‫ﺣﺼﻴﻠــﺔ ﺍﻟﻤـــﺎﺩﺓ ـ ‪Bilan de la matière‬‬

‫@‬
‫‪ – I‬ﻧﺸﺎﻁ ﺗﺠﺮﻳﺒﻲ ‪:‬‬
‫ﺗﺠﺮﺑــﺔ‬

‫ﻳﻤﺜﻞ ﺍﻟﺸﻜﻞ ﺃﺳﻔﻠﻪ ‪:‬‬
‫‪ ‬ﺳﺤﺎﺣﺔ ﻣﻤﻠﻮءﺓ ﺑﻤﺤﻠﻮﻝ ﺣﻤﺾ ﺍﻹﻳﺜﺎﻧﻮﻳﻚ ‪ CH3CO2H‬ﺫﻭ ﺗﺮﻛﻴﺰ ﻣﻮﻟﻲ ‪. C = 1 moL/L‬‬
‫‪ ‬ﻗﺎﺭﻭﺭﺓ ﺑﻬﺎ ﻛﺘﻠﺔ ‪ m = 0,72 g‬ﻣﻦ ﻫﻴﺪﺭﻭﺟﻴﻨﻮﻛﺮﺑﻮﻧﺎﺕ ﺍﻟﺼﻮﺩﻳﻮﻡ ‪ NaHCO3‬ﻣﻊ ﻗﻠﻴﻞ ﻣﻦ ﺍﻟﻤﺎء ‪.‬‬
‫‪‬ﻣﺨﺒﺎﺭ ﻣﺪﺭﺝ ﻣﻤﻠﻮء ﺑﺎﻟﻤﺎء ﻗﺒﻞ ﻧﻜﺴﻪ ﻓﻲ ﺍﻟﺤﻮﺽ ﻓﻮﻕ ﻓﻮﻫﺔ ﺍﻷﻧﺒﻮﺏ ﺍﻟﻤﻌﻘﻮﻑ ‪.‬‬
‫ﻧﻔﺘﺢ ﺻﻨﺒﻮﺭ ﺍﻟﺴﺤﺎﺣﺔ ﺑﺎﻟﺘﺘﺎﺑﻊ ﻭ ﻧﺘﺮﻙ ﻣﻘﺪﺍﺭ ‪ 1 mL‬ﻣﻦ ﻣﺤﻠﻮﻝ ﺣﻤﺾ ﺍﻻﻳﺜﺎﻧﻮﻳﻚ ﻳﻨﺰﻝ ﻓﻲ ﺍﻟﻘﺎﺭﻭﺭﺓ ‪ ,‬ﻓﻴﺤﺪﺙ ﺗﻔﺎﻋﻞ ﺑﻴﻨﻪ ﻭ ﺑﻴﻦ ﻫﻴﺪﺭﻭﺟﻴﻨﻮﻛﺮﺑﻮﻧﺎﺕ ﺍﻟﺼﻮﺩﻳﻮﻡ‬
‫ﻳﻨﺘﺞ ﻋﻨﻪ ﻏﺎﺯ ﺛﻨﺎﺋﻲ ﺃﻭﻛﺴﻴﺪ ﺍﻟﻜﺮﺑﻮﻥ ‪ CO2‬ﺣﻴﺚ ﻳﻤﻜﻦ ﺍﻟﻤﺨﺒﺎﺭ ﺍﻟﻤﺪﺭﺝ ﻣﻦ ﺗﻌﻴﻴﻦ ﺣﺠﻤﻪ ‪.‬‬
‫ﻳﺘﻔﺎﻋﻞ ﻫﻴﺪﺭﻭﺟﻴﻨﻮﻛﺮﺑﻮﻧﺎﺕ ﺍﻟﺼﻮﺩﻳﻮﻡ ‪ NaHCO3‬ﻭ ﻣﺤﻠﻮﻝ ﺣﻤﺾ ﺍﻻﻳﺜﺎﻧﻮﻳﻚ ‪ CH3CO2H‬ﻭﻓﻖ ﺍﻟﻤﻌﺎﺩﻟﺔ ﺍﻟﻜﻴﻤﻴﺎﺋﻴﺔ ﺍﻟﺘﺎﻟﻴﺔ ‪:‬‬
‫‪CO 2 + NaCH3CO 2 + H2O‬‬

‫‪CH3CO 2H + NaHCO 3‬‬

‫‪CH3CO2H‬‬

‫ﻧﻌﻄــﻲ ‪:‬‬
‫‪M(H) = 1 g/moL‬‬
‫‪M(O) = 16 g/moL‬‬
‫‪M(C) = 12 g/moL‬‬
‫‪M(Na) = 23 g/moL‬‬
‫‪Vm = 24 L/moL‬‬

‫‪CO2‬‬

‫‪NaHCO3‬‬

‫‪ (1‬ﺃﺣﺴﺐ ﻛﻤﻴﺔ ﻣﺎﺩﺓ ﻫﻴﺪﺭﻭﺟﻴﻨﻮﻛﺮﺑﻮﻧﺎﺕ ﺍﻟﺼﻮﺩﻳﻮﻡ ﺍﻟﺒﺪﺋﻴﺔ )‪ ni(NaHCO3‬ﺍﻟﺘﻲ ﺗﻢ ﻭﺿﻌﻬﺎ ﺑﺪﺋﻴﺎ ﻓﻲ ﺍﻟﻘﺎﺭﻭﺭﺓ ‪.‬‬
‫………………………………………………………………………………………………………………‬
‫‪……………………………………………………………………………………………………………..‬‬
‫‪ (2‬ﻋﺒﺮ ﻋﻦ ﻛﻤﻴﺔ ﻣﺎﺩﺓ ﻣﺤﻠﻮﻝ ﺣﻤﺾ ﺍﻻﻳﺜﺎﻧﻮﻳﻚ ﺍﻟﻤﻀﺎﻓﺔ )‪ ni(CH3CO2H‬ﺑﺪﻻﻟﺔ ﺣﺠﻤﻪ ‪. v‬‬
‫………………………………………………………………………………………………………………‬
‫‪……………………………………………………………………………………………………………..‬‬
‫‪ (3‬ﻋﺒﺮ ﻋﻦ ﻛﻤﻴﺔ ﻣﺎﺩﺓ ﻏﺎﺯ ﺛﻨﺎﺋﻲ ﺃﻭﻛﺴﻴﺪ ﺍﻟﻜﺮﺑﻮﻥ )‪ nf(CO2‬ﺍﻟﻨﺎﺗﺞ ﺑﺪﻻﻟﺔ ﺣﺠﻤﻪ ‪. V‬‬
‫………………………………………………………………………………………………………………‬
‫‪……………………………………………………………………………………………………………..‬‬
‫‪ (4‬ﺃﺗﻤﻢ ﺍﻟﺠﺪﻭﻝ ﺍﻟﺘﺎﻟﻲ ‪:‬‬
‫ﺣﺠﻢ ﺍﻟﻤﺤﻠﻮﻝ ﺍﻟﻤﻀﺎﻑ )‪v(mL‬‬
‫ﺣﺠﻢ ﺍﻟﻐﺎﺯ ﺍﻟﻨﺎﺗﺞ )‪V (mL‬‬
‫)‪ni(CH3CO2H‬‬
‫)‪nf(CO2‬‬

‫‪0‬‬
‫‪0‬‬

‫‪ (5‬ﻣﺜﻞ ﺗﻐﻴﺮﺍﺕ )‪ nf(CO2‬ﺑﺪﻻﻟﺔ )‪. ni(CH3CO2H‬‬

‫‪1‬‬
‫‪24‬‬

‫‪2‬‬
‫‪48‬‬

‫‪3‬‬
‫‪72‬‬

‫‪4‬‬
‫‪96‬‬

‫‪5‬‬
‫‪120‬‬

‫‪6‬‬
‫‪144‬‬

‫‪7‬‬
‫‪168‬‬

‫‪8‬‬
‫‪192‬‬

‫‪9‬‬
‫‪216‬‬

‫‪10‬‬
‫‪240‬‬

‫‪ (6‬ﺃﻋﻂ ﺍﻟﻤﺪﻟﻮﻝ ﺍﻟﻜﻴﻤﻴﺎﺋﻲ ﻟﻜﻞ ﺟﺰء ﻣﻦ ﺍﻟﻤﻨﺤﻨﻰ ﺍﻟﻤﺤﺼﻞ ﻋﻠﻴﻪ ‪.‬‬
‫……………………………………………………………………………………………………………‬
‫‪…………………………………………………………………………………………………………..‬‬
‫……………………………………………………………………………………………………………‬
‫‪…………………………………………………………………………………………………………..‬‬
‫……………………………………………………………………………………………………………‬
‫‪…………………………………………………………………………………………………………..‬‬
‫……………………………………………………………………………………………………‪…..‬‬

‫‪ – II‬ﺍﻟﺠــﺪﻭﻝ ﺍﻟﻮﺻﻔﻲ ﻟﺘﺒﻊ ﺗﻄﻮﺭ ﺗﻔﺎﻋﻞ ﻛﻴﻤﻴﺎﺋﻲ ‪:‬‬
‫‪ (1‬ﻣﻔﻬﻮﻡ ﺗﻘﺪﻡ ﺍﻟﺘﻔﺎﻋﻞ ‪:‬‬

‫‪...............................................................................................................................................................................................‬‬
‫‪...............................................................................................................................................................................................‬‬
‫‪...............................................................................................................................................................................................‬‬
‫‪.......................................................................................................................................................................................‬‬
‫‪ (2‬ﺍﻟﺠﺪﻭﻝ ﺍﻟﻮﺻﻔﻲ ‪:‬‬

‫‪..............................................................................................................................................................................................‬‬
‫‪..............................................................................................................................................................................................‬‬
‫‪..............................................................................................................................................................................................‬‬
‫‪..........................................................................................................................................................................................‬‬

‫‪CO 2 + NaCH3CO 2 + H2O‬‬

‫‪CH3CO 2H + NaHCO 3‬‬

‫ﺍﻟﺘﻘــﺪﻡ‬
‫‪x‬‬
‫‪x=0‬‬

‫‪-----‬‬

‫‪0‬‬

‫‪0‬‬

‫)‪ni(NaHCO3‬‬

‫)‪ni(CH3CO2H‬‬

‫‪-----‬‬

‫‪x‬‬

‫‪x‬‬

‫‪ni(NaHCO3) - x‬‬

‫‪ni(CH3CO2H) - x‬‬

‫‪x‬‬

‫‪-----‬‬

‫‪xmax‬‬

‫‪xmax‬‬

‫‪ni(NaHCO3) - xmax‬‬

‫‪ni(CH3CO2H) - xmax‬‬

‫‪xmax‬‬

‫ﺍﻟﺤــﺎﻟﺔ ﺍﻟﺘﻲ ﺗﻮﺟــﺪ‬
‫ﻓﻴﻬﺎ ﺍﻟﻤﺠﻤﻮﻋــﺔ‬
‫ﺍﻟﺤﺎﻟــﺔ‬
‫ﺍﻟﺒﺪﺋﻴـــﺔ‬
‫ﺍﻟﺤﺎﻟـــﺔ‬
‫ﺍﻟﺒﻴﻨﻴـــﺔ‬
‫ﺍﻟﺤﺎﻟـــﺔ‬
‫ﺍﻟﻨﻬﺎﺋﻴــﺔ‬

‫‪..............................................................................................................................................................................................‬‬
‫‪..............................................................................................................................................................................................‬‬
‫‪..............................................................................................................................................................................................‬‬
‫‪..........................................................................................................................................................................................‬‬
‫‪ (3‬ﺍﻟﺠــﺪﻭﻝ ﺍﻟﻮﺻﻔﻲ ﻋﻨﺪ ﺇﺿﺎﻓﺔ ‪ v = 4 mL‬ﻣﻦ ﺣﻤﺾ ﺍﻹﻳﺜﺎﻧﻮﻳﻚ ‪:‬‬

‫‪CO 2 + NaCH3CO 2 + H2O‬‬
‫‪-----‬‬

‫‪CH3CO 2H + NaHCO 3‬‬

‫ﺍﻟﺘﻘــﺪﻡ‬
‫‪x‬‬
‫‪x=0‬‬

‫‪-----‬‬

‫‪x‬‬

‫‪-----‬‬

‫‪xmax‬‬

‫ﺍﻟﺤــﺎﻟﺔ ﺍﻟﺘﻲ ﺗﻮﺟــﺪ‬
‫ﻓﻴﻬﺎ ﺍﻟﻤﺠﻤﻮﻋــﺔ‬
‫ﺍﻟﺤﺎﻟــﺔ‬
‫ﺍﻟﺒﺪﺋﻴـــﺔ‬
‫ﺍﻟﺤﺎﻟـــﺔ‬
‫ﺍﻟﺒﻴﻨﻴـــﺔ‬
‫ﺍﻟﺤﺎﻟـــﺔ‬
‫ﺍﻟﻨﻬﺎﺋﻴــﺔ‬

‫‪.............................................................................................................................................................................................‬‬
‫‪.............................................................................................................................................................................................‬‬
‫‪.......................................................................................................................................................................................‬‬
‫‪.............................................................................................................................................................................................‬‬
‫‪..........................................................................................................................................................................................‬‬

‫‪ – II‬ﺗﻌﻤﻴـــﻢ ‪:‬‬

‫‪d.D‬‬

‫‪+‬‬

‫‪c .C‬‬

‫‪b.B‬‬

‫‪+‬‬

‫‪a .A‬‬

‫ﺍﻟﺘﻘــﺪﻡ‬
‫‪x‬‬
‫‪x=0‬‬
‫‪x‬‬
‫‪xmax‬‬

‫ﻧﻌﺘﺒﺮ ﺍﻟﺘﻔﺎﻋﻞ ﺍﻟﻜﻴﻤﻴﺎﺋﻲ ﺍﻟﺘﺎﻟﻲ ‪:‬‬

‫‪ IV‬ـ ﺗﻤﺮﻳــﻦ ﺗﻄﺒﻴﻘــﻲ ‪:‬‬

‫‪3 . CO + 2 . Fe‬‬

‫‪Fe 2O 3 + 3 . C‬‬

‫ﻧﻌﻄــﻲ ‪ni(C) = 1,7 moL , ni(Fe2O3) = 0,5 moL :‬‬
‫‪ (1‬ﺃﻧﺠﺰ ﺍﻟﺠﺪﻭﻝ ﺍﻟﻮﺻﻔﻲ ﻟﻬﺬﺍ ﺍﻟﺘﻔﺎﻋﻞ ﺍﻟﻜﻴﻤﻴﺎﺋﻲ ‪.‬‬
‫‪ (2‬ﺣﺪﺩ ‪ xmax‬ﺍﻟﺘﻘﺪﻡ ﺍﻷﻗﺼﻰ ﻟﻠﺘﻔﺎﻋﻞ ‪ .‬ﺣﺪﺩ ﺍﻟﻤﺘﻔﺎﻋﻞ ﺍﻟﻤﺤﺪ ﻭ ﺍﻟﻤﺘﻔﺎﻋﻞ ﺍﻷﻭﻓﺮ ‪.‬‬
‫‪ (3‬ﻋﻴﻦ ﺣﺼﻴﻠﺔ ﺍﻟﻤﺘﻔﺎﻋﻼﺕ ﻭ ﺍﻟﻨﻮﺍﺗﺞ ﻓﻲ ﺣﺎﻟﺘﻬﺎ ﺍﻟﻨﻬﺎﺋﻴﺔ ‪.‬‬

‫ﺍﻟﺤــﺎﻟﺔ ﺍﻟﺘﻲ ﺗﻮﺟــﺪ‬
‫ﻓﻴﻬﺎ ﺍﻟﻤﺠﻤﻮﻋــﺔ‬
‫ﺍﻟﺤﺎﻟــﺔ‬
‫ﺍﻟﺒﺪﺋﻴـــﺔ‬
‫ﺍﻟﺤﺎﻟـــﺔ‬
‫ﺍﻟﺒﻴﻨﻴـــﺔ‬
‫ﺍﻟﺤﺎﻟـــﺔ‬
‫ﺍﻟﻨﻬﺎﺋﻴــﺔ‬