

name.

The

following brief account of these univer-

education imparted in these institutions during the
long period of about 2,000 years beginning with the

loth century B.C. and ending with the

rT

ra

di

sities will

enable the reader to have some idea of

tio

na

A.D.
will

It is

hoped that a perusal

enable him to compare our present institutions

with those of ancieiit India and realise that the
centres of higher learning in ancient India were

Ce nt

unique in their organization and scholarship during
those distant times

re

fo

when elsewhere

lE du
I2tli

where higher education was imparted to aspiring

of this booklet

in the

very few had thought of organised, education at the

university level.

www.cteindia.weebly.com

ca

century

world

tio
stu-

n

)

'Takshasila
History
is

(

i.ooo 6.C, to 500 A.t).

in ancient India.

It

was well known as a centre

learning as early as during 700 B.C.
activities at this place

few centuties
rates

earlier.

from Taksha, a son of Bharata. The Ramayana nar-

how Bharata,

after defeating the

Gandharva Deia
tlie

for

Taksha and Pushkalavata

na

founded the two famous

cities

— Takshaiila

lE du
in
it

The educational must have started at least a The place derived its name
Gandharvas,

other son Pushkala in the Gandhara.

tio

also the place

where king Janamejaya performed

famous

serpent-sacrifice * to

di

avenge the death of

ra

his father tarikshita.

Until very lately

ed out that the place was situated at a distance of

fo

about

fifty-five miles to the east of the river

rT

possitile to locate

the place exactly. Pliny has point-

Witli the help of the

numerous Stupas, Viharas
exactly located.
city covered

re

temples as found out by Cunningham, the situation

Ce nt

of the city has

now been

logical findings

show that the

ol six square miles.

A copper-plate inscription bearis

ing the

name
site.

of Takshalila has also been unearthed

from the

The place

situated twenty miles

to the west of Rawalpindi, somewhere near Shah*

Sarpasatra

www.cteindia.weebly.com

ca
the
for
is

This

was not

Sindhu.
iand

Archaeo-

an area

tio
of
his

Takshasila

the oldest

among

the universities

n

Ce nt fo rT ra di tio na lE du ca

re

www.cteindia.weebly.com

tio

n

Ce nt fo rT ra di tio na lE du ca

re

www.cteindia.weebly.com

tio

n

dheri at a distance of one mile to the south-east of

Kalaksarai.

Administration

centre of higher education because several learned teachers

who were

recognised as authorities on vari-

of their excellence that they could attract
of students

from distant parts of the sub-continent,

in spite of the long

and dangerous journey which

of co-ordination of the

was there any external authority
the local leaders to direct their

tio

na
of

they had to undergo.

There was nothing by way work done by teachers nor
like the
activities.

lE du
the

ous subjects resided at the place.

It

was because
hundreds

teacher was an institution in himself and enjoyed

complete autonomy in his work. His authority was

directing the courses of studies, in selecting or reject-

rT

final in fixing

ra

up the duration

di

course,

the day-to-day work.

authority on the subject of his specialisation, there

re

Ce nt

was

little

fo

ing students and in laying

down rules for guiding As each teacher was an

scope for any conflict of interests or com-

petition

among them.

The knowledge
in

of all these

teachers put together represented everything that

was worth knowing

those days.

The

terminated when the teacher was satisfied with the

achievement

of his student

and there was no

regulation of any sort to regiment the duration of the

www.cteindia.weebly.com

ca

king or

Each

studies

rigid

tio
in

Takshasila came to be

known

as

a

famous

n

10
course.

Normally specialisation
in

in various subjects

of study took eight years, but the period could

be
of

reduced or lengthened

accordance with the iatel-

lectual capacity of the students

and the amount

energy and application shown by them.

There were

leave their studies, because they could not
selves in the social, intellectual or

of their schools,

which were invariably located in the

teachers' private houses.

The completion

Examinations were treated as superfluous, because
the procedure of teaching subjects was critical and

ra

mastered by the student, he was not allowed to
proceed to the succeeding portions.

who completed

written certificates or

fo

rT

their

di

thorough and unless one unit was very thoroughly

lieved that knowledge
it

was

tio

The students studies did not receive any diplomas because it was beits

na

was not marred by any formal examination nor was there any convocation for conferring degrees.

own reward and

for earning

bread or for achieving any

lE du

moral atmosphere
of studies

selfish

was a

Ce nt

Only higher education was imparted

re

sacrilege.

As has already been pointed out

before, only

higher courses were taught in these institutions.

These institutions therefore took students to the end of the knowledge of some particular subjects^
taking
it

up from the secondary stage which the

www.cteindia.weebly.com

ca
fit

also some cases where teachers advised students to

them-

using

tio
end

n

ir
student had already finished elsewhere before joining these institutions.

The process

of

education

which began at home with primary education and widened
in extent in the education in the to

A'ramas

which imparted what corresponded
education reached
its

secondary

which imparted education at the university
According to the system prevalent

primary education was imparted to children upto
the age of eight and secondary education covered

from eight to twelve years more.

who came

to learn in ancient Indian universities

were approximately sixteen to twenty years of age.
Taksha§ila was so well

tio

known

di

hundreds of students went to
of their

na

for its teachers that
this place in search

home.

them to this place was indeed great, particularly when one takes into consideration the risk involved in long journeys in those days when travel was slow, dangerous and uncertain. Numerous references

re

fo

rT

show that students

Ce nt

city

from distant places
in

ra

of knowledge, leaving aside the comforts

Their parents' sacrifice in sending

in hundreds used to flock to this
like Banaras,

Mithila, Ujjain, Koiala,

Madhya Desa and from
Takshasila

lE du
affiliated'

in ancient India,

So the students

and safety

Rajagrha,
the

Kuru Kingdoms

the north.

thus the intellectual capital of India, a central
All the other centres of learning

university that exercised suzerainty over the world
of letters in India.
in di^erent parts of the country

were

www.cteindia.weebly.com

ca
to

culmination in these places
level.

tio
was
it.

n

12

Courses taught
There was a wide variety of courses offered at
nical subjects.

types of courses were the Vedas and the Silpas.

The number
the fourth

of

yedas studied
but

in this university is

should have been dropped from the

Veda and most probably the Atharvaveda list. It was
less secular in

so perhaps because the content of the Atharvaveda

treated" therein were also included in the various

other branches of study.

tio

In fact

na
of
its

was more or

nature and the topics

drop the Atharvaveda, because the minister for
religious affairs

— the

di

Purohita

— according to Manu
The them

Smrti had to be an expert in Atharvaveda.

propagation of the Hindu culture.

fo

study of the Vedas probably meant learning by heart for that was the most important service the Brahmanas rendered to the preservation and

rT

ra

that the study of the Vedas also included the inter-

Ce nt

pretation and exposition of the content of these

re

sacred books.

A number
this

books had already
the com-

been written by

time to facilitate

prehension of the content of the Veda and as the

author of Nirukta, a treatise on Vedic etymology
says a

man who knew

merely the chanting of the

Veda but did not know

meaning

lE du
it is

mentioned as

three,

it is difficult

to explain

impossible to

It is

very likely

was

www.cteindia.weebly.com

ca

tio
why
like

The terms used

to denote these

two

n

Taksliasila,

both

in literary

and

scientific or tech-

T3
a
pillar

merely carrying the burden and

that

,

all',

prosperity attended upon those \vho
ing.

knew the mean-

Probably the term Veda also included the
its six

auxiliary sciences, the Science of

correct pronunciation, Aphoristic literature guiding

the performance of various

rites

and

sacrifices,

to precede the comprehension of the mcaningof the

Vedas.

Silpas were, indicating a craft or vocation based on

na
(

There

is

no precise mention

of.

ary subjects.

According to one source, the Silpas

di

or crafts were as follows cular law,
(

tio

practical skill as contrasted with religious

lE du
and
Logic
),
(

Grammar, Astronomy, Prosody and Etymology. The study of these auxiliary sciences had necessarily

what the eighteen
liter-

:

Holy tradition and

Medicine, four Vedas, Puranas

rT

Atomic theory of creation

ra

Sankhya, Nyaya
),

Vaiseshika

Arithmetic, Music,
Antiquities
),

fo

hasas

(

History), Military Art, Poetry and Convey-

ancing.

But

this list includes the

Vedasand many
study of various

re

other subjects which cannot be termed aa crafts and

seems to be very loosely given.

A

Ce nt

references

taught in this university

shows that the following crafts were Conveyancing or Law,
:

Mathematics, Accountancy, Agriculture, Commercej Cattle breeding, Smithy, Carpentry, Medicine arid
arts.

Surgery, Archery and allied Military
norriy, Astrology., Diviiiation, Ma^ic,

Snake

www.cteindia.weebly.com

ca

Astro?
cl^afti^r

tio
seIti-

n

study of

14
ing,

Art of finding hidden treasures, Music, Dancing
It
is

'

and Painting.

obvious

that

the

number

eighteen need not be taken too literally.

throughout the period of existence of the university.
of subjects taught

There were certainly some additions made to the
list

whenever a need was

the same as a result of religious, political and social

changes which came during
fifteen

its

hundred years.

The place was conquered

century B. C.
trians,

it

was conquered by the Indo-Bac-

who were

to decide
finitely

Ce nt

re

ing places, the Greek language could be understood

by a number of people. The teachers* at the place had no objection to collecting knowledge from whatsoever source it was available and they were sufficiently

fo

what these subjects were, but it has debeen ascertained that the Greek language began to be taught and that even among neighbour-

rT

This must have brought about some additions to the courses taught at the university. It is difficult

broad-minded

ra

The place was overrun by the Sythians in the first century B. C. and by the Kusans in the first century A. D. Both these had no culture
like Rshis.

www.cteindia.weebly.com

di

the inheritors of the Greek culture.

tio

which the Brah mi script that was in vogue was replaced by the Kharoshtri script. In the second
of

to

honour even foreign savants

na

by the Persians

in the sixth century B. C. as a result

lE du

existence of about

ca

felt for

tio

These courses must have remained unchanged

n

t5

and

civilization

worth the name and the curficulum

in the university

Was

little

affected as a result of

their invasions.

In the

fifth

century A. D., the

the University was situated.

It

is

not possible to

affected

One

other influence which was mainly religious

in nature

must
in

also

have affected the curriculum at

Takshasila. It was the influence of

was born
B.C.

about the middle of the sixth century

sila,

which continued to be the stronghold of Vedic

ra

learning.

But

di

The place of the birth and development of Buddhism was, however, far removed from Takshaas the

tio

number

na

of students

rT

from the Eastern parts
siderable,

of the country

the prin<:ipal tenets of
in
thte

fo

have found place

curriculum.

lE du
It

by their invasion, because the met with its ruin in the same century.

university

Buddhism which

was very conalso

Buddhism must
is

probable that the study Of Buddhist tenets must

have received more

re

critical attention, particularly

Ce nt

Mahayana Buddhism The object in including Buddhism as a subject must obviously have been not to support the spread of Buddhism
after the birth of the assertive
in

about the second century A. D.

bt to justify

its tenets,

but Chiefly to enable the

scholars studying at the place to disprove effectively

Buddhist teaching.

www.cteindia.weebly.com

ca

ascertain the extent to which the curriculutti

coming

tio
was

Huns

also overran the part of the country

where

n

i6
In sciences, arts and crafts, both the theory and
practice of the different subjects

had

to be studied.

Usually every theoretical discussion followed a practical

performance leading to a more
of the student.

skilful

attempt

fulness to find out these.

In special sciences like

medicine where incompleteness of knowledge could
result in a disaster, special care
it

that the student had become a thorough master

Finance

di

tio

of the science.

na
In

All the necessary financial assistance

ra

plied

by

the society to teachers

students.

rT

rule provided free boarding

and lodging to

lE du
who
is

But actual practice of every art reveals certain important principles and as such these had to be postponed and the student had to be left to his own capacities and resourceon the part

was taken to see to

was supall

as a general

No

student was required to pay any fees
basis.

never resulted in expulsion from the institution nor

re

in

any

fo

on a compulsory

The non-payment

differential treatment.

fact, stipulation

Ce nt

that fees should be paid was vehemently condemned.

Knowledge was considered too sacred to be bartered for money and Hindu scriptures contain specific
against

injunctions
students.

those

A

salaried

who charge money to teacher, i. e., a teacher who
to be treated,
unfit
for

charges fees on a compulsory basis

according to the scripture of Manu, as

www.cteindia.weebly.com

ca

of fees

tio
the

n

17

company

at

the table.

There were, however, no

financial difficulties that affected the

smooth work-

ing of institutions for higher learning, because every-

thing that was necessary became easily available.

The

spiritual

standing,

renunciation

and

knowledge of

the

persons to give voluntary help in various ways to

gave generous monetary help.
of their children.

either at the beginning or at the

Those who had no convenience

could without any restraint, conduct their studies
as long as they liked
privileges

and enjoyed the same

na
work

and duties as those who were monetarily

di

better placed.

A

completely democratic

tio

lE du
end

these institutions.

Some

well-to-do

parents also

This was given
of the studies

spirit

reigned in these sacred places.

The number

dents studying with every guru was large enough

rT

ra

to be counted in hundreds, yet all

monetary conof the teachers,

veniences were'supplied in various ways by people

who
of

appreciated the

fo

selfless

for balanced

development

in

morals and attainment
of the country.

Ce nt

Kings also helped the cause by direct and indirect

monetary help without exercising any control over The teacher's authority was these institutions. It is true that every complete and absolute. student at the termination of his studies paid something to his teacher by way of Dakshina, but the sum thus paid was never sufficient to qoyer the

re

knowledge of the capable youths

www.cteindia.weebly.com

ca

teachers inspired

many

rights,

of stu-

tio
deep
rich

thus

n

i8
expenses of his education.

Many

times

it

was only a

turban, a pair of sandals, an umbrella or an upper

debt of gratitude that the student owed to the guru.

The community
often used to

lE du
of its

simply an indication of the recognition of the deep

also

was conscious

the students
tion.

all

throughout^ their courses of educa-

Sometimes kings of various places sent students

di

tio

to the university for education

na

to the cause of education.

Moneyed people very make arrangements for the food of

and made

necessary arrangements for boarding and lodging

ra

a money-monger, even poor families considered

rT

for

them

at State expense.

As the teacher was not
it

fo

their duty to maintain students studying under him

by

regularly offering

him some part

of their cooked

food.

re

There were certain occasions when money
to the

Ce nt

was offered

of learning

and knowledge

Brahmanas who were custodians for enabling them to conPoor students
after

tinue their charitable work.

finishing their education

approached kings for get-

ting

money

for the

Dakshina to be offered to the
in this respect is

guru and their requests were always granted by
kings.

One well-known example

www.cteindia.weebly.com

ca
all

The dominating idea was that every qualified student had a right to free education and that it was unholy to associate knowledge with any monetary gift as the price of knowledge and conveniences received. The Dakshina offered was
garment.

duty

tio
the

n

19
that of King

Raghu

of

Ayodhya who,
to

in spite of hiS

having
crores

renounced
of

everything,
coins

supplied fourteen
disciple

golden

Varatantu's
for

Failure to help a student in need of

paying the teacher's honorarium was regarded aa
the greatest slur on a king's reputation.
occasion of the performance of various sacrifices, the
teachers were offered ample money.

lE du
was

They were

given exemption from payment of taxes.

means

facilitated the

work

of giving free education,

na

lodging and boarding to every student
learn in this university.

who came

Admission
Admission was
Chandalas
(

di

tio

free

to all castes
).

except the
restric-

the fifth caste

rT

tion about the choice of subjects which
left

ra

There was no

fo

the pupil learnt at the university was based on the dictum " Knowledge
to students.
for knowledge's sake".

What

The accomplishment had
was a problem
find a complete
in ancient

livelihood which never

Ce nt

re

not to be used as an instrument for earning one's

democracy The different classes and castes merged in the democracy of learning. The democracy was strengthened by the existence of a common code of rules and observances prescribed
India.

This

is

how we

reigning in this university.

for students irrespective of their social or

www.cteindia.weebly.com

ca
On

All these

entirely

economic

tio
for

money

the

also

to

n

Kautsa,

who had approached him

money.

26
status.

The students could be admitted freely to any course provided they had the necessary background. Although we have no record of instances

Takshasila

must have forced the aspirants

admission to

make

ar

very serious scrutiny of their

knowledge imparted at the place.

became a problem
site qualifications,

for

those

who had

namely, freedom from jealousy,

ers

were thirsting for pupils and offering prayers for

receiving such pupils.
lated stands thus, "

tio

One such prayer when
months pass

na
we

straightforwardness and self-control. In fact, teach-

to the lower level, just as

di

O

Creator, just as water flows
incessantly,

so

may Brahmacharins (young

ra

lE du
pupils)
are
(

own

capacity to comprehend

the

high

Admission never
the requi-

Some famous

fo

rT

me.

students
that

It in

is

unfortunate

completely

Ce nt

re

the dark

about the names of the renowned

teachers

who adorned the hallowed precincts of Even the Jatakas which have supplied Takshasila.
to us most of the information regarding this univer-

sity are conipletely silent

on

this point.

Traditions
of

rnention that Panini, the greatest grammarian

the Sanskrit language, was a student of this uniyersity
;

so also

was Chanakya,

known

www.cteindia.weebly.com

ca
level

trans-

come

also

tio
for

without admission, the very fame of the teachers of

of

to

as

n

where incompetent students were asked to return

21
Kautilya) the minister of Chandra Gupta Mourya,

who reduced
ashes.

the

Nanda dynasty

of

Magadha
is

to

jTvaka, the famous physician,

also de-

scribed as a student of this university.

He was an
'

expert in medicine and had studied under a

world-

It is said that

Jivaka cured Emperor Bimbisara of

lE du
known
it

his fistula and, as a result,

was appointed a physi-

cian to the King and to the Buddhist saiiigha.
is

also said to

have cured King Pradyota

of Ujjayini

of jaundice.

He was very

well

for his sur-

gical operations.

In the case of one rich merchant

who was

suffering

from a head disease,

na
The

pointed out that he tied him fast to his bed, cut

rT

on each side of the incision, pulled two worms out of the wound, then closed up the sides of the wound, stitched up the skin on the head and anointed it
with salve.

He

ra

di

through the skin of the head, drew apart the

tio

is

also said to

have successfully

cured cases of twisted intestines.

re

The end

fo

Ce nt

It has already

been pointed out before that

the Kusans conquered that part of the country in the first century A. D. and ruled over it upto about

250 A. D. As these people were little cultured, those times must have been most unfavourable for the
propagation of education.
followed by that of the

little

Kusans was They also yuch-chis.
rule of

www.cteindia.weebly.com

ca

renowned physician

'

for a period of seven years.

has been

flesh

tio
He

n

22
were foreign to any kind of culture and learning. The
final

blow was struck by the Hunas

in the

middle

of the 5th century. A.D.
this

when

the dying embers of

proud seat

of learning got completely exting-

uished.

Ce nt

re

fo

rT

www.cteindia.weebly.com

ra

di

tio

na

lE du

ca

tio

n

Ce nt fo rT ra di tio na lE du ca

re

www.cteindia.weebly.com

tio

n

Pl«|t4

Ce nt

re

fo

rT

ra

di

tio

na
•Sftar^JTST*!??!^

MONKSwww.cteindia.weebly.com IN BUDDHIST UNIVERSITIES

lE du

ca

tio

n

)

Nalanda
History

(

425 A. d. to 1205 A. D.

significance of the

name given

to the place.

Accord-

ing to one theory Naiatida was the
{

of a

cobra

)

who

lived in a tank near the mango-tree

to the south of a Sangharama.

says that the
charity given

name was

the result of the incessant

given sufSciently.

di

Its ptOsperity as described later
is

tio

by Bodhisattva who was living at The third explanation is based on an etymological analysis of the word which means that endowments incessantly flowed to the institution, but donors had not had the satisfaction of having

na
)

this place.

Long before the

rT

than the remaining two.
Christian era the place

ra

shows that the third explanation

lE du
A

second accouht

more acceptable

noted as a religious centre.

which was sanctified by the stay of Buddha and

fo

This was the place
his

re

disciples

( 523 B. C.

477 B, C.

and had witnessed
Buddhist doctrines.

Ce nt

a number of discussions

on

This was also the place where Mahavira, the Jain

Tirthankara, met Gosala.
discussion carried on

This was the place of by Nagarjuna and others in the early centuries of the Christian era. ASoka had built a temple and a Vihara at this place, because it

was only a

little

way from

thickly populated Raja*

www.cteindia.weebly.com

ca

name

Naga

tio
Was

There are various fexplanations showing the

n

M
grha and therefore convenient for religious practices.

the course of his pursuit of Narasinhagupta, in 500

A.D.

But

after this destruction the place flourished

with greater radiance and prosperity.

lE du
built
'

Thus

though the place had been a great

religious

educational centre in the days of Nagarjuna in the

Buddha,

throughout the whole period of existence of this
university,
it

Buildings at Naianda

The

fo

(415-455 A.D.).

re

ianother

Sangbarama

rT

royal patronage.

first

Sangharama was built by Sakraditya His son Buddhaguptaraja built
to the south.

ra

had the

di

tio

half of the fifth century

became a university only in the earlier when a stream of scholastic pilgrimage began to flow towards the place. Almost
it

rare privilege of enjoying

na
)

second century A.D. and even earlier in the days of

Tathagatagupto the east of

Ce nt

taraja, his successor, built one
this.

more

Baladitya

(

468-472 A.D.

one more to
erected

the north-east.

He

also built another great Vihara,

three hundred feet in height, which was
as
if

with a view to seeing the Kailasa mountain
'.

surpassed

His son Vajra built another Sangharama

to the west. Later a king of Central India, Srib'arsha

www.cteindia.weebly.com

ca

tio
al-

The University was founded by Sakraditya his son, Buddhaguptaraja, and his successor, Tathagataguptaraja. This was followed by the destruction of the place by Mihirakula in
and extended by

and

n

25
built another

Sangharama

to the north of

it

as well

as a high wall round these edifices with one gate.

buildings " were majestic in their size and height

pearing like pointed hill-tops, and observatories

were of four stages.
tions

the roofs were covered with
light in a

rT

and ornamented,

and coloured eaves, pearl-red pillars, carved richly adorned balustrades while
tiles

ra

di

side

courts in which were the priests' chambers

The stages had dragon-projec-

tio

The upper rooms towered above the clouds and from their windows one could see the winds and clouds producing ever new forms and from the §oaring eaves the sunset splendours and the moonlit glories. All the outlost

in

the mist of morning.

fo

thousand shades. "

beautified by

deep translucent ponds, with blue

re

lotuses intermingled with

Ce nt

red colour.

The place

Kanaka flowers of deep was shaded by mango groves.

Archaeological excavations carried out at this

place

amply bear out the description

na

wealth of Nalanda.

Three monasteries have so far

been unearthed along with one temple building.

The

description Qi one of these wiU suffice to give

lE du

with richly adorned towers, fairy-like turrets ap-

that reflected the

The grounds were

of the artistic

www.cteindia.weebly.com

ca

tio
q,

buildings continued to be erected by Hindu and Buddhist donors down to the eleventh century. Hiuen Tsiang mentions six monasteries constituting the Nalanda establishment in his time. All these

New

n

26
rough idea of the vastness of the monasteries. The north wall of the most southerly of the big monastic

complexes measures 203 feet and

is

6

feet 6

inches thick.

The

side walls

measure

168 feet

and

are 7 feet 6 inches thick.
of

The

walls are "

admirable texture, fitted together so perfectly that
in
joints

together inconspicuous. As brickwork the construction
is

remarkable, far superior to any modern

work. "
contains

double seated one having two.

there was

common

ra

of large sizes

di

niche for

a lamp and another
messing.

Each room has one for books. Ovens that have been unearthed show that
In a corner of the

courtyard of each monastery a well has betn unearthed.

rT

Excavation

tio

Each

single

seated cell has one stone bench, a

has

na
shown

The rectangle formed by the main walls 12'. cells measuring 9'-6", lo'-ii" and

lE du
that
at
its

some places the

between the bricks are

thirteen monasteries stood at this spot during different periods.

Ce nt

re

least

ings being arranged according to a preconceived

fo

The university covered an area at one mile long and half a mile broad, all buildThe
central college

plan.
to
it

had seven

halls attached

with three hundred rooms for teaching work.

Admission
Nalanda,
like

other universities of

an

institution

which imparted only higher education

www.cteindia.weebly.com

ca

most

superior bricks, of a light yellowish tint

composed and

leeist

type was

tio
al-

n

2?
and acGordingly admission was restricted to th&s& who had the necessary background to follow post-'
graduate studies.
In particular the institution was

known

as a place where learned

men from

all

parts

of the country as well as from neighbouring nations

gaining mastery in the aft of disputation.
scholars

China, Korea, Tibet and Tokhara.
of the scholars

lE du
Although
It

Came

in

large

nurtibefs

from Morigotia,
soffie
dri

Came

for securing

manuscripts

na
in

Buddhism, there were many Who cartie' to get a stamp of approval idt their doctrines from the
authorities in the University.
this that those

was because

who

waflted to get entrance to the

per cent of those

ra

Hiuen

Tsfaiig has

who came
go

di

university had to undergo a very strict examiriafiOri.

pointed out that only twenty
seekifig for admiission

came out

rT

tio

successful at the examination
to

remaining had

back

disappointtrtenf.

Those who examined the candidate^ seeking adniis-

re

were experts in religious controversies and were always ready with difificult problems to try the
sion

fo

Ce nt

competence of aspirants
than twenty.

for admission.

The

ble age of admission, therefore,
less

must have been not

mentioned that the' uni^^efsity conducted a department for secondary and primary education where young pupils were For all these students a very high freely admitted. standard of morality was prescribed and students
It
is

also

www.cteindia.weebly.com

ca

gathered for getting their doubts solved and for

Such

and the

ptdba.-

tio
of

n

28
at

Nalanda were taken as models of morality, and
been reported.

during the long existence of seven centuries not a
single case of guilty rebellion has

In

all

Buddhist institutions boarding and lodg-

ing were offered free except in such institutions as

Inasmuch as there is much that is common to Hinduism and Buddhism, it is natural that in
this respect also, things should

have been much the

di

Vihara.'
ers

This should apply only to Buddhist teachin the earlier

tio

same as in Hindu institutions. It has been pointed out in some places that the teacher as he took no fees, made the student work in his Asrama or
'

and that too

when donations were not pouring

ra

na
it is

rT

perhaps fees were not insisted upon

preferential treatment given to students
rich

fo

and paid
of

fees.

There were periods
every

lE du
in.
;

were intended for imparting education to the

days of Buddhism
In later days

nor was any

who were
in

history

Buddhist education when
offered
facility

Viharas

monasteries

re

because

Ce nt

owned

excessive wealth

and

impossible to speak
basis.

of fees being charged

on a compulsory

Buddhist students were required to go for begging
institu-

alms does not indicate the poverty of the

tions

where they received their education.

institutions

^ere

rich in wealth

there must have been

and materials. So some other reason behind it.

www.cteindia.weebly.com

ca

laity.

they

That

tio
the
or

Boarding and lodging arrangements for students

The

n

2g
Begging was prescribed because of
advantages as was the case
the support of his school.
in the fact that
it

its

educational
institutions.
for

in

Hindu

There the student begged not for himself but
produced in the pupil a
"

Its educative value lay
spirit of

humility and renunciation.

But

its

moral

effects

may

be examined more
his

closely.

First the contrast

brings

home

to

organisation of the personality, a deeper loyalty to
his

system.

Further the daily duty of begging

makes the ego
all

tio

na

less

and

less assertive,

lE du
is
life.

between

life and that of the world at large him the value of the scheme for which he stands, which he will now all the more try to consolidate. This makes for a more complete

own

and with

di

unruly desires and passions which do not shoot

forth as their roots wither.

Thus there

ra

a greater balance of the inner

A

rT

balance and harmony further brings out the contrast

between the behaviour of

his

own group and
or order.

fo

of the

men

of the world,
his

and

this further confirms

his faith in

own group

Again an
life

re

acquaintance through begging with worldly

Ce nt

its trials

of his

feel

make him realise more vividly the security own life. Lastly, begging makes the pupil how unaffected he is to any ties and a sense of

independence contributing to a sense of selfhood. It is like a ritual for the cultivation of impersonal
relations in
life.

The contact

of the recluse with

the world

is

a valuable corrective to the exaggerated

www.cteindia.weebly.com

ca
sense

reached
of

tio
it

that

and

n

sbbjectivity of is^ikted meditative Hfe in the hermitage.

Isolation

and

intercourse

thus lead to a

higher synthesis of the inner and the outer, Purusha

and Prakrti,

self

and the world."

Courses of study

The curriculum

of

the
all

university

was

well as non-Buddhist,

Mahayana
Study

yana.

Only a few

of these

many
of

treated as compulsory.

all

dhism were prescribed as
IVtahayanists

'

ra

di

propounded the doctrines of Sunyavada and Vijnanavada. The doctrine of Skyflower which means that all objective phenomena
'

tio

are,

like

sky-flowers,

unreal and

na
of

acquaintance with

the eighteen schools of

Mahayana and Budcompulsory subjects. The

lE du
vanishing

exhaustive and embraced

subjects, Buddhist as

as well as Hina-

subjects were

rT

popular

among

the Mahayanists but was held in con-

tempt as a heresy by the Hinayanists.

Among

fo

subjects that were taught on a voluntary basis Logic

played an important part.

Yet looking

to the im-

portant place that dialectics occupied during those

re

Ce nt

days,

it

the university.

must have played a very important role in The systems of logic acceptable
other
schools

to various
studied.

thought were

Astronomy was taught and for this purpose an observatory and a clepsydra were specially maintained by this university. According to Hiuen Tsiang this clepsydra gave correct time for

www.cteindia.weebly.com

ca

very

tio
was
the
also

n

31
all

Magadha.

Tantra was a very popular subject

at this university because we hear oi
others copying and translating

many
them

scholars

writing works on Tantra, others studying them
still

and

into the

languages of the north.
of mystic syliables

Tantras deal with the use

popular, because they allowed

which was forbidden by early Buddhism to the
followers of the

new

cult.

in this University were the

tio

na

Other subjects studied

Vedas and

lE du
liberty
of

The practice cf Mudras, Mantras, Dharanis, Yoga and Samadhi were not there in primitive Buddhism, nor did it prescribe any worship of Buddha or di&rerat gods and goddiesses. The Tantras became specially

re

sacred and and practical, sciences and arts. There were some institutions for primary education run by the university where six-year olds were admitted. Such students learnt Sabdalearning,
secular, philosophical

Ce nt

fo

vidya or

Grammar of
of

rT

Brahmanical and Buddhist,

ra

Grammar, Sankhya, Philology, Law, Philosophy and other miscellaneous subjects. The subjects were drawn from different fields of

knowledge

di

auxiliaries. Medicine,

the Sanskrit language because

Sanskrit

was

essential

both

Buddhists and Hindus who were studjdng at the university. After studying elementary course in
for six

Grammar

months, the student was required

to study the

Sutrapatha

and Dhatupatha from

Panini's graniniar.

At the age of ten he was taught

www.cteindia.weebly.com

ca
their

and words

as well as magic.

action

tio
six

for

n

32
the book on three Khilas which gave a thorough

knowledge of grammar.
this in three years.

This was followed by
of

The student could master more The book used
for this

generally lasted five years.

of subjects other than

Grammar comprising
All this

thing under the sun ".

hari's Sastra.

Kshatriya students could learn the

art of archery along with other Sastras like Medicine,

ra

Veda, Vedangas, Sankhya, Nyaya
Vai^eshika
before.
(

di

tio

to be learnt by heart. This was by study of prose and verse, logic and metaphysics. At the advanced university stage some students followed advanced courses in Grammar and learnt Churni of Patau jali and Bhartr-

memory and was

followed

na

lE du
was
(

for training of

Logic )
)

Atomic theory

of the world

mentioned

Ce nt

was a Bhikkhu and seniority, who was elected by the various Sanghas comprising the This Bhikkhu controlled and directed federation.

At the head

fo

Administration of the University
of the university

re

possessing character, scholarship

the work of administering the affairs of the univer-

sity,

academic and otherwise through two councils

rT

appointed for the purpose.
affairs like

The former looked

admitting students to the university,

regulating the courses in various subjects, distribn-

www.cteindia.weebly.com

ca

purpose was Vrtti-sutra which contains a discussion

" every-

tio
and
to

subtle

and abstruse studies

Grammar which

n

33
tion of

work amohg

teachers, holding of examina-

tions at proper intervals, looking after the securing

and maintenance

of manuscripts

and the arrange-

pairs of buildings, securing

and supply

of food to

allocation of

rooms to students and teachers accord-

ing to their standing

and the distribution among

the residents of the menial work connected with the

working of the university.
belonging to the Sanghas.

di

farmers, collecting and storing of corn received from

was an important duty
this

ra

tenants and the distribution

tio

ed to pay meticulous attention to the landed estates
Leasing out the land to

na
his

This council was requir-

among

of the council.

re

were individual teachers, each with a group of students of his

fo

method of control on federated basis the independence and efificiency of each constituent group was maintained. The constituents of the federation

rT

own

living

under

Ce nt

lE du

the inmates, arrangements of clothes and medicines,

various messes

In spite of

guardianship and

responsible for the health

and

studies, tnanners

morals and the spiritual progress of his students. These students, because they formed a part of larg-

er federation, could partake of a wider academic and collective life with its own advantages. Unlike Hindu institutions which were isolated and independent of each other and which depended upon ideal

www.cteindia.weebly.com

ca

tended to the financial aspect, construction and

tio
re-

ment for copying manuscripts which were greatly in demand in those days. The other council at-

and

n

34
succession of teachets and disciples, these schools

had federated themselves
Viharas or monasteries.
efficiency of

into larger

units

called

and

relations

between the constituent groups were

Rules for both the teachers and the taught were

framed by the federation
of relations,
for

for

maintaining harmony

preventing controversies

professors

and

for maintaining

academic etiquette.

ment upon

his pupils directly only in the case of

di

tio

of discipline

and the federation could
life,

na
in

Every teacher Upajjihaya or Achariya was indepen-' dent of the federation in regard to the maintenance
inflict

lE du
stealing,

serious offences like destroying

Buddha,
trines

Dhamma and

ra

mitting impurity, lying, drinking,

defaming

Sangha, holding

false doc-

nuns).

and misconducts with Bhikkhunis ( Buddhist Thus there was a judicious mixture of inrestrictions.

dependence and

Ce nt

re

Finance

Buddhism was strictly speaking an order of ascetics and mendicants and no Bhikkhu was allowed to receive gold or silver or any gift in cash. The violation of this interdict was regarded as a
serious offence.

fo

rT

Things offered

kind could be

accepted.

This rule was observed very rigorously

in the earUer days, of

Buddhism and the

www.cteindia.weebly.com

ca

adjusted by means of rules provided for the purpose.

among

punish-

comthe

rigour of

tio

The independence and each constituent school was maintained

n

33
renunciation

which

alone

could save one from

worldly contamination was maintained in its pristine
purity.

But the Buddha, during

his

life-time

allowed the Sanghas to grow rich by permitting

them

to receive benefactions

from lay well-wishers

even under Buddha's direct encouragement.
the
gifts

accepted for the Sangha

pavilions,

ponds, buildings and Viharas with
life,

lE du
were
oil,

appurtenances for healthful
ings

materials for build-

and property by bequests

for the dead.

Buddha encouraged such donations by

na

tio

them as meritorious deeds.

Sometimes standing

invitations for meals were given to Bhikkhus.

molasses and sugar.

425 A.D. endowments for the university were pour-

The list of such donors contains the names of kings Kumaragupta I, Buddhagupta, Tathagatagupta, Baladitya, Vajra and Harsha Vardhana. Like the Guptas and Vardhanas, Varmans, also showed interest in the university. It is stated that Purnavarman and Yasovarmadeva donated
ing
in.

Ce nt

re

The name meant, "however much one may
feels satisfied '\

fo

Even from its beginning the place was rich in money as its very name indicates.* Right from

rT

ra

Sanghas in the form of ghee, butter,

di

devotees

many

times

supplied provisions to the

honey and

never

www.cteindia.weebly.com

ca
give,

which kept continuously flowing to the monasteries
parks,
all

Among

declaring

tio
The

Lay

one

n

sa

of such bountiful benefactions, the university never

experienced any financial difficulty and could develop to
its fullest

capacity.

Teachers and students
It
is

stated that at one time there were 10,000
at Nalanda.

monks staying

tio

na
Of
of
It

lE du
these, 1,510

for the upkeep and repair of monasteries. The kings of the far-off Suvarnadwipa and Yavadwipa (Sumatra and Java) had also patronised these institutions. On account

di

teachers and the remaining 8,500 were

belonging to various levels

attainments

ra

studying various subjects.

has been pointed out

that there were on an average a hundred lectures or discussions every day.

rT

On an

average the

ber of students per teacher was seven or eight and
it

must have been very convenient

fo

to give individual

attention to students.

Ce nt

Libraries

re

The

university had a large collection of

scripts

on various subjects in various languages

stored

up

in three splendid buildings appropriately

called Ratnasagara,

Ratnodadhi and Ratnaranjaka.

This was greatly helpful in the dissemination of knowledge, because we find numerous mentions of

www.cteindia.weebly.com

ca

were

students

num-

manu-

tio
and

assembly of venerable Bhikkhus and

n

money equal to the price of the whole Nalanda institution. The Pala King of Bengal, Devapala by name is said to have donated five villages for the

37
scholars from abroad copyirjg oyt manvscfipts in

hundre4s from these
their countries.

5,00,000 verses.

over the country.

They defeated many Panditas
the
list

belonging to other faiths and converted them to

Buddhism.
university

Among
the

Chinese traveller Hiuen Tsiang

knowledge

na
of

we may ei-Iso include the who acquired in this
the
doctrines
of

Bhutas, Nirgranthas, Kapalikfis, Jtjtikas, Sankhyas

Panditas of this place were accepted as authorities

even on Hinayana doctrines of Buddhism although
the university championed the cause of the Maha-

re

fo

rT

and Vaiseshikas over and above those of Buddhism, The fact that a distinguished king hke Sri Harsha sent for Panditas from Nalanda bears ample testimony to the depth of their learning. The

yana doctrine.

Ce nt

from Nalanda University were present at the assembly held at Kanyakubja ( Kanoj ) by Sri Harsha
to investigate the treatise of

ra

It

is

di

said that one thousand Panditas

We

give below

about famous teachers who lived at or were assoqi^t-

ed with Nalanda.

www.cteindia.weebly.com

tio

Hiuen Tsiang.

some important information

lE du

Learried

men from

Nalan^ia were farnous

ca

Teachers at Naianda

tio
all

n

and taking thern to is said to have got copied from Nalanda, 400 Sanskrit works amounting to
libraries

It-sing

3S
The names
Rahulabhadra,
of Nagarjuna,

Vasubandhu, Din-

naga, Padmasaihbhava, Shantarakshita, Aryadeva,

famous university.

have detailed information

only about some of them.
(

I

)

the third century.
(

2

)

rT

Aryadeva He was one of the scholars of Nalanda who lived in the 4th century A.D. He was the author of three works; all of
:

ra

di

tio

Nagarjuna He was a colleague of Aryadeva. Both of them discovered a deeper meaning in Buddha's preaching and founded and popularised a new form of Buddhism called Mahayana and gave it a philosophy named Madhyamika. This occurred in the later half of the second and the earlier part of
:

na

fo

these were translated into Tibetan.

lE du
out
the

work known as Madhyamika-bhramaghatawritten at the request of the king

re

nama was

Ce nt

of Jariibudwipa

Tibetan
Jnana.

by

and was translated into Upadhyaya Dipankara Sri
the follower of Nagarjuna

He was

and

assailed the Sankhyas, Vaiseshikas

twenty other doctrines.
(

3

)

Vasubandhu Vasubandhu

:

Anecdotes point

composed

Paramartha-

www.cteindia.weebly.com

ca
His

We

that

tio
last

Asanga, Jayadeva, Chandrakirti, Dharmapala, Gunamati, Sthiramati, Prabhamitra and Jinamitra are traditionally associated with this

and

n

39
saptati to oppose the doctrine of Sankhyas

contained in the Sankhya-saptati and reconverted

king

Baladitya

(

Narasinhagupta

)

from Sankhya to Buddhism.

upon a number
A.D.
(

of

flourished between the years

4

)

:

completely evolved the doctrine
It
is

of Yogachara.

he

who

Mahayana the practices of Yoga, union
individual

lE du
spirit

Asanga

He

grafted on the
of the

na
It
is

mystical

and the and other

universal
practices

of

meditation.

He

wrote three works on Maha-

yana.
(

5

)

Sthiramati

di

:

Hiuen Tsiang speaks

tio

ra

the founder of
describes

him as a monastery at Valabhi and
of

him

as a person the streams

whose superior knowledge spread about even
now.
ing

fo

rT

He

played an important role in spreadto Tibet,

Buddhism

He

is

supposed to

Ce nt

re

have written a number of books on Mahayana. He flourished between the years 460

and 550 A. D,

(

6

)

He was the son of a high Dharmapala at Kanchipura in the South but embraced Buddhism even in his youth. His services to the cause of Buddhism are Of
:

official

inestimable

value.

said

that

www.cteindia.weebly.com

ca
and
abstract
of

420 and 500

tio
he

He commented works on Mahay ana. He

n

40
vanquished a heretic adversary who had defeated
all

the Buddhist Panditas and con-

dhism.

After coming to Nalanda he became

author of a grammatical work called Varnasutra-vrittinama.

He

wrote four Buddhist
all

works in Sanskrit which are
into

Tibetan.

He

flourished between 550

tio

(

7

)

Shilabhadra
of

:

He became

na
his

and 650 A.D.

Nalanda
caste.

after

Dharmapala.

lE du
caste.

translated

the head Pandita

He was

knowledge he renounced his regal honour

and comfort as well as

rT

ra

by

In pursuit of newer realms of

di

son of a king in East India and a

Brahmana

course of his wanderings he

came

to

Nalanda

fo

which was not

far off

from his place where

he was initiated into the principles of Bud-

re

dhism by Dharmapala.
thirty,

At the

early age of
heretic

Ce nt

he defeated a reputed
his

South India by
arguments.

profound and subtle

Much

against his will he

to accept the donation of a village from the

.

king of the land as an appreciation of this
victory.
gift

From out

of the proceeds of this

he built a magnificent monastery.

www.cteindia.weebly.com

ca
the

the chief Pandita of the place.

He was

the

In the

had

tio
of

one hundred champions of Hinayana Bud-

As

n

verted them to Buddhism.

He

also defeated

)

4t
the head of Nalanda,

he received

Hiuert",

Tsiang and appointed Jayasena to teach

Yogasastra to the Chinese
at his insistence that

visitor.

It

was

Hiuen Tsiang
Buddhism.
viz.,

visited

Kamarupa Assam
(

)

for converting

KumaraOnly one

written

many
:

books.
lived

(8)

Santideva
695-743

He

between
the

na
of
in

A. D,

He was

Manjuvarman.
go to
the

His mother advised him to

tio

lE du
the

Arya buddhabhumi-vyakhyana although he must have
is

work

assigned to him

son of King

country

Bodhisatvas.

di

entered the Nalanda University where, as a
result of his sobriety

and solemnity he was

ra

given

the

name
(

Santideva.

He

rT

three Pitakas
at that place.

religious

books of Buddhists

fo

(

9

)

Santarakshita

:

He was

the

first

re

who was

ofificially

invited to Tibet by king

Ce nt

Khri-son-den-tsan.

His presence there was

not welcomed by the people, so he was sent
to Nepal. Later along with Padmasaiiibhava,

he erected a monastery

Tibet of which

he was the
the cause of

first

head.

After propagating
in Tibet for a period

Buddhism

of thirteen years

he died in 762 A.D,.

www.cteindia.weebly.com

ca
years

raja

and

his family to

studied

Pandita

tio
He

n

43
(

10

)

PadmaSaHibihava

:

Se was
of

th€ son of Indra-

bodhi, the king of Udayatia.
profninertt

He was

a

of the king.
arid is deified
hirtiselt.

He founded

Laitiaism in Tibet
like

and worshipped

magic

atid sorcery in Tibet kflowfi as the roof

of the world.

contemporary of ^antai'akshita and

na
He
is

(

11

)

KitoasTla

:

He was

a

gr^t

lE du
disciple
is

He

spread Taiitristn that deals with

written a cotnme»tary on TatVasaiigraha.
It

Was becaffse of his unique scholarship that

di

adversary named Hcel^Mg

from China atid taught doctrines contrary
to those taught

rT

ra

Saiitarakshita invited

fo

easily defeat

Hoshang.

re

\t2)

tio

betweea 720-780 A.D.

said to

him to vanqQish an who was a Pandita

by Santarakshita. He could

CawdtdgOftita
written
sastra.

:

He

SiappOSfed

Ce nt

liO tess

than sixty books on Tantraalso a distinguished scholar

He was

of

literature,

gram'mar, logie, astronomy,
the science of medicine.

tftuSie, fine arts afld

He Was

the

first

from the Bengal school of
the attention of
the

togfeians

to

attract

literary world.

www.cteindia.weebly.com

ca
to

Buddha

lived

have

have

tio
and

school artd went to Tibet at the invitation

n

expoiind«f

the

Yogachara

43
(

13

)

Buddhaklrti

:

He was

the connecting link

between Nalanda and Vikramasila.

He was

the last great scholar produced by Nalanda.
flourished towards the end of the ele-

venth century and the beginning of the
twelfth century.

Decline and

fall of

the university

1 100

The university worked with great vigour upto A.D. when its greatness began to be eclipsed

Ce nt

re

fo

rT

by Vikramasila which began to receive a greater share of royal patronage. The university received the final tragic blow at the hands of the Muslim invaders under Bakhtiyar Khilji at the end of the twelfth century and not one of the monks remained The to narrate the sad tale of its destruction. also wantonly priceless library of the university was set on fire and destroyed.

www.cteindia.weebly.com

ra

di

tio

na

lE du

ca

tio

n

He

Valabhi
History

{600 a.d, to 1200 a.d.)

Valabhi was the capital of Maitraka kings during
benefactions of these kings.
shore,
it

tional trade.

Courses

Although Valabhi championed the cause

ra

di

tio

was then an important port

na

the period 480-775 A. D. and was born from the

Situated on the seafor interna-

lE du
in the also

The place is identical with the old Wala State. It. was an important centre of Buddhist learning, and championed the cause of Hinayana Buddhism. For some time it had become a rival of Nalanda in the academic field,
Saurashtra in Western
Iiidia.

rT

Hinayana Buddhism,
parochial.

it

was not exclusive and
Buddhist
to

Along with instruction

re

taught at this place. We find references to Brahmana students coming from the Gangetic plains to
learn at this university.

fo

doctrines Brahmanical sciences

used

Over and above
instruction

Ce nt

subjects,

there

was
(

also

imparted

subjects like Niti

Political science. Statesmanship),

logy,

Varta (Business, Agriculture), Administration. TheoLaw, Economics and Accountancy. In some

cases students, after studying at this university were employed by kings for assisting in the government of their kingdom,

www.cteindia.weebly.com

ca

religious
in

tio
of

The University

of

Valabhi was situated

in

be

n

45

Fame
had spread over the whole northern India to such an extent that the Kathaof Valabln

The fame

of

preferred to send his son to Valabhi rather than to

certain that the

stamp

of approval of the doctrines

Panditas of Valabhi was
assemblies.

much valued

na

preached by various scholars by the authoritative
in learned

Students

In about the middle of the 7th century when

Hiuen Tsiang

ra

di

tio

visited the place,
in the university.

rT

monks studying

were provided for them.
Finance

were made available by the citizens of the place,

Ce nt

re

The funds necessary
of

fo

for

running the University

many

whom

lE du

there were 6,000

100 monasteries

were very rich and generous.

Maitraka kings

who

ruled over the country from

480 to 775 A.D. were the patrons of this university and gave bountiful grants for the working of the
University as well as for equipping the libraries of
the institutions.

www.cteindia.weebly.com

ca
is

Nalanda or Banaras. Very

known to us about the famous teachers and scholars who lived at the place, excepting names of two of its Panditas, viz. Gunamati and Sthiramati. Yet it is
httle,

however,

tio
The

saritsagara narrates the story of a

Brahmana, who

n

Closure of Valabhi

The
in

patroQb kings

succumbed

to

an Arab attack

university, however, continued unabated even after-

wards, because the successors of the Maitraka kings

continued to patronize
doaations.

the university with rich

But nothing much

lE du

is

known about

university after this period.
o-J

Probably the defeat

the patron kings must have given a death-blow

upto the twelfth century.

Ce nt

re

fo

rT

www.cteindia.weebly.com

ra

di

tio

na

to all

its

educational activities which continued

ca

tio
the

775 A.D. as a result o£ wliich, the university received a temporary set-back. The work of the

n

Vikramas'ila
History

(800 a.d. to 1203 a.d.)

(

Bihar

).

The place was

just near

Nalanda although
with

the exact location of the Vihara cannot be ascertained.

Dr. S. C. Vidyabhiishana identified

Sultanganj in Bhagalpur district and Cunningham,

lE du
liberal

faunded by king Dharmapala in the eighth century
(circa 775-800).

ments to the university so as to provide

tio

A.D.

He

na
gave
i. e.,

with the village Silao near Badagaon.

boarding and lodging to resident and non-resident

monks studying
when
its tragic

ra

di

at the place.

All throughout the

to the institution.

Buildings

Ce nt

re

fo

Diharmapala continued to give bountiful donations

rT

existence of the university,

upto 1203 A. D.

end came, the successors of King

The buildings

at Vikramasila were well planned

and accoramodativ*. There were one hundred and eight temples and six college buildings, spread out like lotus-petals, with a beautiful Mahabodhi temple
in the centre with its six gates leading to the six
colleges.

Each

of those six buildings

had

www.cteindia.weebly.com

ca
it

was a famous seat of learning situated on a hillock on the banks of the Ganga in northern Magadha

It

endowfor free

spaci(»iis

tio
was

The Vikramaiila Vihara ( Buddhist monastery)

n

48
halls for lectures.

AH

these buildings were surround-

ed by a strong wall.

Like the other universities, this university also

were to preach Buddhist gospel

these branches of
here.

rT

ra

the same,

Buddhist text-books belonging to both

Buddhism must have been taught
all

di

Mahayana form of Buddhism, a more assertive cult as the name itself As the Mahayana form, however, preindicates. supposes the Hinayana and is a development of
The
institution represented the

Along with these

of

Hindu

learning were also taught, although they

could not be classified as Buddhist in nature.

fo

tio

na

the important branches

lE du
its

The standard of attainment expected of the alumni must have been very high, because admission was restricted only to those who aspired to become Buddhist monks who
jects at the collegiate level. in far-off lands.

can be explained by the fact that Buddhism

Ce nt

an entirely new religion as some believe. merely a phase of Hinduism and in most

re

religious
faith.

and

social

aspects resembles

Some

of the details

common

to

Buddhism
of

and

Hinduism

are

:

Brahmanical
of ceremonies.

practices

asceticism, begging, non-violence, insistence on right

habits

and dominance
all

did not cover

the branches of

The courses Hindu sciences

www.cteindia.weebly.com

ca
is

provided only specialised instruction in various sub-

This

It is

of its

parent

tio
not

n

Courses taught

49
but
special
stress

was

laid

on Grammar, Logic,

Metaphysics and Ritualism.

A

special significance

was attached to Tantras which
for

consist of religious

doctrines teaching magical and mystical formularies

the worship of deities or the attainment of

why many

of the important subjects included in

taught in Hindu institutions covered subjects
sixty-four arts which embrace

lE du
out.
all

Hindu education were dropped

The courses
like

the fourteen Vidyas, the eighteen Silpas and the

the knowledge

na

necessary

for

a

house-holder.

Buddhism

or to the

life

of a house-holder.

tio

generally speaking averse to any worldly pleasure
It laid great stress

fo

on the evanescent nature of the worldly existence and believed that all existence was a mere shadow and a source of sorrow and that whatever was seen or felt was an " airy nothing ". In these circumstances, it is no wonder that they should have rejected the subjects leading to enrichment of worldly life and stressed the renunciatory

rT

ra

di

re

aspect of education.

It is significant to

that the institutions were meant for prospective

Ce nt

Bhikkhus ( Buddhist monks ) and Bhikkhunis Buddhist nuns ) and the knowledge of items that create fetters for human beings should have been
{

avoided.
It
is

not possible to decide with any amount of

precision the duration of the courses.

As

www.cteindia.weebly.com

ca
in

supreme power.

It is

not

difficult to

understand

note also

Hindu

tio
was

n

«o
schoollS,

perhaps" the

tittie

required

for"

tnastering;

the subjects depended

upon the

intelligence
it

and

erences of inteUigence and of other capacities of

length of time for learning various courses.

Hindu

institutions,

the practice of giving degree
off

parchments to students successfully finishing
their courses

was not in vogue.

its

own

reward.

The

conferring of degrees in the

rT

ra

on ancient lines and same ancient subjects, is of a very recent origin. The authorities of this university used to confer the title of Pandita on those who had finished their courses at the university. This
teach
the

di

tio

existing Pathasalas which run

na

need of the day, because knowledge was treated as

'

function was usually presided over
king.

Tibetan authorities inform us that Jetari

and Ratnavajra had received degrees

fo

re

sity at the

hands of Kings Mahlpala and Kanaka
It

respectively.

was

also

customary in

Ce nt

sity to exhibit

on walls the portraits of such of the

alumni as possessed outstanding merit.
of course

must have been to pay a grateful tribute

to their scholarship as well as to place before other

students examples worthy of emulation.

ance with this custom, two portraits of Nagarjuna

www.cteindia.weebly.com

lE du
'

That was not the

by the patron
at this univer-

this univer-

The

In accord-

ca

students and did not prescribe any definite uniform

object

tio
In

twelve years.

They believed

in the inherent diff-

n

application of students and that

was normally

51
and Atisa were exhibited on the
versity.

walls of the uni-

Administration

connected with the day-to-day working of the uni;

of

these

various

boards.

There

was
in

academic autonomy and the teachers
various

departments

were

lE du
if

charge of
for

responsible

academic work conducted in their departments.
were admitted to the university only
various subjects.
six

na

order to ensure a high standard of learning students

they

Six erudite teachers guarded the

di

tio

the tests given

by eminent

authorities in charge of

gates leading to the university.

During the
the following

ra

reign
six

of

Chanaka

(

955-983 A.D.

),

eminent logicians were posted for the work.

Ratnakarasanti was placed at the east gate, Vagis-

rT

fo

varakirti at the west,

Naropa

at the north, Prajna-

karamati, at

the south, Ratnavajra at

Ce nt

Teachers and students

well

re

central gate and Jnanasrimitra at the second

The teachers working at the university were known not only in India but even beyond her
depth and the width of their learnIt
is

frontiers for the

ing.

as a result of this that the university

developed literary and cultural contacts with Tibet.
Scholars from Tibet were particularly interested in

www.cteindia.weebly.com

ca
the
gate.

versity

one chief abbot worked as the president
complete

satisfied

tio
the

There were boards

in charge of different duties

In

first

had

n

52
the Tantras, for the teaching of which special arrange-

ments were made at the university
the four hundred years of
its

all

throughout
It

existence.

was

knowledge and
culture

religion

have practically

built

up the

scholars wrote books on various sciences in Sanskrit

and translated quite a few in Tibetan. It is said that Atisa alone wrote two hundred books, some
originals

and other

translations.

scholars coming from other parts of India also was

rT

ra

from Tibet for whom a special arrangement for boarding and lodging was made. The number of
not small.
It

has been mentioned
there were

di

ed out that when the university was started, King Dharmapala of Bengal, its first patron, had appointed one hundred and eight teachers and other specialists making up a total of one hundred and fourteen teachers. Scholars in large numbers poured in

tio

na
3,000

fo

twelfth century

re

studying at this university.
of

We

lE du
It

has been point-

that in the
scholars
list

monk

give below a

Ce nt

names have influenced Tibetan culture.
(

of selected scholars from Vikramasila

I

)

appointed

Acharya Buddha Jnanapada He was first as the priest of King Dharmapala
:

and
sila.

later as the

Acharya

for ordination at

Vikramawhich

He became

the founder of a

new

cult of

Vikramalila was the only centre in those days.

www.cteindia.weebly.com

ca

and

civilisation of Tibet.

Many

of these

who

tio
He

Vikramasila scholars who, as the custodians of piety,

n

53
wrote nine books on Tantra in Sanskrit. But now only their translations in Tibetan are available.
(

2

)

Vairochana Rakshita

:

several

books

in Sanskrit

Tantrika works.

was given the
charya.
3

titles

of

Mahapandita and Maha-

(

)

Jetari

:

He

completed

lE du
his
title of

studies

Vikrama^ila

and was given the

taught Sutra and Tantra to Ratnakarasanti,

was appointed as a gate-keeper
about 983 A. D.

tio

ra

Prajnakaramati He was one of the gate( 4 ) keepers of the Vihara and wrote several works, two
:

of

which are in Tibetan.

rT

di

fo

(

5

)

Ratnakarasanti

:

nation in Sarvastivada school at Odantapuri. Later

re

he joined Vikramaiila.

He wrote

na
He

Later he worked as a professor at Vikramaiila.

of the Vihara in

received his ordi-

thirteen works
in Ceylon,

Ce nt

in Sanskrit

and preached Buddhism

he was invited for that work.
{

6

)

school,

He first belonged to Sravaka Jnana Sri but later became a Mahayana. He wrote
:

several books

and translated one

of them, the Pra-

manaviniichayatika into Tibetan.

www.cteindia.weebly.com

ca

and translated into Tibetan several Later he went to Tibet where he

Pandita.

where

tio
at

He who

n

He wrote

54
(

7

)

Ratnavajra

:

He was

a

resident

of

Kasmira.

After studying Buddhist Sutras, Mantras

Pandita and the honour of becoming a gate-keeper.

Tantra.
{

na
Jnana

8

)

Vagisvarakirti

:

He was

at Vikramasila.

He

belonged to Banaras, was a

worshipper of Tara Devi and wrote a work in Sanskrit
(

di

named Mrtyubanchanopadeia.

tio

Atisa

:

He was

rT

Buddhism who
at nineteen.

ra

9

)

Dipankara

Sri

one of the greatest missionaries of

lE du
alias

He returned to Kasmira and defeated in argument some Tirthajas and converted them to Buddhism. Later he went to Tibet, learned the Tibetan language and translated into Tibetan fourteen works on
a gate-keeper

travelled to foreign countries.

in a royal family in 980 A.D.,

he took the sacred vow

re

At thirty-one he received the highest ordination. He was the master of both Hinayana and Mahayana, Vaiseshika and Tantras. After com-

fo

Ce nt

pleting his education he
{

sailed

to

Suvarnadwipa
There he

Pegu

)

and was further

initiated into the mysteries

of

Buddhism by Acharya Chandraklrti.

studied for twelve years.

On

his return to India

he defeated

many

at Vikramasila. invitation of

and was appointed head Later he went to Nepal at the
scholars
of Tibet

King Chan Chub

www.cteindia.weebly.com

ca

Acharya

Born

who was

tio

the age of thirty-six.

There he won the

title of

n

and

sciences,

he joined Vilcrama^ila University at

)

55
anxious to purge Tibetan Buddhism of
tions
its

corrup-

which were many and

gross.

There he found-

ed the new religion of Lamaism.
for thirteen years

three.

Sanskrit works into Tibetan.
(

10

)

Viryasinha

:

He

helped Atisa in trans-

lating Sanskrit
(

works into Tibetan.
:

11
(

)

Abhayakaragupta
).

appointed by King Ramapala of Magadha

na
(

Gauda

Bengal

He was a native of He became a monk and was
(

tio

lE du
He was
)

to perform religious ceremonies at the palace.

belonged to the Mahayana school.

di

witness of the

first

Turuksha

Turks

invasion of

Magadha.
cult

He was

Tathagata Raksiita r He was born in ( 12 ) a family of physicians in Orissa. At Vikramasila he received the titles " Mahapandita " and " Upa-

fo

rT

and translated seven works into Tibetan.

ra

a great authority on Tantra

Ce nt

dhyaya " and was a professor of Tantra. slated a number of books into Tibetan.

re

(

13

)

dhyaya

",

Ratnakirti " Pandita "

:

He became
and

an

" Mahapandita"

Vikramasila and translated a number of books into
Tibetan.
(

14

)

Manjusri

:

He

was

a

Pandita

Vikramasila and a worshipper of Tara.

www.cteindia.weebly.com

ca
Bihar

ascribed to him.

He

also translated twenty

an eye-

He

tran-

" Upaat

tio
two

He worked in Tibet and died at the age of seventyAbout two hundred works on Vajrayana are

He

at

n

56
Dharmakirti He was a native of He learnt Sanskrit at Vikrama^ila and translated many Sanskrit works into Tibetan.
(

15

)

:

Tibet.

(

i6

)

Sakyastiribhadra

:

He was

a native of

tion of Vikramasila

by Moslems.

Destruction of Vikramasila

The

tragic

end
All

lE du
came
an
in
Khilji,

of this university

A.D. at the hands of Bakhtiyar
Kutub-ud-din.

at the place had their heads shaven and they were

tio

na
know

the Buddhist

monks

all

slain.

It

has been reported that

when the

invading Musalmans came across the library of the
university,

they wanted to

di

the contents of

rT

them the necessary information. But the carnage had been so mercilessly ^thorough that not one was availthe books and searched for some one to give

ra

fo

able for the purpose.

It is said that the
(

mistook the buildings for a fortress

and perhaps was a

re

the yellow-robed clean-shaven Bhikkhus for soldiers
of

Ce nt

war

)

!

and only

later

they realised that

Vihara.

Printed at the M.S. University of Baroda Press

(

Sadhana Press ),

Raopura, Baroda

www.cteindia.weebly.com

ca
it

Kasmira.

He was

a witness of the tragic destruc-

1203

officer of

residing

invaders

tio

n

H
C".

Ce nt re fo rT ra di tio na lE du

www.cteindia.weebly.com

ca

tio

n

Ce nt rT ra di tio na lE du ca

re

fo

www.cteindia.weebly.com

tio

n

Cornell University Library

LA1153.A77
Universities
In

ancient India

924 005 633 130

Ce nt

re

fo

rT

www.cteindia.weebly.com

ra

di

tio

na

lE du

ca

tio

n

Ce nt fo rT ra di tio na lE du ca

re

www.cteindia.weebly.com

tio

n

Related Interests

.

lE du
%
?^;
'

FACULTY OF EDUCATION AND PSYCHOLOGY '4;
Maharaja Sayajirao University of Barod^

''.M^^^^^"

www.cteindia.weebly.com

ca
'.

tio

n

The
tine

tio

original of

na
tiiis

book

the United States on the use of the

rT

There are no known copyright

ra

di

Cornell University Library.

Ce nt

http://www.archive.org/details/cu31924005633130
www.cteindia.weebly.com

re

fo

lE du
is in

restrictions in
text.

ca

tio

Cornell University Library

n

Editor's
to

Note

Ce nt

The Muslim universities had taken a broad sweep including in their curriculum not only the liberal arts, but also medicine, philosophy and theWhen they were closed, Christian Europe ology. felt the need for universities of their own and established them during the middle ages. The oldofficial among them which received recognition est were the Universities of Paris and Bologna founded

re

fo

rT

ra

fairly be said have possessed universities in which all the higher learning' of the time was imparted. Such institutions existed during 200 B.C. in Alexandria, Athens and Constantinople and later at Berut, Bordeaux, Lyons, etc. But the growth of Christian sjipernaturalism and mysticism, and the inroads of the barbarians from the north and south had mostly put an end to these before 800 A.D. After that the Eastern Muslims founded universities in Bagdad, Basra, Cairo and other places, but most of these centres of learning came to an end early in the twelfth century. Then arose in Spain at Cordova, Toledo, Sevilla, the universities of the Western Muslims which after lasting for about a century were suppressed by orthodox fanaticism about 1200 A.D.

The ancient western world may

di

tio

in

the twelfth century.

It

that the University of Oxford dates back to the
its

ninth century and

foundation has been attributis

ed to King Alfred.
claim
is

This

not substantiated by sufficient documentary

www.cteindia.weebly.com

na
is,

not unlikely though the

lE du

however, claimed

ca

tio

n

evidence.
in

The majority Europe and America The
universities

of the present universities

are the offsprings of the

medieval universities of Europe.
of

ancient

India

have a

prouder history than that of their counterparts in the ancient western world. At least one of them,
viz.,

Takshaiila, flourished several centuries before

the Universities of Alexandria, Athens and Con-

di

The universities of ancient India had more impressive teaching and research programrne. The teachers who taught in the hallowed precincts of Takshaiiia, Nalanda and Vikrama^ila were scholars of high eminence and repute. This is not all. The cordial relationship that existed between them and their students was indeed sublime. Such ideal teacher-student relationship has no
stantinople.
also a

tio

na

parallel in the long history of educational

and

practice.

rT

Today we have

Ce nt

knowledge of the universities in ancient India, their teachers and students and the studies pursued in those centres of learning. This brochure dealing with these aspects of universities in ancient India

is

It is

general reader.
T. K. N.

re

meant primarily for our own university students. hoped that it would be useful also to the

fo

with an enrolment of about 400,000 students. It is doubtful whether our university students have any

ra

in India over thirty universities

www.cteindia.weebly.com

lE du

Dean,

ca

thought

Menon,

tio

n

Ce nt fo rT ra di tio na lE du ca

re

www.cteindia.weebly.com

tio

n

Ce nt fo rT ra di tio na lE du ca

re

www.cteindia.weebly.com

tio

n

tJniversities in Anciefit India
Introduction
The brochure contains a brief account of the famous universities in Ancient India. The term!
" university " as used here simply means a centre
dents.

It

does not connote

all

the different features

possessed by the universities in the East and the

West to-day.
parallel in our

There were a number of important

features in these universities, which do not find a

modern

institutions going under the

name.

The

following brief account of these univer-

education imparted in these institutions during the
long period of about 2,000 years beginning with the

loth century B.C. and ending with the

rT

ra

di

sities will

enable the reader to have some idea of

tio

na

A.D.
will

It is

hoped that a perusal

enable him to compare our present institutions

with those of ancieiit India and realise that the
centres of higher learning in ancient India were

Ce nt

unique in their organization and scholarship during
those distant times

re

fo

when elsewhere

lE du
I2tli

where higher education was imparted to aspiring

of this booklet

in the

very few had thought of organised, education at the

university level.

www.cteindia.weebly.com

ca

century

world

tio
stu-

n

)

'Takshasila
History
is

(

i.ooo 6.C, to 500 A.t).

in ancient India.

It

was well known as a centre

learning as early as during 700 B.C.
activities at this place

few centuties
rates

earlier.

from Taksha, a son of Bharata. The Ramayana nar-

how Bharata,

after defeating the

Gandharva Deia
tlie

for

Taksha and Pushkalavata

na

founded the two famous

cities

— Takshaiila

lE du
in
it

The educational must have started at least a The place derived its name
Gandharvas,

other son Pushkala in the Gandhara.

tio

also the place

where king Janamejaya performed

famous

serpent-sacrifice * to

di

avenge the death of

ra

his father tarikshita.

Until very lately

ed out that the place was situated at a distance of

fo

about

fifty-five miles to the east of the river

rT

possitile to locate

the place exactly. Pliny has point-

Witli the help of the

numerous Stupas, Viharas
exactly located.
city covered

re

temples as found out by Cunningham, the situation

Ce nt

of the city has

now been

logical findings

show that the

ol six square miles.

A copper-plate inscription bearis

ing the

name
site.

of Takshalila has also been unearthed

from the

The place

situated twenty miles

to the west of Rawalpindi, somewhere near Shah*

Sarpasatra

www.cteindia.weebly.com

ca
the
for
is

This

was not

Sindhu.
iand

Archaeo-

an area

tio
of
his

Takshasila

the oldest

among

the universities

n

Ce nt fo rT ra di tio na lE du ca

re

www.cteindia.weebly.com

tio

n

Ce nt fo rT ra di tio na lE du ca

re

www.cteindia.weebly.com

tio

n

dheri at a distance of one mile to the south-east of

Kalaksarai.

Administration

centre of higher education because several learned teachers

who were

recognised as authorities on vari-

of their excellence that they could attract
of students

from distant parts of the sub-continent,

in spite of the long

and dangerous journey which

of co-ordination of the

was there any external authority
the local leaders to direct their

tio

na
of

they had to undergo.

There was nothing by way work done by teachers nor
like the
activities.

lE du
the

ous subjects resided at the place.

It

was because
hundreds

teacher was an institution in himself and enjoyed

complete autonomy in his work. His authority was

directing the courses of studies, in selecting or reject-

rT

final in fixing

ra

up the duration

di

course,

the day-to-day work.

authority on the subject of his specialisation, there

re

Ce nt

was

little

fo

ing students and in laying

down rules for guiding As each teacher was an

scope for any conflict of interests or com-

petition

among them.

The knowledge
in

of all these

teachers put together represented everything that

was worth knowing

those days.

The

terminated when the teacher was satisfied with the

achievement

of his student

and there was no

regulation of any sort to regiment the duration of the

www.cteindia.weebly.com

ca

king or

Each

studies

rigid

tio
in

Takshasila came to be

known

as

a

famous

n

10
course.

Normally specialisation
in

in various subjects

of study took eight years, but the period could

be
of

reduced or lengthened

accordance with the iatel-

lectual capacity of the students

and the amount

energy and application shown by them.

There were

leave their studies, because they could not
selves in the social, intellectual or

of their schools,

which were invariably located in the

teachers' private houses.

The completion

Examinations were treated as superfluous, because
the procedure of teaching subjects was critical and

ra

mastered by the student, he was not allowed to
proceed to the succeeding portions.

who completed

written certificates or

fo

rT

their

di

thorough and unless one unit was very thoroughly

lieved that knowledge
it

was

tio

The students studies did not receive any diplomas because it was beits

na

was not marred by any formal examination nor was there any convocation for conferring degrees.

own reward and

for earning

bread or for achieving any

lE du

moral atmosphere
of studies

selfish

was a

Ce nt

Only higher education was imparted

re

sacrilege.

As has already been pointed out

before, only

higher courses were taught in these institutions.

These institutions therefore took students to the end of the knowledge of some particular subjects^
taking
it

up from the secondary stage which the

www.cteindia.weebly.com

ca
fit

also some cases where teachers advised students to

them-

using

tio
end

n

ir
student had already finished elsewhere before joining these institutions.

The process

of

education

which began at home with primary education and widened
in extent in the education in the to

A'ramas

which imparted what corresponded
education reached
its

secondary

which imparted education at the university
According to the system prevalent

primary education was imparted to children upto
the age of eight and secondary education covered

from eight to twelve years more.

who came

to learn in ancient Indian universities

were approximately sixteen to twenty years of age.
Taksha§ila was so well

tio

known

di

hundreds of students went to
of their

na

for its teachers that
this place in search

home.

them to this place was indeed great, particularly when one takes into consideration the risk involved in long journeys in those days when travel was slow, dangerous and uncertain. Numerous references

re

fo

rT

show that students

Ce nt

city

from distant places
in

ra

of knowledge, leaving aside the comforts

Their parents' sacrifice in sending

in hundreds used to flock to this
like Banaras,

Mithila, Ujjain, Koiala,

Madhya Desa and from
Takshasila

lE du
affiliated'

in ancient India,

So the students

and safety

Rajagrha,
the

Kuru Kingdoms

the north.

thus the intellectual capital of India, a central
All the other centres of learning

university that exercised suzerainty over the world
of letters in India.
in di^erent parts of the country

were

www.cteindia.weebly.com

ca
to

culmination in these places
level.

tio
was
it.

n

12

Courses taught
There was a wide variety of courses offered at
nical subjects.

types of courses were the Vedas and the Silpas.

The number
the fourth

of

yedas studied
but

in this university is

should have been dropped from the

Veda and most probably the Atharvaveda list. It was
less secular in

so perhaps because the content of the Atharvaveda

treated" therein were also included in the various

other branches of study.

tio

In fact

na
of
its

was more or

nature and the topics

drop the Atharvaveda, because the minister for
religious affairs

— the

di

Purohita

— according to Manu
The them

Smrti had to be an expert in Atharvaveda.

propagation of the Hindu culture.

fo

study of the Vedas probably meant learning by heart for that was the most important service the Brahmanas rendered to the preservation and

rT

ra

that the study of the Vedas also included the inter-

Ce nt

pretation and exposition of the content of these

re

sacred books.

A number
this

books had already
the com-

been written by

time to facilitate

prehension of the content of the Veda and as the

author of Nirukta, a treatise on Vedic etymology
says a

man who knew

merely the chanting of the

Veda but did not know

meaning

lE du
it is

mentioned as

three,

it is difficult

to explain

impossible to

It is

very likely

was

www.cteindia.weebly.com

ca

tio
why
like

The terms used

to denote these

two

n

Taksliasila,

both

in literary

and

scientific or tech-

T3
a
pillar

merely carrying the burden and

that

,

all',

prosperity attended upon those \vho
ing.

knew the mean-

Probably the term Veda also included the
its six

auxiliary sciences, the Science of

correct pronunciation, Aphoristic literature guiding

the performance of various

rites

and

sacrifices,

to precede the comprehension of the mcaningof the

Vedas.

Silpas were, indicating a craft or vocation based on

na
(

There

is

no precise mention

of.

ary subjects.

According to one source, the Silpas

di

or crafts were as follows cular law,
(

tio

practical skill as contrasted with religious

lE du
and
Logic
),
(

Grammar, Astronomy, Prosody and Etymology. The study of these auxiliary sciences had necessarily

what the eighteen
liter-

:

Holy tradition and

Medicine, four Vedas, Puranas

rT

Atomic theory of creation

ra

Sankhya, Nyaya
),

Vaiseshika

Arithmetic, Music,
Antiquities
),

fo

hasas

(

History), Military Art, Poetry and Convey-

ancing.

But

this list includes the

Vedasand many
study of various

re

other subjects which cannot be termed aa crafts and

seems to be very loosely given.

A

Ce nt

references

taught in this university

shows that the following crafts were Conveyancing or Law,
:

Mathematics, Accountancy, Agriculture, Commercej Cattle breeding, Smithy, Carpentry, Medicine arid
arts.

Surgery, Archery and allied Military
norriy, Astrology., Diviiiation, Ma^ic,

Snake

www.cteindia.weebly.com

ca

Astro?
cl^afti^r

tio
seIti-

n

study of

14
ing,

Art of finding hidden treasures, Music, Dancing
It
is

'

and Painting.

obvious

that

the

number

eighteen need not be taken too literally.

throughout the period of existence of the university.
of subjects taught

There were certainly some additions made to the
list

whenever a need was

the same as a result of religious, political and social

changes which came during
fifteen

its

hundred years.

The place was conquered

century B. C.
trians,

it

was conquered by the Indo-Bac-

who were

to decide
finitely

Ce nt

re

ing places, the Greek language could be understood

by a number of people. The teachers* at the place had no objection to collecting knowledge from whatsoever source it was available and they were sufficiently

fo

what these subjects were, but it has debeen ascertained that the Greek language began to be taught and that even among neighbour-

rT

This must have brought about some additions to the courses taught at the university. It is difficult

broad-minded

ra

The place was overrun by the Sythians in the first century B. C. and by the Kusans in the first century A. D. Both these had no culture
like Rshis.

www.cteindia.weebly.com

di

the inheritors of the Greek culture.

tio

which the Brah mi script that was in vogue was replaced by the Kharoshtri script. In the second
of

to

honour even foreign savants

na

by the Persians

in the sixth century B. C. as a result

lE du

existence of about

ca

felt for

tio

These courses must have remained unchanged

n

t5

and

civilization

worth the name and the curficulum

in the university

Was

little

affected as a result of

their invasions.

In the

fifth

century A. D., the

the University was situated.

It

is

not possible to

affected

One

other influence which was mainly religious

in nature

must
in

also

have affected the curriculum at

Takshasila. It was the influence of

was born
B.C.

about the middle of the sixth century

sila,

which continued to be the stronghold of Vedic

ra

learning.

But

di

The place of the birth and development of Buddhism was, however, far removed from Takshaas the

tio

number

na

of students

rT

from the Eastern parts
siderable,

of the country

the prin<:ipal tenets of
in
thte

fo

have found place

curriculum.

lE du
It

by their invasion, because the met with its ruin in the same century.

university

Buddhism which

was very conalso

Buddhism must
is

probable that the study Of Buddhist tenets must

have received more

re

critical attention, particularly

Ce nt

Mahayana Buddhism The object in including Buddhism as a subject must obviously have been not to support the spread of Buddhism
after the birth of the assertive
in

about the second century A. D.

bt to justify

its tenets,

but Chiefly to enable the

scholars studying at the place to disprove effectively

Buddhist teaching.

www.cteindia.weebly.com

ca

ascertain the extent to which the curriculutti

coming

tio
was

Huns

also overran the part of the country

where

n

i6
In sciences, arts and crafts, both the theory and
practice of the different subjects

had

to be studied.

Usually every theoretical discussion followed a practical

performance leading to a more
of the student.

skilful

attempt

fulness to find out these.

In special sciences like

medicine where incompleteness of knowledge could
result in a disaster, special care
it

that the student had become a thorough master

Finance

di

tio

of the science.

na
In

All the necessary financial assistance

ra

plied

by

the society to teachers

students.

rT

rule provided free boarding

and lodging to

lE du
who
is

But actual practice of every art reveals certain important principles and as such these had to be postponed and the student had to be left to his own capacities and resourceon the part

was taken to see to

was supall

as a general

No

student was required to pay any fees
basis.

never resulted in expulsion from the institution nor

re

in

any

fo

on a compulsory

The non-payment

differential treatment.

fact, stipulation

Ce nt

that fees should be paid was vehemently condemned.

Knowledge was considered too sacred to be bartered for money and Hindu scriptures contain specific
against

injunctions
students.

those

A

salaried

who charge money to teacher, i. e., a teacher who
to be treated,
unfit
for

charges fees on a compulsory basis

according to the scripture of Manu, as

www.cteindia.weebly.com

ca

of fees

tio
the

n

17

company

at

the table.

There were, however, no

financial difficulties that affected the

smooth work-

ing of institutions for higher learning, because every-

thing that was necessary became easily available.

The

spiritual

standing,

renunciation

and

knowledge of

the

persons to give voluntary help in various ways to

gave generous monetary help.
of their children.

either at the beginning or at the

Those who had no convenience

could without any restraint, conduct their studies
as long as they liked
privileges

and enjoyed the same

na
work

and duties as those who were monetarily

di

better placed.

A

completely democratic

tio

lE du
end

these institutions.

Some

well-to-do

parents also

This was given
of the studies

spirit

reigned in these sacred places.

The number

dents studying with every guru was large enough

rT

ra

to be counted in hundreds, yet all

monetary conof the teachers,

veniences were'supplied in various ways by people

who
of

appreciated the

fo

selfless

for balanced

development

in

morals and attainment
of the country.

Ce nt

Kings also helped the cause by direct and indirect

monetary help without exercising any control over The teacher's authority was these institutions. It is true that every complete and absolute. student at the termination of his studies paid something to his teacher by way of Dakshina, but the sum thus paid was never sufficient to qoyer the

re

knowledge of the capable youths

www.cteindia.weebly.com

ca

teachers inspired

many

rights,

of stu-

tio
deep
rich

thus

n

i8
expenses of his education.

Many

times

it

was only a

turban, a pair of sandals, an umbrella or an upper

debt of gratitude that the student owed to the guru.

The community
often used to

lE du
of its

simply an indication of the recognition of the deep

also

was conscious

the students
tion.

all

throughout^ their courses of educa-

Sometimes kings of various places sent students

di

tio

to the university for education

na

to the cause of education.

Moneyed people very make arrangements for the food of

and made

necessary arrangements for boarding and lodging

ra

a money-monger, even poor families considered

rT

for

them

at State expense.

As the teacher was not
it

fo

their duty to maintain students studying under him

by

regularly offering

him some part

of their cooked

food.

re

There were certain occasions when money
to the

Ce nt

was offered

of learning

and knowledge

Brahmanas who were custodians for enabling them to conPoor students
after

tinue their charitable work.

finishing their education

approached kings for get-

ting

money

for the

Dakshina to be offered to the
in this respect is

guru and their requests were always granted by
kings.

One well-known example

www.cteindia.weebly.com

ca
all

The dominating idea was that every qualified student had a right to free education and that it was unholy to associate knowledge with any monetary gift as the price of knowledge and conveniences received. The Dakshina offered was
garment.

duty

tio
the

n

19
that of King

Raghu

of

Ayodhya who,
to

in spite of hiS

having
crores

renounced
of

everything,
coins

supplied fourteen
disciple

golden

Varatantu's
for

Failure to help a student in need of

paying the teacher's honorarium was regarded aa
the greatest slur on a king's reputation.
occasion of the performance of various sacrifices, the
teachers were offered ample money.

lE du
was

They were

given exemption from payment of taxes.

means

facilitated the

work

of giving free education,

na

lodging and boarding to every student
learn in this university.

who came

Admission
Admission was
Chandalas
(

di

tio

free

to all castes
).

except the
restric-

the fifth caste

rT

tion about the choice of subjects which
left

ra

There was no

fo

the pupil learnt at the university was based on the dictum " Knowledge
to students.
for knowledge's sake".

What

The accomplishment had
was a problem
find a complete
in ancient

livelihood which never

Ce nt

re

not to be used as an instrument for earning one's

democracy The different classes and castes merged in the democracy of learning. The democracy was strengthened by the existence of a common code of rules and observances prescribed
India.

This

is

how we

reigning in this university.

for students irrespective of their social or

www.cteindia.weebly.com

ca
On

All these

entirely

economic

tio
for

money

the

also

to

n

Kautsa,

who had approached him

money.

26
status.

The students could be admitted freely to any course provided they had the necessary background. Although we have no record of instances

Takshasila

must have forced the aspirants

admission to

make

ar

very serious scrutiny of their

knowledge imparted at the place.

became a problem
site qualifications,

for

those

who had

namely, freedom from jealousy,

ers

were thirsting for pupils and offering prayers for

receiving such pupils.
lated stands thus, "

tio

One such prayer when
months pass

na
we

straightforwardness and self-control. In fact, teach-

to the lower level, just as

di

O

Creator, just as water flows
incessantly,

so

may Brahmacharins (young

ra

lE du
pupils)
are
(

own

capacity to comprehend

the

high

Admission never
the requi-

Some famous

fo

rT

me.

students
that

It in

is

unfortunate

completely

Ce nt

re

the dark

about the names of the renowned

teachers

who adorned the hallowed precincts of Even the Jatakas which have supplied Takshasila.
to us most of the information regarding this univer-

sity are conipletely silent

on

this point.

Traditions
of

rnention that Panini, the greatest grammarian

the Sanskrit language, was a student of this uniyersity
;

so also

was Chanakya,

known

www.cteindia.weebly.com

ca
level

trans-

come

also

tio
for

without admission, the very fame of the teachers of

of

to

as

n

where incompetent students were asked to return

21
Kautilya) the minister of Chandra Gupta Mourya,

who reduced
ashes.

the

Nanda dynasty

of

Magadha
is

to

jTvaka, the famous physician,

also de-

scribed as a student of this university.

He was an
'

expert in medicine and had studied under a

world-

It is said that

Jivaka cured Emperor Bimbisara of

lE du
known
it

his fistula and, as a result,

was appointed a physi-

cian to the King and to the Buddhist saiiigha.
is

also said to

have cured King Pradyota

of Ujjayini

of jaundice.

He was very

well

for his sur-

gical operations.

In the case of one rich merchant

who was

suffering

from a head disease,

na
The

pointed out that he tied him fast to his bed, cut

rT

on each side of the incision, pulled two worms out of the wound, then closed up the sides of the wound, stitched up the skin on the head and anointed it
with salve.

He

ra

di

through the skin of the head, drew apart the

tio

is

also said to

have successfully

cured cases of twisted intestines.

re

The end

fo

Ce nt

It has already

been pointed out before that

the Kusans conquered that part of the country in the first century A. D. and ruled over it upto about

250 A. D. As these people were little cultured, those times must have been most unfavourable for the
propagation of education.
followed by that of the

little

Kusans was They also yuch-chis.
rule of

www.cteindia.weebly.com

ca

renowned physician

'

for a period of seven years.

has been

flesh

tio
He

n

22
were foreign to any kind of culture and learning. The
final

blow was struck by the Hunas

in the

middle

of the 5th century. A.D.
this

when

the dying embers of

proud seat

of learning got completely exting-

uished.

Ce nt

re

fo

rT

www.cteindia.weebly.com

ra

di

tio

na

lE du

ca

tio

n

Ce nt fo rT ra di tio na lE du ca

re

www.cteindia.weebly.com

tio

n

Pl«|t4

Ce nt

re

fo

rT

ra

di

tio

na
•Sftar^JTST*!??!^

MONKSwww.cteindia.weebly.com IN BUDDHIST UNIVERSITIES

lE du

ca

tio

n

)

Nalanda
History

(

425 A. d. to 1205 A. D.

significance of the

name given

to the place.

Accord-

ing to one theory Naiatida was the
{

of a

cobra

)

who

lived in a tank near the mango-tree

to the south of a Sangharama.

says that the
charity given

name was

the result of the incessant

given sufSciently.

di

Its ptOsperity as described later
is

tio

by Bodhisattva who was living at The third explanation is based on an etymological analysis of the word which means that endowments incessantly flowed to the institution, but donors had not had the satisfaction of having

na
)

this place.

Long before the

rT

than the remaining two.
Christian era the place

ra

shows that the third explanation

lE du
A

second accouht

more acceptable

noted as a religious centre.

which was sanctified by the stay of Buddha and

fo

This was the place
his

re

disciples

( 523 B. C.

477 B, C.

and had witnessed
Buddhist doctrines.

Ce nt

a number of discussions

on

This was also the place where Mahavira, the Jain

Tirthankara, met Gosala.
discussion carried on

This was the place of by Nagarjuna and others in the early centuries of the Christian era. ASoka had built a temple and a Vihara at this place, because it

was only a

little

way from

thickly populated Raja*

www.cteindia.weebly.com

ca

name

Naga

tio
Was

There are various fexplanations showing the

n

M
grha and therefore convenient for religious practices.

the course of his pursuit of Narasinhagupta, in 500

A.D.

But

after this destruction the place flourished

with greater radiance and prosperity.

lE du
built
'

Thus

though the place had been a great

religious

educational centre in the days of Nagarjuna in the

Buddha,

throughout the whole period of existence of this
university,
it

Buildings at Naianda

The

fo

(415-455 A.D.).

re

ianother

Sangbarama

rT

royal patronage.

first

Sangharama was built by Sakraditya His son Buddhaguptaraja built
to the south.

ra

had the

di

tio

half of the fifth century

became a university only in the earlier when a stream of scholastic pilgrimage began to flow towards the place. Almost
it

rare privilege of enjoying

na
)

second century A.D. and even earlier in the days of

Tathagatagupto the east of

Ce nt

taraja, his successor, built one
this.

more

Baladitya

(

468-472 A.D.

one more to
erected

the north-east.

He

also built another great Vihara,

three hundred feet in height, which was
as
if

with a view to seeing the Kailasa mountain
'.

surpassed

His son Vajra built another Sangharama

to the west. Later a king of Central India, Srib'arsha

www.cteindia.weebly.com

ca

tio
al-

The University was founded by Sakraditya his son, Buddhaguptaraja, and his successor, Tathagataguptaraja. This was followed by the destruction of the place by Mihirakula in
and extended by

and

n

25
built another

Sangharama

to the north of

it

as well

as a high wall round these edifices with one gate.

buildings " were majestic in their size and height

pearing like pointed hill-tops, and observatories

were of four stages.
tions

the roofs were covered with
light in a

rT

and ornamented,

and coloured eaves, pearl-red pillars, carved richly adorned balustrades while
tiles

ra

di

side

courts in which were the priests' chambers

The stages had dragon-projec-

tio

The upper rooms towered above the clouds and from their windows one could see the winds and clouds producing ever new forms and from the §oaring eaves the sunset splendours and the moonlit glories. All the outlost

in

the mist of morning.

fo

thousand shades. "

beautified by

deep translucent ponds, with blue

re

lotuses intermingled with

Ce nt

red colour.

The place

Kanaka flowers of deep was shaded by mango groves.

Archaeological excavations carried out at this

place

amply bear out the description

na

wealth of Nalanda.

Three monasteries have so far

been unearthed along with one temple building.

The

description Qi one of these wiU suffice to give

lE du

with richly adorned towers, fairy-like turrets ap-

that reflected the

The grounds were

of the artistic

www.cteindia.weebly.com

ca

tio
q,

buildings continued to be erected by Hindu and Buddhist donors down to the eleventh century. Hiuen Tsiang mentions six monasteries constituting the Nalanda establishment in his time. All these

New

n

26
rough idea of the vastness of the monasteries. The north wall of the most southerly of the big monastic

complexes measures 203 feet and

is

6

feet 6

inches thick.

The

side walls

measure

168 feet

and

are 7 feet 6 inches thick.
of

The

walls are "

admirable texture, fitted together so perfectly that
in
joints

together inconspicuous. As brickwork the construction
is

remarkable, far superior to any modern

work. "
contains

double seated one having two.

there was

common

ra

of large sizes

di

niche for

a lamp and another
messing.

Each room has one for books. Ovens that have been unearthed show that
In a corner of the

courtyard of each monastery a well has betn unearthed.

rT

Excavation

tio

Each

single

seated cell has one stone bench, a

has

na
shown

The rectangle formed by the main walls 12'. cells measuring 9'-6", lo'-ii" and

lE du
that
at
its

some places the

between the bricks are

thirteen monasteries stood at this spot during different periods.

Ce nt

re

least

ings being arranged according to a preconceived

fo

The university covered an area at one mile long and half a mile broad, all buildThe
central college

plan.
to
it

had seven

halls attached

with three hundred rooms for teaching work.

Admission
Nalanda,
like

other universities of

an

institution

which imparted only higher education

www.cteindia.weebly.com

ca

most

superior bricks, of a light yellowish tint

composed and

leeist

type was

tio
al-

n

2?
and acGordingly admission was restricted to th&s& who had the necessary background to follow post-'
graduate studies.
In particular the institution was

known

as a place where learned

men from

all

parts

of the country as well as from neighbouring nations

gaining mastery in the aft of disputation.
scholars

China, Korea, Tibet and Tokhara.
of the scholars

lE du
Although
It

Came

in

large

nurtibefs

from Morigotia,
soffie
dri

Came

for securing

manuscripts

na
in

Buddhism, there were many Who cartie' to get a stamp of approval idt their doctrines from the
authorities in the University.
this that those

was because

who

waflted to get entrance to the

per cent of those

ra

Hiuen

Tsfaiig has

who came
go

di

university had to undergo a very strict examiriafiOri.

pointed out that only twenty
seekifig for admiission

came out

rT

tio

successful at the examination
to

remaining had

back

disappointtrtenf.

Those who examined the candidate^ seeking adniis-

re

were experts in religious controversies and were always ready with difificult problems to try the
sion

fo

Ce nt

competence of aspirants
than twenty.

for admission.

The

ble age of admission, therefore,
less

must have been not

mentioned that the' uni^^efsity conducted a department for secondary and primary education where young pupils were For all these students a very high freely admitted. standard of morality was prescribed and students
It
is

also

www.cteindia.weebly.com

ca

gathered for getting their doubts solved and for

Such

and the

ptdba.-

tio
of

n

28
at

Nalanda were taken as models of morality, and
been reported.

during the long existence of seven centuries not a
single case of guilty rebellion has

In

all

Buddhist institutions boarding and lodg-

ing were offered free except in such institutions as

Inasmuch as there is much that is common to Hinduism and Buddhism, it is natural that in
this respect also, things should

have been much the

di

Vihara.'
ers

This should apply only to Buddhist teachin the earlier

tio

same as in Hindu institutions. It has been pointed out in some places that the teacher as he took no fees, made the student work in his Asrama or
'

and that too

when donations were not pouring

ra

na
it is

rT

perhaps fees were not insisted upon

preferential treatment given to students
rich

fo

and paid
of

fees.

There were periods
every

lE du
in.
;

were intended for imparting education to the

days of Buddhism
In later days

nor was any

who were
in

history

Buddhist education when
offered
facility

Viharas

monasteries

re

because

Ce nt

owned

excessive wealth

and

impossible to speak
basis.

of fees being charged

on a compulsory

Buddhist students were required to go for begging
institu-

alms does not indicate the poverty of the

tions

where they received their education.

institutions

^ere

rich in wealth

there must have been

and materials. So some other reason behind it.

www.cteindia.weebly.com

ca

laity.

they

That

tio
the
or

Boarding and lodging arrangements for students

The

n

2g
Begging was prescribed because of
advantages as was the case
the support of his school.
in the fact that
it

its

educational
institutions.
for

in

Hindu

There the student begged not for himself but
produced in the pupil a
"

Its educative value lay
spirit of

humility and renunciation.

But

its

moral

effects

may

be examined more
his

closely.

First the contrast

brings

home

to

organisation of the personality, a deeper loyalty to
his

system.

Further the daily duty of begging

makes the ego
all

tio

na

less

and

less assertive,

lE du
is
life.

between

life and that of the world at large him the value of the scheme for which he stands, which he will now all the more try to consolidate. This makes for a more complete

own

and with

di

unruly desires and passions which do not shoot

forth as their roots wither.

Thus there

ra

a greater balance of the inner

A

rT

balance and harmony further brings out the contrast

between the behaviour of

his

own group and
or order.

fo

of the

men

of the world,
his

and

this further confirms

his faith in

own group

Again an
life

re

acquaintance through begging with worldly

Ce nt

its trials

of his

feel

make him realise more vividly the security own life. Lastly, begging makes the pupil how unaffected he is to any ties and a sense of

independence contributing to a sense of selfhood. It is like a ritual for the cultivation of impersonal
relations in
life.

The contact

of the recluse with

the world

is

a valuable corrective to the exaggerated

www.cteindia.weebly.com

ca
sense

reached
of

tio
it

that

and

n

sbbjectivity of is^ikted meditative Hfe in the hermitage.

Isolation

and

intercourse

thus lead to a

higher synthesis of the inner and the outer, Purusha

and Prakrti,

self

and the world."

Courses of study

The curriculum

of

the
all

university

was

well as non-Buddhist,

Mahayana
Study

yana.

Only a few

of these

many
of

treated as compulsory.

all

dhism were prescribed as
IVtahayanists

'

ra

di

propounded the doctrines of Sunyavada and Vijnanavada. The doctrine of Skyflower which means that all objective phenomena
'

tio

are,

like

sky-flowers,

unreal and

na
of

acquaintance with

the eighteen schools of

Mahayana and Budcompulsory subjects. The

lE du
vanishing

exhaustive and embraced

subjects, Buddhist as

as well as Hina-

subjects were

rT

popular

among

the Mahayanists but was held in con-

tempt as a heresy by the Hinayanists.

Among

fo

subjects that were taught on a voluntary basis Logic

played an important part.

Yet looking

to the im-

portant place that dialectics occupied during those

re

Ce nt

days,

it

the university.

must have played a very important role in The systems of logic acceptable
other
schools

to various
studied.

thought were

Astronomy was taught and for this purpose an observatory and a clepsydra were specially maintained by this university. According to Hiuen Tsiang this clepsydra gave correct time for

www.cteindia.weebly.com

ca

very

tio
was
the
also

n

31
all

Magadha.

Tantra was a very popular subject

at this university because we hear oi
others copying and translating

many
them

scholars

writing works on Tantra, others studying them
still

and

into the

languages of the north.
of mystic syliables

Tantras deal with the use

popular, because they allowed

which was forbidden by early Buddhism to the
followers of the

new

cult.

in this University were the

tio

na

Other subjects studied

Vedas and

lE du
liberty
of

The practice cf Mudras, Mantras, Dharanis, Yoga and Samadhi were not there in primitive Buddhism, nor did it prescribe any worship of Buddha or di&rerat gods and goddiesses. The Tantras became specially

re

sacred and and practical, sciences and arts. There were some institutions for primary education run by the university where six-year olds were admitted. Such students learnt Sabdalearning,
secular, philosophical

Ce nt

fo

vidya or

Grammar of
of

rT

Brahmanical and Buddhist,

ra

Grammar, Sankhya, Philology, Law, Philosophy and other miscellaneous subjects. The subjects were drawn from different fields of

knowledge

di

auxiliaries. Medicine,

the Sanskrit language because

Sanskrit

was

essential

both

Buddhists and Hindus who were studjdng at the university. After studying elementary course in
for six

Grammar

months, the student was required

to study the

Sutrapatha

and Dhatupatha from

Panini's graniniar.

At the age of ten he was taught

www.cteindia.weebly.com

ca
their

and words

as well as magic.

action

tio
six

for

n

32
the book on three Khilas which gave a thorough

knowledge of grammar.
this in three years.

This was followed by
of

The student could master more The book used
for this

generally lasted five years.

of subjects other than

Grammar comprising
All this

thing under the sun ".

hari's Sastra.

Kshatriya students could learn the

art of archery along with other Sastras like Medicine,

ra

Veda, Vedangas, Sankhya, Nyaya
Vai^eshika
before.
(

di

tio

to be learnt by heart. This was by study of prose and verse, logic and metaphysics. At the advanced university stage some students followed advanced courses in Grammar and learnt Churni of Patau jali and Bhartr-

memory and was

followed

na

lE du
was
(

for training of

Logic )
)

Atomic theory

of the world

mentioned

Ce nt

was a Bhikkhu and seniority, who was elected by the various Sanghas comprising the This Bhikkhu controlled and directed federation.

At the head

fo

Administration of the University
of the university

re

possessing character, scholarship

the work of administering the affairs of the univer-

sity,

academic and otherwise through two councils

rT

appointed for the purpose.
affairs like

The former looked

admitting students to the university,

regulating the courses in various subjects, distribn-

www.cteindia.weebly.com

ca

purpose was Vrtti-sutra which contains a discussion

" every-

tio
and
to

subtle

and abstruse studies

Grammar which

n

33
tion of

work amohg

teachers, holding of examina-

tions at proper intervals, looking after the securing

and maintenance

of manuscripts

and the arrange-

pairs of buildings, securing

and supply

of food to

allocation of

rooms to students and teachers accord-

ing to their standing

and the distribution among

the residents of the menial work connected with the

working of the university.
belonging to the Sanghas.

di

farmers, collecting and storing of corn received from

was an important duty
this

ra

tenants and the distribution

tio

ed to pay meticulous attention to the landed estates
Leasing out the land to

na
his

This council was requir-

among

of the council.

re

were individual teachers, each with a group of students of his

fo

method of control on federated basis the independence and efificiency of each constituent group was maintained. The constituents of the federation

rT

own

living

under

Ce nt

lE du

the inmates, arrangements of clothes and medicines,

various messes

In spite of

guardianship and

responsible for the health

and

studies, tnanners

morals and the spiritual progress of his students. These students, because they formed a part of larg-

er federation, could partake of a wider academic and collective life with its own advantages. Unlike Hindu institutions which were isolated and independent of each other and which depended upon ideal

www.cteindia.weebly.com

ca

tended to the financial aspect, construction and

tio
re-

ment for copying manuscripts which were greatly in demand in those days. The other council at-

and

n

34
succession of teachets and disciples, these schools

had federated themselves
Viharas or monasteries.
efficiency of

into larger

units

called

and

relations

between the constituent groups were

Rules for both the teachers and the taught were

framed by the federation
of relations,
for

for

maintaining harmony

preventing controversies

professors

and

for maintaining

academic etiquette.

ment upon

his pupils directly only in the case of

di

tio

of discipline

and the federation could
life,

na
in

Every teacher Upajjihaya or Achariya was indepen-' dent of the federation in regard to the maintenance
inflict

lE du
stealing,

serious offences like destroying

Buddha,
trines

Dhamma and

ra

mitting impurity, lying, drinking,

defaming

Sangha, holding

false doc-

nuns).

and misconducts with Bhikkhunis ( Buddhist Thus there was a judicious mixture of inrestrictions.

dependence and

Ce nt

re

Finance

Buddhism was strictly speaking an order of ascetics and mendicants and no Bhikkhu was allowed to receive gold or silver or any gift in cash. The violation of this interdict was regarded as a
serious offence.

fo

rT

Things offered

kind could be

accepted.

This rule was observed very rigorously

in the earUer days, of

Buddhism and the

www.cteindia.weebly.com

ca

adjusted by means of rules provided for the purpose.

among

punish-

comthe

rigour of

tio

The independence and each constituent school was maintained

n

33
renunciation

which

alone

could save one from

worldly contamination was maintained in its pristine
purity.

But the Buddha, during

his

life-time

allowed the Sanghas to grow rich by permitting

them

to receive benefactions

from lay well-wishers

even under Buddha's direct encouragement.
the
gifts

accepted for the Sangha

pavilions,

ponds, buildings and Viharas with
life,

lE du
were
oil,

appurtenances for healthful
ings

materials for build-

and property by bequests

for the dead.

Buddha encouraged such donations by

na

tio

them as meritorious deeds.

Sometimes standing

invitations for meals were given to Bhikkhus.

molasses and sugar.

425 A.D. endowments for the university were pour-

The list of such donors contains the names of kings Kumaragupta I, Buddhagupta, Tathagatagupta, Baladitya, Vajra and Harsha Vardhana. Like the Guptas and Vardhanas, Varmans, also showed interest in the university. It is stated that Purnavarman and Yasovarmadeva donated
ing
in.

Ce nt

re

The name meant, "however much one may
feels satisfied '\

fo

Even from its beginning the place was rich in money as its very name indicates.* Right from

rT

ra

Sanghas in the form of ghee, butter,

di

devotees

many

times

supplied provisions to the

honey and

never

www.cteindia.weebly.com

ca
give,

which kept continuously flowing to the monasteries
parks,
all

Among

declaring

tio
The

Lay

one

n

sa

of such bountiful benefactions, the university never

experienced any financial difficulty and could develop to
its fullest

capacity.

Teachers and students
It
is

stated that at one time there were 10,000
at Nalanda.

monks staying

tio

na
Of
of
It

lE du
these, 1,510

for the upkeep and repair of monasteries. The kings of the far-off Suvarnadwipa and Yavadwipa (Sumatra and Java) had also patronised these institutions. On account

di

teachers and the remaining 8,500 were

belonging to various levels

attainments

ra

studying various subjects.

has been pointed out

that there were on an average a hundred lectures or discussions every day.

rT

On an

average the

ber of students per teacher was seven or eight and
it

must have been very convenient

fo

to give individual

attention to students.

Ce nt

Libraries

re

The

university had a large collection of

scripts

on various subjects in various languages

stored

up

in three splendid buildings appropriately

called Ratnasagara,

Ratnodadhi and Ratnaranjaka.

This was greatly helpful in the dissemination of knowledge, because we find numerous mentions of

www.cteindia.weebly.com

ca

were

students

num-

manu-

tio
and

assembly of venerable Bhikkhus and

n

money equal to the price of the whole Nalanda institution. The Pala King of Bengal, Devapala by name is said to have donated five villages for the

37
scholars from abroad copyirjg oyt manvscfipts in

hundre4s from these
their countries.

5,00,000 verses.

over the country.

They defeated many Panditas
the
list

belonging to other faiths and converted them to

Buddhism.
university

Among
the

Chinese traveller Hiuen Tsiang

knowledge

na
of

we may ei-Iso include the who acquired in this
the
doctrines
of

Bhutas, Nirgranthas, Kapalikfis, Jtjtikas, Sankhyas

Panditas of this place were accepted as authorities

even on Hinayana doctrines of Buddhism although
the university championed the cause of the Maha-

re

fo

rT

and Vaiseshikas over and above those of Buddhism, The fact that a distinguished king hke Sri Harsha sent for Panditas from Nalanda bears ample testimony to the depth of their learning. The

yana doctrine.

Ce nt

from Nalanda University were present at the assembly held at Kanyakubja ( Kanoj ) by Sri Harsha
to investigate the treatise of

ra

It

is

di

said that one thousand Panditas

We

give below

about famous teachers who lived at or were assoqi^t-

ed with Nalanda.

www.cteindia.weebly.com

tio

Hiuen Tsiang.

some important information

lE du

Learried

men from

Nalan^ia were farnous

ca

Teachers at Naianda

tio
all

n

and taking thern to is said to have got copied from Nalanda, 400 Sanskrit works amounting to
libraries

It-sing

3S
The names
Rahulabhadra,
of Nagarjuna,

Vasubandhu, Din-

naga, Padmasaihbhava, Shantarakshita, Aryadeva,

famous university.

have detailed information

only about some of them.
(

I

)

the third century.
(

2

)

rT

Aryadeva He was one of the scholars of Nalanda who lived in the 4th century A.D. He was the author of three works; all of
:

ra

di

tio

Nagarjuna He was a colleague of Aryadeva. Both of them discovered a deeper meaning in Buddha's preaching and founded and popularised a new form of Buddhism called Mahayana and gave it a philosophy named Madhyamika. This occurred in the later half of the second and the earlier part of
:

na

fo

these were translated into Tibetan.

lE du
out
the

work known as Madhyamika-bhramaghatawritten at the request of the king

re

nama was

Ce nt

of Jariibudwipa

Tibetan
Jnana.

by

and was translated into Upadhyaya Dipankara Sri
the follower of Nagarjuna

He was

and

assailed the Sankhyas, Vaiseshikas

twenty other doctrines.
(

3

)

Vasubandhu Vasubandhu

:

Anecdotes point

composed

Paramartha-

www.cteindia.weebly.com

ca
His

We

that

tio
last

Asanga, Jayadeva, Chandrakirti, Dharmapala, Gunamati, Sthiramati, Prabhamitra and Jinamitra are traditionally associated with this

and

n

39
saptati to oppose the doctrine of Sankhyas

contained in the Sankhya-saptati and reconverted

king

Baladitya

(

Narasinhagupta

)

from Sankhya to Buddhism.

upon a number
A.D.
(

of

flourished between the years

4

)

:

completely evolved the doctrine
It
is

of Yogachara.

he

who

Mahayana the practices of Yoga, union
individual

lE du
spirit

Asanga

He

grafted on the
of the

na
It
is

mystical

and the and other

universal
practices

of

meditation.

He

wrote three works on Maha-

yana.
(

5

)

Sthiramati

di

:

Hiuen Tsiang speaks

tio

ra

the founder of
describes

him as a monastery at Valabhi and
of

him

as a person the streams

whose superior knowledge spread about even
now.
ing

fo

rT

He

played an important role in spreadto Tibet,

Buddhism

He

is

supposed to

Ce nt

re

have written a number of books on Mahayana. He flourished between the years 460

and 550 A. D,

(

6

)

He was the son of a high Dharmapala at Kanchipura in the South but embraced Buddhism even in his youth. His services to the cause of Buddhism are Of
:

official

inestimable

value.

said

that

www.cteindia.weebly.com

ca
and
abstract
of

420 and 500

tio
he

He commented works on Mahay ana. He

n

40
vanquished a heretic adversary who had defeated
all

the Buddhist Panditas and con-

dhism.

After coming to Nalanda he became

author of a grammatical work called Varnasutra-vrittinama.

He

wrote four Buddhist
all

works in Sanskrit which are
into

Tibetan.

He

flourished between 550

tio

(

7

)

Shilabhadra
of

:

He became

na
his

and 650 A.D.

Nalanda
caste.

after

Dharmapala.

lE du
caste.

translated

the head Pandita

He was

knowledge he renounced his regal honour

and comfort as well as

rT

ra

by

In pursuit of newer realms of

di

son of a king in East India and a

Brahmana

course of his wanderings he

came

to

Nalanda

fo

which was not

far off

from his place where

he was initiated into the principles of Bud-

re

dhism by Dharmapala.
thirty,

At the

early age of
heretic

Ce nt

he defeated a reputed
his

South India by
arguments.

profound and subtle

Much

against his will he

to accept the donation of a village from the

.

king of the land as an appreciation of this
victory.
gift

From out

of the proceeds of this

he built a magnificent monastery.

www.cteindia.weebly.com

ca
the

the chief Pandita of the place.

He was

the

In the

had

tio
of

one hundred champions of Hinayana Bud-

As

n

verted them to Buddhism.

He

also defeated

)

4t
the head of Nalanda,

he received

Hiuert",

Tsiang and appointed Jayasena to teach

Yogasastra to the Chinese
at his insistence that

visitor.

It

was

Hiuen Tsiang
Buddhism.
viz.,

visited

Kamarupa Assam
(

)

for converting

KumaraOnly one

written

many
:

books.
lived

(8)

Santideva
695-743

He

between
the

na
of
in

A. D,

He was

Manjuvarman.
go to
the

His mother advised him to

tio

lE du
the

Arya buddhabhumi-vyakhyana although he must have
is

work

assigned to him

son of King

country

Bodhisatvas.

di

entered the Nalanda University where, as a
result of his sobriety

and solemnity he was

ra

given

the

name
(

Santideva.

He

rT

three Pitakas
at that place.

religious

books of Buddhists

fo

(

9

)

Santarakshita

:

He was

the

first

re

who was

ofificially

invited to Tibet by king

Ce nt

Khri-son-den-tsan.

His presence there was

not welcomed by the people, so he was sent
to Nepal. Later along with Padmasaiiibhava,

he erected a monastery

Tibet of which

he was the
the cause of

first

head.

After propagating
in Tibet for a period

Buddhism

of thirteen years

he died in 762 A.D,.

www.cteindia.weebly.com

ca
years

raja

and

his family to

studied

Pandita

tio
He

n

43
(

10

)

PadmaSaHibihava

:

Se was
of

th€ son of Indra-

bodhi, the king of Udayatia.
profninertt

He was

a

of the king.
arid is deified
hirtiselt.

He founded

Laitiaism in Tibet
like

and worshipped

magic

atid sorcery in Tibet kflowfi as the roof

of the world.

contemporary of ^antai'akshita and

na
He
is

(

11

)

KitoasTla

:

He was

a

gr^t

lE du
disciple
is

He

spread Taiitristn that deals with

written a cotnme»tary on TatVasaiigraha.
It

Was becaffse of his unique scholarship that

di

adversary named Hcel^Mg

from China atid taught doctrines contrary
to those taught

rT

ra

Saiitarakshita invited

fo

easily defeat

Hoshang.

re

\t2)

tio

betweea 720-780 A.D.

said to

him to vanqQish an who was a Pandita

by Santarakshita. He could

CawdtdgOftita
written
sastra.

:

He

SiappOSfed

Ce nt

liO tess

than sixty books on Tantraalso a distinguished scholar

He was

of

literature,

gram'mar, logie, astronomy,
the science of medicine.

tftuSie, fine arts afld

He Was

the

first

from the Bengal school of
the attention of
the

togfeians

to

attract

literary world.

www.cteindia.weebly.com

ca
to

Buddha

lived

have

have

tio
and

school artd went to Tibet at the invitation

n

expoiind«f

the

Yogachara

43
(

13

)

Buddhaklrti

:

He was

the connecting link

between Nalanda and Vikramasila.

He was

the last great scholar produced by Nalanda.
flourished towards the end of the ele-

venth century and the beginning of the
twelfth century.

Decline and

fall of

the university

1 100

The university worked with great vigour upto A.D. when its greatness began to be eclipsed

Ce nt

re

fo

rT

by Vikramasila which began to receive a greater share of royal patronage. The university received the final tragic blow at the hands of the Muslim invaders under Bakhtiyar Khilji at the end of the twelfth century and not one of the monks remained The to narrate the sad tale of its destruction. also wantonly priceless library of the university was set on fire and destroyed.

www.cteindia.weebly.com

ra

di

tio

na

lE du

ca

tio

n

He

Valabhi
History

{600 a.d, to 1200 a.d.)

Valabhi was the capital of Maitraka kings during
benefactions of these kings.
shore,
it

tional trade.

Courses

Although Valabhi championed the cause

ra

di

tio

was then an important port

na

the period 480-775 A. D. and was born from the

Situated on the seafor interna-

lE du
in the also

The place is identical with the old Wala State. It. was an important centre of Buddhist learning, and championed the cause of Hinayana Buddhism. For some time it had become a rival of Nalanda in the academic field,
Saurashtra in Western
Iiidia.

rT

Hinayana Buddhism,
parochial.

it

was not exclusive and
Buddhist
to

Along with instruction

re

taught at this place. We find references to Brahmana students coming from the Gangetic plains to
learn at this university.

fo

doctrines Brahmanical sciences

used

Over and above
instruction

Ce nt

subjects,

there

was
(

also

imparted

subjects like Niti

Political science. Statesmanship),

logy,

Varta (Business, Agriculture), Administration. TheoLaw, Economics and Accountancy. In some

cases students, after studying at this university were employed by kings for assisting in the government of their kingdom,

www.cteindia.weebly.com

ca

religious
in

tio
of

The University

of

Valabhi was situated

in

be

n

45

Fame
had spread over the whole northern India to such an extent that the Kathaof Valabln

The fame

of

preferred to send his son to Valabhi rather than to

certain that the

stamp

of approval of the doctrines

Panditas of Valabhi was
assemblies.

much valued

na

preached by various scholars by the authoritative
in learned

Students

In about the middle of the 7th century when

Hiuen Tsiang

ra

di

tio

visited the place,
in the university.

rT

monks studying

were provided for them.
Finance

were made available by the citizens of the place,

Ce nt

re

The funds necessary
of

fo

for

running the University

many

whom

lE du

there were 6,000

100 monasteries

were very rich and generous.

Maitraka kings

who

ruled over the country from

480 to 775 A.D. were the patrons of this university and gave bountiful grants for the working of the
University as well as for equipping the libraries of
the institutions.

www.cteindia.weebly.com

ca
is

Nalanda or Banaras. Very

known to us about the famous teachers and scholars who lived at the place, excepting names of two of its Panditas, viz. Gunamati and Sthiramati. Yet it is
httle,

however,

tio
The

saritsagara narrates the story of a

Brahmana, who

n

Closure of Valabhi

The
in

patroQb kings

succumbed

to

an Arab attack

university, however, continued unabated even after-

wards, because the successors of the Maitraka kings

continued to patronize
doaations.

the university with rich

But nothing much

lE du

is

known about

university after this period.
o-J

Probably the defeat

the patron kings must have given a death-blow

upto the twelfth century.

Ce nt

re

fo

rT

www.cteindia.weebly.com

ra

di

tio

na

to all

its

educational activities which continued

ca

tio
the

775 A.D. as a result o£ wliich, the university received a temporary set-back. The work of the

n

Vikramas'ila
History

(800 a.d. to 1203 a.d.)

(

Bihar

).

The place was

just near

Nalanda although
with

the exact location of the Vihara cannot be ascertained.

Dr. S. C. Vidyabhiishana identified

Sultanganj in Bhagalpur district and Cunningham,

lE du
liberal

faunded by king Dharmapala in the eighth century
(circa 775-800).

ments to the university so as to provide

tio

A.D.

He

na
gave
i. e.,

with the village Silao near Badagaon.

boarding and lodging to resident and non-resident

monks studying
when
its tragic

ra

di

at the place.

All throughout the

to the institution.

Buildings

Ce nt

re

fo

Diharmapala continued to give bountiful donations

rT

existence of the university,

upto 1203 A. D.

end came, the successors of King

The buildings

at Vikramasila were well planned

and accoramodativ*. There were one hundred and eight temples and six college buildings, spread out like lotus-petals, with a beautiful Mahabodhi temple
in the centre with its six gates leading to the six
colleges.

Each

of those six buildings

had

www.cteindia.weebly.com

ca
it

was a famous seat of learning situated on a hillock on the banks of the Ganga in northern Magadha

It

endowfor free

spaci(»iis

tio
was

The Vikramaiila Vihara ( Buddhist monastery)

n

48
halls for lectures.

AH

these buildings were surround-

ed by a strong wall.

Like the other universities, this university also

were to preach Buddhist gospel

these branches of
here.

rT

ra

the same,

Buddhist text-books belonging to both

Buddhism must have been taught
all

di

Mahayana form of Buddhism, a more assertive cult as the name itself As the Mahayana form, however, preindicates. supposes the Hinayana and is a development of
The
institution represented the

Along with these

of

Hindu

learning were also taught, although they

could not be classified as Buddhist in nature.

fo

tio

na

the important branches

lE du
its

The standard of attainment expected of the alumni must have been very high, because admission was restricted only to those who aspired to become Buddhist monks who
jects at the collegiate level. in far-off lands.

can be explained by the fact that Buddhism

Ce nt

an entirely new religion as some believe. merely a phase of Hinduism and in most

re

religious
faith.

and

social

aspects resembles

Some

of the details

common

to

Buddhism
of

and

Hinduism

are

:

Brahmanical
of ceremonies.

practices

asceticism, begging, non-violence, insistence on right

habits

and dominance
all

did not cover

the branches of

The courses Hindu sciences

www.cteindia.weebly.com

ca
is

provided only specialised instruction in various sub-

This

It is

of its

parent

tio
not

n

Courses taught

49
but
special
stress

was

laid

on Grammar, Logic,

Metaphysics and Ritualism.

A

special significance

was attached to Tantras which
for

consist of religious

doctrines teaching magical and mystical formularies

the worship of deities or the attainment of

why many

of the important subjects included in

taught in Hindu institutions covered subjects
sixty-four arts which embrace

lE du
out.
all

Hindu education were dropped

The courses
like

the fourteen Vidyas, the eighteen Silpas and the

the knowledge

na

necessary

for

a

house-holder.

Buddhism

or to the

life

of a house-holder.

tio

generally speaking averse to any worldly pleasure
It laid great stress

fo

on the evanescent nature of the worldly existence and believed that all existence was a mere shadow and a source of sorrow and that whatever was seen or felt was an " airy nothing ". In these circumstances, it is no wonder that they should have rejected the subjects leading to enrichment of worldly life and stressed the renunciatory

rT

ra

di

re

aspect of education.

It is significant to

that the institutions were meant for prospective

Ce nt

Bhikkhus ( Buddhist monks ) and Bhikkhunis Buddhist nuns ) and the knowledge of items that create fetters for human beings should have been
{

avoided.
It
is

not possible to decide with any amount of

precision the duration of the courses.

As

www.cteindia.weebly.com

ca
in

supreme power.

It is

not

difficult to

understand

note also

Hindu

tio
was

n

«o
schoollS,

perhaps" the

tittie

required

for"

tnastering;

the subjects depended

upon the

intelligence
it

and

erences of inteUigence and of other capacities of

length of time for learning various courses.

Hindu

institutions,

the practice of giving degree
off

parchments to students successfully finishing
their courses

was not in vogue.

its

own

reward.

The

conferring of degrees in the

rT

ra

on ancient lines and same ancient subjects, is of a very recent origin. The authorities of this university used to confer the title of Pandita on those who had finished their courses at the university. This
teach
the

di

tio

existing Pathasalas which run

na

need of the day, because knowledge was treated as

'

function was usually presided over
king.

Tibetan authorities inform us that Jetari

and Ratnavajra had received degrees

fo

re

sity at the

hands of Kings Mahlpala and Kanaka
It

respectively.

was

also

customary in

Ce nt

sity to exhibit

on walls the portraits of such of the

alumni as possessed outstanding merit.
of course

must have been to pay a grateful tribute

to their scholarship as well as to place before other

students examples worthy of emulation.

ance with this custom, two portraits of Nagarjuna

www.cteindia.weebly.com

lE du
'

That was not the

by the patron
at this univer-

this univer-

The

In accord-

ca

students and did not prescribe any definite uniform

object

tio
In

twelve years.

They believed

in the inherent diff-

n

application of students and that

was normally

51
and Atisa were exhibited on the
versity.

walls of the uni-

Administration

connected with the day-to-day working of the uni;

of

these

various

boards.

There

was
in

academic autonomy and the teachers
various

departments

were

lE du
if

charge of
for

responsible

academic work conducted in their departments.
were admitted to the university only
various subjects.
six

na

order to ensure a high standard of learning students

they

Six erudite teachers guarded the

di

tio

the tests given

by eminent

authorities in charge of

gates leading to the university.

During the
the following

ra

reign
six

of

Chanaka

(

955-983 A.D.

),

eminent logicians were posted for the work.

Ratnakarasanti was placed at the east gate, Vagis-

rT

fo

varakirti at the west,

Naropa

at the north, Prajna-

karamati, at

the south, Ratnavajra at

Ce nt

Teachers and students

well

re

central gate and Jnanasrimitra at the second

The teachers working at the university were known not only in India but even beyond her
depth and the width of their learnIt
is

frontiers for the

ing.

as a result of this that the university

developed literary and cultural contacts with Tibet.
Scholars from Tibet were particularly interested in

www.cteindia.weebly.com

ca
the
gate.

versity

one chief abbot worked as the president
complete

satisfied

tio
the

There were boards

in charge of different duties

In

first

had

n

52
the Tantras, for the teaching of which special arrange-

ments were made at the university
the four hundred years of
its

all

throughout
It

existence.

was

knowledge and
culture

religion

have practically

built

up the

scholars wrote books on various sciences in Sanskrit

and translated quite a few in Tibetan. It is said that Atisa alone wrote two hundred books, some
originals

and other

translations.

scholars coming from other parts of India also was

rT

ra

from Tibet for whom a special arrangement for boarding and lodging was made. The number of
not small.
It

has been mentioned
there were

di

ed out that when the university was started, King Dharmapala of Bengal, its first patron, had appointed one hundred and eight teachers and other specialists making up a total of one hundred and fourteen teachers. Scholars in large numbers poured in

tio

na
3,000

fo

twelfth century

re

studying at this university.
of

We

lE du
It

has been point-

that in the
scholars
list

monk

give below a

Ce nt

names have influenced Tibetan culture.
(

of selected scholars from Vikramasila

I

)

appointed

Acharya Buddha Jnanapada He was first as the priest of King Dharmapala
:

and
sila.

later as the

Acharya

for ordination at

Vikramawhich

He became

the founder of a

new

cult of

Vikramalila was the only centre in those days.

www.cteindia.weebly.com

ca

and

civilisation of Tibet.

Many

of these

who

tio
He

Vikramasila scholars who, as the custodians of piety,

n

53
wrote nine books on Tantra in Sanskrit. But now only their translations in Tibetan are available.
(

2

)

Vairochana Rakshita

:

several

books

in Sanskrit

Tantrika works.

was given the
charya.
3

titles

of

Mahapandita and Maha-

(

)

Jetari

:

He

completed

lE du
his
title of

studies

Vikrama^ila

and was given the

taught Sutra and Tantra to Ratnakarasanti,

was appointed as a gate-keeper
about 983 A. D.

tio

ra

Prajnakaramati He was one of the gate( 4 ) keepers of the Vihara and wrote several works, two
:

of

which are in Tibetan.

rT

di

fo

(

5

)

Ratnakarasanti

:

nation in Sarvastivada school at Odantapuri. Later

re

he joined Vikramaiila.

He wrote

na
He

Later he worked as a professor at Vikramaiila.

of the Vihara in

received his ordi-

thirteen works
in Ceylon,

Ce nt

in Sanskrit

and preached Buddhism

he was invited for that work.
{

6

)

school,

He first belonged to Sravaka Jnana Sri but later became a Mahayana. He wrote
:

several books

and translated one

of them, the Pra-

manaviniichayatika into Tibetan.

www.cteindia.weebly.com

ca

and translated into Tibetan several Later he went to Tibet where he

Pandita.

where

tio
at

He who

n

He wrote

54
(

7

)

Ratnavajra

:

He was

a

resident

of

Kasmira.

After studying Buddhist Sutras, Mantras

Pandita and the honour of becoming a gate-keeper.

Tantra.
{

na
Jnana

8

)

Vagisvarakirti

:

He was

at Vikramasila.

He

belonged to Banaras, was a

worshipper of Tara Devi and wrote a work in Sanskrit
(

di

named Mrtyubanchanopadeia.

tio

Atisa

:

He was

rT

Buddhism who
at nineteen.

ra

9

)

Dipankara

Sri

one of the greatest missionaries of

lE du
alias

He returned to Kasmira and defeated in argument some Tirthajas and converted them to Buddhism. Later he went to Tibet, learned the Tibetan language and translated into Tibetan fourteen works on
a gate-keeper

travelled to foreign countries.

in a royal family in 980 A.D.,

he took the sacred vow

re

At thirty-one he received the highest ordination. He was the master of both Hinayana and Mahayana, Vaiseshika and Tantras. After com-

fo

Ce nt

pleting his education he
{

sailed

to

Suvarnadwipa
There he

Pegu

)

and was further

initiated into the mysteries

of

Buddhism by Acharya Chandraklrti.

studied for twelve years.

On

his return to India

he defeated

many

at Vikramasila. invitation of

and was appointed head Later he went to Nepal at the
scholars
of Tibet

King Chan Chub

www.cteindia.weebly.com

ca

Acharya

Born

who was

tio

the age of thirty-six.

There he won the

title of

n

and

sciences,

he joined Vilcrama^ila University at

)

55
anxious to purge Tibetan Buddhism of
tions
its

corrup-

which were many and

gross.

There he found-

ed the new religion of Lamaism.
for thirteen years

three.

Sanskrit works into Tibetan.
(

10

)

Viryasinha

:

He

helped Atisa in trans-

lating Sanskrit
(

works into Tibetan.
:

11
(

)

Abhayakaragupta
).

appointed by King Ramapala of Magadha

na
(

Gauda

Bengal

He was a native of He became a monk and was
(

tio

lE du
He was
)

to perform religious ceremonies at the palace.

belonged to the Mahayana school.

di

witness of the

first

Turuksha

Turks

invasion of

Magadha.
cult

He was

Tathagata Raksiita r He was born in ( 12 ) a family of physicians in Orissa. At Vikramasila he received the titles " Mahapandita " and " Upa-

fo

rT

and translated seven works into Tibetan.

ra

a great authority on Tantra

Ce nt

dhyaya " and was a professor of Tantra. slated a number of books into Tibetan.

re

(

13

)

dhyaya

",

Ratnakirti " Pandita "

:

He became
and

an

" Mahapandita"

Vikramasila and translated a number of books into
Tibetan.
(

14

)

Manjusri

:

He

was

a

Pandita

Vikramasila and a worshipper of Tara.

www.cteindia.weebly.com

ca
Bihar

ascribed to him.

He

also translated twenty

an eye-

He

tran-

" Upaat

tio
two

He worked in Tibet and died at the age of seventyAbout two hundred works on Vajrayana are

He

at

n

56
Dharmakirti He was a native of He learnt Sanskrit at Vikrama^ila and translated many Sanskrit works into Tibetan.
(

15

)

:

Tibet.

(

i6

)

Sakyastiribhadra

:

He was

a native of

tion of Vikramasila

by Moslems.

Destruction of Vikramasila

The

tragic

end
All

lE du
came
an
in
Khilji,

of this university

A.D. at the hands of Bakhtiyar
Kutub-ud-din.

at the place had their heads shaven and they were

tio

na
know

the Buddhist

monks

all

slain.

It

has been reported that

when the

invading Musalmans came across the library of the
university,

they wanted to

di

the contents of

rT

them the necessary information. But the carnage had been so mercilessly ^thorough that not one was availthe books and searched for some one to give

ra

fo

able for the purpose.

It is said that the
(

mistook the buildings for a fortress

and perhaps was a

re

the yellow-robed clean-shaven Bhikkhus for soldiers
of

Ce nt

war

)

!

and only

later

they realised that

Vihara.

Printed at the M.S. University of Baroda Press

(

Sadhana Press ),

Raopura, Baroda

www.cteindia.weebly.com

ca
it

Kasmira.

He was

a witness of the tragic destruc-

1203

officer of

residing

invaders

tio

n

H
C".

Ce nt re fo rT ra di tio na lE du

www.cteindia.weebly.com

ca

tio

n

Ce nt rT ra di tio na lE du ca

re

fo

www.cteindia.weebly.com

tio

n

Cornell University Library

LA1153.A77
Universities
In

ancient India

924 005 633 130

Ce nt

re

fo

rT

www.cteindia.weebly.com

ra

di

tio

na

lE du

ca

tio

n

Ce nt fo rT ra di tio na lE du ca

re

www.cteindia.weebly.com

tio

n

","doc_promotions_enabled":false,"static_promo_banner_cta_url":"https://www.scribd.com/"},"eligible_for_exclusive_trial_roadblock":false,"eligible_for_seo_roadblock":false,"exclusive_free_trial_roadblock_props_path":"/doc-page/exclusive-free-trial-props/207262768","flashes":[],"footer_props":{"urls":{"about":"/about","press":"/press","blog":"http://literally.scribd.com/","careers":"/careers","contact":"/contact","plans_landing":"/subscribe","referrals":"/referrals?source=footer","giftcards":"/giftcards","faq":"/faq","accessibility":"/accessibility-policy","faq_paths":{"accounts":"https://support.scribd.com/hc/sections/202246346","announcements":"https://support.scribd.com/hc/sections/202246066","copyright":"https://support.scribd.com/hc/sections/202246086","downloading":"https://support.scribd.com/hc/articles/210135046","publishing":"https://support.scribd.com/hc/sections/202246366","reading":"https://support.scribd.com/hc/sections/202246406","selling":"https://support.scribd.com/hc/sections/202246326","store":"https://support.scribd.com/hc/sections/202246306","status":"https://support.scribd.com/hc/en-us/articles/360001202872","terms":"https://support.scribd.com/hc/sections/202246126","writing":"https://support.scribd.com/hc/sections/202246366","adchoices":"https://support.scribd.com/hc/articles/210129366","paid_features":"https://support.scribd.com/hc/sections/202246306","failed_uploads":"https://support.scribd.com/hc/en-us/articles/210134586-Troubleshooting-uploads-and-conversions","copyright_infringement":"https://support.scribd.com/hc/en-us/articles/210128946-DMCA-copyright-infringement-takedown-notification-policy","end_user_license":"https://support.scribd.com/hc/en-us/articles/210129486","terms_of_use":"https://support.scribd.com/hc/en-us/articles/210129326-General-Terms-of-Use"},"publishers":"/publishers","static_terms":"/terms","static_privacy":"/privacy","copyright":"/copyright","ios_app":"https://itunes.apple.com/us/app/scribd-worlds-largest-online/id542557212?mt=8&uo=4&at=11lGEE","android_app":"https://play.google.com/store/apps/details?id=com.scribd.app.reader0&hl=en","books":"/books","sitemap":"/directory"}},"global_nav_props":{"header_props":{"logo_src":"/images/landing/home2_landing/scribd_logo_horiz_small.svg","root_url":"https://www.scribd.com/","search_term":"","small_logo_src":"/images/logos/scribd_s_logo.png","uploads_url":"/upload-document","search_props":{"redirect_to_app":true,"search_url":"/search","query":"","search_page":false}},"user_menu_props":null,"sidebar_props":{"urls":{"bestsellers":"https://www.scribd.com/bestsellers","home":"https://www.scribd.com/","saved":"/saved","subscribe":"/archive/pmp_checkout?doc=207262768&metadata=%7B%22context%22%3A%22pmp%22%2C%22action%22%3A%22start_trial%22%2C%22logged_in%22%3Afalse%2C%22platform%22%3A%22web%22%7D","top_charts":"/bestsellers","upload":"https://www.scribd.com/upload-document"},"categories":{"book":{"icon":"icon-ic_book","icon_filled":"icon-ic_book_fill","url":"https://www.scribd.com/books","name":"Books","type":"book"},"news":{"icon":"icon-ic_articles","icon_filled":"icon-ic_articles_fill","url":"https://www.scribd.com/news","name":"News","type":"news"},"audiobook":{"icon":"icon-ic_audiobook","icon_filled":"icon-ic_audiobook_fill","url":"https://www.scribd.com/audiobooks","name":"Audiobooks","type":"audiobook"},"magazine":{"icon":"icon-ic_magazine","icon_filled":"icon-ic_magazine_fill","url":"https://www.scribd.com/magazines","name":"Magazines","type":"magazine"},"document":{"icon":"icon-ic_document","icon_filled":"icon-ic_document_fill","url":"https://www.scribd.com/docs","name":"Documents","type":"document"},"sheet_music":{"icon":"icon-ic_songbook","icon_filled":"icon-ic_songbook_fill","url":"https://www.scribd.com/sheetmusic","name":"Sheet Music","type":"sheet_music"},"summary":{"icon":"icon-ic_globalnav_snapshot","icon_filled":"icon-ic_globalnav_snapshot_fill","url":"https://www.scribd.com/snapshots","name":"Snapshots","type":"summary"}},"nav_categories":["mixed","book","audiobook","magazine","document","sheet_music"],"selected_content_type":"mixed","username":"","search_overlay_props":{"search_input_props":{"focused":false,"keep_suggestions_on_blur":false}}}},"recommenders":{"related_titles_recommender":{"ids":[217844306,12835089,207260480,336178759,217844310,157125205,217831552,166686792,217831560,217831550,207264728,217844307,4881262,217831562,198972755,160400723,36540558,381058459,159113896,231313656,102728903,149789483,99482448,44853721,295716627,383439737,85568738,37269286,29045984,97456372,224803526,224803535,230343627,224803528,224803537,224803523,224803530,224803529,224803536,224803522,224803531,224803527,224803534,224803538,224803533,224803513,222278635,222278626,224803518,224803514,224803521,224803511,224803516,222278628,222278636,222278625,224803512,224803519,224803515,224803520],"title_link":null,"title":null,"track_opts":{"compilation_id":"qtfRNvv83lb/7MnTDcnaS6FqeUM=","module_id":"l3lUkE24QV12s+BgGrWRJ690M6s=","widget_name":"right sidebar","track_id":"flattened_recommender"}},"footer_recommenders":{"recommenders":[{"ids":[217844306,12835089,207260480,336178759,217844310,157125205,217831552,166686792,217831560,217831550,207264728,217844307,4881262,217831562,198972755,160400723,36540558,381058459,159113896,231313656,102728903,149789483,99482448,44853721,295716627,383439737,85568738,37269286,29045984,97456372],"title_link":null,"title":"Documents Similar To Universities in Ancient India Education and Psychology Extension Series2","track_opts":{"compilation_id":"qtfRNvv83lb/7MnTDcnaS6FqeUM=","module_id":"6VgHkKhk8KoOp5FM8iJS5yTwvb4=","widget_name":"document_carousel"}},{"ids":[224803526,224803535,230343627,224803528,224803537,224803523,224803530,224803529,224803536,224803522,224803531,224803527,224803534,224803538,224803533,224803513,222278635,222278626,224803518,224803514,224803521,224803511,224803516,222278628,222278636,222278625,224803512,224803519,224803515,224803520],"title_link":null,"title":"More From Centre for Traditional Education","track_opts":{"compilation_id":"qtfRNvv83lb/7MnTDcnaS6FqeUM=","module_id":"2bEfpaou2YwdmrSzLPLb+R/SZ6U=","widget_name":"document_carousel"}}]},"seo_new_docs_recommenders":{"recommenders":[]},"documents":{"4881262":{"type":"document","id":4881262,"thumb_url":"https://imgv2-1-f.scribdassets.com/img/document/4881262/149x198/3c5fbbaf7c/1282517724?v=1","retina_thumb_url":"https://imgv2-2-f.scribdassets.com/img/document/4881262/298x396/0e716d5342/1282517724?v=1","title":"Vedic Leadership","short_title":"Vedic Leadership","author":"SAIKRISHNA GAJAVELLY ","tracking":{"object_type":"document","object_id":4881262,"track":"flattened_recommender","doc_uuid":"N//q+W3Gx2zBRyQOUFF7vu8XNNg="},"url":"https://www.scribd.com/document/4881262/Vedic-Leadership","top_badge":null},"12835089":{"type":"document","id":12835089,"thumb_url":"https://imgv2-1-f.scribdassets.com/img/document/12835089/149x198/e8bf5085c8/1294630096?v=1","retina_thumb_url":"https://imgv2-2-f.scribdassets.com/img/document/12835089/298x396/0eca6e93ca/1294630096?v=1","title":"Beginning 'in the Name of Allah' is a Miracle","short_title":"Beginning 'in the Name of Allah' is a Miracle","author":"drasif_cool","tracking":{"object_type":"document","object_id":12835089,"track":"flattened_recommender","doc_uuid":"PRUc81gV5jP2KwtWOxqtStkD2n4="},"url":"https://www.scribd.com/document/12835089/Beginning-in-the-Name-of-Allah-is-a-Miracle","top_badge":null},"29045984":{"type":"document","id":29045984,"thumb_url":"https://imgv2-2-f.scribdassets.com/img/document/29045984/149x198/63da45f2ca/1316199320?v=1","retina_thumb_url":"https://imgv2-2-f.scribdassets.com/img/document/29045984/298x396/0fe7d27bc9/1316199320?v=1","title":"Vedic Inventive Principles","short_title":"Vedic Inventive Principles","author":"Swanand Raikar","tracking":{"object_type":"document","object_id":29045984,"track":"flattened_recommender","doc_uuid":"gOnOz5Nv9wVKE1VcW3t6tkoVDk8="},"url":"https://www.scribd.com/document/29045984/Vedic-Inventive-Principles","top_badge":null},"36540558":{"type":"document","id":36540558,"thumb_url":"https://imgv2-1-f.scribdassets.com/img/document/36540558/149x198/66cdc6bd2a/1385631309?v=1","retina_thumb_url":"https://imgv2-1-f.scribdassets.com/img/document/36540558/298x396/f3e1018764/1385631309?v=1","title":"Navaneetham Aug 2010","short_title":"Navaneetham Aug 2010","author":"guruvayur","tracking":{"object_type":"document","object_id":36540558,"track":"flattened_recommender","doc_uuid":"fJithxkQYekT4bqEMoGzHSRz8+c="},"url":"https://www.scribd.com/document/36540558/Navaneetham-Aug-2010","top_badge":null},"37269286":{"type":"document","id":37269286,"thumb_url":"https://imgv2-2-f.scribdassets.com/img/document/37269286/149x198/f1972d65f8/1359581863?v=1","retina_thumb_url":"https://imgv2-1-f.scribdassets.com/img/document/37269286/298x396/7a38a4203f/1359581863?v=1","title":"buddhavamsa","short_title":"buddhavamsa","author":"Sara Stefanie 龙与鼠","tracking":{"object_type":"document","object_id":37269286,"track":"flattened_recommender","doc_uuid":"GcwDKYNb7r+3/PllEufX88COYAA="},"url":"https://www.scribd.com/document/37269286/buddhavamsa","top_badge":null},"44853721":{"type":"document","id":44853721,"thumb_url":"https://imgv2-1-f.scribdassets.com/img/document/44853721/149x198/ee182094d9/1291749583?v=1","retina_thumb_url":"https://imgv2-1-f.scribdassets.com/img/document/44853721/298x396/c97a6cdcfb/1291749583?v=1","title":"Daniel Araya - Integral Religion","short_title":"Daniel Araya - Integral Religion","author":"nehdia_s","tracking":{"object_type":"document","object_id":44853721,"track":"flattened_recommender","doc_uuid":"Edm8InOoRwWkuVQWTsUblbtbTvw="},"url":"https://www.scribd.com/document/44853721/Daniel-Araya-Integral-Religion","top_badge":null},"85568738":{"type":"document","id":85568738,"thumb_url":"https://imgv2-1-f.scribdassets.com/img/document/85568738/149x198/87d73a7bc8/1370787295?v=1","retina_thumb_url":"https://imgv2-1-f.scribdassets.com/img/document/85568738/298x396/d72e0964f4/1370787295?v=1","title":"Yavakri","short_title":"Yavakri","author":"innerguide","tracking":{"object_type":"document","object_id":85568738,"track":"flattened_recommender","doc_uuid":"0zb97RleSqSlvmUptGoTc48rsLQ="},"url":"https://www.scribd.com/document/85568738/Yavakri","top_badge":null},"97456372":{"type":"document","id":97456372,"thumb_url":"https://imgv2-1-f.scribdassets.com/img/document/97456372/149x198/88215b8368/1340044895?v=1","retina_thumb_url":"https://imgv2-2-f.scribdassets.com/img/document/97456372/298x396/57fe75a01b/1340044895?v=1","title":"Macdonell a Vedic Reader for Students","short_title":"Macdonell a Vedic Reader for Students","author":"spongebob2812","tracking":{"object_type":"document","object_id":97456372,"track":"flattened_recommender","doc_uuid":"A9G8vjz8G3WZMXnH2pnmYnIf/eQ="},"url":"https://www.scribd.com/document/97456372/Macdonell-a-Vedic-Reader-for-Students","top_badge":null},"99482448":{"type":"document","id":99482448,"thumb_url":"https://imgv2-1-f.scribdassets.com/img/document/99482448/149x198/6ccbad7279/1517651088?v=1","retina_thumb_url":"https://imgv2-2-f.scribdassets.com/img/document/99482448/298x396/c7a12615e6/1517651088?v=1","title":"Science in Vedas","short_title":"Science in Vedas","author":"Agniveer Agni","tracking":{"object_type":"document","object_id":99482448,"track":"flattened_recommender","doc_uuid":"SAVK4RsxQBa6z4UxRpNs9ceranI="},"url":"https://www.scribd.com/document/99482448/Science-in-Vedas","top_badge":null},"102728903":{"type":"document","id":102728903,"thumb_url":"https://imgv2-1-f.scribdassets.com/img/document/102728903/149x198/dc4890def9/1451548051?v=1","retina_thumb_url":"https://imgv2-1-f.scribdassets.com/img/document/102728903/298x396/340a0f094a/1451548051?v=1","title":"sb_1_1to7_ver2","short_title":"sb_1_1to7_ver2","author":"Anuj Agrawal","tracking":{"object_type":"document","object_id":102728903,"track":"flattened_recommender","doc_uuid":"DbGYCQXtuQ92BtVqz/z0xQZFdSg="},"url":"https://www.scribd.com/document/102728903/sb-1-1to7-ver2","top_badge":null},"149789483":{"type":"document","id":149789483,"thumb_url":"https://imgv2-1-f.scribdassets.com/img/document/149789483/149x198/ced5119666/1406457015?v=1","retina_thumb_url":"https://imgv2-2-f.scribdassets.com/img/document/149789483/298x396/c578edda67/1406457015?v=1","title":"50 Day Final Countdown_ Day 1","short_title":"50 Day Final Countdown_ Day 1","author":"Rohit Srivastava","tracking":{"object_type":"document","object_id":149789483,"track":"flattened_recommender","doc_uuid":"YGbXRxUz50cQiSFR/K+NKSXqeY4="},"url":"https://www.scribd.com/document/149789483/50-Day-Final-Countdown-Day-1","top_badge":null},"157125205":{"type":"document","id":157125205,"thumb_url":"https://imgv2-1-f.scribdassets.com/img/document/157125205/149x198/249775e508/1378626890?v=1","retina_thumb_url":"https://imgv2-1-f.scribdassets.com/img/document/157125205/298x396/79869733bf/1378626890?v=1","title":"Buhnemann-Gudrun-Some Remarks on the Date of Abhayakaragupta and the Chronology of His Works","short_title":"Buhnemann-Gudrun-Some Remarks on the Date of Abhayakaragupta and the Chronology of His Works","author":"Wei Jia","tracking":{"object_type":"document","object_id":157125205,"track":"flattened_recommender","doc_uuid":"IoCDeXnKvR1NRFRJhLMef7ooKtY="},"url":"https://www.scribd.com/document/157125205/Buhnemann-Gudrun-Some-Remarks-on-the-Date-of-Abhayakaragupta-and-the-Chronology-of-His-Works","top_badge":null},"159113896":{"type":"document","id":159113896,"thumb_url":"https://imgv2-1-f.scribdassets.com/img/document/159113896/149x198/104702b5e4/1495563500?v=1","retina_thumb_url":"https://imgv2-2-f.scribdassets.com/img/document/159113896/298x396/99a63ef7e7/1495563500?v=1","title":"Mystic Tales of Lama Taranatha","short_title":"Mystic Tales of Lama Taranatha","author":"Yoga Nath","tracking":{"object_type":"document","object_id":159113896,"track":"flattened_recommender","doc_uuid":"6Cl4PqcIlbxo1Q5scnbCgLFvrNk="},"url":"https://www.scribd.com/document/159113896/Mystic-Tales-of-Lama-Taranatha","top_badge":null},"160400723":{"type":"document","id":160400723,"thumb_url":"https://imgv2-1-f.scribdassets.com/img/document/160400723/149x198/32c279d411/1409423867?v=1","retina_thumb_url":"https://imgv2-1-f.scribdassets.com/img/document/160400723/298x396/76dedc56d6/1409423867?v=1","title":"Varasiddhi Vinayaka Vrata FAQ 2013","short_title":"Varasiddhi Vinayaka Vrata FAQ 2013","author":"nvravi","tracking":{"object_type":"document","object_id":160400723,"track":"flattened_recommender","doc_uuid":"XRtN24ei51m4X+G02a166Ul0thg="},"url":"https://www.scribd.com/doc/160400723/Varasiddhi-Vinayaka-Vrata-FAQ-2013","top_badge":null},"166686792":{"type":"document","id":166686792,"thumb_url":"https://imgv2-1-f.scribdassets.com/img/document/166686792/149x198/45024a26a6/1378731015?v=1","retina_thumb_url":"https://imgv2-2-f.scribdassets.com/img/document/166686792/298x396/dc0b8e54b4/1378731015?v=1","title":"08 Chapter 2","short_title":"08 Chapter 2","author":"ANANTHPADMANABHAN","tracking":{"object_type":"document","object_id":166686792,"track":"flattened_recommender","doc_uuid":"hXB+vXJJJn3DLoJzQ1OJvozNT9s="},"url":"https://www.scribd.com/document/166686792/08-Chapter-2","top_badge":null},"198972755":{"type":"document","id":198972755,"thumb_url":"https://imgv2-2-f.scribdassets.com/img/document/198972755/149x198/fbe2e6d2a4/1389507285?v=1","retina_thumb_url":"https://imgv2-2-f.scribdassets.com/img/document/198972755/298x396/86a60071d5/1389507285?v=1","title":"Hermanson Brittany Mantras in Hinduism","short_title":"Hermanson Brittany Mantras in Hinduism","author":"Kallidai Ram","tracking":{"object_type":"document","object_id":198972755,"track":"flattened_recommender","doc_uuid":"aYLQafeVtCL+hHGtmwkZRFG5Z50="},"url":"https://www.scribd.com/document/198972755/Hermanson-Brittany-Mantras-in-Hinduism","top_badge":null},"207260480":{"type":"document","id":207260480,"thumb_url":"https://imgv2-2-f.scribdassets.com/img/document/207260480/149x198/38397adfe9/1428957289?v=1","retina_thumb_url":"https://imgv2-2-f.scribdassets.com/img/document/207260480/298x396/12578285a9/1428957289?v=1","title":"Brief History of Education in India","short_title":"Brief History of Education in India","author":"Centre for Traditional Education","tracking":{"object_type":"document","object_id":207260480,"track":"flattened_recommender","doc_uuid":"9wFxQoV1yZ4FWTFgG/QRJOhyMY4="},"url":"https://www.scribd.com/document/207260480/Brief-History-of-Education-in-India","top_badge":null},"207264728":{"type":"document","id":207264728,"thumb_url":"https://imgv2-2-f.scribdassets.com/img/document/207264728/149x198/249a99815c/1394911528?v=1","retina_thumb_url":"https://imgv2-1-f.scribdassets.com/img/document/207264728/298x396/c3f703298f/1394911528?v=1","title":"MKG India of My Dreams on Ashram Idea of Education","short_title":"MKG India of My Dreams on Ashram Idea of Education","author":"Centre for Traditional Education","tracking":{"object_type":"document","object_id":207264728,"track":"flattened_recommender","doc_uuid":"BCcL2iM+EhuklDCDWxzoY4eNiRo="},"url":"https://www.scribd.com/document/207264728/MKG-India-of-My-Dreams-on-Ashram-Idea-of-Education","top_badge":null},"217831550":{"type":"document","id":217831550,"thumb_url":"https://imgv2-1-f.scribdassets.com/img/document/217831550/149x198/ca64a84661/1397324305?v=1","retina_thumb_url":"https://imgv2-2-f.scribdassets.com/img/document/217831550/298x396/f2c9864ace/1397324305?v=1","title":"Survey of Tribal Method of Spinning & Weaving in Assam","short_title":"Survey of Tribal Method of Spinning & Weaving in Assam","author":"Centre for Traditional Education","tracking":{"object_type":"document","object_id":217831550,"track":"flattened_recommender","doc_uuid":"E5fdw3QvZM6D8lZG6zGC8xv9KNw="},"url":"https://www.scribd.com/document/217831550/Survey-of-Tribal-Method-of-Spinning-Weaving-in-Assam","top_badge":null},"217831552":{"type":"document","id":217831552,"thumb_url":"https://imgv2-1-f.scribdassets.com/img/document/217831552/149x198/e160d5e865/1397324292?v=1","retina_thumb_url":"https://imgv2-1-f.scribdassets.com/img/document/217831552/298x396/064e3a3013/1397324292?v=1","title":"Bharitiya Kala Kaushal","short_title":"Bharitiya Kala Kaushal","author":"Centre for Traditional Education","tracking":{"object_type":"document","object_id":217831552,"track":"flattened_recommender","doc_uuid":"d5b1wNXlLXropSalQmOBNMZ4hoI="},"url":"https://www.scribd.com/document/217831552/Bharitiya-Kala-Kaushal","top_badge":null},"217831560":{"type":"document","id":217831560,"thumb_url":"https://imgv2-2-f.scribdassets.com/img/document/217831560/149x198/e353fe881a/1397324236?v=1","retina_thumb_url":"https://imgv2-1-f.scribdassets.com/img/document/217831560/298x396/37f74e2b0d/1397324236?v=1","title":"Bunadi Shiksha & Samaj Vavstha.","short_title":"Bunadi Shiksha & Samaj Vavstha.","author":"Centre for Traditional Education","tracking":{"object_type":"document","object_id":217831560,"track":"flattened_recommender","doc_uuid":"uuy2KQLHQAlWBHlAG3RXwRAUbAI="},"url":"https://www.scribd.com/document/217831560/Bunadi-Shiksha-Samaj-Vavstha","top_badge":null},"217831562":{"type":"document","id":217831562,"thumb_url":"https://imgv2-1-f.scribdassets.com/img/document/217831562/149x198/012762a1f0/1397324217?v=1","retina_thumb_url":"https://imgv2-2-f.scribdassets.com/img/document/217831562/298x396/42e0a5e708/1397324217?v=1","title":"Mul Udhog Khati Our Khadi","short_title":"Mul Udhog Khati Our Khadi","author":"Centre for Traditional Education","tracking":{"object_type":"document","object_id":217831562,"track":"flattened_recommender","doc_uuid":"66cGGihYUGS1gk2ROA4E+ZwkWz8="},"url":"https://www.scribd.com/document/217831562/Mul-Udhog-Khati-Our-Khadi","top_badge":null},"217844306":{"type":"document","id":217844306,"thumb_url":"https://imgv2-1-f.scribdassets.com/img/document/217844306/149x198/6cb71a1061/1397331885?v=1","retina_thumb_url":"https://imgv2-2-f.scribdassets.com/img/document/217844306/298x396/da2753b177/1397331885?v=1","title":"Compostwali Sandas","short_title":"Compostwali Sandas","author":"Centre for Traditional Education","tracking":{"object_type":"document","object_id":217844306,"track":"flattened_recommender","doc_uuid":"TR1PQ0EFg7NDNGLgThDc8+WcTAo="},"url":"https://www.scribd.com/document/217844306/Compostwali-Sandas","top_badge":null},"217844307":{"type":"document","id":217844307,"thumb_url":"https://imgv2-1-f.scribdassets.com/img/document/217844307/149x198/c79e9987a3/1397331941?v=1","retina_thumb_url":"https://imgv2-2-f.scribdassets.com/img/document/217844307/298x396/9c71e26606/1397331941?v=1","title":"Syllabus for Basic Schools","short_title":"Syllabus for Basic Schools","author":"Centre for Traditional Education","tracking":{"object_type":"document","object_id":217844307,"track":"flattened_recommender","doc_uuid":"o/Ilmu2i3gjSMpCWjKqgWGS/LJI="},"url":"https://www.scribd.com/document/217844307/Syllabus-for-Basic-Schools","top_badge":null},"217844310":{"type":"document","id":217844310,"thumb_url":"https://imgv2-2-f.scribdassets.com/img/document/217844310/149x198/bd58b2663a/1397331747?v=1","retina_thumb_url":"https://imgv2-1-f.scribdassets.com/img/document/217844310/298x396/df01a7c6f2/1397331747?v=1","title":"The Rural University","short_title":"The Rural University","author":"Centre for Traditional Education","tracking":{"object_type":"document","object_id":217844310,"track":"flattened_recommender","doc_uuid":"fcNGAXVc30EWzyO6DSEEL0q4P20="},"url":"https://www.scribd.com/document/217844310/The-Rural-University","top_badge":null},"222278625":{"type":"document","id":222278625,"thumb_url":"https://imgv2-2-f.scribdassets.com/img/document/222278625/149x198/1445de77e9/1485121418?v=1","retina_thumb_url":"https://imgv2-1-f.scribdassets.com/img/document/222278625/298x396/36b4fd6dfb/1485121418?v=1","title":"Vedic-Mathematics.pdf","short_title":"Vedic-Mathematics.pdf","author":"Centre for Traditional Education","tracking":{"object_type":"document","object_id":222278625,"track":"flattened_recommender","doc_uuid":"BrIRdGTzzdwSFUeT0+HFpHWJJ94="},"url":"https://www.scribd.com/document/222278625/Vedic-Mathematics-pdf","top_badge":null},"222278626":{"type":"document","id":222278626,"thumb_url":"https://imgv2-2-f.scribdassets.com/img/document/222278626/149x198/ae594453c5/1426261685?v=1","retina_thumb_url":"https://imgv2-1-f.scribdassets.com/img/document/222278626/298x396/e43a0c9ffb/1426261685?v=1","title":"Vaidik-Sarp-Vidhya.pdf","short_title":"Vaidik-Sarp-Vidhya.pdf","author":"Centre for Traditional Education","tracking":{"object_type":"document","object_id":222278626,"track":"flattened_recommender","doc_uuid":"SLlnXuTcG4FwBKhdQM1/ROD5Lms="},"url":"https://www.scribd.com/document/222278626/Vaidik-Sarp-Vidhya-pdf","top_badge":null},"222278628":{"type":"document","id":222278628,"thumb_url":"https://imgv2-2-f.scribdassets.com/img/document/222278628/149x198/241a6d3211/1439794182?v=1","retina_thumb_url":"https://imgv2-2-f.scribdassets.com/img/document/222278628/298x396/3f8b878409/1439794182?v=1","title":"vriddhayavanajataka-1.pdf","short_title":"vriddhayavanajataka-1.pdf","author":"Centre for Traditional Education","tracking":{"object_type":"document","object_id":222278628,"track":"flattened_recommender","doc_uuid":"qQKb9DPcsqIAMEmnULI2DbNe9+M="},"url":"https://www.scribd.com/document/222278628/vriddhayavanajataka-1-pdf","top_badge":null},"222278635":{"type":"document","id":222278635,"thumb_url":"https://imgv2-2-f.scribdassets.com/img/document/222278635/149x198/d6a090f649/1399357553?v=1","retina_thumb_url":"https://imgv2-2-f.scribdassets.com/img/document/222278635/298x396/f972ec5d90/1399357553?v=1","title":"Vidya Maadhaveeyam 2","short_title":"Vidya Maadhaveeyam 2","author":"Centre for Traditional Education","tracking":{"object_type":"document","object_id":222278635,"track":"flattened_recommender","doc_uuid":"DJmNMbbweWkRWCA9QSXuKEYbY/Y="},"url":"https://www.scribd.com/document/222278635/Vidya-Maadhaveeyam-2","top_badge":null},"222278636":{"type":"document","id":222278636,"thumb_url":"https://imgv2-1-f.scribdassets.com/img/document/222278636/149x198/f23991d9a6/1399357556?v=1","retina_thumb_url":"https://imgv2-1-f.scribdassets.com/img/document/222278636/298x396/1fa664348b/1399357556?v=1","title":"Vidya Maadhaveeyam 3","short_title":"Vidya Maadhaveeyam 3","author":"Centre for Traditional Education","tracking":{"object_type":"document","object_id":222278636,"track":"flattened_recommender","doc_uuid":"zOWdUn+qJyTuO+Wp5MlvesUsuNg="},"url":"https://www.scribd.com/document/222278636/Vidya-Maadhaveeyam-3","top_badge":null},"224803511":{"type":"document","id":224803511,"thumb_url":"https://imgv2-1-f.scribdassets.com/img/document/224803511/149x198/ed96e8eec7/1516816450?v=1","retina_thumb_url":"https://imgv2-2-f.scribdassets.com/img/document/224803511/298x396/bc397acdef/1516816450?v=1","title":"A History of India From the Earliest Times","short_title":"A History of India From the Earliest Times","author":"Centre for Traditional Education","tracking":{"object_type":"document","object_id":224803511,"track":"flattened_recommender","doc_uuid":"tKzWqABTrYGX40chiwL9XRTLJmI="},"url":"https://www.scribd.com/document/224803511/a-history-of-india-from-the-earliest-times","top_badge":null},"224803512":{"type":"document","id":224803512,"thumb_url":"https://imgv2-1-f.scribdassets.com/img/document/224803512/149x198/6db2031b24/1430367908?v=1","retina_thumb_url":"https://imgv2-2-f.scribdassets.com/img/document/224803512/298x396/cdfb650083/1430367908?v=1","title":"A Bibliography of saskrit work on astronomy and mathematics","short_title":"A Bibliography of saskrit work on astronomy and mathematics","author":"Centre for Traditional Education","tracking":{"object_type":"document","object_id":224803512,"track":"flattened_recommender","doc_uuid":"fp0oNGuwbMjHGpEkHegaltbuTVE="},"url":"https://www.scribd.com/document/224803512/A-Bibliography-of-saskrit-work-on-astronomy-and-mathematics","top_badge":null},"224803513":{"type":"document","id":224803513,"thumb_url":"https://imgv2-2-f.scribdassets.com/img/document/224803513/149x198/9e6cd17eb3/1485733122?v=1","retina_thumb_url":"https://imgv2-2-f.scribdassets.com/img/document/224803513/298x396/518c38da73/1485733122?v=1","title":"A Study of Varuna in the Vedic Literature","short_title":"A Study of Varuna in the Vedic Literature","author":"Centre for Traditional Education","tracking":{"object_type":"document","object_id":224803513,"track":"flattened_recommender","doc_uuid":"ZsjN5HBdUDOlVQ446ZCS9D3d7Dw="},"url":"https://www.scribd.com/document/224803513/A-Study-of-Varuna-in-the-Vedic-Literature","top_badge":null},"224803514":{"type":"document","id":224803514,"thumb_url":"https://imgv2-1-f.scribdassets.com/img/document/224803514/149x198/ef01b33d3e/1485541788?v=1","retina_thumb_url":"https://imgv2-2-f.scribdassets.com/img/document/224803514/298x396/001e116816/1485541788?v=1","title":"A History of Vedic Literature, Vol. 2","short_title":"A History of Vedic Literature, Vol. 2","author":"Centre for Traditional Education","tracking":{"object_type":"document","object_id":224803514,"track":"flattened_recommender","doc_uuid":"DcOd4OjdSgC+5ur9Tx0urLLYiV0="},"url":"https://www.scribd.com/document/224803514/A-History-of-Vedic-Literature-Vol-2","top_badge":null},"224803515":{"type":"document","id":224803515,"thumb_url":"https://imgv2-2-f.scribdassets.com/img/document/224803515/149x198/cdb806a237/1431028263?v=1","retina_thumb_url":"https://imgv2-2-f.scribdassets.com/img/document/224803515/298x396/08a384c47a/1431028263?v=1","title":"Bharatiya Lalit Kalayen (1952)","short_title":"Bharatiya Lalit Kalayen (1952)","author":"Centre for Traditional Education","tracking":{"object_type":"document","object_id":224803515,"track":"flattened_recommender","doc_uuid":"aZzPbI4oUkqxEbu/6w44AipzTz0="},"url":"https://www.scribd.com/document/224803515/Bharatiya-Lalit-Kalayen-1952","top_badge":null},"224803516":{"type":"document","id":224803516,"thumb_url":"https://imgv2-1-f.scribdassets.com/img/document/224803516/149x198/80af5e4459/1431812208?v=1","retina_thumb_url":"https://imgv2-2-f.scribdassets.com/img/document/224803516/298x396/6590fe01cd/1431812208?v=1","title":"A Study of the Vedanta (1937)","short_title":"A Study of the Vedanta (1937)","author":"Centre for Traditional Education","tracking":{"object_type":"document","object_id":224803516,"track":"flattened_recommender","doc_uuid":"2EHqC4U0f7M/28Hw4c9N62mdQ4k="},"url":"https://www.scribd.com/document/224803516/A-Study-of-the-Vedanta-1937","top_badge":null},"224803518":{"type":"document","id":224803518,"thumb_url":"https://imgv2-2-f.scribdassets.com/img/document/224803518/149x198/8236a9686d/1439184222?v=1","retina_thumb_url":"https://imgv2-1-f.scribdassets.com/img/document/224803518/298x396/e5949bcdbf/1439184222?v=1","title":"A Study of the Vedanta Ed. 2","short_title":"A Study of the Vedanta Ed. 2","author":"Centre for Traditional Education","tracking":{"object_type":"document","object_id":224803518,"track":"flattened_recommender","doc_uuid":"znAwRpENNh6tCXlA38EWSRqdlC8="},"url":"https://www.scribd.com/document/224803518/A-Study-of-the-Vedanta-Ed-2","top_badge":null},"224803519":{"type":"document","id":224803519,"thumb_url":"https://imgv2-2-f.scribdassets.com/img/document/224803519/149x198/524f3f3e4b/1423875397?v=1","retina_thumb_url":"https://imgv2-1-f.scribdassets.com/img/document/224803519/298x396/8e7089b43b/1423875397?v=1","title":"History of Hindu Mathematics a Source Book","short_title":"History of Hindu Mathematics a Source Book","author":"Centre for Traditional Education","tracking":{"object_type":"document","object_id":224803519,"track":"flattened_recommender","doc_uuid":"pl+gLLW7mQMDzFWlk3hGl/yB1X8="},"url":"https://www.scribd.com/document/224803519/History-of-Hindu-Mathematics-a-Source-Book","top_badge":null},"224803520":{"type":"document","id":224803520,"thumb_url":"https://imgv2-2-f.scribdassets.com/img/document/224803520/149x198/9c9f29f637/1420831714?v=1","retina_thumb_url":"https://imgv2-1-f.scribdassets.com/img/document/224803520/298x396/b697a678c7/1420831714?v=1","title":"Katyayana Sulba Sutra","short_title":"Katyayana Sulba Sutra","author":"Centre for Traditional Education","tracking":{"object_type":"document","object_id":224803520,"track":"flattened_recommender","doc_uuid":"Vw7YdYbfpaEB6pBryyY+9mhoZUw="},"url":"https://www.scribd.com/document/224803520/Katyayana-Sulba-Sutra","top_badge":null},"224803521":{"type":"document","id":224803521,"thumb_url":"https://imgv2-2-f.scribdassets.com/img/document/224803521/149x198/143a02aa33/1417393792?v=1","retina_thumb_url":"https://imgv2-2-f.scribdassets.com/img/document/224803521/298x396/54842a1c5d/1417393792?v=1","title":"A Systematic Study of the Vedanta","short_title":"A Systematic Study of the Vedanta","author":"Centre for Traditional Education","tracking":{"object_type":"document","object_id":224803521,"track":"flattened_recommender","doc_uuid":"IuF1kjW117HFGLeok7GaptgrwHU="},"url":"https://www.scribd.com/document/224803521/A-Systematic-Study-of-the-Vedanta","top_badge":null},"224803522":{"type":"document","id":224803522,"thumb_url":"https://imgv2-1-f.scribdassets.com/img/document/224803522/149x198/22d8b08d54/1445147320?v=1","retina_thumb_url":"https://imgv2-2-f.scribdassets.com/img/document/224803522/298x396/b20d404104/1445147320?v=1","title":"A History of India (1960)","short_title":"A History of India (1960)","author":"Centre for Traditional Education","tracking":{"object_type":"document","object_id":224803522,"track":"flattened_recommender","doc_uuid":"uL13UroFadmSA6p/Gnilyg6wAMU="},"url":"https://www.scribd.com/document/224803522/a-history-of-india-1960","top_badge":null},"224803523":{"type":"document","id":224803523,"thumb_url":"https://imgv2-2-f.scribdassets.com/img/document/224803523/149x198/e34c1eada8/1500122275?v=1","retina_thumb_url":"https://imgv2-1-f.scribdassets.com/img/document/224803523/298x396/66404e9e67/1500122275?v=1","title":"History of Hindustan","short_title":"History of Hindustan","author":"Centre for Traditional Education","tracking":{"object_type":"document","object_id":224803523,"track":"flattened_recommender","doc_uuid":"SfcTwNxJfUNT3sPxHfoF/PcW3Mg="},"url":"https://www.scribd.com/document/224803523/History-of-Hindustan","top_badge":null},"224803526":{"type":"document","id":224803526,"thumb_url":"https://imgv2-2-f.scribdassets.com/img/document/224803526/149x198/16b957693e/1427331651?v=1","retina_thumb_url":"https://imgv2-1-f.scribdassets.com/img/document/224803526/298x396/220fd98234/1427331651?v=1","title":"Mathematics Its Importance","short_title":"Mathematics Its Importance","author":"Centre for Traditional Education","tracking":{"object_type":"document","object_id":224803526,"track":"flattened_recommender","doc_uuid":"QgZc2B4hAAEmiX2jqc3Oq+8GNe8="},"url":"https://www.scribd.com/document/224803526/mathematics-its-importance","top_badge":null},"224803527":{"type":"document","id":224803527,"thumb_url":"https://imgv2-2-f.scribdassets.com/img/document/224803527/149x198/81e461ac68/1488666248?v=1","retina_thumb_url":"https://imgv2-2-f.scribdassets.com/img/document/224803527/298x396/a159a4b396/1488666248?v=1","title":"History of Hindu Mathematics Part-I-II","short_title":"History of Hindu Mathematics Part-I-II","author":"Centre for Traditional Education","tracking":{"object_type":"document","object_id":224803527,"track":"flattened_recommender","doc_uuid":"TiB13Zatg8XdqB53IPe3MMULX8E="},"url":"https://www.scribd.com/document/224803527/History-of-Hindu-Mathematics-Part-I-II","top_badge":null},"224803528":{"type":"document","id":224803528,"thumb_url":"https://imgv2-2-f.scribdassets.com/img/document/224803528/149x198/25ff62264a/1428866506?v=1","retina_thumb_url":"https://imgv2-1-f.scribdassets.com/img/document/224803528/298x396/b9178af848/1428866506?v=1","title":"Mahabharata Tatparya Nirnaya","short_title":"Mahabharata Tatparya Nirnaya","author":"Centre for Traditional Education","tracking":{"object_type":"document","object_id":224803528,"track":"flattened_recommender","doc_uuid":"R5hDfPQmP2Ufo0AR6nEmZMnnJkQ="},"url":"https://www.scribd.com/document/224803528/Mahabharata-Tatparya-Nirnaya","top_badge":null},"224803529":{"type":"document","id":224803529,"thumb_url":"https://imgv2-1-f.scribdassets.com/img/document/224803529/149x198/0c31d74457/1439106718?v=1","retina_thumb_url":"https://imgv2-2-f.scribdassets.com/img/document/224803529/298x396/3d7146833b/1439106718?v=1","title":"Mathematicas in Daily Use","short_title":"Mathematicas in Daily Use","author":"Centre for Traditional Education","tracking":{"object_type":"document","object_id":224803529,"track":"flattened_recommender","doc_uuid":"d31cNjBA3Gq0mvtK2Vy0jxXCgyE="},"url":"https://www.scribd.com/document/224803529/Mathematicas-in-Daily-Use","top_badge":null},"224803530":{"type":"document","id":224803530,"thumb_url":"https://imgv2-2-f.scribdassets.com/img/document/224803530/149x198/4261e190e2/1432972488?v=1","retina_thumb_url":"https://imgv2-2-f.scribdassets.com/img/document/224803530/298x396/473e2da353/1432972488?v=1","title":"Ratna Pariksha Sastra","short_title":"Ratna Pariksha Sastra","author":"Centre for Traditional Education","tracking":{"object_type":"document","object_id":224803530,"track":"flattened_recommender","doc_uuid":"zApf7Zcc326RmizsBRjTzQncrcc="},"url":"https://www.scribd.com/document/224803530/Ratna-Pariksha-Sastra","top_badge":null},"224803531":{"type":"document","id":224803531,"thumb_url":"https://imgv2-1-f.scribdassets.com/img/document/224803531/149x198/5d2064e0f8/1439142507?v=1","retina_thumb_url":"https://imgv2-2-f.scribdassets.com/img/document/224803531/298x396/682f7baef6/1439142507?v=1","title":"History of Hindustan Vol II","short_title":"History of Hindustan Vol II","author":"Centre for Traditional Education","tracking":{"object_type":"document","object_id":224803531,"track":"flattened_recommender","doc_uuid":"6EhTs/6E3wKtjsfuTiZtHQq+/uA="},"url":"https://www.scribd.com/document/224803531/History-of-Hindustan-Vol-II","top_badge":null},"224803533":{"type":"document","id":224803533,"thumb_url":"https://imgv2-1-f.scribdassets.com/img/document/224803533/149x198/60c99f684f/1458792971?v=1","retina_thumb_url":"https://imgv2-2-f.scribdassets.com/img/document/224803533/298x396/2617c7faae/1458792971?v=1","title":"Ratnaparikshadi Sapta Granth Sangraha","short_title":"Ratnaparikshadi Sapta Granth Sangraha","author":"Centre for Traditional Education","tracking":{"object_type":"document","object_id":224803533,"track":"flattened_recommender","doc_uuid":"gG+5zXKgrJiEycQQUxaEMq3tzxs="},"url":"https://www.scribd.com/document/224803533/Ratnaparikshadi-Sapta-Granth-Sangraha","top_badge":null},"224803534":{"type":"document","id":224803534,"thumb_url":"https://imgv2-1-f.scribdassets.com/img/document/224803534/149x198/90a1e5779f/1417145837?v=1","retina_thumb_url":"https://imgv2-1-f.scribdassets.com/img/document/224803534/298x396/35bf55d496/1417145837?v=1","title":"The Science of Sulba Sutras","short_title":"The Science of Sulba Sutras","author":"Centre for Traditional Education","tracking":{"object_type":"document","object_id":224803534,"track":"flattened_recommender","doc_uuid":"gymwhRHLznuNJZsycLMLRSZcKeg="},"url":"https://www.scribd.com/document/224803534/The-Science-of-Sulba-Sutras","top_badge":null},"224803535":{"type":"document","id":224803535,"thumb_url":"https://imgv2-1-f.scribdassets.com/img/document/224803535/149x198/c7e1f77f2b/1431639724?v=1","retina_thumb_url":"https://imgv2-2-f.scribdassets.com/img/document/224803535/298x396/55b3bc7d69/1431639724?v=1","title":"Sumadhvavijaya","short_title":"Sumadhvavijaya","author":"Centre for Traditional Education","tracking":{"object_type":"document","object_id":224803535,"track":"flattened_recommender","doc_uuid":"aBWGeUBCFzaBy6Nz2inSMPfVW/s="},"url":"https://www.scribd.com/document/224803535/sumadhvavijaya","top_badge":null},"224803536":{"type":"document","id":224803536,"thumb_url":"https://imgv2-2-f.scribdassets.com/img/document/224803536/149x198/196c77e991/1463991937?v=1","retina_thumb_url":"https://imgv2-2-f.scribdassets.com/img/document/224803536/298x396/24fcecd374/1463991937?v=1","title":"Sukranitisara","short_title":"Sukranitisara","author":"Centre for Traditional Education","tracking":{"object_type":"document","object_id":224803536,"track":"flattened_recommender","doc_uuid":"hGho2DnkBtNkGkOP+fPPfO38eWE="},"url":"https://www.scribd.com/document/224803536/Sukranitisara","top_badge":null},"224803537":{"type":"document","id":224803537,"thumb_url":"https://imgv2-1-f.scribdassets.com/img/document/224803537/149x198/6c7454bc01/1513267680?v=1","retina_thumb_url":"https://imgv2-1-f.scribdassets.com/img/document/224803537/298x396/44fb7a52aa/1513267680?v=1","title":"Manasollasa","short_title":"Manasollasa","author":"Centre for Traditional Education","tracking":{"object_type":"document","object_id":224803537,"track":"flattened_recommender","doc_uuid":"FH7o7wxv2jezEltGceRVIEWHRLM="},"url":"https://www.scribd.com/document/224803537/manasollasa","top_badge":null},"224803538":{"type":"document","id":224803538,"thumb_url":"https://imgv2-1-f.scribdassets.com/img/document/224803538/149x198/ad967b46ec/1427477464?v=1","retina_thumb_url":"https://imgv2-2-f.scribdassets.com/img/document/224803538/298x396/70ecf5e886/1427477464?v=1","title":"Shabdakalpadrama","short_title":"Shabdakalpadrama","author":"Centre for Traditional Education","tracking":{"object_type":"document","object_id":224803538,"track":"flattened_recommender","doc_uuid":"NgIUS0XWomuAnHd4iGAG+J2n3tQ="},"url":"https://www.scribd.com/document/224803538/shabdakalpadrama","top_badge":null},"230343627":{"type":"document","id":230343627,"thumb_url":"https://imgv2-1-f.scribdassets.com/img/document/230343627/149x198/eba14dbfde/1427065006?v=1","retina_thumb_url":"https://imgv2-1-f.scribdassets.com/img/document/230343627/298x396/0b5ed6ad66/1427065006?v=1","title":"Ahimsa Leather","short_title":"Ahimsa Leather","author":"Centre for Traditional Education","tracking":{"object_type":"document","object_id":230343627,"track":"flattened_recommender","doc_uuid":"dSq6bumdHYBg3ZenurirdBS4wig="},"url":"https://www.scribd.com/presentation/230343627/Ahimsa-Leather","top_badge":null},"231313656":{"type":"document","id":231313656,"thumb_url":"https://imgv2-2-f.scribdassets.com/img/document/231313656/149x198/8fc180c24d/1403722490?v=1","retina_thumb_url":"https://imgv2-2-f.scribdassets.com/img/document/231313656/298x396/0813b5175a/1403722490?v=1","title":"Guru Chandala Yoga in Various Houses","short_title":"Guru Chandala Yoga in Various Houses","author":"ravishankar1972","tracking":{"object_type":"document","object_id":231313656,"track":"flattened_recommender","doc_uuid":"gINOKlSjS3XYLPnju+EeuoygYTM="},"url":"https://www.scribd.com/document/231313656/Guru-Chandala-Yoga-in-Various-Houses","top_badge":null},"295716627":{"type":"document","id":295716627,"thumb_url":"https://imgv2-2-f.scribdassets.com/img/document/295716627/149x198/44558c7d11/1512792643?v=1","retina_thumb_url":"https://imgv2-2-f.scribdassets.com/img/document/295716627/298x396/02c37d9111/1512792643?v=1","title":"From Theravada to Tantra ","short_title":"From Theravada to Tantra ","author":"Jo Wee","tracking":{"object_type":"document","object_id":295716627,"track":"flattened_recommender","doc_uuid":"3EP/4ydjXNouRcGPWkXdadFoyp4="},"url":"https://www.scribd.com/document/295716627/From-Theravada-to-Tantra","top_badge":null},"336178759":{"type":"document","id":336178759,"thumb_url":"https://imgv2-2-f.scribdassets.com/img/document/336178759/149x198/bcf39c9c4b/1484060503?v=1","retina_thumb_url":"https://imgv2-2-f.scribdassets.com/img/document/336178759/298x396/ac790045cd/1484060503?v=1","title":"Glory of Vedas.pdf","short_title":"Glory of Vedas.pdf","author":"Subramanya Pai","tracking":{"object_type":"document","object_id":336178759,"track":"flattened_recommender","doc_uuid":"aRWBUqut70pz7P+8GT1iKYbq5zM="},"url":"https://www.scribd.com/document/336178759/Glory-of-Vedas-pdf","top_badge":null},"381058459":{"type":"document","id":381058459,"thumb_url":"https://imgv2-2-f.scribdassets.com/img/document/381058459/149x198/534e99865b/1528211204?v=1","retina_thumb_url":"https://imgv2-1-f.scribdassets.com/img/document/381058459/298x396/b909b6e08a/1528211204?v=1","title":"Gaur.1974.the Legend of Purūravas and Urvaśī an Interpretation.","short_title":"Gaur.1974.the Legend of Purūravas and Urvaśī an Interpretation.","author":"rubiorecilla","tracking":{"object_type":"document","object_id":381058459,"track":"flattened_recommender","doc_uuid":"gI8C6a5BuLI9b9DZhDmTP/GiXOQ="},"url":"https://www.scribd.com/document/381058459/Gaur-1974-the-Legend-of-Purūravas-and-Urvaśī-an-Interpretation","top_badge":null},"383439737":{"type":"document","id":383439737,"thumb_url":"https://imgv2-2-f.scribdassets.com/img/document/383439737/149x198/135a696cb1/1531066946?v=1","retina_thumb_url":"https://imgv2-2-f.scribdassets.com/img/document/383439737/298x396/f1f84b78df/1531066946?v=1","title":"anukramani","short_title":"anukramani","author":"Sanatan Sinh","tracking":{"object_type":"document","object_id":383439737,"track":"flattened_recommender","doc_uuid":"Tg/u3J2/+zHJ8TzXMyVZfRq3ixk="},"url":"https://www.scribd.com/document/383439737/anukramani","top_badge":null}}},"seo_roadblock_props_path":"/doc-page/seo-roadblock-props/207262768","signup_context":null,"toolbar":{"search_path":"/search-4gen?allowed_pages=&auth_token=fa3sNzJY4kMLkyCcc08QuKmXjz8%3D&authenticity_token=dE%2F8NKo5uHbDrE%2FQb0t5LsP3V4Y3O2my5YcgecPP6m2bQINZHml3FTwWc1AfW0422CnqLrmtimhyiZQHUgUJUw%3D%3D&expires=1540415171&wordDocumentId=207262768&wordUploadId=216904280"},"renewal_nag_props":null}-->