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characteristic phase shift between the displacer and piston that we see all Stirling engine today. The engine also featured the cyclic heating and cooling of the internal gas by means of an external heat source, but the device was not yet known as Stirling engine. In Beta type Stirling engine, it consists single power piston and displacer, whose ideal purpose is to displace the working gas at constant volume and shuttle it between the expansion and the compression spaces than the series arrangement cooler, regenerator and heater. For Rhombic linkage, the drive utilizes a jointed rhomboid to convert linear work from a reciprocating piston to rotational work. The connecting rod of the piston is rigid as opposed to a common reciprocating engine which directly connects the piston to the crankshaft with a flexible joint in the piston. Instead, the rod is connected to the one of the corner of a rhombus. When force is applied to the piston, it pushes down, at the same time, the outer corners of the rhomboid push out. They push on two cranks or flywheels which causes them to rotate, each in opposite directions. As the wheels rotate the rhombus progresses its change of shape from being flattened in the direction to the piston axis at top dead centre to being flattened in the perpendicular direction to the piston axis at the bottom dead centre. Dead centre is when the value of clearance is nearly same as the power maximum then the engine is assume as stable condition where there is no vibration.

Figure XX The schematic diagram of Stirling engine with rhombic linkage

30

6.1 TORQUE ANALYSIS

The torque applied on the crankshaft,

Since

, therefore, , whereby

Angular acceleration of crankshaft

The angular velocity, have to be maintained in order to make the movement of the flywheel constant, therefore

Thus,

Since the gas inside the cylinder is the source of the movement of the flywheel, the torque applied at the flywheel is the same as the torque of the gas. included torque of the mass flywheel and the movement occur in the system.

Where,

Force of the piston and exerted to the lower shaft of rhombic system Radius of the flywheel

6.1.1 DETERMINING VALUE

Using the Schmidt’s analysis, by evaluating the area enclosed in the pressure/volume indicator diagrams. The starting point of the analysis is that the total mass of working gas in the machine is constant, hence:

31

it can be written as ( ) Where effective regenerator given by Substituting the equation into the ideal gas equation. the equation becomes ( ) Solving for working gas pressure p therefore obtaining ( ( ) . The volume for compression and expansion. thermo analyses part meanwhile and can be determined from calculation in 32 .Using the ideal gas law given by From the ideal gas equation itself.

Substituting the pressure equation into the force generated from the piston equation 33 . Whereby is the area of the displacer is the pressure of the displacer In rhombic system. Force generated from the piston. the displacer pressure exerted is the same as the pressure on the displacer and the area of the displacer is the same with the area of the power piston since diameter of piston is equal to the diameter of displacer ( ) From Schmidt’s analysis.Volume of cooler Volume of heater Volume of regenerator From the figure. the pressure ( ( ) .

( ( ) . Comparing with Newton’s 2nd law . the force is divided into two since the rhomboid is symmetrical in shape. the piston acceleration.( ( ( * ) ) At the crankcase where the force exerted on the rhomboid linkage. thus. 34 . Therefore force acting at one side of the crank is ( ( ) .

From the given equation. From the acceleration of the piston itself. From previous Schmidt’s analysis. therefore.6. the velocity of the piston can be determined since the acceleration is the derivative of the velocity with respect to time 35 . since the piston is moving downwards.2 MASS BALANCE From the vector diagram. the piston acceleration are obtained ( ( ) .

can be determined ( ( ( * ) t ) Given that From trigonometry.To get the velocity. the acceleration should be integrated with respect to time ∫ The same way applies to get the velocity of the piston. ∫ ( ( ) . √ Using the cross product * √ Since the rotation of the flywheel is anticlockwise during the piston moves. thus. * √ √ 36 √ + + . The equation for piston velocity. the can be determined.

substitute the equation for ( ) ) + into equation 2 √ * ( √ From the equation derived. the angular velocity of the flywheel can be obtained ( √ ) 37 . * * * √ √ √ + [ + + [ [ ] ] ] Thus.Given the velocity of the flywheel From the equation of velocity of the piston Substituting the value. then. √ Then. from the vector. using substitution method. pairing can be made √ 2 1 From equation 1.

the vector position of the piston force is Substituting the value ( ( ( * ) into the equation.6. thus. ) ( ( ( * ) ) ( ( ( * ) ) From region Therefore torque produced is the torque from gas with equation 38 .3 DYNAMIC BALANCING From the free body diagram on the figure of one side crank.

( [ ( ) . ] [ ( ( ) . ( ( ) . ] Using the cross product rule. is equal to the since 39 . ] Meanwhile that. ( [ ( ) .

̈ ̈ ̇ ̈ ̈ ̇ 40 . ultra reliability.6. Depending on particular configurations. low cost. these engines may also be designed to operate at constant frequency. Free piston engines operate without physical linkage instead they rely only on the gas pressure and in some cases mechanical springs to impart the correct motions to the reciprocating elements. and freedom or working gas leakage over the conventional Stirling engines.4 BETA TYPE FREE PISTON MODELLING One of the novel applications of the Stirling cycle is in free piston configurations and indeed the configuration is one which holds immediate promise. Such machines have the advantage of simplicity.

( ) ̇ ̇ ̇ ( ̇ ̇ * ( )( * ( ̇ )( ) ( ) 41 . ̇ ̈ ̇ ̇ ̇ ̇ State vector.4.2 STATE SPACE REPRESENTATION Piston.̈ ̈ ̇ ̈ ̈ ̇ PART II 6.

( ) ̇ ( )( ̇ ̇ * ̇ Where. ( ) ( Displacer. ( ) ( ( +( ̇ ̇ * ) ( + ̇ ( + ̇ 42 . ) ̇ ̈ ̇ ̈ ̇ State vector.Where.

Assume that the model is as below: 43 .Phase portrait.

Assume as a spring configuration with a constant k. k 𝜃 R 𝜃 F 𝜃 F 𝜃 Mp Mg 𝜃 𝜃 𝜃 Xp mg 𝜃 Applying Newton’s second law. ̈ ̈ ̈ ̈ ̈ ̈ ̈ 44 ̈ .

Applying the law of conservation of energy. The kinetic energy of the system: ̇ The potential energy of the system.̈ ̈ Natural frequency. √ However applying the law of conservation of energy. ̈ ( ̈ ̈ * ̈ ̈ 45 .

18 0.12 -0.04 -0. yc vs crank angle 0.16 -0.14 0.Natural frequency.5 SYSTEM DYNAMIC ANALYSIS BASED ON ASSUMPTION From the analysis done with numerical iteration with the software Excel.1 0.04 0. √ 6.06 -0.1 -0.12 0.02 -0.08 0.2 0. thus.08 1 15 29 43 57 71 85 99 113 127 141 155 169 183 197 211 225 239 253 267 281 295 309 323 337 351 ye -0.2 crank angle 46 . the data is presented in the form of line graph.16 0.02 0 1 15 29 43 57 71 85 99 113 127 141 155 169 183 197 211 225 239 253 267 281 295 309 323 337 351 yc crank angle ye vs crank angle 0 -0.14 -0.06 0.18 -0.

5 1 15 29 43 57 71 85 99 113 127 141 155 169 183 197 211 225 239 253 267 281 295 309 323 337 351 crank angle 47 .5 Tgas cycle Tgas(comp) vs crank angle 0.5 0.Tmax vs cycle 0.015 0.4 0.005 0 0 0.2 Tgas(comp) 0.025 0.01 0.1 -0.2 -0.5 4 4.4 -0.5 1 1.5 3 3.02 0.5 2 2.3 0.1 0 -0.3 -0.

Ttotal 10 15 20 25 30 10 15 -5 0 Tmass(comp) 5 0 5 -5 Tmass 20 25 Tmass vs crank angle Ttotal vs crank angle crank angle crank angle Tmass(exp) 1 15 29 43 57 71 85 99 113 127 141 155 169 183 197 211 225 239 253 267 281 295 309 323 337 351 1 15 29 43 57 71 85 99 113 127 141 155 169 183 197 211 225 239 253 267 281 295 309 323 337 351 48 .

50E+03 1.rpm vs cycle 3.00E+03 1.50E+03 3.00E+02 0.5 mass gas vs cycle mass gas 2 cycle 2.5 4 4.5 2 2.001 0 0 0.006 0.5 4 4.00E+03 5.003 0.5 49 .002 0.005 0.5 cycle 0.5 3 3.5 3 3.5 1 1.50E+03 rpm 2.00E+00 0 0.007 0.5 1 1.004 0.00E+03 2.

00E+00 0 0.rpm vs mass gas 3.007 mass gas 50 .003 0.00E+03 1.00E+03 5.50E+03 3.005 0.00E+02 0.006 0.00E+03 2.50E+03 1.004 0.001 0.002 0.50E+03 rpm 2.

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