15th July 2012

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Building Drift in ETABS
Drift is a very complex topic in structural engineering. It involves too many factors to arrive at a suitable decision. It involves engineering judgment, the phenomenon fresh engineers might not feel. In this article, I have tried to explain what is building drift, allowable limits, ways and means to check in ET !" models and to control the excessive drift. #lease keep in mind, this article is not about the building drift as far as structural science is concerned, rather this topic of drift is related to ET !" software. $irst of all you must be familiar with the term story drift. $or convenience, I am %uoting here the definitions from &!'()* code+(
STORY DRIFT is the lateral displacement of one level relative to the level above or below. STORY DRIFT RATIO is the story drift divided by the story height.

1) Maximum Limits ,ow what for story drift limits- .hat is the maximum permissible value- .ell it depends upon the type of drift. Is it seismic or wind$or seismic, I will refer to &!'()* code which in section /012./2.3 talks about drift limits for earth%uake.

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,ow in simple words, the maximum limit for seismic drift is+( delta 4 shall not exceed 2.235 x story ht 6if building seismic period is less than 2.*7 delta 4 shall not exceed 2.232 x story ht 6if building seismic period is e%ual or greater than 2.*7 Important to note here is that it talks about "EI"4I' drift so "EI"4I' building period not the .I,D period. Now delta M = Max inelastic response displacement = 0.7R delta S where 8 9 from Table /0(, delta " 9 displacement from static, elastic analysis

this value is read from ET !". "o in a nutshell we create following load combinations in ET !" to check our drift+( DRIFTWx1 = D+0.bp. but for wind drift code is mute.blogspot. in reality this figure can be up or down depending upon the ductility of cladding material and finishes./.<22 is thought to be well satisfactory.2<. This is common thing. The recurrence period for seismic force is 52 years. and the typical limits of story height by some number is same.blogspot.-pg. =ere l means story ht. this may dramatically increase or decrease the accepted drift values in model. however. >ou should not calculate wind force from one code and apply limits of another code.3 [http://4.com/EHLvOlrA_bw/UALNHndLc4I/AAAAAAAAA !/"#$%&tr'#oI/s()**/"m+g&**4-#)2)4.bp. "eismic drift is checked against the direct load case of EAx. you multiply this value by 2. and other gravity loadsB D and 2.7Wx ..-pg.022 to l. If not properly calculated.5L+0.5C are also added.*8 to get delta 4 This was all about seismic drift. =owever for common usage value of l. In seismic drift we do not convert it into service seismic force. 2) Load Combinations ?nce the drift limit has been determined separately for seismic and wind forces. I will refer you to "'E 3225 commentary ''.*. $or wind drift.com/0!1l2t!3454/UALNH46*75I/AAAAAAAAA w/$L48*9o8&-4/s()**/"m+g&**)-#):.<22: for :common usage:. but obviously you have to take care of the process of calculating the wind force or seismic forces. "'E code. as the e%uation says. It has been recommended by "'E commentary ''./.3 [http://2. Determination of actual drift depends on the load combination and the period of recurrence./ To convert 52 year service wind force to /2 year service wind force it is multiplied by 2.2 in load combinations of 'I. The concept of drift limits is same throughout all the governing codes./ "o we can understand that the limit for wind drift is :on the order of l. we need to convert 52 year wind to service wind force. now is the need to check the actual drift vs the limit. "eismic force E is always already factored so that@s the reason its factor is always /. EAy etc in ET !".

5L­0.7Wx DRIFTWy1 = D+0.5L+0. we need to do as below+( $or seismic drift goto $ileD#rint TablesD"ummary 8eport [http://2. you will find out a section about drifts. similar to this one+( .DRIFTWx2 = D+0.blogspot.%#-)gT./c/UALNI'(U88I/AAAAAAAAADI/D#0132"3D4I/s$6%%/&m'g(%$%.bp.6!6) . but how can we do this in ET !" easily.7Wy $or seismic drift. we do not need any combination.blogspot.com/h. drift will be checked just on EAx and EAy load cases only. as discussed earlier.com/-Dw6lh3W6wc/UALNIA6BumI/AAAAAAAAAC8/T !U"2#oh-8/s$6%%/&m'g(%%8.bp. 3) How to !" # in ETABS .ow we have obtained both the actual drift and the drift limit.ell. after creating the drift combinations as discussed in step 3.6)83).7Wy DRIFTWy2 = D+0.5pg*+ "croll down to the end of the page.5L­0.p#g*+ "elect the file name [http://2.

/25 9 *. "o instead of calculating every time by 2.blogspot.5 x /. s we want the drift for wind to be on drift load combinations and not on wind load cases.com/26748N9.bp.235 x story ht is being satisfied. [http://$.*. In ET !" the drift is reported as /.8. If our limit is 2. story ht. In this table we are going to check just the drift values of our ET !" model for individual seismic load casesB EAx and EAy.[http://2.=825cw/UALNI%.66!% . .*x1.235 so safe 6 if TF2./25 value is story drift divided by story ht.5 so delta 4 9 2.x where x is some number.ow the values in ET !" are inverse so our limit is 2.235 then the limit we get is 2. .122 9 2.2. ssume 8 here is 1.I/AAAAAAAAADU/0<#8=7w&)"w/s$6%%/&m'g(%$2.235 9 )E. select #oint displacementsD"tory drifts and then select only drift combinations for results.* x 1. .>?AI/AAAAAAAAAD8/l%tb<b.235. $irst we need to convert it to delta 4 by multiplying it with 2.231111 which is less than 2.5pg*+ It displays the max drift for each lateral load case for each story. This /. ssume 891./25 that becomes 2. .22)531E2)53<. It means delta " .5. This way you can %uickly check and compare seismic drifts.ow as long as x 6some number7 is greater than )E our limit of 2.*8 we can check these limits in other way.5.*7.bp.6 )63.@Al8/s$6%%/&m'g(%$).ow for the wind drifts.g:.2.*8. goto DisplayD"how tables. this table shows us values in fraction format. s you noticed./UALNI&-T7. $or example /.5pg*+ .ow this value is delta ". so we will not compare this wind drift without limits.com/>pTC.blogspot. 'lick on and then copy the table to EG'EC.

Then just select the column = or I and see the maximum value that should be less than =. .s&<#I/AAAAAAAAA##/t=Na*(>o4>U/s&'00/imag(000-))&*&).[http://4.com/1234.com/Jb849)7L0:4/UALNJ.bp.-pg.blogspot./ To save time you can right click on EG'EC taskbar and select maximum and minimum.2235 t2 2.blogspot. gain the values reported in ET !" are divided by story ht.bp./ [http://&.bp.%J5+6k/UALNJs7+UNI/AAAAAAAAA 8/oA(lg(0(Lls/s&'00/imag(0&8-))0&+.22/0*7..-pg.com/kJOAAHSAaw8/UALNJU0mtiI/AAAAAAAAA s/!H"cs# $!%w/s&'00/imag(0&'-)'*+8.<22 to =022 limit 62.blogspot..-pg./ [http://0.

8ts1 wiki 9.&ght.1'o61qo6t.!1comm.*%41t&m.31 6s&8g1 9 L<A1 m1 sho6l31b..m L+b.ss1th+81*.&t1&s18ot1th. %bviously the displacement of several meters in tables is not what we are looking for.pl' Rana Waseem 9.lt+@1b.1s+'s1th+t1sto:'13:&ft16s&8g1 9.f:.*%41sto:'1h. ranawaseem.:1).ss1th+81. <A"=19:&ft1L&m&ts.ss1th+81*. =.blogspot. $rift values &relative' may be still okay for these points( but it re uires you to check the displacement values too before checking directly the drift...31+bov. V&.*%41t&m.1l.1:.com 2ost.*%41t&m.c?13:&ft (.&ght1o:19./pg01 4) Controlling Excessive Drift Values sometimes you may face problem of excessively large values in drift tables in ETABS. <A"=1ho!1to1 ch.1 Acco:3&8g1 to1 co3.l+1s1 b..&ght. Well we are not going to talk about different measures and modeling techni ues to control the drift values. "nlock the model and remove all free points( check for any discontinuity and modify your models to remove all the errors.(9.ls:19:&ft.19.. Sometimes it happens that a point or node is free in the model or is connected to a !"## line or very flexible section.lt+1@1l&m&t1s&: 7.c.mb. $&8319:&ft1>omb&8+t&o8.h.1%*(%1+t19:%(1A@ s+l+m1s&:1&81@AXI@U@1LI@I<=1po:t&o81sho6l319.. We are going to talk about large numbers in drift tables.31(4th156l'1%*(% b'17+8+1$+s.&ghtA+s1&81th.8c.&sm&c19:&ft.com/9qv8XKHgL8Q/UALNKflmVsI/AAAAAAAAA Q/A!K"#$t%&'s/s()**/&m+g.mb.s1s. .1l.bp. "6&l3&8g19:&fts.1l.1%*(%1+t1%:%812@ $&??&B1 I1 3&38t1 683.ss1th+81.s1sto:'1h.:st+831 'o6:1 po&8t.c. $rift tables for example the story drift table in wind captures the maximum displaced points.1 th.:1).lt+@1sho6l31b.1 97IC<1 c+lc6l+t.[http://4.1l.s1sto:'1h.*%%---.

wiki May 1). ha!e been (or*in..to the code is (ron..$ is correct and 2i*i is (ron-...02&&&& (hich is less than 0.the distance of separation bet(een the b ildin-s accordin. separation -ap is .025.025./A01. 2012 at ):14 AM Dear (i*i+ .025 so safe" Reply Rana Waseem December 8.$ % &.Reply wiki December 8.than!i i am st dent and tryin. 201& at 4:02 8M (onderf l article.Delta M and its limit of 0.2.11 do (e se also delta M beca se it -i!es a !ery lar-e !al es.E05 is that the drift to be considered sho ld be at the center of mass. as*ed this beca se the specific reB irement of the calc lation of seismic drift as per A1:. 201& at ):10 AM than% sir rana i a-ain read the article -ot (hat i missed.delta M and drift limit sin. for e%. 201& at 10:&4 8M (hen calc latin.5 % 1'105 # $'&00 # 0.. 2012 at 8:44 AM drift is delta s and limit of drift is .then please e%plain to me.to 90: 14&&.separation -ap. 2aseem+ 6o r nderstandin. Reply Samer Kamel 3ebr ary 4.s the drift reported by etabs is the displacement at the center of mass or it is the ma% drift of a partic lar floor considerinnode displacement.(hich is not lo-ic Reply Rana Waseem 3ebr ary 25.. it is e!ident from the code as (ell.to clear my conf sion i did not said that sir rana is (ron-.(ith Midas 5en and this drift calc lation is a tomatic yo D st ha!e to set the limits for both seismic and (ind drifts and the pro-ram (ill D st a tomatically calc late the drift . 2= . 201& at &:4& AM yes samer *amel..mr. 201& at &:24 AM 5reetin-s Mr. it -i!e me a 20 cm bet(een the b ildin.1= is the drift per le!el reported by etabs already the interstory drift or is the drift relati!e to the baseC .f my nderstandin.025 for / 7 0...to -et the concept and also tryin. . ..of calc latin.ts mentioned in the referenced code that drift sho ld be calc lated sin. (e do se !al e of delta m (hile calc latin.f it is relati!e to the base then (e still ha!e to s btract the t(o adDacent drifts per floor in order to -et the interstory drift. <delta M1=> ? <delta M2=> @ A 1'2 Reply Charles Maxino May 28. i ha!e some B estion to as*s. 2e ha!e to ma*e it delta M Reply Replies thanvi 3ebr ary 25.(e sho ld not se delta s..delta M sho ld be less than 0.it is not the limit of delta m as sed in abo!e calc lations "delta M # 0.delta s is the !al e (e -et from .

! 2 (M 'here are some functionalities in Midas =en which are not present yet in &'()* +ut / don>t know a+out the latest version of &'()* which is version 201 ..yes you have to check it manually as &'()* is . 201 at .. ?ne of them is the automatic calculation of torsional amplification factor (x aside from the automatic calculation of vertical and hori@ontal irre.. $M /n my office we strictly follow all the code provisions specially the requirements for drift. 0or irre.ain.en now in new eta+s 201 there is +etter option to control and report drifts. Reply Replies Rana Waseem May 28..ood practice actually in &'()* when definin. *o the correct load to check for the drift must +e the static seismic load plus the "6 accidental torsion multiplied +y the torsional amplification factor (x.ularities.you can either select total displacement relative to +ase and su+tract the displacements for the lower stories to . only &12 and &13 +ut instead we used &124or &13%5"6&cc7(x....et inter-story drift 2% a."6 &cc is already included so you dont have to include it a.requirement and it will show a remark of ok and fail and you also have the option to calculate the drift at the center of mass or the maximum displacement that will normally occur around the perimeter node. Reply .ularities and torsional amplification. 'he one function for us that is very essential is the automatic calculation of story shear force ratio / don>t know if &'()* has this function already..rest is upon en. 201 at 11!"# $M 1% it depends in &'()* output. 'he codes 8)9 :# and (*9& require to include not only the translational displacement +ut also torsional displacement. % like midas ..all output options are there in &'()* . load cases. 201 at 10!".e.. 201 at 11!"8 $M yeah the provisions should +e followed strictly. Reply Replies Rana Waseem May 28.. Charles Maxino <une 1..ust an anlysis packa. 0or seismic drift we are not usin.ain refer to step 1.ineer. you can select whatever you want to report. Reply Charles Maxino May 28..

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