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IS 7365 (2010): Criteria for hydraulic design of bucket type energy dissipators [WRD 9: Dams and Spillways]

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16 © BIS 2010 BUREAU OF INDIAN STANDARDS MANAK BHAVAN.M ( nwljk iqujh{k.dkjdksa dh nzopkfyr fMtkbu ds ekin.IS 7365 : 2010 Hkkjrh. 9 BAHADUR SHAH ZAFAR MARG NEW DELHI 110002 March 2010 Price Group 11 S U N S H I N E G R A P H I C S : 2009_64 .k ) Indian Standard CRITERIA FOR HYDRAULIC DESIGN OF BUCKET TYPE ENERGY DISSIPATORS ( Second Revision ) ICS 93. ekud ckYVh Vkbi mtkZ {k.

WRD 9 FOREWORD This Indian Standard (Second Revision) was adopted by the Bureau of Indian Standards. or b) interaction of the jet of water. Energy dissipator at the toe of spillway of a hydraulic structure is necessary to minimize erosion of strata downstream of the structure. observed or calculated expressing the result of a test or analysis. For this purpose there are different types of energy dissipators. with the surrounding air and its impact on the channel bed downstream. after the draft finalized by the Dams and Spillways Sectional Committee had been approved by the Water Resources Division Council. rolling clockwise. or b) trajectory bucket type energy dissipator. such as hydraulic jump. This standard was first published in 1974. . This revision has been taken up to utilize the experience further gained during the use of this standard. jet diffusion. The number of significant places retained in the rounded off value should be the same as that of the specified value in this standard.Dams and Spillways Sectional Committee. hollow jet and multiple ski-jump. The first revision was taken up in 1985 to reflect the latest practices prevailing and to utilize the knowledge gained during the use of the standard. shooting out from the bucket lip. rolling anti-clockwise (if the flow is from the left to the right) and the other downstream of the bucket. Hydraulic behaviour of bucket type energy dissipator depends on dissipation of energy through: a) interaction of two rollers formed. For the purpose of deciding whether a particular requirement of this standard is complied with. one in the bucket. shall be rounded off in accordance with IS 2 : 1960 ‘Rules for rounding off numerical values (revised)’. Generally bucket type energy dissipators are being used for energy dissipation in medium and high dams. interacting jets. the final value. Bucket type energy dissipators can be either: a) roller bucket type energy dissipator. impact.

one in bucket proper.IS 7365 : 2010 Indian Standard CRITERIA FOR HYDRAULIC DESIGN OF BUCKET TYPE ENERGY DISSIPATORS ( Second Revision ) 1 SCOPE This standard lays down criteria for hydraulic design of bucket type energy dissipators. . the impact of the high velocity jet. which is anticlockwise (if the flow is from the left to the right) and the other downstream of the bucket. in m. in m. Ds = horizontal distance from spillway crest axis to the point of maximum probable scour. 2 TERMINOLOGY For the purpose of this standard the following definitions shall apply. H3 = reservoir pool elevation minus tailwater elevation. H1 = reservoir pool elevation minus bucket invert elevation. Fj = Froude number of jet entering bucket. 1B) is used when the tailwater depth is much in excess of sequent depth and in which the dissipation of energy occurs by lateral spreading of jet passing through bucket slots in addition to the formation of two complementary rollers as in the solid bucket. The flow coming down the spillway is thrown away from toe of the dam to a considerable distance downstream as a free discharging upturned jet which falls into the channel directly. in m. in m. = g hs H × 10 3 = acceleration due to gravity. 1 b) c) d) e) interaction between the jet and surrounding air. in m. = va gd1 q gH1 3/ 2 FD = discharge parameter. There is hardly any energy dissipation within the bucket itself.3 Trajectory Bucket /Flip Bucket — An upturn solid bucket (see Fig. in m. dc = critical depth. d4 = tailwater level minus bucket lip elevation. H4 = reservoir pool elevation minus bucket lip elevation. H2 = spillway crest elevation minus bucket invert elevation. called a surface roller. hb = height of roller above bucket invert. called the ground roller.1 Solid Roller Bucket — An upturn solid bucket (see Fig. d2 = sequent depth. impact of the channel bed. = height of surge above bucket invert. the bed of the river channel downstream comprises sound rock and is capable of withstanding. in m. and pre-formed plunge pool. energy dissipation takes place by: a) internal friction within the jet. 3 SYMBOLS The symbols used in the standard are defined as given below: a = vertical distance from the lip level to the highest point of the centre of jet. in m. in m. 1A) is used when the tailwater depth is much in excess of sequent depth and in which dissipiation of considerable portion of energy occurs as a result of formation of two complementary elliptical rollers. thus avoiding the danger of excessive scour immediately downstream of the spillway. in m. in m. = depth of overflow over spillway. ds = depth of scour below tailwater level. 2. 2. The device is used mainly to increase the distance from the structure to the place where high velocity jet hits the channel bed. 1C) is used when the tailwater depth is insufficient for the formation of the hydraulic jump. in m. without excessive scour. diffusion of the jet in the tailwater. Due to the throw of the jet in the shape of a trajectory. in m. in m/s2. d3 = height of tailwater above bucket invert. which is clockwise.2 Slotted Roller Bucket — An upturn bucket with teeth in it (see Fig. in m. d1 = depth of flow entering bucket. in m. 2. thereby avoiding excessive scour immediately downstream of the spillway.

for good performance of slotted roller bucket. TMin = minimum tailwater depth. = total discharge. Hv = velocity head of jet at bucket lip. in [m3/s]/m. in t/m 2. in m. P q Q R = pressure on the bucket. above bucket invert. in m. in m3/s.IS 7365 : 2010 H5 = reservoir pool elevation minus jet surface elevation on bucket. in m. = radius of bucket. 1A SOLID ROLLER BUCKET 1B SLOTTED ROLLER BUCKET 1C TRAJECTORY BUCKET FIG. in m. above bucket invert. = discharge intensity per metre of bucket width. TMax= maximum tailwater depth. 1 SKETCHES FOR BUCKET TYPE ENERGY DISSIPATORS 2 . Sd = horizontal distance from spillway crest axis of the point of maximum probable surge. in m. for good performance of slotted roller bucket. in m.

The channel bed immediately downstream of the bucket shall be set at 1 to 1.3 In general the slotted roller bucket is an improvement over the solid roller bucket for the range of tailwater depths under which it can operate without sweep out or diving.1. FIG. because of the downstream bed material brought into the bucket by the pronounced ground roller. 4. The height of boil is also reduced in case of slotted roller bucket. = horizontal throw distance from bucket lip to the centre point of impact with tailwater.1. increasing the chances of damage by impact. However. even provision of properly anchored solid concrete apron laid on fresh rock may be considered to avoid river bed material drawing into the bucket.2 In the case of slotted roller bucket. the channel should be dressed down in one level to about 1 to 1. in m. it is necessary that specific model experiments should be conducted to verify pressure on the teeth so as to avoid cavitation conditions. a part of the flow passes through the slots.1.2 Drawal of Bed Materials A major problem with the solid roller bucket would be the damage caused to the bucket due to churning action. 4. and b) river bed rock is sound. 2. in degree.1. = specific weight of water. slotted roller buckets should not be provided where heavy sediment/ gravel/boulder are expected. spreads laterally and is lifted away from the channel bottom by a short apron at the downstream end of the bucket. in m/s.5 m below the lip level for about 15 m length downstream and then a recovery slope of about 3 (horizontal) to 1 (vertical) should be given to meet the general bed level as shown in Fig.1 The following two types of roller buckets are adopted on the basis of tailwater conditions and importance of the structure: a) Solid roller bucket. Where the invert of the bucket is required to be set below the channel general bed level.1 times sequent depth preferably 1. the ground roller is more pronounced. Model studies should be done to check this tendency. setting up horizontal eddies downstream of the bucket. a) tailwater depth is high (greater than 1. in m. downstream material might get drawn due to unequal operation of gates. 4. va = actual velocity of flow entering bucket. and b) Slotted roller bucket. The picked up material which is drawn into the bucket can cause abrasive damage to the bucket by churning action. in m.1. The slotted bucket provides a self-cleaning action to reduce abrasion in the bucket. Thus the flow is dispersed and distributed over a greater area resulting in a less violent ground roller.1.IS 7365 : 2010 Ts = tailwater sweep out depth.5 m below the lip level to minimize the possibility of this condition. = difference between the lip level and tailwater.1.1. In case of hydraulic structures. Heavy sediment load/ gravel/boulders rolling down the spillway face can cause heavy damage to the teeth thereby making them ineffective and on the contrary. cavitation and erosion. The deposition in roller bucket is more likely when the spillway spans are not operated equally. sign taken as positive for tailwater below the lip level and negative for tailwater above the lip level. Roller bucket type energy dissipator is preferred when. as Y γ φ 4 HYDRAULIC DESIGN OF ROLLER BUCKET TYPE ENERGY DISSIPATORS (SOLID AND SLOTTED ROLLER BUCKETS) 4. If possible. It picks up material from downstream bed and carries it towards the bucket where it is partly deposited and partly carried away downstream by the residual jet from the lip. in m/s.2 times sequent depth).1 General 4. 4. Even in a slotted roller bucket. in t/m3. 2 R ECOVERY SLOPE DOWNSTREAM OF SOLID ROLLER BUCKET 3 . vt X = theoretical velocity of flow entering bucket. and = bucket lip angle (exit angle) with horizontal.1 In the case of solid roller bucket.

2. the cascading flow over the lip for small discharges may cause deep scour very close to the bucket lip.2 Design Criteria The principal features of hydraulic design of solid roller bucket consists of determining. When the invert elevation arrived at to get the hb/d3 ratio between 0.4 times d2. The divide walls shall be designed for unequal operation condition of the spillway spans and also for differential pressure due to adjoining gates closed on one side and all gates open on the other side.90.1 Bucket invert elevation Normally the invert level of a roller bucket is so fixed that the difference in the maximum tailwater level corresponding to design flood and the invert level (d3) is between 1. 4. a) bucket invert elevation.1 to 1.3.1 to 1. If the aforesaid two criteria are satisfied.05 to 1.1. Unsymmetrical operation of gates or operation of only a few gates at a time may set up horizontal eddies in the channel downstream which may bring debris into the bucket. Model studies may be conducted for such cases. 5. divide walls may be required depending upon the flow conditions. 3 CONCRETE APRON LAID ON F RESH ROCK 4 . It would. otherwise hydraulic phenomenon of sweep out or heavy submergence occurs depending upon which of the rollers is inhibited. therefore.1 In the case where the bucket invert is substantially higher than the general channel bed level and the channel bed is erodible. b) radius of the bucket. The channel bed elevation is believed to have negligible effect on roller and surge heights. The apron should be keyed into good rock.0 to 1.1 Divide walls would be necessary to segregate the spillway spans. Also when the invert levels of the buckets in adjacent bays are provided at different elevations.IS 7365 : 2010 it may cause heavy erosion on the spillway face.2.3 Precautions in Operation It is necessary to operate all the spillways gates equally (under partial operation condition) to achieve satisfactory performance of the bucket. A concrete apron of width 15 m or more if required may be provided downstream and parallel to the end sill as shown in Fig. is considerably below the channel bed level.0 m length or more in the downstream depending upon the discharge intensity and the head. All loose debris inside and just beyond the bucket should be removed after construction and before the bucket is put to use.1. The design charts given in Fig. bucket and side training walls. 3 to minimize the possible scour in the bed near the bucket lip.4 times d2 . 4.2. Satisfactory energy dissipation is obtained when the roller height (hb) is between 75 and 90 percent of the tailwater depth (d3).3.5 m below the endsill level in minimum 15.4 times the sequent depth (d2).2 to 1.75 and 0.2. and d3 being about 1. 4 and Fig. that is.1 General For effective energy dissipation in a solid roller bucket both the surface or dissipating roller and the ground or stabilizing roller should be well formed. 4 and Fig. Thus d3 = 1.1. 4.2 Hydraulic Design of Solid Roller Bucket 4. 4. then the surge height (hs) measured above the invert level is 105 to 130 percent of the tailwater d3. substantial excavation would be involved for dressing downstream channel bed down to 1. The charts are applicable for the ranges of variables shown in Fig. FIG. and c) slope of the bucket lip or the bucket lip angle.2. 5 and sample calculations given in Annex A may be used to determine the bucket invert elevation and probable roller and surge height for the expected range of spillway discharges. if unequal spillway operations cannot be avoided with due consideration for building of tailwater level for various discharges. 4. hs/d3 = 1. 4. be preferable if the invert level can be brought near to the channel bed level with the hb/d3 ratio still remaining within the prescribed limits.

67 : a Lip angle (φ) = 45° [the curves may also be used for other lip angles (see 4.2. 4 DESIGN OF SOLID ROLLER BUCKET — ROLLER DEPTH 5 .090 0.060 0.3 10.026 0.4 6.IS 7365 : 2010 RANGE OF H1 /R FOR SATISFACTORY PERFORMANCE OF BUCKET q 3/ 2 gH1 0.3)] H2/H1 = 0.7 8.013 Equivalent F 5.68 to 0.7 Range of H1/R 2 to 5 2 to 6 2 to 6 3 to 6 3 to 8 Range of variables: Spillway slopes (S : 1) 1 : 1 to 1.3 14.2.93 FIG.040 0.

When hb is less than 0. 4).2. 4. 4 and Fig.68 to 0.IS 7365 : 2010 Range of variables: Spillway slopes ( S : 1) 1 : 1 to 1. 5 are not applicable if the spillway crest is submerged by the tail water level in such cases specific model studies shall be conducted to finalize the design. The maximum values of H1/R recommended in the table with Fig. 5 DESIGN OF SOLID R OLLER BUCKET — S URGE HEIGHT NOTE — The design charts given in Fig.2. free jet condition may be expected (see Fig.2 d3 in the case of falling tailwater and 0.2 Radius of bucket The values given in Fig. 4 indicate commencement of a pulsating surge downstream of the bucket or commencement of a sloping channel type jump apparently uninfluenced by the presence of the bucket. 4 show the ranges of H1/R for which good roller action can be expected. 4 and Fig. The minimum values of H1/R may indicate commencement of eddies in the bucket region and also results in increase of bucket 6 and has been related to Froude number of the incoming jet as follows: ( H1 / d1 ) F1 3/ 2 = q gH13 / 2 .3)] H2/H1 = 0.2.67 : 1 Lip angle (φ) = 45° [the chart may also be used for other lip angles ( see 4.2. The discharge parameter (FD) of the design curves in Fig.93 FIG. 5 is given by: FD = q gH13 / 2 × 103 The full range of a spillway discharge should be investigated.3 d3 in the case of rising tailwater.

1. In order to avoid the tendency of the downstream debris riding over the downstream face of the lip. c) Lip height — The height of the lip from the invert level depends on the radius of the bucket and the lip angle.2.2. 4. be seen that the value of radius worked out should satisfy the specified range of H1/R in Fig.3 will evolve a more or less satisfactory design of solid roller bucket. however. = q gH13 / 2 × 103 Annex B shows the radius of the bucket as actually provided and as calculated by the formula given above for various existing spillways.2.2.50 where F1 = Froude number of jet entering bucket. a downstream slope of 1 in 10 or slightly steeper than that may be given to the top of lip. confirmatory model tests are desirable when any one of the following conditions exists: a) Sustained operation near limiting conditions is expected. Following other formulae are also often used: 1) R = bucket radius. 4.1.4 × 10-5FD2 H1 where FD = discharge parameter.1 to 4. A sample calculation for design of solid roller bucket is given in Annex A.88 3. Also it should not be less than the minimum allowable radius worked out as in 4. therefore.2. 3) F1 = 13. b) Lip angle — A 45° bucket lip angle with the horizontal will be generally satisfactory for most cases where the discharge parameter lies between 30 and 80.2.5 R + 1. However.3 Bucket lip a) Shape and width — A flat topped lip tends to lower the jet after it leaves the lip and may .3. But in other cases a smaller lip angle up to 35° would be economical.3 may be adopted in absence of model studies.3 Model Studies The design criteria given in 4. The depth of scour as given in 6.2 should be made in this connection.305 × 10p where p = vt + 6. this formula may be used for calculating the bucket radius: reduce the size and strength of the ground roller. however. In order to protect the edges of the lip. The bucket radius should be chosen to fall within the recommended ranges consistent with economical and structural considerations. 6B). 4.2. the rate of increase.2. When the bucket lip angle is 45°. The width of the lip should not be more than one-tenth of the radius of the bucket. in m = 0.96 d1 2) F1 = 0. in m. in the bucket. as it needs lesser depth of tailwater for roller action to begin and may be adopted if found satisfactory as a result of model studies.6 H + 19. b) Discharge per metre width of bucket exceeds 45 m3/s. Therefore. A key may be provided below the bucket end sill to protect the bucket against the scour.1. Reference to 4. 7 R = 8.2. 6A). If possible. There are different formulae for calculating the radius of the bucket. The bucket.09 where F1 = Froude number of jet entering bucket.26 × 10-2 + 2.0 R1/4 – 19.07 × 10-3FD + 1. the downstream face may be kept vertical in about 1.2.4 H + 4. 4. the minimum width may be kept as one metre (see Fig.4 The pressures on the solid roller bucket would be nearly equal to the hydrostatic head measured as the difference in tailwater elevation and the elevation of the point.IS 7365 : 2010 cost. the height of the bucket lip above the invert level may be kept approximately equal to one-sixth of the maximum tailwater depth. One such formula which has been found to be widely applicable is given below. and d1 = depth of flow entering bucket. The lip level should be kept slightly higher than the bed level downstream so as to avoid entry of bed material in the bucket. However. This is not desirable from the point of view of prevention of erosion near the lip. It should. steel plates and angles may be fixed at the edges of the lip (see Fig. diminishes with higher value of Froude number.0 m depth from top of the lip.1. The decrease in radius within the range of good roller action increases scour. should not be too deep to set up vortices within the bucket nor too shallow to allow eddies being formed at the junction of the overflow with the upstream end of the bucket circle.

a part of the flow passes through the slots.3 Hydraulic Design of Slotted Roller Bucket 4.IS 7365 : 2010 6A Shape and Width 6A Bucket Lip Shape and Width 6B Lip Elevation FIG.1 General In the slotted roller bucket. The velocity distribution just downstream of the bucket is more akin to that in a . spreads laterally and is lifted away from the channel bottom by a short apron at the downstream end of the bucket. These may be used for guidance in the design. d) Eddies appear to be possible downstream of spillway. 8 4. 6 BUCKET LIP c) Velocities entering the bucket exceed 20 m/s. 4. Thus the flow is dispersed and distributed over a greater area providing less violent flow concentrations compared to those in a solid roller bucket. and e) Waves in the downstream channel would cause problems like unstable flow and flow disturbances.4 Prototype Examples A few typical examples of solid roller bucket prototype dimensions for some installations are given in Annex C.3.2.

Bucket invert elevation. Find d1 = q . Curves for determination of velocity entering bucket for steep slopes 0. 4.1. The procedures given in 4.4 would also apply in case of the slotted roller bucket. 7 find va.3. 4.1. Bucket lip angle.2. the theoretical velocity of flow entering bucket. the actual velocity of flow entering the bucket. Compute Froude number from va for maximum flow and intermediate flows.2 and 4. Using Fig. F1 = va gd1 Use Fig. higher velocities at the surface and lower velocities at the bottom.2 Design Criteria The principal features of hydraulic design of the slotted roller bucket consists of determining in following sequence: a) b) c) d) Bucket radius.8 : 1 to 0. While designing a slotted roller bucket. and Bucket and tooth dimensions. The provisions of 4.IS 7365 : 2010 natural stream. to ensure that the performance of teeth will be cavitation free. Calculate vt.4 shall be followed in designing the slotted roller bucket. using the formula vt = 2 gH 3 . teeth spacing and dimensions and profile of short apron.1 to 4.2.6 : 1 F IG.2.3. for high head spillway exceeding the total head (H1) of 50 m or so. 8 with minimum F1 to find bucket radius parameter R 2 / 2g d1 + va from which minimum allowable bucket radius may be computed. Specific model tests are therefore desirable to verify pressures on the teeth and the bucket invert should accordingly be fixed at such an elevation as to restrict the sub-atmospheric pressures to the permissible magnitude.1 Bucket radius Determine Q (the spillway routed discharge obtained by flood routing calculations) and calculate q the routed discharge per metre of bucket width.3.3. 7 DESIGN OF SLOTTED ROLLER BUCKET — VELOCITY OF JET ENTERING B UCKET 9 . that is. specific care should be taken especially for design of the teeth.

10 R ( used) 2 d1 + va / 2g and F1. 4.4 Bucket and tooth dimensions. Repeat the step in Fig. 8 DESIGN OF SLOTTED ROLLER BUCKET — MINIMUM ALLOWABLE BUCKET RADIUS 4.3.IS 7365 : 2010 FIG.2.3. Bucket lip angle Fix the bucket lip angle in accordance with 4. 4. using values of bucket invert elevation for which tailwater is nearer TMin.2. Ts. teeth spacing and dimensions and profile of short apron Use Fig. For best performance set such . from Fig. find TMin from which minimum tailwater depth.2. Set such bucket invert elevation for which the tailwater elevations are between tailwater depth limits determined by TMin and TMax allowing possible retrogression in the bed of the downstream channel. TMin may d1 be computed.2 Bucket invert elevation From Fig. 9. Check the setting for the entire range of discharges.12B to obtain tooth size. Check setting and determine factor of safety against sweep out by computing tailwater sweep out depth. 12A and Fig. 10 to compute maximum tailwater depth TMax.2.3 which is also applicable in the case of slotted roller bucket.

bucket dimensions and profile of short apron. 9 DESIGN OF SLOTTED ROLLER BUCKET — MINIMUM TAIL WATER LIMIT spacing. Model Studies In the case of slotted roller bucket also. hydraulic model studies shall be done to confirm the design conditions given in 4.IS 7365 : 2010 FIG. These may be used as a guide in the design. 4.3 and 4. 11 4. It shall be ensured that the teeth perform cavitation free. If necessary the clear spacing between the teeth can be reduced consistent with minimum working space considerations to reduce sub-atmospheric pressures on the teeth. .2. It is desirable that occurrence of negative pressures on bucket teeth be checked on model and possible cavitation damage assessed. 4.3.4 Prototype Examples A few typical examples of slotted roller bucket prototype dimensions for some installations are given in Annex E.5 A sample calculation given in Annex D may prove helpful in designing a slotted roller bucket.3.3.

IS 7365 : 2010 NOTES 1 For channel bed elevation 0.05 R below apron lip. FIG. use coordinates for bed approx 0. 10 DESIGN OF SLOTTED ROLLER BUCKET — M AXIMUM T AIL W ATER L IMIT 12 .05 R below lip.05 R below apron lip or lower. use coordinates for bed sloping up from apron. 2 For channel bed elevation higher than 0.

b) by locating at higher level it may be used in case of higher tailwater depths also. thus preventing formation of the jump. Provision of conventional hydraulic jump type apron or a roller bucket involves considerable excavation in hard strata which can be reduced appreciably. if economy permits. The hard bed can tolerate the spray from the jet and erosion by the plunging jet would not .1 General Trajectory bucket type energy dissipator is considered more suitable when. 11 DESIGN OF SLOTTED R OLLER BUCKET — TAIL W ATER SWEEPOUT DEPTH 5 HYDRAULIC DESIGN OF TRAJECTORY/FLIP BUCKET TYPE ENERGY DISSIPATOR 5. The flow coming down the spillway is thrown away in air from the toe of the structure to a considerable distance as a free discharging upturned jet which falls on the channel bed downstream. a) tailwater depth is much lower than the sequent depth of hydraulic jump.IS 7365 : 2010 FIG. It is also necessary to have sufficient straight reach in the downstream of a ski-jump bucket. and 13 c) bed of the river channel downstream is composed of sound rock.

IS 7365 : 2010 12A Dimensions of Slotted Roller Bucket 12B Tooth Details FIG. 12 SLOTTED ROLLER BUCKET 14 .

2. In the trajectory bucket. the design shall be restricted to sites where generally sound rock is available in the river bed.IS 7365 : 2010 pose any significant problem for the safety of the structure. The design of the trajectory bucket presupposes the formation of large craters or scour holes at the zone of impact of the jet during the initial years of operation and. and f) Estimation of scour downstream of the spillway. Generally a circular shape is preferred from practical consideration.2. although there is very little energy dissipation within the bucket itself. The safe maximum submergence may be assumed to be equal 5. with the considerations of economy and beneficial ground roller action. In such cases the bucket invert is decided so as to provide a minimum concrete cover of 1. The tailwater interference in the performance of the trajectory bucket will change the flow conditions and may result in heavy sub-atmospheric pressures at the lip. joints and weak pockets to withstand the impact of jet.2 Design Criteria The principal features of hydraulic design of trajectory bucket consist of determining. Thus.5 m over the bed rock. possible channel bed erosion close to the downstream toe of the dam is minimized.1 Bucket Shape The performance of the trajectory bucket is judged by the trajectory height and the length of throw in the flip action. b) Bucket invert elevation. NOTES 1 Slotted trajectory buckets have also been tried in some cases with success. The procedure given in 5. the lip shall have to be kept above the maximum tailwater level. When the bucket is placed near the natural bed level it will not only be economical but also there will be a beneficial ground roller just below the endsill which would help in piling up material against the endsill. a) Bucket shape. 2 Sometimes. only part of the energy is dissipated through interaction of the jet with the surrounding air. Therefore.2. the lip may turn the ski action into roller action. e) Trajectory length. d) Lip elevation and lip angle. the design criteria for a circular trajectory bucket has been discussed in this standard.1 to 5. Special care shall be taken to strengthen weak pockets in the bed located in a length of about 15 m downstream of the bucket. For a clear flip action.2. Fig. 5.5 shall be followed in designing trajectory bucket. Also beyond certain submergence. Under these conditions there is less possibility of erosion immediately downstream of the bucket. The channel bed should consist of sound. therefore. 5. 13 S UBMERGENCE d4 AT W HICH SKI ACTION WOULD T URN INTO ROLLER 15 . pair of trajectory type energy dissipators are so oriented that their jets impinge against each other before they fall into downstream pool below.2 Bucket Invert Elevation The fixation of bucket invert elevation depends on the site and tailwater conditions.13 gives the submergence (d4) at which ski action would turn into roller action. The remaining energy is imparted to the channel bed below. c) Radius or principal geometrical parameters of the bucket. Hence. hard strata and should be free from laminations. an attempt should be made to fix the bucket invert as close to the ground level as possible. FIG. A submergence of more than 70 percent of the depth required for formation of hydraulic jump may adversely affect proper performance of the trajectory bucket.

if required. = actual velocity of flow entering bucket. the curves shown in Fig.2. 14 shall be used to estimate the hydraulic load per square metre of the bucket surface. Sometimes the trajectory buckets are located at higher level on the spillway glacis to facilitate the construction of power house at the toe of spillway. in t/m3. 14 DESIGN OF TRAJECTORY BUCKET — T HEORETICAL BUCKET PRESSURES 16 . Actual pressures vary considerably over the bucket. The equation involving terms applicable to trajectory bucket pressures can be written as: 2  va   P= + 1   γ d1    gR  where P γ va g = bucket pressure. and d1 = depth of flow entering bucket. 5.IS 7365 : 2010 to the critical depth ( d c) over the lip elevation.3 Radius of Bucket The pressure distribution on the bucket and the trajectory length are affected by the radius. Also the sprays from the water jet may spoil the nearby electrical installations. radius of curvature of the bucket and angle of deflection of the flow.2 Figure 14 presents maximum theoretical bucket pressures for velocities varying from 10 to 45 m/s and radius/depth ratios varying from 4 to 10. the radius has to be substantially large so that the streamline distribution F IG.2. in m/s. in t/m2. The centrifugal force together with the corresponding water depth in the bucket would indicate the pressure on the bucket. in m. 5. = weight of water. 5. To maintain the concentric flow and to avoid the tendency of the water to spring away from the bucket. The design of training walls adjacent to the bucket should also allow for these pressures. in m/s2. model studies and prototype data indicate that bottom pressures change continuously throughout the bucket and a function of the entering velocity and depth of flow. which need to be protected. The concept of centrifugal force gives an indication of the effects of independent variables.1 Hydraulic forces acting on a trajectory bucket are of interest in the structural design of the bucket. R = radius of bucket. Theoretical studies.2. However.2. can be ascertained with the help of model studies. = acceleration due to gravity. In case of such high level trajectory buckets it is necessary to consider the effect of scour downstream which may cause the sliding of abutment slopes if the geological conditions are not favourable.2. Actual variation of pressure along bucket profile and along the retaining walls. in m.

in m. in m/s. the final choice depends upon the minimum throw permissible under the local rock conditions. This shall be used for judging the point of impact of the jet. 2 va sin2 φ 2g 5. etc.2. type of rock.65 for ultimate scour). = constant (0.2. = difference between the lip level and tailwater level.6.2.5. In some cases necessity of aeration may arise which may be finalized after model studies.5. in m.IS 7365 : 2010 of the flow is not altered by the floor pressure. be made by model tests by finding the actual pressure conditions existing and avoiding hurdling conditions on the bucket. = bucket lip angle with the horizontal. namely.4. Greater the exit angle within this range greater will be the distance of throw. Normally adopted lip angle is between 30° and 40°. in m/s2. = velocity head of jet at the bucket lip.2. however. 5.6 Estimation of Erosion at the Point of Impact 5.6 to 0. 5.5 X 2 φ+ φ φ + Y / HV HV = sin 2 2 cos sin where X Y = horizontal throw distance from bucket lip to the centre point of impact with tailwater. 5. An evaluation of the extent of scour has to consider the combined effect of all these factors which is very difficult in practice.2 Vertical distance of throw above the lip level may be calculated from the following formula: a= where a va φ g = vertical distance from the lip level to the highest point of the centre of jet.5. in m. These guide rules shall be used for preliminary design. For submerged lips the lower lip angle of 30° may be adopted to minimize sub-atmospheric pressures on the lip.2. But as the jet impinges on the tailwater at a steeper angle which results in deeper scour. = actual velocity of flow entering the bucket. The factors affecting the horizontal throw distance also include the initial velocity of the jet and the difference in elevation between the lip and the tailwater. 5. the depth of scour (ds) can be worked out by the following equation: ds = m (q H4)0. in degrees. restricting the analysis to the correlation of the scour depth with the two dominant factors. in m.1 The lip shall be made flat in case tailwater level is lower than the lip level. However. the lip shall slope downstream about 1 in 10. Another criterion for the radius of bucket obtained by experience and satisfactorily used for several designs is that the radius can be taken to be equal to 0.2. The radius of the bucket (R) should not be less than 3 times the maximum depth of flow (d1) entering the bucket to avoid separation tendencies in the bucket.8 times the geometric mean of the depth of flow over the spillway and the total fall between upstream reservoir pool elevation and the jet surface on the bucket. model studies may be carried out to confirm the values of horizontal throw distance (X) and vertical distance (a). However.2. For the conditions when Y is 17 Hv φ . that is R = (0. A closer estimate of the radius to be actually used shall. 5.5. and H4 = reservoir pool elevation — bucket lip elevation.1 The factors governing scour below trajectory buckets are the discharge intensity.5 Trajectory Length 5. q = discharge intensity (m3/s )/m. time factor involved in the process of scour.1 The following expression may be used for calculating the horizontal throw distance: where ds m = depth of scour in m below tailwater level.H 5 . air entrainment in the jet.1. The higher value of 0. discharge intensity (q) and the total head (H4). height of fall.6 to 0.8) H . sign taken as positive for tailwater below the lip level and negative for tailwater level above the lip level.8 should preferably be used for preliminary design.36 for minimum expected scour) (0.2. lip angle.4 Lip Elevation and Lip Angle The lip angle affects the horizontal throw distance. degree of homogeneity of rock.54 for probable scour under sustained spillway operation) (0. in m. and = bucket lip angle with the horizontal in degrees. etc.3 Figure 15 presents throw distance curves for lip angles of 0 to 45° based on the expression given in 5. and = acceleration due to gravity. if the tailwater level is higher than the bucket lip level. water level.2. negative. The actual throw distance may be less than indicated depending upon spillway energy loss. mode of operation of spillway. 2 Probable scour means the scour which may reasonably be expected in any individual case of sustained spillway operation. 3 Minimum scour means the minimum scour in any case. NOTES 1 Ultimate scour means the final stabilised scour.

Therefore.6. the trajectory will have a shorter range and may. This shall be used for estimating the scour depth (ds). probable scour under sustained spillway operation and ultimate scour based on the expression given in 5. in certain circumstances lead to overall conditions causing scour closer to the bucket.6.4 During construction stages. in m.2. Provide minimum thickness of apron of 1 m and it should be properly anchored over fresh rock.9 H30. 15 D ESIGN OF TRAJECTORY BUCKET — T HROW D ISTANCE 5. . flush with the original ground level.2.3 Another formulae to work out the probable scour is also given below for guidance: ds = 1. 18 5. In order to protect the endsills from undermining a cut-off may be provided and the excavated trench should immediately be backfilled with concrete.6.IS 7365 : 2010 FIG.2. and H3 = reservoir pool elevation minus tailwater elevation.54 when ds = depth of scour. the temporary spill levels are at much lower elevation than the final crest level thus reducing the height of fall.1.2.225 q0. in m. The provision of a concrete apron of about 10 to 15 m length downstream may also be considered to prevent the scour near the bucket lip where the condition of rock is such that it is likely to be eroded.6.2 Figure16 presents scour depth curve for minimum excepted scour. 5.


7 Model Studies The trajectory bucket shall be model tested to ensure satisfactory hydraulic performance of the bucket which is judged by the trajectory height. The wall can be given a trapezoidal shape for economy as indicated in Fig. 17.5 m above the maximum water level in the bucket or as required according to the earth dam profile adjacent to it.6. according to the earth dam profile adjoining the wall depending upon the layout of the dam. In order to design plunge pool. etc. The top of the wall beyond the surge portion should be kept at least 1.1 Height of training wall In the bucket portion the top of the wall may be kept higher by 1.5 m. The distance of surge (Sd) can be obtained from Fig.5 Plunge pool design Pre-excavated plunge pools are provided downstream of ski-jump bucket to create a water cushion whose geometric characteristics must be such that it will reduce the energy of the flow and consequently dampen the uncontrolled erosion. length and foundation of training wall in the case where a roller bucket has been adopted may be worked out as follows. the throw distance and also the depth and extent of scour. The following empirical relationship has been found to be generally suitable in working out the free board B and may be adopted for F IG.5 m above the maximum tailwater level or higher. some other factors such as the geologic and morphologic characteristics of the jet impact area are also taken into account. It shall be also ensured that sub-atmospheric pressures do not exist on the bucket profile and on the bucket lip.2. The surge height may be worked out as shown in Annex A. 5. which will otherwise endanger the stability of the structure. 18. 6. 6. The height of the wall in the surge portion should rise at least to an elevation hs + 1. the design of the end training walls and intermediate divide walls on the spillway in respect of their lengths. top levels.1 With the provision of a solid or slotted roller bucket or trajectory bucket at the toe of the spillway. if required.1. 5. where hs is the maximum surge height.1. These can be obtained from the hydraulic model studies.1.2. Besides hydraulic parameters.1 Where the model studies are not carried out the height.IS 7365 : 2010 5. 6 TRAINING AND DIVIDE WALLS 6. hydraulic parameters such as ski-jump throw distances for the entire range of discharges and the location and magnitude of deepest scour are considered. assume importance. 17 DEFINITION SKETCH FOR T OP PROFILE OF T RAINING W ALL AND SCOUR AND SURGE DISTANCES 20 . These may be used as a guide in the design. foundation levels.3 Prototype Examples Annex F gives a few typical examples of trajectory bucket prototype dimensions for some installations.

1. (in metre) = 0. 6.0 m.0 m. and D2 = sub-critical depth of flow in bucket including the boil height. In some installations the spillway flow is required to be separated from an adjoining structure like an earth dam toe. powerhouse. 6.030 5 (Va + D2) where Va = actual velocity of flow entering the bucket in m/s.2 Length of training wall The length of the training wall may generally be fixed as per the following criteria: a) The wall should be extended downstream beyond the surge portion by about 3 m or as dictated by the downstream toe of the envelope of the earth dam. 18 TRAINING AND DIVIDE W ALLS SCOUR DEPTH AND DISTANCE AND SURGE DISTANCE preliminary designs (later to be confirmed by hydraulic model studies and detailed calculations) F. if . lower than the maximum scour level as worked out from Fig. power house tail channel.1. etc. it is necessary to provide the foundation of the wall either down to the scour levels observed on the model or to a higher level. In such cases the optimum lengths and top levels shall be decided on the basis of the water and scour profiles obtained from the model studies.1. at the end of the training wall to avoid erosion behind the wall. canal or any other structure. B.0 m. Their top levels and lengths shall also be decided on the basis of model studies. In order that foundation rocks may not get exposed and undermined. etc.1. 18 if competent foundation rock is not available above the scour level. b) If the toe of the envelope is resting on erodible alluvium bed the training wall should be extended beyond the toe at least by 15. if required. in metre. 21 A splay wall connecting the bank may be provided. c) If the bed strata is erodible the wall should be extended beyond the location of the deepest scour by about 5. In some cases intermediate divide walls are also provided to separate the flow from adjoining buckets at different elevations.IS 7365 : 2010 FIG.3 Foundation of the training wall The wall should be founded about 2.

shall also be immediately repaired. 7 REGULATION 7. and = depth of flow entering bucket.1 All the spans of a spillway having a roller bucket at the toe have to be operated equally and simultaneously. In cases where model studies are not conducted and where a roller bucket is provided. The actual observations of tailwater levels downstream of the spillway shall be taken every year and shall be compared with the tailwater rating curve adopted for the design to evaluate the percentage retrogression in the tailwater level. Damage to any surface shall be immediately repaired.1.61 + 0. the maximum probable scour depth (ds). 17) may be calculated with the use of the curves given in Fig. a concrete lining of about 1. in m. 9 MAINTENANCE AND INSPECTION 9. In the later case. 22 .2.6.1 It is preferable to make bucket starting from tangential point on spillway face to bucket lip in granite stones or to provide an overlay with special wearresistant material. it is desirable to clear an area up to about 50 to 100 m downstream of bucket of all loose material every year before monsoon. training walls.1 The design of a roller or trajectory bucket is primarily based on the tailwater rating curve observed or assumed.2 In case of a trajectory bucket. These tailwater rating curves and their accuracy shall be thoroughly checked before finalizing the designs. Freeboard = 0. Damage to the foundations of bucket lip. The foundation of the training wall and/or lining below it may be taken down to the scour level worked out as indicated in 5. the scour envelope should be adopted for the purpose of founding the wall or protective lining below it.IS 7365 : 2010 competent foundation rocks are available at that level. For the spillways where the model studies are carried out. in m/ s. Allowance shall also be made for the retrogression of the downstream channel bed and consequent lowering of the tailwater levels. which is found to be generally suitable for preliminary design (later to be confirmed by hydraulic model studies and detailed calculations). 9. It may be preferable to flare the training walls beyond the lip so as to provide aeration to the ski-jump trajectory. training walls and erosion downstream. and thereby avoiding the entry of the downstream bed material into the bucket in the event of one or two of the end crest gates not getting opened. In case of trajectory bucket this condition is not necessary unless objectionable flow conditions and return eddies are formed downstream of the bucket. It is also desirable to inspect every year the spillway to assess the damage to bucket surface.2 In order to avoid the danger of loose material downstream of the roller bucket being picked up and carried into the bucket and consequent possible abrasion damage to the bucket. bucket teeth lip.5 m thickness should be provided below the foundation level of the wall down to the anticipated scour level if the wall has been extended beyond the bucket. As it is not possible to represent the air-entrainment in the hydraulic model test. it is advisable to provide the freeboard of the wall considering the following empirical relation. Weak pockets of river bed downstream which might have been eroded should be filled with concrete. It has also been observed in the case of the prototype trajectory bucket that the normal depth of the air-water mixture would be as high as 2. 8 RETROGRESSION OF DOWNSTREAM CHANNEL 8.5 times the normal depth of clear water. etc. 6. Consequently a 10 percent variation in tailwater depth may be taken into account in design calculations. etc. the distance (Ds) from the spillway crest axis and the maximum probable distance of the surge (Sd) from spillway crest axis (see Fig. the training wall should normally be extended by about 10 m beyond the endsill as per requirement to overcome the formation of return flow eddies.0 to 1. 18.037 1 va d1 1/3 (in m) where va d1 = actual velocity of flow entering bucket. 18 indicates probable parameters and may be adopted for guidance only. The graph shown in Fig.

28 m = Reservoir pool elevation — Tailwater elevation = 128. Now.67 m = EL 116.28 m and H3 = 28. FD = q gH13 / 2 × 10 3 va gd1 22.81 × 2.25 = 20.74 m ∴ read hb = 0.315 × 48.40 = 2.30 9.47 2 1 + 8 ×(4.90.58 m/s From Fig.84.95 t va = 0.36 hb = 20.315 H1 hb = 0.02 – 99.67 = 28.77 m H = Reservoir pool elevation — Crest elevation = 128.81 × ( 48.1) DESIGN OF SOLID ROLLER BUCKET — SAMPLE CALCULATIONS Given Discharge per metre width of spillway (q) = 55.25 m Compute.77) 3/ 2 = × 103 9.02 – 79.95 × vt = 0.75 and 0.2. H1 = Reservoir pool elevation minus bucket invert elevation = 128. 4 for q { 1 + 8 × F12 − 1 } FD = gH1 3/ 2 d × 103 = 52 and 3 = 0.95 × 23.30 m3/s Reservoir pool elevation = EL 128.00 From Fig.2.35 = 23.42 = = 0.02 m Tailwater elevation Spillway crest elevation i) Bucket Invert Elevation Assume Bucket invert elevation = 79.42 48.35 m H3 va read v = 0.30 22.67 – 79.70 m { } 23 .40 m/s d3 q d1 = v a 55.1 and 6.55 d2 = = d1 2 = 51.74 = 11.40 = 55.2 H1 2.02 – 116.42 d3 = 0.1. 7 for H = 11.55) −1 2 = 14.77 H1 Discharge parameter.81 × 28.1.47 m = Now F1 = d3 20.58 = 22. vt = = hb d3 2 gH3 2 × 9.36 m 15.752 2 Good energy dissipation is obtained when is between 0.42 m ∴ = EL 99.35 m = Tailwater elevation — Bucket invert elevation = 99.IS 7365 : 2010 ANNEX A (Clauses 4.77 = 15. say 52.25 = 48.47 = 4.

1 and 1. the range of H1/R is 2 to 6 Thus the bucket radius of 12 m is acceptable. = 1.228 R = 0.35 m Therefore qH3 = 55.6 H + 19. 18 for qH3 Read ds = 1568 = 27.77/12 = 4.4 × 10-5 × 522 = 0.4 2   R = 0.47 + d1 + a    2g  2 x 9.4  = 0. 5 for. ii) Bucket Radius Assume lip angle of 45° 24 .09 R + 1. NOTE — As the discharge per metre width of bucket exceeds 45 m3/s confirmatory model tests are desirable (see 4.02 – 99. (c).67 = 28.07 × 10-3 × 52 + 1. 8. R = 0.28 + 4.77 = 25.7 m and Ds = 106. Determine maximum probable scour depth and corresponding distance from the spillway crest axis.77 = 11.81     = 11. Compute H3 = Reservoir pool elevation — tailwater elevation c)  v2  22. = 128. (b). q gH13 / 2 × 103 = 52 and R H1 d3 is d2 = 8.2 + 819 . for F1 = 4.43 m d) Using formula.315 H1 b) From Fig.26 × 10-2 +2. R = 4.76 say 1 568 m3/s.22 m Minimum bucket radius = 11.305 × 10P where.4 read hs = 0.5 23.305 × 101.5 R = 11.22 m Using formula.675 3.71 m From (a). Determine maximum elevation of bucket roller and surge.4 H + 4.06 From Fig.35 m = 1567.07 × 10-3 FD + 1.4  2. F1 = 0.55 = 13 × R1/4 –19.88 = 1.30 × 28. (d) and (e).39 Good energy dissipation is obtained when between 1.42 d3 = 14. 4.3). for FD = 52.55 Read R v2 d1 + a 2g = 0.26 × 10-2 +2.5 + 86.00 m e) = R = 0.5 4.53 × 48. F1 = 13R¼ –19.96 d1 Compute ds and Ds for the full range of spillway flows.4 Setting of bucket invert elevation is therefore acceptable.88 3.6 × 11.12 m hb = 0.75 m Using formula.IS 7365 : 2010 ∴ 20.2. From Fig.4 × 10-5 FD2 For FD = 52 R H1 = 8.675 = 14.228 × 48. P = vt + 6. × 411.53 H1 Therefore hs = 0.70 d2 a) Using the formula. adopt bucket radius R = 12 m H1/R = 48.85 m Compute hb and hs for the full range of spillway flows. From Fig.

52 104. Carolina (USA) Headgate Rock.238 1/0.34 18.29–22.08 1.14 21.18 1.10–24. Arizona (USA) Stewarts Ferry.24 15.1 58.4 38.119 1/0.1 84.44 8.32 3.44 89.29 24.58 11.74 57.7 107. Pennsylvania(USA) Murdock (USA) Malaprabha (Karnataka) Vaitarna (Maharashtra) Rihand (UP) Nagarjunasagar (AP) Gandhi Sagar (Rajasthan) Hirakud (Orissa) Guayabo (Central America) 45.2) SOLID ROLLER BUCKETS (PROTOTYPE STRUCTURES) Head H1(m) Discharge per Unit Length (q) 3 m /s/m Discharge Parameter Mopherson and Karr's q Range of 3 10 H1/R gH13/2 Range of Radius R (m) Actual R Provided (m) As per Formula Suggested in IS (6) (7) (8) (9) H1/R as Provided Lip Angle degrees Sl No.32 81.7 91.86 6.3 37.96 12.11 9.45 11.1 65.18 4.29 12 15.6 116.5 128.50 19.43 21.4 77.91 19.19 3.18 12.34 15.81 16.74 3.52 4.73 46.388 1/0.128 5 1/0.01 19.14 11.40 19. Georgia (USA) Greensboro.538 1/0.7 40.5 4.34 8.163 1/0.41 0.2 50.5 31.7 40.33 27.49 12.95 10.9 41.4 54.9 68.77 5.07 12.77–19. Virginia (USA) Centrehill.77 55.24 14.1 119.3 118.06–12.23 15.197 5 1/0.23 2.92–19.5 90.36–27.3 49.8–39.77–20.7 76.97 5.9 56.42 122.5 79.62 18.19 12.69 10.14 12.34 7.19 15.43 12.38 30.48 69.4 53.38 18.59 19.8 17.08–20.4 150 10.00 11.48 67.29 21.9 56.579 1/0.60 12.7 15.4 17.7 30. Fennessee(USA) Charkhill.58–34.33–16.44–18.24 5.52 18.21 12.66–10. Tennessee (USA) Sakuma (Japan) Grand Coulee.6 26.7 39.49–34.13 55.1 91.95 21.34 30.239 1/0.24 5.387 1/0.36 7.16 29.58 50.16 4.93 13.8 45.69–5.3 65.480 1/0.2–27.17 13.26–26.44 9.45–28.2 58 55 69. Project (1) (2) (3) (4) (5) (10) (11) 25 i) ii) iii) iv) v) vi) vii) viii) ix) x) xi) xii) xiii) xiv) xv) xvi) xvii) xviii) xix) xx) xxi) xxii) xxiii) xxiv) Banas (Gujarat) Yeldari (Maharashtra) Siddeswar (Maharashtra) Kadana (Gujarat) Linganamakki (Karnataka) Panam (Gujarat) Wolf Creck Kenbucky (USA) Buggs Island.89 46.65 7.9 2.15 25.28–3.4 40.11 2.48 56.6 118 42.5 135 68.20 12.64–29.662–22.9 58.20 35° 35° 40° 45° 30° 45° 45° 45° 45° 45° 45° 45° 45° 45° 45° 45° 37° 47° 35° 30° 34° 30° 40° 59° IS 7365 : 2010 .3 56.28 15.51 54.47 1/0.19 1.7 92 53.6 40.4 6.65–19.19 19.7 31.2.59 4.ANNEX B (Clause 4.2.52 3.20 7. Washington (USA) Pennforest.53–25.50 12.6 83.3 9.75 12.345 1/0.81 9.49 9.70 4.19 15.86 72.45–28.15 13.06 10.02 2 to 6 2 to 6 2 to 6 2 to 5 3 to 6 2 to 6 2 to 6 2 to 6 2 to 6 2 to 6 2 to 6 2 to 5 2 to 5 5 to 6 6 to 7 2 to 5 2 to 5 2 to 5 3 to 6 3 to 6 6 to 7 2 to 6 2 to 5 2 to 5 8.

9 50.37 74.1 18.7 21.24 12.4 54.24 22.2 10.19 12.3 46.2 15.7 50.3 122.4 115.6 17.4 1) Spillway crest to bucket invert — H2.2 45.9 56.24 12.3 37.3 27.23 35 40 45 40 35 40 45 45 45 45 45 45 45 45 45 16.4 31.6 65.2 1) 118.86 15.5 53.34 21.9 68.0 18.3 21.6 56.5 56. Project Head from Maximum Reservoir Pool Elevation to Bucket Invert H1 m Bucket Lip Angle Tail Water Depth with Horizontal for Maximum Discharge Ø m /s (3) (4) 3 m m degree (8) m (9) (1) (2) 26 i) ii) iii) iv) v) vi) vii) viii) ix) x) xi) xii) xiii) xiv) xv) Banas Damanganga Dharoi Kadana Yeldari Sidheswer Buggs Islands Centre Hill Clark Hill Davis Grand Coulee Head Gate Rock Sterwarts Ferry Wolf Greek Sakuma Gujarat (India) Gujarat (India) Gujarat (India) Gujarat (India) Maharashtra (India) Maharashtra (India) USA USA USA USA USA USA USA USA Japan 6 655 22 048 16 230 31 064 10 478 9 911 21 804 12 914 29 959 5 437 28 317 5 663 5 642 15 150 9 798 40.8 24.0 44.24 19.24 21.0 40.2 69.34 15.3 26.5 31.0 84.ANNEX C (Clause 4.4 89.19 15.4) SOLID ROLLER BUCKET PROTOTYPE DIMENSIONS Country Maximum Discharge Q Maximum Discharge per m of Bucket Width q Bucket Radius R m /s/m (5) (6) (7) 3 IS 7365 : 2010 Sl No.5 25. .0 128.4 84.68 57.3 49.6 72.00 15.3 26.2.1 21.6 26.5 19.24 15.19 15.5 90.

IS 7365 : 2010 ANNEX D (Clause 4.91 and using Fig.67 va gd1 = 18.6 m As against TMin = 13.2.5 m vt = = 0.6 = 17.5 – 446.98 vt va = 0.75 m.6 m H3 = maximum reservoir pool level maximum tail water level = 464.53 Maximum reservoir pool level = Crest level of spillway Maximum tail water level H = =  v2 a  R = 0.0 = 18.125 × 10.77 = 20.67 m/s = 18.56 m3/s/m 41.67 d1 = q 43.75 m From Fig.9 R 2  va   d1 + 2g    = 0.6 m and H3 = 18.534 m = 3. TMax/d1 = 14.0 – 430.53  d1 + 2g    = 0.62 m Bucket invert is set at El 430.33 + 17.5 m TMin d1 = 5.67 = 5.81 × 2.334 m Length of short apron = 0.81 2 TMin = 5. 7 for H = 9.5 × 10.67 = 1.10 m 2g Use Fig.53 × 20.335 m Investigate for entire range of discharges.33 = 13.9 = 9.5 R = 0. 12 adopt tooth spacing = 0.98 × 19. F1 = 3.53.10 = 10.62 m From Fig.67 m El 464.33 m = va 18.3.0 TMax = 14 × 2.33 F1 = d1 + v2 a = 2.05 = 18.67 m R used v 2a d1 + 2g = maximum depth of overflow over the spillway crest = 464.9 m El 446.9 × 2. 9 From Fig.0 m 3 For F1 = 3.9 Tooth width = 0.33 = 32.125 R = 0. and TMax = 32. va 2 2g q = discharge per metre width of bucket = 1815 = 43.4 m giving T actual = 446.77 m 2 × 9.5 m El 454.65 m R used = 10.05 m/s R v 2a d1 + 2g = 0.4 = 15.81 × 18.56 = 2.67 9.9 va = 0.67 = 0. 8 with F1 to find minimum allowable bucket radius 27 .53 with 2 g × H3 = 2 × 9. Q Width of bucket = = 1 815 m /s 41. 10.5 – 454.05 R = 0.05 × 10.5) DESIGN OF SLOTTED ROLLER BUCKET — SAMPLE COMPUTATION Given Total discharge.5 = 19.

63 29.3.1 7. Project Country (1) i) ii) iii) iv) v) vi) vii) viii) ix) x) xi) xii) xiii) xiv) (2) Ichari Jawahar Sagar Jayak Wadi Poochampad Hasdeo Bango Rajghat Bansagar Angostura Manheri Itiadoh Karanjawan Pench Ujjani Majalgaon (3) India India India India India India India USA India India India India India India Head from Bucket Bucket Lip Maximum Maximum Maximum Radius Angle with Discharge Discharge Reservoir Horizontal per m of R Q Ø Bucket Pool Elevation to Bucket Width Invert q H1 m3/s m3/s/m m m degree (4) (5) (6) (7) (8) 10 600 21 238 18 151 45 310 21 660 33 892.0 12.82 68.4 32.5 17.14 9.74 31.IS 7365 : 2010 ANNEX E (Clause 4.7 1 620.0 9.0 16.2 108.4) SLOTTED ROLLER BUCKET — PROTOTYPE DIMENSIONS Sl No.35 17.4 59.00 15.2 33.6 18.22 40.5 35.92 62.10 106.00 13.0 95.8 18.9 43 380 7 844 5 000 196.5 33.0 12 000 18 010 15 040 160.19 12.02 21.3 21.10 22.2 43.92 95.14 6.2 48.95 28.19 12.50 45.97 82.00 43.87 28 .93 48.0 22.5 78.24 10.67 12.6 20.0 9.19 21.3 99.58 37.6 12.24 50.3 37.3 16.0 45 45 45 45 45 45 45 45 52 45 45 45 45 45 Tail Water Depth for Maximum Discharge m (9) 25.92 42.28 26.30 12.

8 29.8 91.24 10.4 34.0 80.7 81.8 90.1 31.0 47.4 110.24 12.14 15.5 36.9 28. Projects Country Maximum Discharge Q (1) i) ii) iii) iv) v) vi) vii) viii) ix) x) xi) xii) xiii) xiv) xv) xvi) xvii) xviii) xix) xx) xxi) xxii) xxiii) xxiv) xxv) xxvi) xxvii) xxviii) xxix) xxx) xxxi) xxxii) xxxiii) xxxiv) xxxv) xxxvi) (2) Banas Gandhi Sagar Girna Hirakud Maithon Mandira Panchet Hill Ranapartap Sagar Rihand Salandi Sukhi Tilaiya Ukai Vaitarna Radhanagari Bhatsai Dimbhe Surya Srirama Sagar Anchor Arkport Chilhowee Conowingo Hartwell Pineflat Safe Harbor Dnieprostroy Bort Chastang Genissiat L'Aigle Maregos St.1 55.9 NA 50.8 NA 114.0 NA 21.7 53.0 18.7 26.4 17.75 12.38 15.3 34.4 36.5 44.0 90.1 24.2 59.3 44.62 18.9 41.72 13.1 19.9 70.8 146.3 64.76 3.70 6.9 46.7 29.0 64.0 Bucket Radius R Bucket Lip Angle with Horizontal Ø degree (8) 35 30 35 40 43 NA 43 40 30 30 40 30 40 35 40 40 38 45 37 NA 45 20 12.3 17.43 24.3 32.8 179.6 27.7 29.8 124.0 24.5 48.0 249.4 78.0 13.0 31.7 97.48 15.0 20.24 15.6 27.29 13.IS 7365 : 2010 ANNEX F (Clause 5.6 125.5 85.4 47.1 112.9 71.Etiernna Centales Castelodo Bode Pictoe Clereland (3) India India India India India India India India India India India India India India India India India India India USA USA USA USA USA USA USA Russia France France France France France France Portugal Portugal British Columbia Japan m3/s (4) 6 909 15 705 8 750 33 626 15 971 8 496 17 840 21 238 11 805 5 239 5 912 3 851 35 963 5 663 1 180 3 737 3 348 3 180 45 310 382 824 6 513 24 919 15 999 11 185 27 467 23 645 1 195 3 987 2 690 3 987 1 393 714 13 998 NA 1 226 2 152 Maximum Head From Pool Discharge Elevation to per m of Bucket Bucket Width Invert q H1 m3/s/m m (5) (6) 42.67 7.6 66.3) TRAJECTORY BUCKET — PROTOTYPE DIMENSIONS Sl No.11 9.9 49.1 71.8 85.80 11.1 113.7 38.8 34.1 27.7 31.2 55.55 NA NA NA NA NA NA NA NA NA NA xxxvii) Kamishiiba 29 .4 32.0 NA NA NA NA NA NA NA NA NA NA NA m (7) 21.0 32.5 12.95 30.3 90.2 27.7 42.19 9.9 77.8 61.9 70.0 89.7 36.3 39.9 Parabolic 3.4 18.0 27.29 16.

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