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characteristic phase shift between the displacer and piston that we see all Stirling engine today. The engine also featured the cyclic heating and cooling of the internal gas by means of an external heat source, but the device was not yet known as Stirling engine. In Beta type Stirling engine, it consists single power piston and displacer, whose ideal purpose is to displace the working gas at constant volume and shuttle it between the expansion and the compression spaces than the series arrangement cooler, regenerator and heater. For Rhombic linkage, the drive utilizes a jointed rhomboid to convert linear work from a reciprocating piston to rotational work. The connecting rod of the piston is rigid as opposed to a common reciprocating engine which directly connects the piston to the crankshaft with a flexible joint in the piston. Instead, the rod is connected to the one of the corner of a rhombus. When force is applied to the piston, it pushes down, at the same time, the outer corners of the rhomboid push out. They push on two cranks or flywheels which causes them to rotate, each in opposite directions. As the wheels rotate the rhombus progresses its change of shape from being flattened in the direction to the piston axis at top dead centre to being flattened in the perpendicular direction to the piston axis at the bottom dead centre. Dead centre is when the value of clearance is nearly same as the power maximum then the engine is assume as stable condition where there is no vibration.

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Since

, therefore, , whereby

The angular velocity, have to be maintained in order to make the movement of the flywheel constant, therefore

Thus,

Since the gas inside the cylinder is the source of the movement of the flywheel, the torque applied at the flywheel is the same as the torque of the gas. included torque of the mass flywheel and the movement occur in the system.

Where,

Force of the piston and exerted to the lower shaft of rhombic system Radius of the flywheel

Using the Schmidts analysis, by evaluating the area enclosed in the pressure/volume indicator diagrams. The starting point of the analysis is that the total mass of working gas in the machine is constant, hence:

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given by

Substituting the

( )

The volume for compression and expansion, thermo analyses part meanwhile

and

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Force generated from the piston, Whereby is the area of the displacer

In rhombic system, the displacer pressure exerted is the same as the pressure on the displacer and the area of the displacer is the same with the area of the power piston since diameter of piston is equal to the diameter of displacer ( )

( )

Substituting the pressure equation into the force generated from the piston equation

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( (

* )

At the crankcase where the force exerted on the rhomboid linkage, the force is divided into two since the rhomboid is symmetrical in shape. Therefore force acting at one side of the crank is

( )

( )

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From the given equation, since the piston is moving downwards, therefore,

( )

From the acceleration of the piston itself, the velocity of the piston can be determined since the acceleration is the derivative of the velocity with respect to time

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To get the velocity, the acceleration should be integrated with respect to time

( ( ) ,

can be determined

( (

* )

t

)

Given that

can be determined,

Using the cross product * Since the rotation of the flywheel is anticlockwise during the piston moves, thus, *

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From equation 1, Then, using substitution method, substitute the equation for ( ) ) + into equation 2

* (

From the equation derived, then, the angular velocity of the flywheel can be obtained

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From the free body diagram on the figure of one side crank, the vector position of the piston force is

(

(

* )

)

( (

* )

( (

* )

From region

38

( [

, ]

( [

, ] [

, ]

Meanwhile that,

is equal to the

since

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One of the novel applications of the Stirling cycle is in free piston configurations and indeed the configuration is one which holds immediate promise.

Free piston engines operate without physical linkage instead they rely only on the gas pressure and in some cases mechanical springs to impart the correct motions to the reciprocating elements. Such machines have the advantage of simplicity, low cost, ultra reliability, and freedom or working gas leakage over the conventional Stirling engines. Depending on particular configurations, these engines may also be designed to operate at constant frequency.

40

PART II

Piston,

State vector,

) ( *

)(

)(

41

Where,

( Displacer,

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Phase portrait,

43

k R F F Mp Mg

Xp mg

44

Natural frequency,

However applying the law of conservation of energy, The kinetic energy of the system:

( *

45

Natural frequency,

6.5 SYSTEM DYNAMIC ANALYSIS BASED ON ASSUMPTION From the analysis done with numerical iteration with the software Excel, thus, the data is presented in the form of line graph.

yc vs crank angle

0.2 0.18 0.16 0.14 0.12 0.1 0.08 0.06 0.04 0.02 0 1 15 29 43 57 71 85 99 113 127 141 155 169 183 197 211 225 239 253 267 281 295 309 323 337 351

yc

crank angle

ye vs crank angle

0 -0.02 -0.04 -0.06 -0.08 1 15 29 43 57 71 85 99 113 127 141 155 169 183 197 211 225 239 253 267 281 295 309 323 337 351

ye

crank angle

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Tmax vs cycle

0.025 0.02 0.015 0.01 0.005 0 0 0.5 1 1.5 2 2.5 3 3.5 4 4.5

Tgas

cycle

0.5 0.4 0.3 0.2

Tgas(comp)

0.1 0 -0.1 -0.2 -0.3 -0.4 -0.5 1 15 29 43 57 71 85 99 113 127 141 155 169 183 197 211 225 239 253 267 281 295 309 323 337 351

crank angle

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Ttotal

10 15 20 25 30 10 15 -5 0 Tmass(comp) 5 0 5 -5

Tmass

20 25

crank angle

crank angle

Tmass(exp)

1 15 29 43 57 71 85 99 113 127 141 155 169 183 197 211 225 239 253 267 281 295 309 323 337 351

1 15 29 43 57 71 85 99 113 127 141 155 169 183 197 211 225 239 253 267 281 295 309 323 337 351

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rpm vs cycle

3.50E+03 3.00E+03 2.50E+03

rpm

2.00E+03 1.50E+03 1.00E+03 5.00E+02 0.00E+00 0 0.5 1 1.5 2 2.5 3 3.5 4 4.5

cycle

mass gas

2 cycle 2.5

3.5

4.5

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3.50E+03 3.00E+03 2.50E+03

rpm

2.00E+03 1.50E+03 1.00E+03 5.00E+02 0.00E+00 0 0.001 0.002 0.003 0.004 0.005 0.006 0.007

mass gas

50

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