# Science Transitions – Notes – Semester 2

2.1 – Standards of Measurement
• Calculate the volume of your desktop in ‘hands’. o use page 41 for a hint with the formula o length x width x height o What number did you get? What are the units? How can you compare your results? Standard - an exact quantity people agree to use for comparison English system of measurement o length  mile  yard  foot  inch o volume  gallon  quart o weight  pound  ounce Metric system of measurement o length  kilometer  meter  centimeter o volume  liter o weight  kilogram  gram Metric system o based on multiples of ten o used by most countries but U.S. o First developed in the 1700’s o International System of Units o abbreviated SI  from the French Le Systeme Internationale d’Unites. o Worldwide standard  universally accepted and understood by scientists o base and prefix o based on powers of ten Measuring the moon o focused laser beams

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o light travels 299,792,500 meters every second through space o know how fast and how long, calculate distance • Mirrors on the moon o lasers on earth bounce off of mirrors on the moon o distance from earth to moon calculated at 378,000,000 meters o light-year o distance light travels in one year o about 9.5 trillion kilometers o 9,500,000,000,000 (9.5 x 1012) • closest star to the sun o 4.22 light years o Proxima Centauri (Latin proximus, -a, -um: meaning 'next to' or 'nearest to') o 10,000 times fainter than the sun • astronomical unit o abbreviated AU o average distance from the Earth to the Sun o about 150,000,000,000 meters (1.5 x 1011 m) o calculate 1 AU in kilometers  1,000 m in 1 km  150,000,000 km  1 AU = 150,000,000 km • Review Answers 1. 0.1 meters = decimeter - 1000 meters = kilometer 2. Different standards cause miscommunication. 3. 16,000 meters = 16 kilometers

2.2 – Using SI Units
• SI units o base and prefix o What is the length of your textbook? - 808 pages Quantity Measured Length Mass Time Electric current Temperature Amount of substance Intensity of light SI Base Unit Meter Kilogram Second Ampere Kelvin Mole Candela Symbol m kg s A K mol cd

scientific measurement of length - distance between two points What is the SI base unit of length? o meter (m) • volume o the amount of space occupied by an object. • derived units - combining SI units • volume o solid  length x width x height o units cubed  cm3 or m3 or hands3 • volume o liquid  measure capacity of the object holding the liquid o liter  1 liter (L) = 1 cubic decimeter (dm3)  1 L = 1,000 mL  1 dm3 = 1,000 cm3  1 mL = 1 cm3 • mass o measurement of the matter in an object o SI base unit of mass? - kilogram (kg) o How many grams (g) in 1 kilogram (kg)? - 1,000 o measured with a balance o balance a known mass with unknown mass • golf ball vs. ping-pong ball o Which has a larger volume? - about the same o Which has a larger mass? - golf ball • density o mass per unit volume of a material. o derived unit MiniLAB • Analysis question answers • calculate using d = m/v • the pencil floats so its density is less than water • Density of water - 1.0 g/cm3 • Density of lead - 11.3 g/cm3 • lead has a higher density than water so it sinks • Which has a greater density, a 2 cm x 2 cm x 2 cm cube of aluminum or a 10 cm x 10 cm x 10 cm cube of aluminum? 1. density is the same since it is related to the mass and the volume. the density of aluminum does not change. • Unit conversion (Method 1) 1. A measurement is made of a number and a unit label. 2. To convert from larger to smaller units, multiply.

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3. To convert from smaller to larger units, divide. • smaller à larger o divide • larger à smaller o multiply • Unit Conversion (Method 2) o write the prefixes twice

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draw a line connecting the top set to the bottom set of prefixes count the number of prefixed moved and the direction of the arrow move the decimal to match number and direction If the arrow shows two places to the left move the decimal two places to the left If the arrow shows three places to the right move the decimal three places to the right

Unit Conversion (Method 3) o Multiply by a ratio that equals one o example: convert from cm to m

= ×
o

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Set-up conversion so units cancel

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o What is the conversion factor? o arrange units to cancel • Practice Problems – page 40 1. How many centimeters are in 253.8 km? 1) convert from km to meters

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2) convert from meters to cm

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2. A bookshelf is 75 cm wide. How many decimeters is this? - 7.5 dm How many meters would this be? - .75 m • time o the interval between two events

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What is the SI unit for time? - second

temperature o most scientific work measured in Celsius (C) o freezing point of water 0°C o boiling point of water 100°C o each division between 1 Celsius degree o average human body temp 37°C o typical room temp 20°C to 25°C What is the SI unit for temperature? o Kelvin (K) o absolute zero - coldest possible temperature o 0 K or -273°C o water freezes at 273 K o water boils at 373 K o 1 Celsius degree = 1 Kelvin degree

Review – page 45 1. a. 1 meter (m) b. 2.3 liters (L) c. 300 Kelvin (K) 2. Density cannot be directly measured, it must be calculated. 3. Copper density = 178.0 g / 20.0 mL = 8.9 g/cm3 look up density in table Extra conversion practice 1. 5 kg = 5,000 g 2. 2.6 mm = 0.026 dm 3. 60 s = 60,000 ms 4. 32o F = 273 K 5. 20o C = 293 K 6. 52 km = 5,200,000 cm

2.3 –

Graphing

• Graph - a visual display of information or data • Checklist for a good graph Heating of Water  right type 25  line graph - >
Temperature ( oC) 20 15 10 5 0 0 5 10 15 20 25 30 Time (minutes)

 bar graph
Rooms at a Particular Temperature
6 Number of Rooms 5 4 3 2 1 0 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 Temperature (oC)

 circle graph (pie chart)
Home Heating in Fake Town, USA

Gas Steam Electric Coal Other

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 line graph - show trends or how the data change over time  bar graph - comparing information collected by counting  circle graph - how a fixed quantity is broken down into parts Descriptive Title Label each axis  include units Keep the scale uniform  uniform scale No empty space  use space well A key if necessary  key ?

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3.1 Motion and Speed
• • • • • • movement is a change in position describe the motion in the following video…(DOG ON SKATEBOARD VIDEO) look at the position of the circle on the following screen How do you know the circle moved if your eyes were closed? o used a reference point to determine if an object has changed position motion - change in position The circle moved but… o how fast did it move? o in what path did it move? o What do we mean by speed? speed o rate of change in position o rate of motion instantaneous speed o rate of motion at any given instant o how fast was this vehicle traveling? 56 MPH o how long was this vehicle traveling at 56 MPH? o do not know for sure; at least for an instant constant speed o speed that does not vary Your bike trip o start out from 0 km/h to 20 km/h o slow down to 12 km/h going up a hill o speed up to 35 km/h going down the hill o stop at a red light o start again and maintain 15 km/h o slow down and stop after 5 km = o entire trip took 15 minutes average speed o total distance traveled = = divided by total time of travel What is the relationship between distance, speed, and time? = × Use a thought experiment to explain your findings. d =v ×t o For example  If two people run for a set time and one runs further, how does this relate to their speed?  If one person runs faster for a set time, how does this relate to Motion of swimmers their distance?. average speed 2400 What was Swimmer 1’s speed? 2200 2000 Was it constant? 1800 o 2,400 m ÷ 30 min = 80 m/min | yes 1600 1400 1200 Explain Swimmer 2’s workout? 1000
Distance (m) 800 600 400 200 0

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Swimmer 1 Swimmer 2

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10 Time (min)

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swam 400 m in 10 min | rested for 10 min swam 800 m in 10 min

Distance (km)

What total distance did Swimmer 2 cover? o 1,200 m What was the average speed of Swimmer 2? o 1,200 m ÷ 30 min = 40 m/min Practice Problem – page 67 o average speed = 10 m/s o distance = 219 m o time = ? Review ?s Page 69 1. car – km/h runners – m/s the neighborhood race would involve short distances and short periods of time The Car Trip 2. 435 km / 36.75 h = 11.8 km/h 3. First segment slopes the most. 120 Middle segment does not slope. 110 100 v=d/t 90 80 v = 110 km / 2 h 70 v = 55 km/h 60
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0 30 60 90 • Mini Quiz Time (minutes) 1. What is motion? a change in position 2. What two quantities do you need to calculate average speed? distance and time 3. What does a flat line on a segment of a distance-time graph tell you about the average speed for that time period? no change in distance occurs, so average speed is zero.

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3.2 – Velocity and Acceleration
• • • • • • velocity describes both speed and direction velocity may change o if speed changes o if direction changes acceleration o rate of change of velocity o velocity depends on speed and direction acceleration changes if change in speed or direction occurs Car is moving in a straight line. o Acceleration and velocity are in the same direction. The car speeds up.

o Acceleration is positive. • Car is moving in a straight line. o Acceleration and velocity are in the opposite directions. • The car slows down. o Acceleration is negative. • amount of acceleration o change in velocity o time interval - the amount of time that passed while the change in velocity was taking place • Two factors would contribute to a large acceleration? 1. large change in velocity 2. velocity change in a small time interval • calculating acceleration…

Figure 1 - Acceleration Units How can acceleration be negative? o final velocity is smaller than initial velocity o A positive calculation shows positive acceleration or speeding up. • A negative calculation shows negative acceleration or slowing down. Practice Problem – page 75 • final velocity = 32 m/s • initial velocity = 10 m/s • time = 3 s Review - page 75 1. No, the velocity is different since they are traveling in different directions. The speeds are the same, they will travel the same distance in the same time. 2. v v m s− m s

a=

t

=

a=

m s = s

s m s

3. put on the brakes, pedal faster, change direction, etc. Mini Quiz 1. What is velocity? - both speed and direction 2. What is acceleration? - rate of change of velocity 3. What is the unit of acceleration? m s

3.4 - Connecting Motion with Forces
• • force o a push or pull one body exerts on another o What are some forces you encounter in a typical day? unbalanced force o net force  always changes the velocity of the object  accelerate in the direction of the greater force  changes speed, direction, or both since velocity is involved inertia o the tendency of an object to resist any change in its motion. moving object o keeps moving at the same speed and in the same direction unless an unbalanced force acts on it o the velocity remains constant unless a force changes it o object at rest tends to remain at rest o velocity is zero unless a force makes it move Describe the velocity after the rock is released. o constant velocity Describe the acceleration after the rock is released. (in “Physics World”) o no acceleration Do all objects have the same inertia? - no o Would you rather have a bowling ball or a ping-pong ball rolled at your ankle? What affects the amount of inertia? o Mass - the more mass an object has, the greater its inertia objects with greater inertia require a greater force to change velocity. Newton’s First Law of Motion o an object moving at a constant velocity keeps moving at that velocity unless a net force acts on it. o an object at rest stays at rest unless a net force acts on it  Sometimes called the law of inertia. Describe the acceleration after the rock is released. (in the “Real World”) o negative acceleration due to friction friction o the force that opposes motion between two surfaces that are touching each other o depends on the kind of surfaces and the force pressing the surfaces together Homework Review questions 1-3 on page 82. Worksheet: “Connecting Motion with Forces” Review page 82

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1. Rosin reduces slipping. They are taking advantage of friction. 2. The jet inertia is related to mass, not speed 3. catching a football, sliding into base, diving, etc. • Mini Quiz 1. What are balanced forces? forces equal in size and opposite in direction 2. What is inertia? the tendency of an object to resist any change in motion 3. What is friction? the force that opposes motion between two touching surfaces

3.5 Gravity – A Familiar Force
• Gravity – o force exerted by every object in the universe on every other object o depends on:  mass of objects  distance between objects Weight – o measure of force of gravity on an object o unit: Newton (N) o 1 kg mass weighs 9.8 N at earth’s surface 1 kg = 9.8 N on earth Would an object weigh more or less orbiting earth? Why?  Less, greater distance between objects o Would an object weigh more or less on the moon? Why?  Less, moon has less mass o Would an object weigh more or less on Jupiter? Why?  More, Jupiter has more mass Weight vs. mass Which would change if you went to the moon? o weight = measure of force of gravity o mass = amount of matter in object o Weight would change, not mass Scale vs. balance Which measures weight and which measures mass? o A scale measures weight o A balance measures mass

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4.1 – Accelerated Motion
• Demo One • Push an empty chair, from rest, to one tile per second. 1. Did the acceleration change? - yes 2. Was there a net force? • yes, there was an unbalanced force, the chair moved • Push the same empty chair, from rest, to four tiles per second and compare. 1. Did the acceleration change? • yes, from rest to 1 tile/sec and 4 tiles/sec • Did the mass change? no, same chair, same amount of matter • Did the force required to get the chair moving change? How? yes, more force to accelerate the chair faster Demo Two • Push an empty chair, from rest, to one tile per second. 1. Did the acceleration change? - yes • Was there a net force? yes, there was an unbalanced force, the chair and person moved Push an chair with someone in it (nicely), from rest, to one tile per second. 1. Did the acceleration change? o no, both accelerated to 1 tile/sec o Did the mass change?  yes, the mass of the chair and person o Did the force required to get the chair moving change? How?  yes, more force to accelerate the chair with more mass Finish this statement o The amount of acceleration on an object depends on __________ and __________.  force  mass Newton’s Second Law of Motion o A net force acting on an object causes the object to accelerate in the direction of the force. o The acceleration is determined by the size of the force and the mass of the object. o A larger force acting on an object causes a greater acceleration. o A larger mass requires a greater force than a smaller mass would require to achieve the same acceleration. What is the SI unit for force? o Newton Practice Problems – p 95 If you dropped a marble and a bowling ball from a bridge, which would hit the water first? They would hit at the same time.

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Why? (think in terms of acceleration and inertia) Falling objects Which would have a larger mass? o bowling ball Which would have the larger force required to accelerate?  bowling ball, since it has a larger mass o Which would have the larger inertia?  bowling ball, since it has a larger mass o more force is required to change its velocity Acceleration by gravity o Near Earth’s surface  gravity causes all falling objects to accelerate at 9.8 m/s2.  1 kg weighs 9.8 N Which would hit the ground first, an acorn or a leaf if they fell from the same height in a tree? o What is their acceleration due to gravity  9.8 m/s2 for both o If acceleration is the same, what causes the acorn to hit first?  less air resistance Air resistance - the force air exerts on moving objects amount depends on an object’s o speed o size o shape o density for falling objects o air resistance increases until it balances force of gravity  object stops accelerating  still falls but at constant velocity o terminal velocity  highest velocity reached by a falling object  For a skydiver with parachute closed, the terminal velocity is about 200 km/h or 56 m/s • for each second falling, travel about 61 yards o If we dropped a hammer and a feather in the classroom, which would hit the ground first? o Why does the hammer hit the ground first?  more inertia in the hammer and more air resistance in the feather What would happen if we dropped the hammer and feather with little or no air resistance? o watch the following video to find out Video Analysis (video with hammer and feather in vacuum) Why did the hammer and feather fall at the same rate? o With little or no air resistance the force of gravity acts alone on objects. o

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All objects accelerate at the same rate, 9.8 m/s2 on the Earth’s surface. Gravity on the Moon Did gravity accelerate the hammer and feather at 9.8 m/s2 on the moon? o No, the moon has less mass so the force of gravity is less than Earth. o The acceleration of gravity is 1/6th that of Earth

4.2 - Projectile and Circular Motion
Projectile - anything that is thrown or shot through the air horizontal motion - motion parallel to the Earth’s surface What is the dart’s horizontal velocity after it is released? (in “Physics World”) constant vertical motion - motion perpendicular to the Earth’s surface What is the dart’s vertical velocity after it is released? Why? increasing, due to the acceleration of gravity centripetal acceleration - acceleration toward the center of a curved or circular path centripetal force - the force acting toward the center of a curved or circular path What is the centripetal force acting to keep a car on the track? friction between the tires and the road’s surface What would happen if centripetal force could not overcome the car’s inertia? Spin off the road, etc. “Weightlessness” is due to freefall

4.3 – Sending Up Satellites
• Types of satellites o Natural satellites - ex: moon o Artificial satellites – ex: communications, weather  Geostationary – movement matches earth’s rotation o Launching satellites  1. boost to desired height  2. accelerate to required speed 1. For what purposes are artificial satellites used? • Communications • Weather monitoring • Military investigations 2. Why are geostationary satellites used for communications & monitoring weather? • Allows measurements or communications to be made constantly over a desired region