DETAILING OF STEEL IN FOOTINGS

(For class held on 13th March 07) Dr. M. C. Nataraja, Professor, Civil Engineering Department, Sri Jayachamarajendra Collge of Engineering, Mysore-5a70 006 Phone: 0821-2343521, 9880447742 e-mail: nataraja96@yahoo.com Footing: The function of a footing or a foundation is to transmit the load form the structure to the underlying soil. The choice of suitable type of footing depends on the depth at which the bearing strata lies, the soil condition and the type of superstructure. Types of footing Following are the different types of footing used for concrete structure. Refer figure 1. 1. Isolated footing 2. Combined footings 3. Strap footing 4. Mat or raft foundation 5. Pile foundation Isolated footings are provided under each column and may be square, rectangular, or circular in plan. Footing may be flat or tapered. Combined footings are provided to support two or more column loads. These may be continuous with rectangular or trapezoidal in plan as shown. Combined footings become necessary under the following circumstances: • • when the isolated footings overlap. when the exterior column is close to the property line with the result symmetrical isolated footing can not be provided.

Strap footing is one of the types of combined types of combined. It consists of an isolated footing of two columns connected by a beam called strap beam. The strap beam does not remain in contact with the soil and thus does not transfer any load to the soil. This is provided when one of the columns is on the property line.

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ISOLATED FOOTINGS PROPERTY LINE COMBINED FOOTING COMBINED FOOTING STRAP BEAM STRAP FOOTING MAT FOUNDATION FIGURE 1.The mat foundation is provided when the soil is having very low bearing capacity and or when columns loads are heavy. the required footing area becomes very large and uneconomical. • • • • • • Size of footing Depth at footing Depth of footing edge Nominal and effective cover Development length Depth of foundation 2 . TYPES OF FOOTINGS Detailing: Following points are to be kept in mind in detailing.

In short direction. the moment per unit length is largest i. Ast . An isolated footing is to be provided for a column of section 400 mm x 400 mm.. For this reason larger steel area is needed in the central portion and is determined in accordance with the equation given below. the curvature of the footing is sharpest immediately under the column and decreases in the long direction with the increasing distance from the column. Transverse reinforcement = 6 mm at 220 mm c/c Plan size of footing = 2. 16 mm diameter.7 m x 2. since the support provided to the footing by the column is concentrated near the middle.total .7 m Depth of footing at column face = 500 mm Depth of footing at edge = 150 mm Depth of foundation = 1000 mm Footing reinforcement = a mesh of 20 mm diameter steel at 250 mm c/c.• • Minimum and maximum steel Spacing of bars and stirrups Detailing of steel in rectangular footing as per IS:456-2000 In rectangular footing the reinforcement parallel to the long direction shall be distributed uniformly across the width of the footing.φ s 4τ bd Ldt = 47φs for M20 concrete and Fe 415 steel Problems: 1. The following details re given: Height of the column =3m Main reinforcement in column = 4 Nos. Grade of concrete= M20 Grade of steel = Fe415 3 . short − direaction = 2 ( L / B) + 1 Reminder of the steel is distributed uniformly in the outer portions of the footing (end bands) Development length= Ldt= f s .e. central − band Ast .

2 m Depth of footing at column face = 500 mm Depth of footing at edge = 300 mm Footing reinforcement = a mesh of 16 mm diameter steel at 180 mm c/c. Sectional Elevation c. Transverse reinforcement = 6 mm at 220 mm c/c Plan size of footing = 3. Development length of 20 mm bars in footing = 47 x 20 = 940 mm This is provided by the horizontal projection of bars. Plan b. 16 mm diameter.2 m x 3. Provide 300 mm minimum.Draw to a suitable scale the following: a. Exam: December/January 2007 An isolated footing is to be provided for a column of section 400 mm x 400 mm. The following details re given: Height of the column =3m Main reinforcement in column = 4 Nos. Grade of concrete= M20 Grade of steel = Fe415 20 Marks 4 . Number of bars in footing = 11 Numbers at 200 mm c/c with a side cover of 100 mm. Prepare bar bending schedule Solution: Development length in tension = 47φ = 47 x 16= 752 mm Depth at junction = 500 mm Leg length available for column bars = Ldt – 500 = 252 mm < 300 mm. Exercise problems 2. Width of footing= 10 x 250 + 100 x 2 =2700 mm Follow all specification of SP 34 and prepare the drawing. Bars need not be bent at ends in to the depth of footing.

Prepare bar bending schedule Rectangular footing: An isolated rectangular footing is to be provided for a column of section 450 mm x 300 mm. Grade of concrete= M20 Grade of steel = Fe415 Draw to a suitable scale the following: g. Prepare bar bending schedule 20 Marks 20 Marks Solution: Similar to square footing. Sectional Elevation f. For detailing as per IS: 456-2000. The following details re given: Height of the column =3m Main reinforcement in column = 6 Nos. Steel should be distributed as per IS:456-2000. footing steel should be distributed by creating central band and end bands. 20 mm diameter. 5 . Plan h.2 m Depth of footing at column face = 500 mm Depth of footing at edge = 500 mm Footing reinforcement = a mesh of 16 mm diameter steel at 200 mm c/c. Sectional Elevation i.2 m x 2.Draw to a suitable scale the following: d. Plan e. Footing steel is a mesh of 16 mm bars at 200 mm c/c both ways. Transverse reinforcement = 8 mm at 200 mm c/c Plan size of footing = 3.

#16 3000 mm GROUND LEVEL 4. LEVELLING COURSE SECTIONAL ELEVATION 2700 2700 PLAN 6 . DEPTH OF FOUNDATION ≥ 500 mm 75 Ldt 75 300 min.CROSS SECTION 400 4.#16 #6@220 #20@200 Ldt L dc 150 min.

#20 #8@200 #16@200 Ldt 75 75 Ldt 75 SECTIONAL ELEVATION 300 min. LEVELLING COURSE L dc PLAN 7 .450 300 CROSS SECTION GROUND LEVEL DEPTH OF FOUNDATION ≥ 500 mm 6.

LEVELLING COURSE L dc 2200 EB CB= 2200 PLAN EB 8 .450 300 CROSS SECTION GROUND LEVEL DEPTH OF FOUNDATION ≥ 500 mm 6.#20 #8@200 #16@200 Ldt 75 75 Ldt 75 SECTIONAL ELEVATION 3200 300 min.

The specifications of SP-34 and IS:456-2000 should be satisfied. ≤ 48φtr ≤ 75 > 48φtr ≤ 48φtr > 75 > 48φtr > 75 > 75 > 75 > 75 φtr ≤ 48φ tr ≤ 75 TYPICAL ARRANGEMENT OF COLUMN TIES 9 .Arrangement of steel in column cross section The type of stirrups and its arrangement depends of the type of cross section and the arrangement of longitudinal bars in the column cross section. Some of the details can be seen in the following figures.