Petrol Burning Stoves

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Petroleum Burners aka Liquid Fuel Stoves, ero Burners and Classic Cam! Stoves
These are the meat and potatoes of camping stoves. They are generally heavy duty, heavy, and are good for cooking and simmering large meals. Acceptable fuels tend to be easy to find and cheap. These stoves are time tested and have journeyed to remote parts of the world and kept many explorers alive in some of the harshest of environments imaginable. They are the only stoves that may work in the extremes of colds and are ideal in parts of the world where kerosene, diesel and avgas many be the only available fuels. Because of there longevity, they are uit popular and many outdoors people are well ac uainted with these wonderful tools. But despite being uite popular with the outdoors community, they!re the frowned upon by true ultraliters because of their excessive weight, dangerous caustic fuels and maintenance"reliability concerns. There are many commercial stoves on the market and due to the inherent dangers associated with li uid petroleum fuels, modifications and homemade versions are not recommended.
Basics #ressuri$es %toves %elf&#ressuri$ing %toves 'ravity (ed %toves )ick %toves *apillary Technology %toves (uels (uel %torage Maintenance

Basics
Advantages include: • easy to find • high heat output • easy to find and inexpensive fuels +often the only fuel option available in many remote places, • the only type of stoves that may work in extremely cold environments +Alaska, Antarctica, -imalayas, .orthern /urope in their respective winters, • some can burn a variety of fuels • fuels have high heat to weight ratio "isadvantages include: • outrageous weight to include weight of fuel containers • bulk • caustic fuel • explosive fuel • smell • smoke • many don!t simmer well unless you block the flame from your pot while wasting fuel • stove cost • jet noise +pressuri$ed versions, • flare ups can be dangerous • some fuels blacken pots with soot • significant maintenance concerns • complicated to operate +a plus for some, • most re uire pumping • fuel storage concerns • skin exposure to fuels extreme cold can be dangerous

Pum! Pressurized Stoves
%ince it!s introduction in the late 0122!s this has been the most popular camp stove design. Most of these systems work by pressuri$ing the fuel with a hand pump, metering its flow through tubes heated by your priming flame which in turn creates pressuri$ed vapor that is forced through a jet into a mixer tube where gaseous fuel

mixes with oxygen and then into some sort of flame reflector where it is ignited. %ee -ow %toves )ork for more information. There are hundreds of petrol stove models available on the market today the the following represents just some of the general classes of these stoves.

00.3o$ M%4 )hisper5ite 6nternationale stove and pump +bottle and accessories not included in weight,

The M%4 )hisper5ite 6nternationale is an example of a popular 7lightweight7 multi& fuel camp stove with a fancy flame dispersion pack. 6t has a larger diameter generator tube +vapori$er tube, that allows for less volatile fuels such as kerosene to be used with the stove and a set of jets that can be changed for use with different fuels. This design connects to a detachable fuel container.

0o$ Brunton 8ptimus .ova Multi&(uel stove and pump +bottle and accessories not included in weight. 9esigns such as the 8ptimus . 0<o$ M%4 ='> /xpedition stove and pump +bottle and accessories not included in weight.ova are used by the :% military since they can burn . and are referred to as the % uad %tove. Both the 9ragonfly and .#&1 +military vehicle fuel.03.ova and the M%4 9ragonfly have a control valve close the the jet to allow of precise control of fuel flow to allow for simmering. .

6t has a simple bell shaped dispersion plate.? o$ M%4 ='> /= +bottle and accessories not included in weight. retractable legs and pot supports for improved stability both on the ground and for the pot. . 0<.The venerable ='> /xpedition isn!t lightweight by any means. M%4 has has a new version of the their ='> expedition stove shown above. 6t is the choice stove for subfree$ing expeditions and has been to both poles and the highest places in this world. large diameter generator tube and is better suited than other stoves to burn poor uality fuels or for melting large amounts of snow. but is very popular due to its dependability and ability to burn different fuels. 6t comes has a flexible fuel line that allows for easier packing.

. Another drawback with the popular *oleman single unit stoves is that if overfilled.<0. This single unit design is desirable to many campers but has some inherent drawbacks. The down side of having the fuel tank under the stove is that it may overheat from the heat radiating off you your cookware and doesn!t allow flexibility for various si$ed fuel canisters.?o$ *oleman /xponent Multi (uel %tove The *oleman /xponent Multi (uel %tove is an example of a multi&fuel stove with the burner unit mount directly over the integral fuel tank. *oleman stoves are probably the stove most likely to be thrown into a lake. they may leak li uid fuel from the top of the stove and cause a huge fireball.

Most of these stoves are no longer made or are far too heavy to general backpacking use. The older ones are very difficult to find and are horded by collectors. .oBA that mount its burner hori$ontally with the fuel tank. A There were many stove designs such as the 8ptimus 7-almia7 .r.8ptimus *ampingk@k .

8ptimus . check out the home&fabricated -jemmelaget primus. lightweight. durable stove that would be worth your while. footprints and pot supports are discouraged and dangerous.ova #ump . and you have a recipe for catastrophic failure. Modifications beyond windscreens. and build the stove from there.<o$ M%4 (uel #ump -omemade versions of pressuri$ed petrol stoves can be uite challenging to construct and it would be very difficult to make a safe. )hite gas and gasoline fuels are not recommended for first time homemade stoves since they are extremely explosive. Add the explosive nature of some of these fuels to stove designing. Tinkerers may possibly benefit from starting with a prefabricated pump assembly +made for a stove or a tire pump. 6f you still feel compelled to build one.

0. Topeak Micro 4ocket *B #ump +bike. A small bicycle pump will allow you to pressuri$e a larger tank much uicker and easier than the built in pump on most pressuri$ed stoves. They are responsible for pressuri$ing fuel while preventing fuel leaks. C.? o$ +02< gm. the stock pump can be replaced altogether with a mini bicycle tire pump and a bottle cap with an installed valve.0 o$ +?2 gm. There is some argument as to which stove company produces the best pump. D o$ +003 gm. . The Amish have been know to use a tire pump to pressuri$e lanterns and stoves. #rimus -imalaya 8mni(uel and Multi(uel C. Fou can use an adapter which connects to a stove!s pump. while their %wedish counterparts produce what are arguably more durable metal versions. Bicycle and motorcycle tire valves are often used on filler caps of many stoves.AD +33 gm.0 o$ +?2 gm. M%4 produces lightweight plastic systems. An alternate method for pressuring a stove is to use a bicycle pump. (or some stoves. which makes sense as they are more likely to have a tire pump at home than a backpacker on the side of a mountain.3 o$ +A1 gm. both when connected and disconnected from the stove. Fou could even pressuri$e a 'atorade with this method and run tubing to your stove. 5e$yne -E Alloy 9rive Mini #ump +bike.ova <.A3 o$ +00< gm.(uel pumps are an important part of most petrol stove systems. <. or place an adapter inline with the fuel hose"tube or add it directly to the tank or install one in the tank!s filler cap. Pum! #eights M%4 M%4 9ragon(ly *oleman /xponent 9ual (uel Apex 66 8ptimus . This also makes 96F pressuri$ed petrol stove fabrication that much easier to make. C.

T4&03 & straight rubber stem +0? mm dia.net C1<?D2&Backup&or&Alternative&(uel&pressuri$ation&%ystem spiritburner. 0.com 00<G0D :sing pump to get rid of dents in bottle %chrader valve Schrader valves +aka American Ealve & used in car tires. T4&D & straight metal stem +1 mm dia.. T4&1G* & tall A2H metal stem +02 mm dia. T4&1G & short A2H metal stem +02 mm dia..1mm..com 0<033 spiritburner.<37 +C0..D3C7 +00. T4&0C & straight rubber stem +00. T4 D0C& 2. T4&? & straight metal stem +1 mm dia.3 mm dia.com <3C0C bwca.32mm. long .(iller *ap with %chrader Ealve $elated Links: bikeforums... rim hole diam.

<2A in 89 I C? tpi.A mm I 2.arrower valve for race bicycle rims %&ternal diameter ? mm "unlo! valve +)oods valve or /nglish valve. <7 +32.?<37 +03. & hybrid valve with wide base similar to %chrader valve and narrow top similar to #resta valve Sel()Pressurizing Stoves Ao$ Borde Ben$inbrenner aka 7Borde Bomb. The Bordeaux Burner JボルドーバーナーK. 0.<37 +C0.l ong %&ternal thread MetricB G. 6mperialB 2.1Gmm.GAD mm pitch. thread root diameter 2. <7 +32. long T4 D<3& 2. with the same internal thread as above. rim hole diam.T4 D03& 2. a 0"D7 male flare fitting is used. Borde& >ocher. %chwei$er Armee >ocher and %chwei$er >ocher . thread root diameter is ?.?<37 +03.1Gmm.<G0 in I C< tpi +threads per inch. 'nternal thread +to accept the threaded valve core. rim hole diam.C23 in 89.G2? mm pitch 6mperialB 2. rim hole diam. long T4 D01& 2.7 Borde Ben$in&>ocher. MetricB 3. Presta valve & . (or refrigeration.D3C7 +00.32mm.C2 mm 89 I 2. %chwei$er&Armee&>ocher.1mm.1mm. Borde Be$inkocher.G mm 89.1mm.

oseph Borde and was later transferred over to .orbert Baader who is still making them by hand. 'oogle Translation ボルドバーナー ショート化計画 'oogle Translation & 8ld style vs .co. 6t incorporates a small fuel tank to the side of the burner and a coiled generator tube that doubles back to the burner.apanese.oseph Borde!s design. occasional adjustment of the burner is re uired. build up pressure and forces fuel to the generator tubes.apanese. 8nly a couple hundred are made a year and can only be easily found in some /uropean specialty shops. More information can be found atB *lassic *amp %toves 4akuten. The stove is preheated by warming with your hands for a minute or so. . 6nterested 96Fers will want to check outB 5eft0?!s #akuricon %eries 'oogle Translation ストーブ 'oogle Translation & Trimmed down version ひとりキャンプ用LボルドーバーナーM欲しくて手作り 'oogle Translation 自作バーナーNN ボルドーバーナー 'oogle Translation . which in turn heats the fuel in the tank. 8nce the stove gets up to operational temperature. 'oogle Translation ボルドーバーナー +..ew %tyle This stove also needs some sort of #ot %tand for your #ot. flipping it over to allow fuel to leak onto the burner star and lighting it to heat up the generator tubes.jp & 9emonstration +. the heated generator tube boils the fuel in it and transfers heat back to the fuel tank. 'oogle Translation 4oman Auf der Maur & Borde +'erman. 6nstruction %heet +. 'oogle Translation 6nstruction %heet +.apanese.The Borde Ben$in Brenner was created in 0A3? by the %wiss inventor . The flame is then adjusted by twisting the burner star with a metal hook to open and close the fuel outlet. is would be pretty easy to make a working stove modeled after . %ince pressure continues to build up as the stove gets hotter and hotter.apan and on /bay +from anywhere between 03 to012 :%9.apanese. )ith a little metal fabricating skill.

-ario #itorch 'lass 5amp Alcohol stoves of this design generally have two small holes drilled in the base of the coils positioned to allow for jet"flame collision with the tops of the coils. %tesco and many other older stove designs use a similar coiled generator tube for their burner. Tay&>it. Taico 9ickson..-ario #itorch 'lass 5amp The #itorch alcohol stoves +!"トー#. .

0Ao$ 8ptimus %vea The rugged 0Ao$ 8ptimus %vea and <Co$ -unter stoves are self pressuri$ing and use a wick to draw fuel to the burner while the stove preheats. These stoves are uite heavy but are know for their reliability and longevity.Do$ Midi #ump . 0.

. kerosene and diesel singe and multiple burners. attached to a swivel or hose to allow for packing. *ravit+ Fed Stoves 9esca Alcohol Burner There are a few stoves that use gravity to move fuel to the their burners. Models include alcohol. %ome designs use wicks to prevent sediment blockage in the generator tubes. or set up with a removable fuel tank that sits on the stove like a water jug in a work place water cooler +aka water bubbler. 'ravity feeding means that you don!t need to worry about pressuri$ing but since fuel must be collected at a low point in the fuel chamber. (uel tanks can be permanently mounted higher than the burner. To make up for this. Most of the few gravity fed stoves available today are alcohol Marine *ookers and are too large for backpacking use. while other designs are wickless. there is the inherent problem of debris clogging these stoves. but there are still a few smaller ones out there.8ptimus uses a simple thermal feedback design for their %vea and -unter but this design doesn!t produce as much pressure as conventional camp stoves with built in pumps. %ome models include +for research purposes. they offer an optional Midi #ump to increase fuel output and to pressuri$e the stove prior to startups on those cold days.B . 96Fers will want to check out the gravity fed %outh African (%# %tove.

Turm +C1 and %port. C (alks )ickless +Eeritas.oBC20 Alcohol Burner.orma /0D %piritus >ocher Moha Bat %pirituskocher 4adius Alcohol %tove Ouikcook Alcohol %tove Barthel . . This design is still used in large kerosene heaters and in some stoves made in Asia. C<3 and . Eulcano Montgomery )ards no. 0?3 Butterfly %eries Torch .orma Manning Bowman P *o #rimus +*aesar.o. . 6mages of several gravity fed stoves can be found atB %cherning & >ocher #etromax (orum & >ocher *lassic *amp %toves & *ollectors 'alleries #ick Stoves An older simpler version incorporates one or more wicks. Eeritas&Atmos paraffin cooker 9esca >ocher Meva nr.

unless you build it yourself. but messy to operate and"or store.%<< kerosene stove *ommercial petrol wick camp stoves are hard to come by these days unless you live in or are traveling through Asia or the subcontinent of 6ndia. 9on!t expect to find an ultralightweight version in this design. -omemade versions of wick stoves that use kerosene or oil can be pretty simple to build. $elated Links: Qen #araffin and )ax Burning %toves Burning >erosene in #ea %oup *an Ama$ing Mini >erosene %tove Ca!illar+ .*hinese Fang$hou -urricane .echnolog+ Stoves .

but looks like it still needs a little testing for both the commercial and :% military use.6nstead of using pressuri$e building pumps. M%4 *apillary %tove with integral pot M%4!s *apillary (orce Technology %tove %ystem using the Eapore&. 6nstead of using .et *apillary (orce Eapori$er is scheduled for release in <22G at the earliest. generator tubes or wicks to transport fuel to your stove. gravity. capillary attraction from specially engineered ceramics can be used to deliver atomi$ed fuel jets directly into the flame.

This will be the new 7#ocket %tove7 to replace the old )orld )ar 66 gasoline burner. .pressuri$ed fuel or wicks. that incorporates the capillary system fueled by . :% Military M6)- The :% military is working on a 7lightweight7 and compact system called the Modular 6ndividual )ater -eater +M6)-.. it incorporates a ceramic cartridge that uses capillary attraction of draw up and vapori$e fuel.#&1 +kerosene&like fuel used by most :% military ground vehicles.

+!es .mil & *apillary (orce Eapori$er (uels #ocket %tove military.com & EA#846Q/9B *apillary (orce 4evolutioni$es Burner Technology May&. but the prototype designs can be easily improved on and tailored for minimalist use. (or more information seeB defenselink.atick #ress 4elease Fuel .une <223 The )arrior #9( %%*&./xperimental :% Military #ocket %tove The final product used by the military may end up far sturdier than re uired for ultralight hikers.

4aw petroleum is heated up. or replacement with a stove specifically designed to burn kerosene and"or diesel. 8perating your stove with a fuel different than the manufacture!s stated primary fuel may necessitate modifying airflow and"or changing jets in order to optimi$e use of various fuels by adjusting the air"fuel ratio. packaging.*ommercial petrol stoves are designed to work with certain fuels and manufactures will often recommend or even mandate a specific kind or brand of fuel. But because of the many similarities in petroleum fuels. waterproofing *3 & * G *3 & *0< *0< & *01 *01 & *<D *<2 & *C2 *<3 & *C2 'reater than *C2 <2&022 D2&0G3 0G3&C22 C22&D22 . Many multifuel stoves come with different si$ed jets to allow for use of different fuels.on Chains *0 & * D Boiling Point $ange /C 2&<2 0a1or 2ses 'as fuels for cooking and heating.et engine fuel and diesel fuel R0 9iesel fuel R< and cracking stock for gasoline 5ubricants and cracking stock *andles. tubes may also be desirable for heavier and less volatile fuels. These criteria vary depending on manufacturer. petroleum jelly. and separated into different distillation ranges via a pipestill.ricating 3il Para((in #a& $esidue Bitumen Car. Fraction *aseous h+drocar. and other products that meet specific criteria. polishing. dry cleaning and cracking stock for methane (uels for internal combustion engines . destination . Petrol $e(ining The heart to petroleum refining is the fractional distillation process. 'nternational -ames (or information on international names and idiosyncrasies of petrol fuels check out Mike Buckler!s and M%4!s list of international fuel names. solvents.ons -a!htha *asoline erosene "iesel Fuel or *as)3il Lu. and water proofing Asphalt and road surfaces. Methane is used for producing hydrogen for manufacture of ammonia %olvents for varnishes.on volatile fraction solids solids These distillates are further refined to produce fuels. re uiring drastic modification of existing stoves. 5arger vapori$er +generator. many petrol stoves can burn a variety of fuels.

32S aliphatic petroleum distillates. The carbon number range is *3 to *A with a boiling point range of 022&C32H (. -a!htha 4aka. <S toluene. This fuel category might be slightly less toxic than gasoline but is still very caustic. they are not risk free. is uite volatile. and nothing more. Coleman Fuel 4Calumet Lantern Fuel 8 *oleman fuel contains about 32S naphtha. he!tane. 2. Australia. 7naphtha7 is used to include all naphtha and gasoline&like fuels that have been refined to be as aromatic and additive free as practical for stove use. . Fuelite. $onsonol (uel. toxicity.aphtha re uires a lot of oxygen to burn and therefore may be a little easier to extinguish than other petroleum fuels. retailer. and releases an unpleasant odor that lingers. Shellite. This is a much 7cleaner7 stove fuel than other petroleum products +except possibly the li uefied gases. and -e6 Zealand7. making it difficult to accurately define attributes such as composition. so it is less likely to clog stoves. Those not listed are possibly even more so dangerous and toxic. 6t evaporates uickly. *oleman (uel contains up to <3S . Fuels The following considers a handful of usable fuel categories for petrol camp stoves and is neither all inclusive nor technically complete. heat output. The term 7naphtha7 has several accepted and obsolete definitions and can even be inclusive of gasoline and kerosene. and leaves little residue compared to kerosene. Zi!!o (uel.aphtha is a term relating to a range of hydrocarbons used as solvents or feedstock for petroleum products. :sing fuels in a manner outside of manufacture!s recommendations and"or contradictory to common sense can prove deadly. . #hite *as 5-orth America.aphtha is a mix of 3 to A carbon alkanes with a boiling range of 02D to D20H( +D2 to <23H*. 0S$ Fuel. burns very hot. . cigarette lighter (luid.% & All petrol fuels are toxic and all are dangerous. The following is given as a brief guideline for backpacking stove use. -3. Coleman Fuel. <S xylene. green dye and rust inhibitors +to help prevent rusting of internal parts and facilitate long shelf life. (or purposes of categori$ing fuels for stoves.. some charcoal lighter (luid8 .3S ben$ene.aphtha is much more explosive than kerosene but is a bit less explosive than gasoline. 6t is also considered by many to be the best fuel for high altitude and extremely cold treks. and targeted use.. /ven when well designed petrol stoves and accessories are used in a 7safe7 manner.country. and performance between various fuels. Blazo.

Fuelite 4Shellite8 *ontains T?2S #araffins and naphthenes. and other stuff #hite *as This is an old term referring to overpriced unleaded gas marketed as lamp and stove fuel back when leaded gas was referred to as 4ed 'as. even has tetraethyllead added to it. . 9Artic Fuel9 There are several companies that sell highly refined and filtered naphtha for use in subfree$ing environments.. U2.220S ben$ene.3S Toluene. s!ecial . These may be more expensive than other camp fuels but should be less likely to clog stoves or cause other problems than other petrol fuels. +reported to contain less than 2. %nvironmental gasoline 4la6nmo6er (uel.n&hexane and up to 03S cyclohexane by weight and it is fully hydrotreated to remove aromatics. %ince a functioning petrol stove may be necessary to keep an expedition or trekker alive in artic or high altitude conditions. Alk+lat.ensine. U3. 0S /thylben$ene. True white gas is gasoline without additives. this fuel may be preferred over other options when the added expense of this fuel outweighs the increased risk of problems if using other fuels.3S Ben$ene.2S Aromatic hydrocarbons +C.ensin. alk+late !etrol.&hexane 0CS. 0il1:. is more volatile than true naphtha and not as safe to use. %ome white gas +not made for stove use. .ensin8 This should be 7free7 from aromatic hydrocarbons and olefins such as ben$ene and many of the toxic additives in regular unleaded gasoline for your auto. 0S *1 and higher aromatics.

#entane. cycloalkanes and other hydrocarbons with C to 0< carbons +including Ben$ene. :. Appendix 5. inhibit deposits. . improve stability. is extremely explosive. corrosion inhibitors +limit corroding of storage tanks. and its additives and high octane components release deadl+ va!ors 6hen . 3&+genates 'asoline uses oxygenates to increase octane and decrease carbon monoxide emissions. methyl t&butyl ether JMTB/K in :%. 4E# *-C*-<8CD. August 0AAC. The greater the octane the greater the amount of octane&enhancing"antiknock additives. surfactants + limit icing.8x emissions. spark& plug fouling and preignition. /thylben$ene. percent by weight 8ctane. and"or ethyl tertiary&butyl ether +/TB/.. improve stability.3 %ourceB . . free$ing point depressants +decrease icing. 'asoline contains over 322 alkanes. Avoid if possible and go with the lowest octane available if this is your only choice..%. and has a boiling range from 1? to D<1H( +C2 to <<2H*.A0% +*-. )hat additives are used depends on what part of the world you in and even differs from %tate to %tate in the :%. automotive gas..C 03.. +4VM. metal deactivators + inhibit gum formation. anti&oxidants +inhibit gum formation. These additives are often toxic and don!t help in stove performance.+!ical Pro!erties o( 3&+genates %thanol 0. 9*.B% %.C 01. is very caustic. releases a terrible odor that lingers. tertiary&amyl methyl ether +TAM/.. dyes +product color for safety or regulatory purposes. . Butane. #etroleum 4efiningB Meeting 4e uirements for *leaner (uels and 4efineries +)ashington.03 002 1 *-C*-<8*+*-C. Toluene. -eptane. .?? 023 0. 8xygenates include ethanol. MTB/ +illegal in many %tates.. -exane. deposit modifiers +reduce deposits. *yclohexane. =ylene.2nleaded *asoline 4aka !etrol. Additive packages includeB octane&enhancing additives +methylcyclopentadienyl manganese tricarbonyl JMMTK in some countries.. improve vapori$ation.C**-<8*-C 03.GC 003 01 *-C8*+*-C. 6t may also prematurely clog your stove when compared to white gas. Trimethylben$ene. reduce ..urned. unleaded."< Blending vapor pressure. etc.B% *hemical formula 8xygen content.enzine8 4-ot $ecommended8 This burns very hot.ational #etroleum *ouncil.?? 000 D .

#inter 3&+genate *asoline 6n some places. #ierce. 8xygenated gasoline decrease carbon monoxide emissions +particularly older vehicles. Multnomah. and )ashington )ashoe :tah +#rovo. its additives can destroy rubber stove parts and seals.an C0 .ov 0 & (eb <A . #hoenix.%. According to *hevron. Albu uer ue. and .ov 0 & (eb <A ..ov 0 & (eb <A . %eattle.ackson +Medford.7 . areas.%: . in the winter months.ov 0 & Mar 0 8ct 0 & Mar C0 8ct 0 & (eb <A 8ct 0 & Mar C0 . and %nohomish . %pokane #ima *lark According to 4/6B 7-3. by burning leaner in autos engines. %old in many parts of the :.. 5as Eegas. >ing. MTB/ is used primarily in *alifornia and for the /ast&of&the&Mississippi 4eformulated 'asoline +4('.ever use oxygenated gasoline in your backpacking stove. %alt 5ake *ity. %pokane.ov 0 & (eb <A Counties Bernalillo Anchorage Borough /l #aso *lark Maricopa *lackamas. gasoline is oxygenated to reduce carbon monoxide emissions in the winter.ov 0 & (eb <A %ep 0 & (eb <A 8ct 0 & Mar C0 . while ethanol is used in Anchorage. Tucson.ov 0 & (eb <A 8ct 0 & . and /l #aso. Eancouver. #ortland. %outhern 8regon. 4eno. Cit+ Albu uer ue Anchorage /l #aso 5as Eegas #hoenix #ortland 4eno %alt 5ake *ity %eattle %outhern 8regon %pokane Tucson Eancouver 3&+ Season .osephine +'rants #ass. >lamath +>lamath (alls.

coal oil. )@.G volume percent MTB/ or 3. "eo. high grade diesel (uel.ase8 This is almost as hot as naphtha once it gets burning and can be easier to find than naphtha. This fuel is extremely difficult to extinguish and like gasoline. These may be the better choice of gasoline for stove use as it should be less likely to clog your stove or cause health problems than regular gasolines. other volatile organic compounds. 022"0C2 003"0D3 Color 4ed Blue 'reen . other areas are allowed to voluntarily join the (ederal 4(' program. these fuels also contain tetraeth+llead P. leaves an oil residue on everything it comes in contact with and may flavor your food if you don!t use a tight lid on your cookware.< & <. ben$ene.3m5 0. 4eformulated gasoline re uires a minimum <. )hile the sale of (ederal reformulated gasoline was mandated for only nine areas in the nation with the most severe o$one pollution. and of toxic air pollutants and nitrogen oxides during the entire year in certain areas of the :nited %tates. program re uires reductions in automobile emissions of o$one&forming volatile organic compounds during the summer high& o$one season. !ara((in.%co Friendl+ *asoline These products are become more popular in heavily polluted areas.$e(ormulated *asoline The reformulated gasoline +4('.2 & D. Av*as8 4-ot $ecommended8 6f this is the only fuel you can find.0S oxygen by weight when averaging.. the fumes have an explosive potential +though not nearly as great.2m5 #urple D. some charcoal lighter (luid.4C<=>8? +T/5. kerosine. and . which corresponds to approximately 00. Brands such as Blue #lanet /arth (riendly 'asoline have lower levels of sulfur. has a very strong odor. consider eating cold meals.?m5 erosene 4aka.2m5 C. toxins. 6t may prematurely clog your jets. which is not only bad for your health but may uickly clog your jets. %missions. $ange 3il.. kero.1 volume percent ethanol. "%$A. Leaded *asoline 4Aviation *asoline. 6n addition to many of the health concerns that come with unleaded gasoline. and are MTB/ free.%L !er *allon 2. Fuel *rade 43ctane $ating8 12"1G 02255 +low lead. lean)=eat.

is also sometimes sold as >ero. but . narro6 cut kerosene 4Bet A@. 6ide cut kerosene 4Bet B.umber 0 (uel 8il is particularly adapted to vapori$ing type burners or where storage conditions re uire low pour point fuel.et A +with toxic additives. "eo. <8 is a mix of A to <2 carbon alkanes and distils between D1< to G0?H( +<32 to C12H*. This is a low&sulfur kerosene approved for use in nonflue&connected +ventless. higher flashpoint than >&0 +0<3H( or greater vs.Burner 3il. >erosene may take longer to prime and re uires a separate priming agent if you don!t want a lot of soot on and in your stove. )@ 4lo6 sul(ur kerosene8 +may have red dye. .*as. diesel 4C<. 6t supposedly burns cleaner. kerosene burner appliances and for use in wick&fed illuminating lamps. W022H(. =eating 3il -o. 6t may also have a narrower molecule range +*A&*0<. Bet Fuels 4-ot $ecommended8 . etc. This is the best kerosene choice for stoves. This fuel is designed for use in conventional pressure and air atomi$ing domestic oil burner systems such as in domestic and small industrial space heaters and burners. <. Charcoal lighter (luid %ome of these are a mix of kerosene and naphtha and some are just straight naphtha. 3dorless erosene 4 lean)=eat. odorless mineral s!irits8 This is kerosene that has been 7sweetened7 with most of its mercaptans +sulfur compound. jets and pot. and a much higher price. BP)?8 is cut down to also include some of the gasoline"naphtha range and distils between <0< to D1<H( +022 to <32H*.should be stored in a metal container protected from direct sunlight. Fuel 3il -o. Fou may need to run a narrower jet than used with naphtha for optimal performance. )< 4regular kerosene8 -as a higher sulfur content than >0.=eating.ase. 4ma+ have red d+e8 4-ot $ecommended8 This fuel has high sulfur levels. and aromatics removed.. >0 is often referred to as >ero. @8 is a mix of 02 to 01 carbon alkanes with about <2S aromatics and distils between C32 to301H( +0G3 to <G2H*. C@ Fuel. odorless. space heaters. with less smoke and soot.

. static dissipators +reduce the ha$ardous effects of static electricity.. biocides and thermal stability improvers +prevent deposits in high temp areas. what time of the year it is and what part of the world you find it. -ow refined your fuel is and the amount of impurities in it will influence whether or not it will work in your stove. A)@ .et A&0 with the addition of corrosion inhibitors and anti&icing additives.et B is a distillate covering the naphtha and kerosene fractions +wide cut kerosene. They are are different cuts of kerosene with some additives to improve engine and fuel performance. And depending on composition..A$D BP)? .et A&0. anti&nock"detonation. BP)> . than . 6t is widely available outside the :%. 6t has a higher free$e point maximum +&D2H*.#&3 is a high flash point kerosene making it less likely to explode if hit with small arms fire.et A0 is a kerosene type fuel with a flash point above C1H* +022H(. lubricants. a separate priming agent and lots of maintenance to successfully burn diesel. 6t is more flammable and explosive than . Fou may need small jets. corrosion inhibitors.. B . "iesel 9iesel fuel uality varies depending on the manufacture.. 0'L'. A .. This fuel will generally only work well in specifically designed and jetted stoves such as the M%4 ='> and #rimus 8mnifuel. icing inhibitors. B%. BP)E . it may smoke a lot and clog your stove much faster than with kerosene.etraeth+llead +T/5.et B with the addition of corrosion inhibitors and anti&icing additives. metal de& activators +decrease copper oxidation ability.. B%. and a free$e point maximum of &DGH*. B%. a large vapori$er tube.et A and is used for very cold climates. antioxidants +prevent formation of gum deposits and peroxide compounds.These fuels are used for powering jet and turbo&prop aircraft. These include .et A is a similar kerosene type of fuel and is generally only available in the :%.

corrosion protection and water handling characteristics. Avoiding high sulfur fuels isn!t such a bad idea for stove use either. non&highway use fuels may be cheaper to use and make you feel like a made as the sulfuric acid created by the fumes deepen your voice. high sulfur. stability during storage and use. This fuel can be ultra low. low temperature performance. kerosene. low. )inter diesel blends can have anywhere from 02&32S R0 fuel added to R<.. C? "iesel 40arine "iesel. if you are concerned about your health. "iesel ?)". Commercial "iesel . 6t has better solvent ualities than R< and is used in lower temperatures or blended with R< to improve performance in colder temperatures.C@ "iesel Fuel 4 erosene)like. This may include enhanced cetane number. =ome heating oil. lubricity. < *as. Again. =eav+ residual (uel oil8 4-ot $ecommended8 This fuel can be very crude and isn!t suitable for vapori$ation"pressuri$ed stoves. 2ltra Lo6 Sul(ur "iesel Fuel CA$B "iesel Fuel . -o.Burner oil8 This fuel can be ultra low. Marine diesel varies from country to country and it is possible to get high uality fuel intended for auto use in some ports. or high sulfur. Premium "iesel Fuel 4-ot $ecommended8 7#remium7 is an unregulated term used by manufactures"distributors to describe higher uality diesel fuel ualities or fuels enhanced with additives.o. 0 diesel +minus additives for diesel engines. C< "iesel Fuel 4"iesel <)". heat content minimum. 6f you have a choice. avoid if possible. "iesel @)"8 The specifications for . are so similar to kerosene that many manufactures make a dual purpose product that is sold as both kerosene and diesel R0. 6f you!re not concerned about your health. This product is approved for use in domestic and small industrial burners. Sul(ur Content :sing fuels with less sulfur in automobiles is a recent big environmental theme aimed at decreasing sulfur emissions and problems such as acid rain. low. or high sulfur and is composed of much larger hydrocarbon molecules than diesel R0 +kerosene. detergent for system cleanliness. you may want to avoid fuels with additives.ew low sulfur diesel doesn!t lubricate as well as high sulfur diesel and many manufactures have added lubricants and other additives to prolong engine life.

re uires more oxygen.This was designed to meet the special re uirements of the *alifornia Air 4esources Board :rban Bus 4ule. Fou may need small jets. a separate priming agent and lots of maintenance to successfully burn biodiesel. peanut.32Sw. it may not work well and may produce a lot of smoke and soot. Colza oil8 4-ot $ecommended8 . a large vapori$er tube. %ome are kerosene labeled as lamp oil while others are more refined. 74ed 9iesel7 may be much cheaper than the taxed auto diesel in your country. are easier to extinguish. 4eleases a (rench (ry.e usedF There are many volatile and flammable solvents that will work in camp stoves. 6t should contain a maximum of 03 ppm of sulfur. 6t may also re uire a separate priming agent.7 Approved for use in on&road diesel engines. 3ther Solvents ) should never . $a!eseed oil 4Canola oil. There are better ways to die. some mineral oils8 4-ot $ecommended8 5amp oils vary from brand to brand. they also tend to be extremely toxic and should never be used. vegeta. have slightly less explosive potential and generally contain fewer toxins. :nfortunately. 9epending on the makeup of the fuel and the stove you are using. =igh Sul(ur "iesel Fuel 4red d+ed. This fuel may only work well in specially designed stoves such as the M%4 ='> and #rimus 8mnifuel. etc smell when burned. Biodiesel 4veggie diesel. Lo6 Sul(ur "iesel Fuel %ulfur content is limited to 7no greater than 2. Lam! oil 4aka !ara((in.23Sw. contain heavier +02&<D. carbon alkanes and are free from aromatics and other undesirable petroleum products. agricultural diesel8 4-ot $ecommended8 %ulfur content is limited to 7no greater than 2.le (uel8 4-ot $ecommended8 A slow burning fuel similar to lamp oil.7 This product is for use in off& highway diesel engines. it may not work well and produce a lot of smoke and soot. Biodiesel fuel is one of the safest fuels around as it is relatively nontoxic and not very flammable. fish and chips. 9epending on the makeup of the fuel and the stove you are using. These fuels are very similar to kerosene but burn cooler.

)ith proper jets vapori$ation of fuel. Fuel Storage M%4 Aluminum (uel *anister . %ee Alcohol (uel 8ptionsfor more information. etc with the addition of an adapter. propane. Fou may need to use a larger jet to burn this fuel optimally. Alcohol Fuels Burns clean and cool. isobutane. This fuel burns clean but may not work well at subfree$ing temperatures and can be expensive and difficult to find. Lique(ied Petroleum *as %everal commercial stoves are able to burn li uefied gas fuels such as butane. you may be able to get good uality vegetable oil to burn in a stove. #oor heat to weight ratio. %ee *anister %toves for more information.

not all pumps will work with all canisters and you will need at least one canister that is compatible with your pump. :nfortunately. petrol fuel should be stored in an airtight metal canister. 6f you are wondering if petrol products can be stored in plastic. *oleman (uel in #lastic Bottle Additional fuel beyond what is in your main tank can be stored in other metal cans or even in certain plastic bottles. 0aintenance .6deally. just in case. you may want to first test store it in a safe area. to include lighter fluids. Most backpacking canisters for li uid petrol stoves are made to work with that manufacture!s pump. consider that auto fuel tanks are often made of plastic and many petroleum fuels are sold in plastic plastic containers.ote & M%4 made titanium fuel bottles for those with deep pockets and are able to locate these discontinued bottles. . camp fuels. add a good gasket to the lid and wrap it up in a fuel proof bag away from food. 6f you decide to transport fuel in a plastic bottle. lamp oils and kerosene.

or can be upgraded to include a integral shaker pin that self cleans the jets when the stove is flipped over. . #lease feel free to link to this site so that others can find it. %ome stoves come with. 6t!s easy to link to this site & simply copy the text below onto your web page or see -ow to 5ink To Qen %toves for other linking options. you may still need to carry enough items to disassemble and clean possible trouble spots.6deally. you should completely overhaul your stove prior to any backcountry trek. /ven with a stove in tip top condition. especially if you are using less than ideal fuel or on an extended trek.