Human Resource Management Strategy

Mohamed Mamoun Kahk

28 January 2012

which are directed towards the achievement of .Table of Contents 1-impact of organizational structure and culture on human resource management 3 2-how the effectiveness of human resources management is monitored in an organisation 9 3-Recommend improvements to effectiveness of human resource management. coordination and supervision. supported with justifications based on an analysis of a specific organization 12 3.Reference list 13 (An organizational structure consists of activities such as task allocation.

it provides the foundation on which standard operating procedures and routines rest. -ach division within a divisional structure contains all the necessary resources and functions within it. Functional structure -mployees within the functional divisions of an organization tend to perform a specialized set of tasks. Bureaucratic structures have a certain degree of standardization. It can also be considered as the viewing glass or perspective through which individuals see their organization and its environment An organization can be structured in many different ways. it determines which individuals get to participate in which decision#making processes. Divisional structure Also called a /product structure/. This leads to operational efficiencies within that group. making the organization slow and infle$ible. It is particularly useful for new (entrepreneurial& business as it enables the founder to control growth and development. !irst. ne might make distinctions on a geographical basis (a 1" division and an -1 division.owever it could also lead to a lack of communication between the functional groups within an organization. This structure is most common in smaller organizations and is best used to solve simple tasks. The structure is totally centralized. rganizational structure affects organizational action in two big ways.organizational aims. 0ivisions can be categorized from different points of view. The structure of an organization will determine the modes in which it operates and performs. depending on their objectives. The strategic leader makes all key decisions and most communication is done by one on one conversations. for e$ample& or on product2service basis (different products for different customers* households or companies&. The tension between bureaucratic structures and non#bureaucratic is echoed in 'urns and "talker(s distinction between mechanistic and organic structures. usually adopting a tall structure. and thus to what e$tent their views shape the organization%s actions Organizational structure types Pre-bureaucratic (entrepreneurial& structures lack standardization of tasks. The )eberian characteristics of bureaucracy are* • • • +lear defined roles and responsibilities A hierarchical structure .espect for merit. engineering and marketing departments . -ach division may have its own sales. "econd. the divisional structure groups each organizational function into a division. . They are better suited for more comple$ or larger scale organizations.

There are many different types of structure. A matri$ organization fre3uently uses teams of employees to accomplish work.<<en.g. / 0arkets are geographically separated /tastes and lifestyles vary from area to area.http. Other executives are responsible either for the ma'or regions !e. They organised into a regional structure.trategic -usiness Units !. in order to take advantage of the strengths.-Us is sub-divided into divisions. #ey strategic decisions at The Coca-Cola Company are made by an $xecutive Committee of %& Company Officers. &9%: . (s a company whose success rests on its ability to connect with local consumers* it makes sense for The Coca-Cola Company to be organised into a regional structure which combines centralization and localization .Matrix structure The matri$ structure groups employees by both function and product.The Company operates six geographic operating segments + also called . of functional and decentralized forms )1 Organizational structures are a way in which a company divides its activities among separate units and coordinates activities between those units. The Coca-Cola Company has a corporate ! ead Office" segment that is responsible for giving the Company an overall direction and providing support to the regional structure. This structure can combine the best of both separate structures. the Chief )inancial Officer. The Chair of the $xecutive Committee acts as a figurehead for the Company and chairs the board meetings.-Us" as well as corporate segment *to serve local needs better by providing more effective communication between firm and local customers * $ach of these regional . 3ivision 4resident % 5ikipedia* Organizational6structure*5ikipedia7web page8!&9%:". as well as make up for the weaknesses. The structure of a business can affect the way it works and performs. e is also the Chief $xecutive Officer !C$O" and as such he is the senior decision maker. (s do incomes and consumption patterns / 0arkets are at different stages of development Then they structure each region based on function structure according to what each sector or department does as in more local level the management of The Coca-Cola Company involves a number of functional specialism1s. The Coca-Cola Company has a tall hierarchy structure. This geographical structure recognises that.g.org<wiki<Organizational6structure=*accessed &9 >an. (frica" or have an important business specialism e. 3ivisions and regions operate as business unit teams* with each 3irector reporting to the 2eneral 0anager* i. The management structure for 2reat -ritain illustrates this the structure of Coca-Cola 2reat -ritain combines elements of centralisation and decentralisation.e.wikipedia. The Coca-Cola Company has a complex mixed structure as appear in figure below. Under the ead Office international Organizational structure is divisional organized by geographical area throughout countries or geographic regions then on each region at local level the management team organize the structure according to function structure.

3ivision reports to the 2. 3onald >.A6FF69C.tructureD(merican >ournal of . According to him.4 is particularly concerned with organizational structure because it can directly affect employee productivity and behaviour.org<content<m:FG%9<latest<H collectionIcol%%&&J<latest= accessed &9 >an. : 3r. different organizational activities take place and power is e$ecuted.. how things get done and what type of employees are re3uired for the organization%s success. &9%: C ?armeen 0ansoor and assan 3anial (slam*Organizational . This means that the structure of an organization has a powerful influence over how jobs are designed.<<www.scribd. 0cCubbrey* 2lobal functional structure* DOrganizational structure and human resource managementDD7web page8!&9%9". how decisions are made. &9%: = .tructure as 3eterminant of Organizational 4erformance.(lso there is a matrix structure in each function within any division and region e.& 6 since coca cola locally based on functional structure* that affect A0 to put suitable policies* practices and procedures that carried out through the organization and regulate the people working there* who individually and collectively contribute to the achievement of organization ob'ectives ( rganizational structure defines the chain of command and authoritative responsibilities.& 5 (A functional organization enables the organization to standardize policies. .uman-Aesource0anagement= accessed &9 >an.all (7899& these structures have two basic functions: the first is to affect the employee behaviour and last but not least is organizational performance. "tructure of the organization plays an important role both at organizational and subunit level&.com<doc<%E99&9EF<Chapter-%.cientific AesearchD. the structure of the organization is such a setting where decisions are made. practices and procedures that can be carried out throughout the organization. & s%%9:&BCC*(ssessment of influences*DChapter % uman Aesource 0anagementD7web page8!&99B". Uncovering $ssential )acets of Organic and 0echanistic . &9%:. @n addition* functions within the Company operate across geographical boundaries to share best practice !Through organizational structure the effective implementation of an organization%s strategy re3uires management to ensure that the organization%s design helps achieve its strategic objectives.<<cnx.g.ince organizational structure affect employee behaviour it affect the A0 as it hr polices and procedure also control the employee behaviour and their interaction with their managers and stakeholders * also organizational structure affect organizational performance which based on employees performance which monitored and measured by A0 5e can also say that Organization structure impacts the A0 through its impact on promotional opportunities* and the compensation structure.http.pdf accessed &9 >an. the )inance 3irector in the 2.com<(>.euro'ournals.http. According to .<<www. .4resident* but also to !dotted line" the )inance 3irector of ?orth 5est $urope 3ivision.http.

beliefs and habits. structure. +ulture includes the organization values. visions. norms. symbols. It is also the pattern of such collective behaviours and . The The Company Company operates operates six six geographic geographic operating operating segments segments – – also also called called Strategic Strategic Business Business Units Units (SBUs) (SBUs) Each Each of of these these regional regional SBUs SBUs is is su su -di!ided -di!ided into into di!isions di!isions The The U" U" fits fits into into the the #orth$est #orth$est Europe Europe section section (Organizational culture is the collective behaviour of humans who are part of an organization and the meanings that the people attach to their actions. working language. systems.The The Coca-Cola Coca-Cola Company Company organised organised into into a a regional regional structure.

/ 0an. Person Culture There are certain organizations where the employees feel that they are more important than their organization.htmaccessed . ne should always remember that organization comes first and everything else later. In a person culture# individuals are more concerned about their own self rather than the organization.charles-handy-model. 2. Power There are some organizations where the power remains in the hands of only few people and only they are authorized to take decisions. Task Culture rganizations where teams are formed to achieve the targets or solve critical problems follow the task culture. Role culture %ole culture is a culture where every employee is delegated roles and responsibilities according to his specialization# educational !ualification and interest to extract the best out of him. &ower comes with responsibility in such a work culture.wikipedia. 3. http. $very individual is accountable for something or the other and has to take ownership of the work assigned to him.)' F 5ikipedia* Organizational6culture*5ikipedia7web page8!&9%:". . "uch organizations follow a culture known as person culture./12 . In such a culture every team member has to contribute e!ually and accomplish tasks in the most innovative way. rganizational culture affects the way people and groups interact with each other. and with stakeholders& < %hen $e tal& a out organi'ational culture and according to Charles (andy)s model* (there are four types of culture which the organizations follow+ 1. The managers in such a type of culture sometimes can be partial to someone or the other leading to major unrest among others. with clients. G Charles andy*DCharles andy 0odel of Organization CultureD0anagementstudyguide* 7web page8!&9%:". They are the ones who enjoy special privileges at the workplace. They are the most important people at the workplace and are the major decision makers. and even thinking and feeling.<<en. The organization in such a culture takes a back seat and eventually suffers.. In such organizations individuals with common interests and specializations come together to form a team. The employees do not have the liberty to express their views or share their ideas on an open forum and have to follow what their superior says. &9%: .managementstudyguide. In such a culture employees decide what best they can do and willingly accept the challenge. http+. They are seldom loyal towards the management and never decide in favour of the organization. In such a culture the subordinates have no option but to strictly follow their superior’s instructions.com.$$$. $mployees just come to the office for the sake of money and never get attached to it. These individuals further delegate responsibilities to the other employees.org<wiki<Organizational6culture=*accessed &9 >an. 4.assumptions that are taught to new organizational members as a way of perceiving.

)one of these cultures is suitable to all organizations./types>f.false -in 3oogle Ei rary*.. Coca cola1s culture is defined by seven core values.urveys to monitor employee views and feelings.9?1@A>lpg. 5rganising people into teams (e./CE/F@?E$BFJ!.onepage>7.)* +ccording to Charles (andy)s model coca cola company organi'ational culture contain more than one culture ut it mainly lies under role culture ased on organi'ation structure *also $ithin the same function tas& culture is appears.CSc#A"hl#F"urhn$o'(F rs'F'U>hl. By creating a friendly.g.6(4C>pg.eg.(The value and behaviour that become embedded in a particular organization have tendency to generate one of the above types of culture .9?1@A>d7. 4oti!ated employees pro!ide the engine that dri!es the Company)s gro$th.7HIU %5Cs Ssg lto(HB?>!ed. The link between organizational culture and A0 is important. J Shamil #aoum *9eople and 5rgani'ational 4anagement in Construction*(. .G>ei.//1) . %ithin a team they are encouraged to contri ute ideas and to e inno!ati!e. Open communication channels provide the means to support a culture based on relationships.<B=B'B$. 6f they feel that something could e done etter they are encouraged to !oice that opinion. oo&s.ola has a num er of communication channels* reflect culture impact on (84 including+ / 0onthly leadership team meeting !involving function heads" / 5eekly department team meetings / 0onthly employee team briefing sessions / Consultative employee groups for each region !with representatives meeting in a $uropean Council" / . innovative culture* Coca-Cola 3reat Britain is a le to depend on a high 7uality $or&force that helps it to maintain rand leadership in 3reat Britain and in e!ery other mar&et in $hich it operates..oca-. l>ots.ACD@DEButc>sig.in certain case more than one culture can be noticed in a particular organization. oo&s: id. Trust is at the heart of e!ery relationship* $hether it e+ / Customers1 and consumers1 trust that the Company will provide the highest level of service and attention to their needs / bottling partners1 trust that the Company is operating in the best interests of the +oca#+ola system / $mployees1 trust that their contribution is being valued in an open culture.http+. 0an.handyBorgani'ationalBcultureBtypes>source./12 .handyK. Culture in coca cola is friendly* inno!ati!e culture ased on relationships* di!ersity and emphasis on team$or& and empo$erment../cultureK. Coca-Cola 3reat Britain sees its employees as its most important asset. .en>sa.com. . mar&eting* sales or product teams) encourages people to feel !alued./organi'ationalK.//L accessed .google. A0 activities contribute to the development of an organization1s culture and provide it with a competitive edge by stimulating and reinforcing the specific behaviours1 needed to achieve the organization1s strategic ob'ectives.

Coca-Cola diversity workplace affect its culture which has its impact on A0 strategy includes programs to attract* retain* and develop diverse talentN provide support systems for groups with diverse backgroundsN and educate all associates so that they master the skills to achieve sustainable growth. leverage collective genius (ccountability. (ccelerate carbonated soft drinks growth* led by +oca#+ola . seek* imagine* create* delight Muality. @n coca cola the Company has established six strategic priorities and has built these into every aspect of its business. if it is to be* itLs up to me @nnovation. Together with our passion for success @ntegrity. 5e can say that organizational culture has its impact on A0 and also A0 impact the organizational culture* as organizational culture come from collective behaviour of humans who are part of an organization and . be real Collaboration. %.4 concern with management of an organization(s workforce.• • • • • • • Keadership. (nd also by employees central promise at The Coca-Cola Company is to refresh the world in mind* body* and spirit* and inspire moments of optimismN to create value and make a difference. what we do* we do well. or human resources and regulate the way people and groups interact with each other. the courage to shape a better future 4assion.. To monitor the A0 effectiveness in an organization we must take in consideration the monitoring of A0 strategy and it1s aligning with organizational strategy * A0 polices and practice and A operation.

-roaden the family of products* wherever appropriate e. Creatively serve customers !e. The most popular of these are. These repurchases are in line with the targeted range of R&.: billion. There are several methods of Puantitative measuring the effectiveness of A0.atisfaction 5orkplace Compliance In coca cola Company-wide productivity initiatives are well on track to slightly exceed the upper end of original targeted range of Qear-to-date net share repurchases totalled R&. 5e also have site 'oint consultation forums with recognized trade .g. . bottled water* tea* coffee* 'uices* energy drinks :.g. $arly leavers (verage revenue by employee $mployee $ngagement<. Customer satisfaction.&. 2row system profitability O capability together with the bottlers C. 3rive efficiency O cost effectiveness by using technology and large scale production to control costs enabling our people to achieve extraordinary results every day. retailers" to build their businesses F. They need them to feel that they play a real part in helping the business meet its goals and have an understanding of what they are. • • • • • • • • (bsenteeism Aates. To align with organization ob'ectives A0 put a strategy to recruit a high Puality workforce and provide them with rePuired training and development programme that helps it to maintain brand leadership in 2reat -ritain and in every other market in which it operates. They have several different ways of measuring employeesL level of engagement with the business and satisfaction with their working lives* Coca-Cola $nterprises believe in meaningful and constructive dialogue and have established employee representative groups in the national and local -usiness Connection groups* these groups cover all employees. @nvest intelligently in market growth G.F to R:.taff turnover or labour turnover. 4roductivity.9 billion in net share repurchases for the full year !coca cola M:-&9%& data" @n coca cola success depends on motivated and committed employees.

http. igh staff turnover can hurt Coca cola1s ability to compete* because replacing valuable staff is expressive. &9%: B 4hilip . &9%: .wikipedia.org<wiki<$mployee6turnover=*accessed &9 >an.html=*accessed &9 >an. f late the development of scientifically based measurement tools for human resource effectiveness and efficiency have been developed that can be used to measure this dimension more accurately. The tools include scientifically developed surveys that are regularly conducted across the organization and comprehensive human resource audits based on scientifically developed audit protocols .http. pro'ect reportD7web document8!&99G" .ac.unions.http.)D ("ystems of monitoring often employed by companies include the benchmarking of .<<en.yahoo. customer surveys and customer feedback& 8 @n coca cola they regularly conduct surveys to monitor employee views and feelings* employee engagement surveys and representative groups help them to gather information across the company and to work with their people to continue their 'ourney to becoming the best beverage sales and customer services company and developing a winning and inclusive culture !. E Carl 0arx* D0easuring uman Aesource $fficiency and $ffectivenessD yahoo voices* 7web page8!&9%9" .tiles and >onathan Trevor*D-est practice and key themes in global human resource management.uk<research<downloads<ghrra6report..cam. They work collaboratively with all representative bodies and they committed to listening to their employees.pdf=*accessed &9 >an. costs. employee surveys.<<voices.igh turnover may be harmful to a company(s productivity if skilled workers are often leaving and the worker population contains a high percentage of novice workers"%9 @n coca cola 2reat -ritain $mployee turnover is Overall &%S compared to Coca-Cola $nterprises Overall F.cihrm.com<measuring-human-resource-efficiency-effectiveness-J:CF%EG. @n coca cola Company Customer satisfaction reflected from customers1 and consumers1 trust that the Company will provide the highest level of service and attention to their needs (Areas that deal with notoriously imprecise 3ualities such as human resource effectiveness can pose measurement problems.'bs.ummary &9%%<%&".<<www.ustainability .GS which is high percentage !Coca cola Corporate Aesponsibility O . &9%: %9 5ikipedia* $mployee turnover* 5ikipedia7web page8!&9%:" .

=romoting a work environment that fosters personal and professional growth promotes harmony and encouragement on all levels. continual training and reinforcement develops a work force that is competent. lowers employee turnover and absentee rates. . >etworking and strategizing within the company provides ongoing performance management and helps build relationships among co#workers it is also important to motivate employees to focus on customer success.http.<<en. consistent. providing the individual with the necessary skills to perform their job is important. new purchases. competitive. so the effects are felt company wide. 'eginning on the first day of work. &9%: . motivated and empowered individuals. policy changes. effective and efficient. -arly engagement and engagement along the way.org<wiki<$mployee6turnover=*accessed &9 >an. it is important the interview and hiring process e$pose new hires to an e$planation of the company. profitable growth and the company well#being. as well as introducing new employees to the employees who have gone above and beyond in meetings. which fosters happy. -mployers can keep their employees informed and involved by including them in future plans. %% 5ikipedia* $mployee turnover* 5ikipedia7web page8!&9%:" .wikipedia.5e can improve effectiveness of human resources in coca cola by knowing the factors for high staff turnover as it1s one of the largest costs in all different types of organizations* and try to resolve this problem by applying $mployee Aetention 4rogram to increase loyalty and therefore productivity by ! =roviding a stimulating workplace environment. so individuals know whether the job is their best choice. shows employees they are valuable through information or recognition rewards. making them feel included& 77 5e can also improve effectiveness of human resources in coca cola by improve Communication 4roblems between functions that arise due to functional structure by conduct monthly Puarterly meeting to all local company and monthly meeting to all functional managers. 'efore the first day.

&9%:.http.wikipedia.euro'ournals. 3onald >. &9%: ?armeen 0ansoor and assan 3anial (slam*Organizational .com<(>.com<ourcompany<diversity<workplace-culture=*accessed &9 >an.uman-Aesource-0anagement= accessed &9 >an. &9%: • • 3r. &9%: • s%%9:&BCC*(ssessment of influences*DChapter % uman Aesource 0anagementD7web page8 !&99B".ummary &9%%<%&D*coca cola* 7web page8 !&9%%&"http. &9%: • • 4hilip . &9%: • i!i ealth.swotwea!ness-cocacola-high-staff-turnover0.uk<research<downloads<ghrra6report.ustainability .com<news-and-events<newsletter<compliance-newsletter-september-&9%%<effective-hr. http.<<en.cihrm.org<content<m:FG%9<latest<HcollectionIcol%%&&J<latest= accessed &9 >an.tiles and >onathan Trevor*D-est practice and key themes in global human resource management.<<www.yahoo.<<www.com<doc<%E99&9EF<Chapter-%.uk<big-themes<workplace.coca-colacompany. "#igh $taff %urnover &'oca-'ola"(.org<wiki<Organizational6structure=*accessed &9 >an.<<en.http-.html • • 5ikipedia* Organizational6culture*5ikipedia7web page8!&9%:".A6FF69C.<<www.pdf=*accessed &9 >an. pro'ect reportD7web document8 !&99G" .html=*accessed &9 >an.aspx=*accessed &9 >an.org<wiki<$mployee6turnover=*accessed &9 >an.accessed 2+ 1an/ 2+13 .http.org<wiki<Organizational6culture=*accessed &9 >an. Uncovering $ssential )acets of Organic and 0echanistic . &9%:. &9%: coca cola *D Corporate Aesponsibility O . &9%: coca-cola company *D5orkplace Culture D*coca-cola company7web page8!&9%:" .ac.<<voices.wikipedia. &9%: • 5ikipedia* $mployee turnover* 5ikipedia7web page8!&9%:" .Aeferences • • Carl 0arx* D0easuring uman Aesource $fficiency and $ffectivenessD yahoo voices* 7web page8!&9%9" .http.cam. )web page*&2+12(. http.'bs.tructureD(merican >ournal of . i!i ealth.www/wi!iwealth/com.tructure as 3eterminant of Organizational 4erformance.<<www.kpaonline.http.http..<<www.http.<<cnx.<<www. 0cCubbrey* 2lobal functional structure* DOrganizational structure and human resource managementDD7web page8 !&9%9".cokecorporateresponsibility.pdf=accessed &9 >an.<<en.wikipedia.com<measuring-human-resource-efficiency-effectiveness-J:CF%EG.http.cientific AesearchD.co. http. 5ikipedia* Organizational6structure*5ikipedia7web page8!&9%:".scribd.