Theories of Congruent Communication (Haim Ginott) Congruent Communication

 Congruent communication is:  Open  Harmonious with students’ feelings about themselves and their situations  Without sarcasm  Congruent communication sends “sane messages” about the situation, not the personality or character of the student.
Teachers’ Role

 Use positive, effective communication.

 Provide a classroom environment that
encourages good behavior.  Model behaviors that invite cooperation and positive behavior.  Avoid autocratic behaviors.  Seek alternatives to punishment.  Remain sensitive to the needs of students.

 Promote self-discipline for both teachers and students.  Believe that “the essence of discipline is finding effective alternatives to discipline” (Ginott, 1972a , p. 147).  Accept and acknowledge students without labeling, arguing, disputing, or belittling the individual.  Avoid evaluative praise and use appreciative praise .  Avoid sending “you” messages and use “I” messages.  Demonstrate their best behaviors.  Invite rather than demand student cooperation.

 Promote cooperation with students and harmony
in the classroom.

 Evaluative praise (destructive) Example: Samal, you did a good job with the reading test. I like having you in my class.  Appreciative praise (productive) Example: Samal, I can tell you really tried on the reading test.

 Fragmentation – breaking an activity or behavior into subparts although the activity could be performed easily as a single unit or an uninterrupted sequence. Focus on the entire class. resuming the original activity.  Truncation – The same as a dangle. then dropped. . Do not dwell too long on one or two students. fragmentation. Establish clear procedures. Develop lessons on appropriate level. Later. Provide curricular content and instructional methods that interest and challenge learners.  Journal writing  Free choice reading from  the classroom book collection  school library  Doing homework  Prepared mini-lessons that take 10 minutes or less  Teacher reads aloud  a poem  short story  Listening to an audio book Slowdown        Overdwelling – dwelling on corrective behavior longer than needed or on a lesson longer than required. and satiation.  Demonstrate appropriate instructional behaviors:  withitness  group alerting  Avoid dangles.Theories of Instructional Management (Jacob Kounin) Kounin’s Key Concept o Teacher Behaviour o Movement Management o Group Focus Avoiding Overdwelling  Dangle – Starting an activity and then leaving it and beginning another activity. Pace instruction to maintain student interest. except not resuming the initiated. activity.

 The student does the work during recess or before/after school. 1968).  A student refuses to complete an assignment.  The student (not the parent) must pay for the property.”  Encouragement: “I can tell you’ve been practicing your math drills and I hope you will continue.”  Encouragement: “I can tell you enjoy the challenges of learning to use a new computer .  Praise: “You’re a fine student! You finished your math in record time.  Use punishment only when all logical consequences have been exhausted (Dreikurs and Grey.  A student destroys another’s property.  A student calls another student a racial slur. Identifying logical Consequences What consequences might be logical for these behaviors?  A student intentionally throws his books to the floor in a fit of anger. 1971)  Democratic (not permissive or autocratic) teaching  Encouragement rather than praise  Logical consequences     Logical Consequences Behavior  A student writes on a school desk.”  Praise: “You’re a whiz with that computer program.Theories of Democratic Teaching (Rudolf Dreikurs) Key Concepts of Dreikurs’s Theory  Mistaken goals Attention-getting Power-seeking Revenge Helplessness (feelings of inadequacy) (Dreikurs.  Classroom rules  Implement logical consequences rather than punishments. 1968.  A student refuses to complete assignme nts during class. Logical Consequence  The student must clean the desk.

“I’ve asked you repeatedly to stop talking.  Teachers are assertive. not nonassertive or hostile. Please stop. Response Styles Different types of rewards Basic rights for students Basic rights for Teachers  Nonassertive .“Justin. and you continue to do it.Theories of Assertive Tactics (Lee Canter and Marlene Canter) Key Concepts of Assertive Discipline  Rewards and punishments are effective.“Put that comic book away or you’ll wish you had!”     Social reinforcers Words – Smiles – Gestures Graphic reinforcers Star – Sticker – Checkmark Activity reinforcers Free time – Special game Tangible reinforcers Treat – Pencils and other supplies – Certificates Students have the right to:  Have an optimal learning environment  Have teachers who help them reduce inappropriate behavior  Have teachers who provide appropriate support for appropriate behavior  Have teachers who do not violate the students’ best interests  Choose how to behave with the advance knowledge of the consequences that will consistently follow Teachers have the right to:  Maintain an optimal learning environment  Expect appropriate behavior  Expect help from administrators and parents  Ensure students’ rights and responsibilities are met by a discipline plan that:  Clearly states expectations  Consistently applies the consequences  Does not violate the best interests of the students .”  Hostile .  Teachers use a discipline hierarchy with the consequences appropriate for the grade level. that is your warning for leaning back in the chair.”  Assertive . Put the chair down now or you will face a loss of classroom privileges.  Teachers apply rules and enforce consequences consistently without bias or discrimination.  Teachers create an optimal learning environment.  Both teachers and students have rights.

 Ignore minor misbehaviors. .  Use humor.  Show interest in student work.  Understand reasons for misbehaviors. not sarcasm. Glasser and Gordon) Building the Foundation Supporting Self-Control Five Basic Psychological Needs – Glasser Teachers can improve student behavior by:  Using student ideas in instruction  Using more discussions and dialogue  Praising students when appropriate  Tailoring instruction to individual students  Placing emphasis on productivity and creativity  Using cooperatively  Use signals:  Catching the eye of the student  Need for survival  Need to belong  Need for power  Need for freedom  Need for fun  Frowning or smiling  Shaking the head  Stand near a student and use proximity.Building the Foundation (Skinner.