EMPIRE COLLEGE NETWORK MANAGEMENT

Marie Cesaldi

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Table of Contents
Introduction to network management Function of network management Considerations need to be taken into account when designing a network Purpose of a networking tool Emerging networking management technologies Interrogate a network to indentify the network assets and their configuration Routine network management tasks Conclusion References

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ridges% The public network was used to pro!ide the wide area backbone network% From a perspecti!e interoperability between these networks has been a ma)or challenge for the telecommunications and computing industries% . .E ecuti!e "ummary The goal of the network management is to guide the authori#e users on the issues like passwords$ login name and access to shared resource% &etwork management is a key re'uirement of small and medium businesses today in order to run their daily operations% &etwork management is one of the most important and confusing topics in telecommunications% It includes operations$ administration$ maintenance and pro!isioning functions re'uired to pro!ide monitor Interpret and control the network and the ser!ices it carries% These functions pro!ide operating telephone companies and to corporate customers and end(users with efficient to manage their resources and ser!ices and to achie!e ob)ecti!es% There ha!e been different approaches and strategies taken by e'uipment !endors and users to manage their networks and e'uipment% *anagement solution is often specific to each !endor+s networking product en!ironment% Traditionally$ the public network was designed to handle !oice and data ser!ice used for both analogy and digital technologies% &etwork management methods were introduced according to each technology and ser!ice% The outcome was multiple o!erlays of circuit( switched$ packets witched and slow(switched connecti!ity nodes% Pri!ate networks$ on the other hand$ were built to pro!ide enterprise information networking using P.-s$ *ainframes$ Terminals$ Concentrators and .

P1 Describe the functions of network management &etwork management refers to the acti!ities$ methods$ procedures$ and tools that pertain to the operations management and this area of a business concerned with the production of goods and ser!ices$ and in!ol!es the responsibility of ensuring that the system administrator$ who is employed to maintain and operate the computer system or network% The system administrators may be members of an information technology /IT0 or Electronics and Communication Engineering department to maintenance and to the process of preparing and e'uipping a network to allow it to pro!ide /new0 ser!ices to its users% "ome important points that may need important to the management1 • 2peration deals with keeping the network /and the ser!ices that the network pro!ides0 up and running smoothly% It includes monitoring the network to spot problems as soon as possible$ ideally before users are affected% • 3dministration deals with keeping track of resources in the network and how they are assigned% It includes all the 4housekeeping4 that is necessary to keep the network under control% • *aintenance is concerned with performing repairs and upgrades for e ample$ when e'uipment must be replaced$ when a router needs a patch for an operating system image$ when a new switch is added to a network% *aintenance also in!ol!es correcti!e and pre!enti!e measures to make the managed network run 4better4$ such as ad)usting de!ice configuration parameters% • Pro!isioning is concerned with configuring resources in the network to support a gi!en ser!ice% For e ample$ this might include setting up the network so that a new customer can recei!e !oice ser!ice% Functions are performed as part of network management accordingly include controlling$ planning$ allocating$ deploying$ coordinating$ and monitoring the resources of a network$ network planning fre'uency that is the number of occurrences of a repeating e!ent per unit allocation$ predetermined of managing$ prioriti#ing$ controlling or reducing the 5 .

andwidth /measuring and controlling the communications traffic$ packets on a network link to a!oid filling the link to capacity or o!erfilling the link$ which would result in techni'ues to try to a!oid congestion collapse and poor performance Routing is performed for many kinds of networks$ including the telephone network to support technically the distribution of workload e!enly across two or more computers$ network links$ CP6s$ hard dri!es$ or other resources$ in order to get optimal resource utili#ation$ ma imi#e through put$ minimi#e response time$ and a!oid o!erload% 6sing multiple components with load balancing$ instead of a single component$ may increase reliability through the duplication of critical% 7 .network traffic$ particularly Internet and selecting paths in a network along which to send network traffic% 3 common way of characteri#ing network management functions are • Fault /3larm Correlation$ Trouble Ticketing "ystem e pert "ystem 3pplication0 • Performance /includes acti!ities to ensure that goals are consistently being met in an effecti!e and efficient manner and can be focus on the performance of an organi#ation$ a department$ employee$ or e!en the processes to build a product or ser!ice$ as well as many other areas0% • 3ccounting /Identification of cost components$ establishing change(back policies$ charge(back procedures$ processing !endor bills$ integration of &etwork accounting into corporate accounting policy0 • Configuration /establishing and maintaining consistency of a system+s or product+s performance and its functional and physical attributes with its re'uirements$ design$ and operational information0 • "ecurity /is a broad field of management related to asset management$ physical security and human resource safety functions% It entails the identification of an organi#ation+s information assets and the de!elopment$ documentation and implementation of policies$ standards$ procedures and guidelines0% • .

8ata for network management is collected through se!eral mechanisms$ including a software agent who is a piece of software that acts for a user or other program in a relationship to installed on the infrastructure and to acti!e monitoring and website monitoring that is done by using a web browser emulation or scripted real web browsers% &etwork management does not include user terminal e'uipment that has the following meanings1 Communication e'uipment at either end of a communications link used to permit the stations in!ol!ed to accomplish the mission for which the link was established% In radio relay systems$ e'uipment used at points where data are inserted or deri!ed$ as distinct from e'uipment used only to relay a reconstituted signal Telephone and telegraph switchboards and other centrally located e'uipment at which communications circuits are terminated% 9 .

.P2 Describe with examples what consideration need to be taken into account when designing a network 8espite impro!ements in e'uipment performance and media capabilities$ network design is becoming more difficult% The trend is toward increasingly comple en!ironments in!ol!ing multiple media$ multiple protocols$ and interconnection to networks outside any single organi#ation+s dominion of control% Carefully designing networks can reduce the hardships associated with growth as a networking en!ironment e!ol!es. The efficient and effecti!e network management does not only depend upon the design and planning of the network but also on the smart choice of network management tools and software% &etwork design pro)ects comprise four distinct phases1 re'uirements analysis$ logical design$ physical design and testing% 8esigning a network topology is the first step in the logical design phase% 3 topology is a high(le!el blueprint of a network$ similar to an architectural drawing for a building% 3fter reading this chapter$ you will know more about preparing secure$ redundant$ hierarchical topologies% 8esigning a network can be a challenging task% To design reliable$ scalable networks$ network designers must reali#e that each of the three ma)or components of a network has distinct design re'uirements% 3 network that consists of only 7: meshed routing nodes can pose comple problems that lead to unpredictable results% 3ttempting to optimi#e networks that feature thousands of nodes can pose e!en more comple problems &etwork home directories$ managed accounts$ laptops with mobile accounts$ managed systems$ and roaming users who connect using wireless networks% In an enterprise en!ironment$ IT administrators create network users$ each of which can be managed indi!idually% For ease of management$ IT administrators often create one or more workgroups$ each of which allows a set of network users to be managed collecti!ely% In addition$ IT administrators can apply management controls to specific systems% Part of your responsibility as an application de!eloper is to ensure that your application performs optimally in e!ery network en!ironment% 6sers of your application who work in an enterprise network en!ironment e pect your application to pro!ide good performance and predictable% IT administrators e pect your application to a!oid consuming network resources unnecessarily% .

&etwork home directories are different from local home directories in that e!erything is going o!er the wire% 3 network home directory )ust the same as a home directory$ the only difference being that one starts from <&etwork and the other from <6sers% To ensure optimal application performance and a!oid unnecessary network utili#ation$ we need to be careful to differentiate between the local dri!e and the home directory$ and to allocate data intelligently to the appropriate storage location% To optimi#e for performance$ minimi#e disk access% If you hit the disk all the time$ you+re going to incur network traffic for e!ery user who+s using a network !olume% =ebsite has performance tools for system(le!el optimi#ation and for file(system optimi#ation along with information on how to use these tools to tune your application for performance% 6se system disk for temporary files and caches ha!e to create local files$ consider whether you want to create those files in the user+s home directory or on the local system% There are utilities in the operating system to pro!ide you the path to the right places% Find Folder and "ystem 8isk to find location information for system(related directories$ and to find temporary folders or items that reside on the local system% To optimi#ing the application+s performance so that it doesn+t access the network unnecessarily$ we should be wary of supposedly local caches that are in fact using the network% >ou might want to use local data for local system disk caching as opposed to user directory data% "ecurity concerns There are some security concerns regarding the use of local files% To create local and temporary files$ need to make sure that not accessible by other users or other applications% Testing is the best way to find out how your application is beha!ing% Try out the different scenarios that typical user would most likely encounter$ not )ust a local system or a local hard dri!e% 3lso test the application running from a network !olume$ from a locked !olume$ and from a locked system where the user does not ha!e access to the local disk because that disk may be locked for administrator access only% E cessi!e file system access For e ample$ if an application uses the fonts and wants to copy them to the local system$ it not a good idea user+s because that could be a network !olume% Instead of sending all these bits o!er the wire$ design your application so that the fonts reside on the local disk% ? .

6se library application support for storing any files that make sense to store for the system rather than for an indi!idual user$ because the user home directory users may be on the network disk% Creating network shared resources In some settings$ such as schools$ uni!ersities$ and businesses$ this ease of sharing resources music and music for e ample can be problematic% "o if your application permits sharing of resources from a local system$ you should pro!ide a preference that allows network administrators to disable that functionality if necessary% 8espite impro!ements in e'uipment performance and media capabilities$ network design is becoming more difficult% The trend is toward increasingly comple en!ironments in!ol!ing multiple media$ multiple protocols$ and interconnection to networks outside any single organi#ation+s dominion of control% Carefully designing networks can reduce the hardships associated with growth as a networking en!ironment e!ol!es% 8esigning Campus &etworks 3 campus network is a building or group of buildings all connected into one enterprise network that consists of many local(area networks /@3&s0% 3 campus is generally a portion of a company /or the whole company0 that is constrained to a fi ed geographic area$ as shown in The distinct characteristic of a campus en!ironment is that the company that owns the campus network usually owns the physical wires deployed in the campus% The campus network topology is primarily @3& technology connecting all the end systems within the building% Campus networks generally use @3& technologies$ such as Ethernet$ Token Ring$ Fibre 8istributed 8ata Interface /F88I0$ Fast Ethernet$ Aigabit Ethernet$ and 3synchronous Transfer *ode /3T*0% B .

Figures below show how the design for the campus network 3 large campus with groups of buildings can also use =3& technology to connect the buildings% 3lthough the wiring and protocols of a campus might be based on =3& technology$ they do not share the =3& constraint of the high cost of bandwidth% 3fter the wire is installed$ bandwidth is ine pensi!e because the company owns the wires and there is no recurring cost to a ser!ice pro!ider% Cowe!er$ upgrading the physical wiring can be e pensi!e% Conse'uently$ network designers generally deploy a campus design optimi#ed for the fastest functional architecture that runs on the e isting physical wire% They might also upgrade wiring to meet the re'uirements of emerging applications% For e ample$ higher(speed technologies such as Fast Ethernet$ Aigabit Ethernet$ and 3T* as a backbone architecture and @ayer 2 switching pro!ide dedicated bandwidth to the desktop% 1: .

P3 DESC !"E #$D E%P&#!$ '(E P) P*SE *F # $E'+* .!$.'**& The procedures and tools that relate to administration$ maintenance and working of the network are known as network management systems% &etwork Technologies$ Cigh "peed @3& and =3& "olutions Course 2b)ecti!es and Target 3udience "e!eral emerging high speed networking technologies offer solutions to network application demands for the ne t decade and threaten to largely obsolete current 4first generation4 @3& implementations with new$ more cost<effecti!e de!elopments% This seminar pro!ides a systematic introduction to emerging high speed network technologies and pro!ides a framework for planning a migration to these new architectures$ identifying where the new technology can be used to selecti!ely enhance performance of business networks% Emerging &etwork TechnologiesD Cigh "peed @3& and =3& "olutions is recommended to anyone interested in the rapidly paced de!elopments and technological change that is o!ertaking computer networks$ impacting the spectrum of configurations from @3& through *3& to =3& architectures1 E People who ha!e responsibility for keeping their corporate networks current with new de!elopments$ or ad!ise in this area% E &etwork administrators$ whose )ob it are to appreciate the capacity limitations of first generation technology$ and help users be successful with a!ailable resources% E "ystems analysts and pro)ect planners who are uncertain as to the effect of new network technology on their areas of responsibility% E People newly appointed to responsibility with corporate and enterprise networks$ who need to be familiar with new de!elopments and directions in the industry% E Professionals an ious to maintain their essential familiarity with the changing technological landscape of networked business computing% In this section some other network layouts or topologies will be mention that can be used currently% 11 .

Token ring is initialised by the creation of a specially formatted data frame called a token$ which tra!el around the ring until it comes to a node that wants to transmit% The node captures the token frames and substitutes data frames which are$ of course addressed to one of the nodes% "tar is a series of nodes connected to each other through a central hub with no direct connection% The hub does not control the traffic between the nodes as such that is done by the nodes themsel!esD the hub merely pro!ides the connection "tar bus as the name suggests$ it is a combination of the star and old familiar bus technologies and is probably he most widely used in practice% "tar can be nested inside stars$ gi!ing the network great fle ibility and fault tolerance% 12 .

P. Describe and gi/e examples of emerging networking management 'echnologies% Emerging &etwork Technologies$ Cigh "peed @3& and =3& "olutions is designed as a two(day program$ comprising appro imately 12 hours of instruction and solutions to assumes familiarity with intermediate le!el data networking principles and methods$ such as is pro!ided with &etwork "olutions @3&s and @3& Connecti!ity Traditional network were built with fi ed pipes and fi ed routing emerging networks enable bandwidth on demand route control packed control and 'uality of ser!ice e%g% 8uring period of higher used$ additional bandwidth can be fle ibly pro!isioned% 8uring periods of low use$ less bandwidth can be pro!isioned$ sa!ing money% Route control can be used to let customers specify routes$ to comply with global pri!acy laws or for performance or network maintenance reasons% Packet control can be used to filter and packets that are either not a good used of business resources or represent a cyber attack% 3nd 'uality of ser!ice pro!ides the ability to gi!e priority to real time traffic such as !oice o!er less demanding traffic such as bulk file transfers% "er!es and storage are the new !irtuali#es$ dynamically allocated geographically dispersed% It resources has many new function that didnFt e ist in the legacy world of statistic assets% &ow opening systems and application can be dynamically pro!isioned as a bare metal asset that is a computer ser!ers and storage$ application instances can be migrated dynamically from one ser!er to another or e!en from one physical location to another% =ithout a control and management layer that optimi#es the architecture and configures the resources% Emerging network management techni'ues will used a close loop process that support full integration and real monitoring$ something that has implications for end(point de!ices$ access$ the core network and the infrastructure as well as for network(centric applications% Integrated network management will support an enhance network en!ironment$ with asset disco!ery and e!ent monitoring$ route cause analysis$ policy Gdri!en manager rules distributed configuration management$ embedded workflow and a whole new world of optimi#ation and tuning$ for e%g% networks will be able to sense increasing load on an application created a new distributed instant of an application$ increase bandwidth to end user also and also for the backhaul to legacy systems$ route transactions optimally to the best location for each transaction among all the locations where that application is concurrently running% 1. .

&etwork hardware$ software and the way in which they are used are no different to any other technology in that they ne!er stand still% 8e!elopments work is constant in this highly competiti!e$ high !alue industry with new de!elopment are being announced almost daily% These de!elopments are termed emerging technologies and ha!e features which set them apart from the established technologies that ha!e been around the year% "ome e amples of emerging technologies are co!ered *obile networking is used with wireless technology is increasing rapidly$ particularly the use of the latest de!ices such as smart phone$ and other hand held de!ices to pro!ide reliable and user(friendly access to the internet and to cooperate network% =eb interfacing the internet and the =orld =ide =eb does not e ist solely to unable to find information or post details on social networking websites% It has rapidly growing role as an integral to home and business network% For instance we are now able to dispense with the time consuming business of backing up data on to tape or disk% =ith de!elopment of the online repository we can simply upload the sa!er data to a web ser!er$ sometimes on the other side of the world and lea!e the storage of somebody else% Remote monitoring is the ability to remotely access a computer or a network in order to maintain or repair it% =ith the increasing cost of a network downtime and of tra!el$ IT support professionals$ including networks manager responsible for remote sites$ are increasingly using remote access to carry out fault finding$ routine software maintenance and management% The technologies in!ol!ed more speed to make processor faster and o!er simplify so that to put more transistors in the processor and each e tra one slightly increasing the number of digital operations that can be done in a gi!en length of time% 6ntil 'uite recently each CP6 chip that is the small piece of semi(conductor material on which are etched the circuits that form the central processing unit and had a single microprocessor on it% The processor is working in a serial way after one another in order of priority$ but !ery fast% *ore functionality need to the hardware to do the )ob$ to the computer systems than we possible a few years ago some e%g% computer generated imagery has re!olutionised the cinema industry which probably the largest consumer of the technology% It re'uire massi!e amounts of 15 .

hard dri!es that can be unplugged and carried% Card dri!es has been de!eloped using ad!anced materials technology and impro!ed mechanical design$ to gi!e storage capacities% 17 .memory and computing power to produce such detailed and realistic this is still an emerging technology and it has already had a significant impact% Portability of IT has been one of the goals of the de!elopers since the start% 3s you ha!e seen IT access has become possible anywhere on the globe$ Phone$ wireless and satellite technologies% 8ata is becoming increasingly portable with ongoing de!elopment of flash dri!es contained in pen si#ed cases and 6".

y monitoring the performance of a !ulnerable component such as hard dri!e$ it is possible to spot signs of deterioration before anything drastic happens% .P0 !nterrogate a network to identif1 the network assets and their configuration Cardware configuration refers first of all to how the components are connected together it is to do with the physical topology that are connected together using cables and increasingly wireless links to the network and will be dealt with the later% It also refers to the way that the software that control a component is set up% This dictates how that indi!idual component will beha!e in the network% "oftware configuration refers to how the network operating system is )ust like the systems we ha!e at home but much larger and can control many client machines e%g% workstations and terminals% I run on the sa!er to the computer that controls the network among other things$ enable the other component to communicate with each other% Client operating systems and application software are set up to interact with each other so that they functions as a networks and not as indi!idual components and application software is the set of programs that users work with $ such as a word processing and spreadsheet$ but can also include the larger network management programs% The configuration are !arious ways of pre!enting both general and indi!idual unauthorised to the system and its data or to put it another way$ keeping the hackers and other malicious attackers out and allowing authorised indi!iduals access to parts of the systems that they need access to% E!en the best of systems$ things do go wrong% 3 hardware component might fail or there could be some corruption within the software that causes the network not to function as well as it should or e!en not function at all% The skill of the network management is to deal with faults in such a way that there is minimum disruption to the network and no loss of data% This process is known as fault management and here some of the ways in which it might be achie!ed% 3nticipate the problem and change a component that is to fail before it does so% .uilt in redundancy in!ol!es setting up the system so that if a component does fail it doesnFt really affect the performance% 3nother spare component might take o!er automatically or traffic might be di!erted to a component with spare capacity% For e ample airlines ha!e two or more back up computers in safety critical systems such as flying controls$ so that the spare parts can take o!er if the main one fails% 19 .

In many commercial networks there are a number of hard dri!es all handling the same data but controlled in such a way that no data will be lost if a dri!e fails% This system is called Redundant 3rray of independent 8isk and the characteristic it gi!es to the network is called fault tolerance% Find a fault 'uickly and fi it 'uickly consist of minimising the effect of the fault on the network perhaps by di!erting traffic or pro!iding an alternati!e facility% 1. .

P2 )ndertake routine network management tasks The most important networking task of all is managing the data backups and restoring them this is much like holding the key for an important )ob but if you loses it trouble around% 8ata backup is a !ery large sub)ects much contro!ersy surrounding it% Insurance companies insist on data backup$ as well as off(site storage$ as a condition before they will insure systems and data% Probably ha!e a limited back up facilities but practicing backing up data on to at least two different media including tape if a!ailable or access to a portable hard dri!e 8H8<C8 and flash dri!e% 8oing a full backup e!ery day on a large system takes an e tremely long time so as more comple time of backup is needed to be done at start but they are a number of ways to ensure that many changes to the file systems are recorded rather than carrying out a full back up e!ery time% Incremental each partial backup records changes since the last backup whether that was a full or incremental one% 8ifferential each backup records changes since the last full backup$ so the partial backups$ increase in si#es% Clearly the si#e of a partial backup could escalate !ery 'uickly$ so a full backup should be done e!ery so often to restart the cycle% The system of full backup ob!iously needs some management otherwise data could easily be lost on the operation of the network% For e%g% as you increase the le!el of protection$ user may lose some of the functions of some software% "can is important to be considering when working with !irus and malware scanners% &etwork protection against !iruses is not simply a matter of installing a software application on the computer and running it% The configuration and mode of running the program is continuously monitor only or monitor daily scan% 3s a network manager we ha!e to know your network and how it is used$ work out its !ulnerabilities and operate the protecti!e applications as well as you can counter the threats% 1? .

Conclusion &etwork *anagement is a generic term for a wide !ariety of )ob roles with one common purpose to operate and maintain a network so that it gi!es efficient and reliable ser!ice to its users% The topic co!ered all about the technology in!ol!ed and what is done to manage a typical network and also it co!ered all about the conse'uences of not doing things right and about protecting the network and it data% References http1<<en%wikipedia%org<wiki<&etwork management Aoogle%co%uk 3sk Iee!es%com Computer networks Fourth edition 1B .

References http1<<en%wikipedia%org<wiki<&etworkJmanagement Find a fault 2: .