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This is to certify that this project entitled SOLAR POWERED BATTERY CHARGING Submitted by SIDDALINGESHWARA HIREMATH with Register No 114 1!LDME404 is submitted on 31. !." 13 to the KARNATAKA STATE OPEN UNIVERSITY # $arnata%a# &ndia# in partial fulfillment of the re'uirements for the award of D"#$%&' "( MECHANICAL ENGG is a record of bonafied wor% underta%en by her(him. Student Name) SIDDALINGESHWARA .* $,NN,N Signature) -ate) Study .enter Name) S/T 0angalore Seal of Study .entre 12ternal +uide Name) -esignation) 12ternal +uide Signature) -ate) -ate) &nternal +uide Signature) &nternal +uide Name)


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AUTOMATIC BRAKING SYSTEM A PRO)ECT REPORT Submitted by SIDDALINGESHWARA HIREMATHA 114 1!LDME404 Under the guidance of M*+ K'(('( I( #'*,"'$ -.$-"$$&/(, %- ,0/ */1."*/&/(, F%* ,0/ '2'*3 %- ,0/ 3/4*// %D"#$%&' "n M/50'("5'$ /(4"(//*"(4

S0'*'3' V"6'7 T*.7,


-$%%*+ L'670&" 5%&#$/9, 10,0 &'"(

7,0 5*%77, 4,0 :$%56, )';'('4'*, B'(4'$%*/-11

).(/ 01!



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& certify that

a. The wor% contained in this report is original and has been done by me under the guidance of my super3isor4s5. b. The wor% has not been submitted to any other &nstitute for any degree or diploma.

c. & ha3e followed the guidelines pro3ided by the &nstitute in preparing the report. d. & ha3e conformed to the norms and guidelines gi3en in the 1thical .ode of .onduct of the &nstitute.


6hene3er & ha3e used materials 4data# theoretical analysis# figures# and te2t5 from other sources# & ha3e gi3en due credit to them by citing them in the te2t of the report and gi3ing their details in the references. 7urther# & ha3e ta%en permission from the copyright owners of the sources# whene3er necessary.

Signature of the Student



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To e2ecute a project honestly is the cherished desire of any would be engineer and to do this we are no e2ception that we ha3e managed to achie3e this at all.

6e than% to M*+ K'(('( his guidance 8 helping us in all the possible ways to complete this project. 6e e2press our sincere than%s towards our guide for his unstinted support 8 commitment to ma%e our project see light of today and the college for use of their facilities.

Table of Content


Page 4


1. 2. 3. 4. ". Introdu t!on #e$!gn Con&er$!on o' (o)er *+o) ,art " % 13 3"

Summary and .onclusions

KSOU Page "







Page -











o//un! at!on !n a+/o$t a++ t,e

ountr!e$ t,roug,out t,e )or+d. T,ere urrent+. !n u$e$ and t,e nu/0er o$t o' (rodu t!on +o)er$.

are )e++ o&er " 0!++!on /o0!+e (,one$

!$ gro)!ng a$ te ,no+og. get$ 0etter and t,e

Ho)e&er1 t,e /a!n (ro0+e/ !$ t,e a&erage +!'et!/e o' a (,one 0atter. !$ +e$$ t,an 12 ,our$ )!t, /oderate u$age. T,!$ 0e o/e$ &er. !n on&en!ent 'or (eo(+e on t,e road or o ne)e$t te ,no+og. o' $o+ar (,one T,!$ (ro e$$ $t!++ 'or e$ a+ong )!t, t,e!r u(!ed )!t, )or3. In order to ,arger$. T,e re ,arge t,e (,one1 (eo(+e /u$t 0r!ng )a++ (,one

,arger$ !$ a $e(arate de&! e t,at arr. around anot,er de&! e

u$e$ a $/a++ $o+ar (ane+ to a0$or0 +!g,t and t,en tran$'er to t,e (,one. u$to/er$ to e++ (,one$.

Our (ro4e t goa+ !$ to de&e+o( a /!n!ature $o+ar (ane+ to 0e !n$ta++ed onto t,e e + + ( , o n e ! t $ e + ' . T , ! $ ) a .1 t , e ( , o n e an ,arge ! n d e ( e n d e n t + .5 ! n d e ( e n d e n t o ' ( o ) e r o u t + e t $ a n d ! n d e ( e n d e n t o ' ) ! r e $ . T,ere )on6t 0e an. need 'or e+e tr! a+ out+et$ or (orta0+e $o+ar (ane+$. T,e /o0!+e (,one )!++ 0e a0+e to , a r g e a n .) , e r e o u t $ ! d e o r ) , e r e ! t e++ )!++ 0e 0u!+t !nto t,e ,arge t,e de&! e ),!+e !n !$ e7(o$ed to $un +!g,t. A /!n!ature $o+ar (,one and a0+e to a0$or0 enoug, $un+!g,t to u$e.

Be!ng +!0erated 'ro/ )!re$ and (o)er out+et$ !$ 4u$t one o' t,e /an. ad&antage$ o' ,a&!ng $o+ar (ane+$ on /o&e/ent to ,e+( )!++ $a&e e++ (,one$. A$ t,e )or+d6$ re$our e$ are d!/!n!$,!ng1 go&ern/ent$ are en ourag!ng 'or a green o n $ e r & e t , e + ! / ! t e d $ u ( ( + .. S o + a r e n e r g . ! $ g a ! n ! n g 0!++$. T,e energ. !$ a+$o (o(u+ar!t. 0e au$e o' t,e 'ree and a0undant energ.. T,!$ 'a t a+one u$to/er$ /one. on t,e!r e+e tr!


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+ean and (rodu e$ no ,a9ardou$ )a$te +!3e $o/e o' t,e ot,er (o)er generat!on re$our e$.

Re$ear , (ro4e t !n +ude$ t,e !/(+e/entat!on o' ,o/e/ade $o+ar (ane+$ 0u!+t 0. t,e t)o /a+e te ,n! !an$ !n t,e !ndu$tr!a+ re4e t P; e++$ t,at t,e. oo(erat!&e. :ade 'ro/ an 0u. 'or an a''orda0+e (r! e1 e$$ to e+e tr! !t..

t,e$e (ane+$ ,a&e 0roug,t e+e tr! a+ (o)er to /an. ,o/e$ !n t,e $urround!ng area t,at )ou+d ot,er)!$e 0e )!t,out a


urrent /et,od 'or /a3!ng t,e$e $o+ar (ane+$ !n&o+&e$ e++$ !nto e&en <uarter$ ),! , t,e. t,en onne t !n

utt!ng $o+ar

$er!e$. S!n e ea , <uarter out(ut$ t,e $a/e &o+tage a$ t,e or!g!na+ e++1 t,e. do t,!$ to $te( u( t,e o&era++ &o+tage out(ut. T,e. t,en en a($u+ate t,!$ a$$e/0+. !n $!+! one and )!t,!n an a+u/!nu/ 'ra/e. o&er !t )!t, a g+a$$ a$!ng

T,e P; /ea$ure$ %=1"

e++$ and S!+! one En a($u+at!on are $,!((ed !n 'ro/ t,e onta t$. Ea , o' t,e $o+ar e++$ t,e. $,!( !n urrent onne t o/(+ete / and ,a$ a &o+tage out(ut o' 2."; and a /a7 e++$ !nto 'our (art$ and t,en

State$ 0. t,e!r A/er! an

out(ut o' 2 A. T,e. $(+!t t,e

t,e/ !n $er!e$ to $te( u( t,e &o+tage out(ut 'ro/ t,e (ane+ 'or re ,arg!ng or!g!na+

a$$e/0+. to - &o+t$. Current+. t,e. ,a&e a+read. /anu'a tured one e++ (,one$. T,e$e (ane+$ are /ade u$!ng 3 e++$ ea , >:a3!ng 12 $/a++ e++$ t,at are $(+!t !nto 4 $/a++er

e++$ !n tota+? ),! , are )!red !n $er!e$ 'or a &o+tage out(ut o' - ;. T,e &o+tage !$ dro((ed o&er a re$!$tor to t,e re<u!red &o+tage to r e , a r g e t , e 0 a t t e r ..

U n ' o r t u n a t e + .1 ) , e n t , e ,en e are te ,no+og. and /e ,an! a++.

e++$ are utt!ng t,e

ut1 /an. o' t,e/ 0rea3 and e$$ to +a$er utt!ng e++$ +ead$ to a +arge a/ount

o$t !ne''e t!&e. T,e. do not ,a&e a


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o' )a$tage. T,e e++$ /u$t a+$o 0e ut +arger t,an t,e t,eoret! a+ area ut edge$. To $o+&e t,!$ (ro0+e/1 an 0e atta ,ed to a e++$1@ ),! , toget,er )!++ out(ut ,arg!ng (ro e$$. It )!++

0e au$e o' t,e e''! !en . +o$t at t,e )e ,a&e de&e+o(ed a (ane+ on$!$t!ng o' t,ree @or!g!na+

!r u!tr. atta ,/ent t,at

1.";. T,e atta ,/ent )!++ $te( u( t,e &o+tage to t,e re<u!red a/ount >";? ),!+e regu+at!ng t,e urrent dur!ng t,e ut ,en e e+!/!nate t,e need 'or t,e/ to e++$ and ,en e $a&e /one..

Design Specifications T,e$e )ere t,e our (ro4e tA

1. T,e ent!re $.$te/ $,ou+d 0e 0u!+t !nd!genou$+. 0u!+t !n order to

on$!derat!on$ )e too3 !nto a

ount ),!+e de$!gn!ng

( r o & ! d e 4 o 0 $ a n d a $ e + ' B $ u $ t a ! n ! n g ( r o d u t ! o n $ .$ t e /
2. T,e (rodu t $,ou+d 0e ea$. to &!$ua+!9e and $,ou+d /!n!/!9e de$!gn

o / ( + e 7 ! t .1 0 u t $ , o u + d 0 e d u r a 0 + e a n d a 0 + e t o r e $ ! $ t d a / a g e ) , e n ,and+ed on a da!+. 0a$!$.

3. It $,ou+d 0e ae$t,et! a++. a((ea+!ng and ea$. to u$e $o t,at t,e (u0+!

an u$e !t )!t,out a$$!$tan e.

4. T,e (rodu t $,ou+d 0e a0+e to

,arge a

e++ (,one !n a $!/!+ar t!/e o/(+ete

'ra/e to t,e ,arge . +e.

urrent /et,od1 /ean!ng )!t,!n - ,our$ 'or a

". T,e (rodu t $,ou+d 0e &er$at!+e and

,arge t,e d!''erent

e++ (,one

0rand$ a&a!+a0+e !n t,e



Page C


Prototype Design
*or our de$!gn (ro edure1 )e u$ed an IP,one 4 a$ t,e /ode+ /o0!+e (,one. T,ere )!++ 0e t)o d!''erent $o+ar (ane+$ u$ed on t,e (,one1 one (+a ed on ea , $!de. T,e 0a 3 o' t,e /o0!+e (,one )!++ 0e o/(+ete+. )ant to $o+ar o' t,e o & e r e d 0 . a $ o + a r ( a n e + . A n .t ! / e u $ e r $ a r e o u t $ ! d e a n d an 4u$t $et !t do)n )!t, t,e 0a 3 ,arge. T,e 'ront e++. T,e (+an !$ to (+a e an e++ (,one $ reen. ,arge t,e!r (,one1 t,e.

e++ 'a !ng to)ard$ t,e $un and t,e (,one )!++ e++ (,one )!++ a+$o 'eature a $o+ar e++ )!t,!n t,e$ o' t,e

u+trat,!n '!+/ o' $o+ar

Front Screen


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T,e$ o' t,e tou , $ reen on t,e 'ront o' t,e IP,one 4 are de(! ted !n t,e !/age a0o&e. Our (+an !$ to (+a e an u+trat,!n $e/!B tran$(arent $o+ar e++ on 0eneat, t,e g+a$$ $u0$trate T,!$ )!++ a++o) 'or $o+ar energ. to 0e a0$or0ed ),!+e t,e (,one !$ 'a !ng u( t o ) a r d $ t , e $ 3 .. A n o t , e r 0 e n e ' ! t t o t , ! $ + a .e r ( + a e / e n t ! $ t , a t t , e LE# 'ro/ t,e (,one )!++ a+$o (rodu e energ. 'or t,e $o+ar e++ $o t,at


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t,e '!+/ )!++ ,a&e (o)er add ne)1 !nno&at!&e o / ! n g ' r o / 0 o t , ) a .$ 1 0 u t / o $ t + . ' r o / t , e t e , n o + o g .. T , ! $ g + a $ $ e++

$un. A$ a re(+a e/ent 'or t,e g+a$$ $u0$trate +a.er1 )e ,a&e de !ded to on entrated (,oto&o+ta! re(+a e/ent !$ a ne) te ,no+og. 'o u$ed on d!&erg!ng t,e d!''erent energ!e$ and $end!ng t,e $(e !'! /agn!'.!ng '!+/. T,e $o+ar a $e/!Btran$(arent '!+/ /a. (,one d!$(+a.. (,oton$ a0$or0ed 0. t,e $o+ar /ater!a+. T,!$ (ro e$$ !$ done 0. /!rror$ and +en$e$ )!t,!n t,e e + + + a .e r o n t , e ' r o n t ! $ o n + . a n o ( t ! o n a $ au$e $o/e !n on&en!en e !n $ee!ng t,e

T,e '!+/ u$ed on t,e 'ront )!++ 0e ne) te ,no+og. t,at )a$ de&e+o(ed 'ro/ d!''erent $our e$A U+trat,!n1 tran$(arent and '+e7!0+e $o+ar e++$.

A re$ear , grou( at t,e Un!&er$!t. o' I++!no!$ >Pro'. Do,n Roger$? ,a$ /! ron$? t,at on'!r/ed t,at t,ere are ne) et , /et,od$ 'or S!+! on and an 0e 'or/ed !nto /! ro $o+ar e++$. G a + + ! u / A r $ e n ! d e ) , ! , a + + o ) $ + ! ! n g o ' ' u + t r a t , ! n ) a ' e r + a .e r $ > 2 B 2 2


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T,e t,!n geo/etr. )!++ not on+. redu e t,e (a$$!&e t,er/a+ d!$$!(at!on /u , /ore e''e t!&e on&ent!ona+ 0u+3

o$t 0ut a+$o /a3e o/(ared to t,e

e++$. T,!$ a$(e t !$ (art! u+ar+. !/(ortant 'or an 0e de'!ned at t,e a$$e/0+. $tage a$ an 0e ontro++ed. Se/(r!u$

o n e n t r a t o r $ .$ t e / $ a n d $ ! / ( + ! ' ! e $ t , e d e $ ! g n o ' t , e ' o u $ ! n g o ( t ! $ . E&en t,e o(t! a+ tran$(aren . t,e $(a !ng 0et)een !nd!&!dua+ /! ro e++$ o n $ ! / ! + a r t e , n o + o g ..

o. ,a$ 0u!+t )or3!ng (rotot.(e$ ),! , are EOT '+e7!0+e 0ut are 0a$ed

T,e $o+ar

o/(an. 3no)n a$ Konar3a a+$o /a3e$ organ!


e++$ /ade 'ro/ '+e7!0+e (+a$t!

and ,a$ de&e+o(ed a tran$(arent $o+ar

e++ t,at !t ,o(e$ )!++ 0e 0u!+t onto e+e tr! !t. generat!ng )!ndo)$. FIt !$ energ.B e''! !ent and tran$(arent )!t, $u(er!or &ert! a+ (er'or/an e and a $u0t+e red1 0+ue or green ae$t,et! . G!t, t,e$e 'eature$1 BIP; >0u!+d!ngB!ntegrated (,oto&o+ta! $? )!++ no +onger need to 0e !n a $tate/ent. But t,e$e organ! >on+. I-J? at on'!ned to $(andre+ or o&er,ead a((+! at!on$1H Ar , CEO Leon S!+&er$te!n $a!d (,oto&o+ta! $ are EOT &er. e''! !ent on&ert!ng $un+!g,t to e+e tr! !t. and )on6t +a$t a$ +ong

a $ a r o o ' t o ( $ o + a r ( a n e + 1 ) , ! , ! $ t .( ! a + + . u n d e r ) a r r a n t . ' o r 2 " .ear$. A+t,oug, ,a&!ng t,!$ !n add!t!on to t,e $o+ar (ane+ on t,e 0a 3 o' t,e (,one )!++ erta!n+. ,e+( t,e ,arg!ng (ro e$$.


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Back Panel

T,e d!/en$!on$ o' t,e IP,one 4 are 112 // ,!g, 0. "C // )!de and C.4 // dee(. *or t,!$ , ! g , B e ' ' ! ! e n .1 a$e1 )e )ou+d ,a&e a $o+ar ,ara ter!$t! $ e++ )!t, t,!n1 nonBtran$(arent to a++o) /a7!/u/

$o+ar energ. a0$or(t!on. T,e d!/en$!on$ 'or t,!$ $!tuat!on )ou+d 0e $et


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at 122 // 0. "2 // to ta3e o&er /o$t o' t,e (,one6$ 0a 3 (ane+ $ur'a e.

T,!$ $!de )ou+d 0e t,e /o$t e''! !ent energ. a0$or0!ng u+trat,!n /agn!'.!ng + a .e r )ou+d a+$o 0e u$ed !n$tead o'

e++ o' g+a$$

t,e t)o '!+/$ u$ed on t,!$ de&! e. In order to !n rea$e e''! !en .1 an $u0$trate to 0ot, (rote t t,e $o+ar a0$or(t!on. T,ere )ou+d 0e an arra. o' /odu+e$ )or3!ng a0$or0 energ. and 'eed t,e e++ (,one. oo(erat!&e+. to e++$ and /agn!'. t,e (,oton!

Hyper Magnifying Technology

:odern da. $o+ar (ane+$ a&erage around 12J to 1%J e''! !en . ) , e n a 0 $ o r 0 ! n g $ o + a r e n e r g .. T , ! $ ! + + u $ t r a t e $ a g r e a t + o $ $ o ' ( o ) e r a n d e7(o$e$ t,e (oor te ,no+og. t,at !$ urrent+. around. T,e (o)er +o$$e$


Page 1"


are e7(+a!ned 0. t,e )!de &ar!et. o' (,oton! a0$or0ed e''e t!&e+. 0. t,e !/(ure $!+! on /ater!a+. energ. tran$/!tted an 0e

t,roug, $o+ar ra.$. On+. a 'ra t!on o' t,e (,oton energ.

Ee) de&e+o(/ent$ !n (otent!a++. <u!ntu(+ed t,e

on entrated (,oto&o+ta! e''! !en . o' t,e

te ,no+og. ,a&e (ane+$. T,!$


!nno&at!&e te ,no+og. e/(+o.$ o(t! a+ e<u!(/ent $u , a$ /!rror$ and +en$e$ to /agn!'. $o+ar energ.. T,!$ t,!n /agn!'.!ng '!+/ t,at !$ 0e!ng reated ,a$ t,e a0!+!t. to $e(arate t,e d!''erent $(e tru/$ and route t,e ne e$$ar. energ. to e7a t+. ),ere t,e. are needed on t,e $o+ar e++$. T,!$ )ou+d t,e $o+ar e++$ ,!g,+. e''! !ent.

Final Design
T , e ( r o t o t . ( e u $ e $ a $ ! / ( + e , ! n g e d $ .$ t e / ) , ! , $ e r & e $ t ) o (ur(o$e$A












(er(end! u+ar (+anar ang+e. T,e (ane+ !$ ,e+d !n (o$!t!on 0. a not ,ed ) e d g e $ .$ t e / . T o ( r o t e t t , e !ndoor$. It$ !r u!tr. and (,one 'ro/ an. +!g,t ra!n ,an e to 0r!ng t,e $.$te/ e++$ >$,o)n 0e+o) t,at /a. 0eg!n 0e'ore t,e u$er ,a$ a

o / ( a t d e $ ! g n / a 3 e $ ! t ( o r t a 0 + e 1 ) , ! + e ! t $ e a $ .B t o B u $ e

( + u g / a 3 e $ ! t $ ! / ( + e ' o r a n .o n e t o u $ e . T , r e e $ o + a r +e't? (rodu e a &o+tage d!''eren e o' 1.";.

T,!$ !$ 'ed !nto t,e !nterna+

!r u!tr. ),! , !$

o&ered 0. t,e

/eta+ (ane+ ne7t to t,e ,!nge >$,o)n 0e+o) r!g,t? ),ere !t !$ $te((ed


Page 1-


u( to an e&en "; u$!ng a d!''erent!a+ a/(+!'!er !n re<u!red ,arge an. o' t,e e++ (,one$ )e en ountered. on4un t!on )!t, t,e

!r u!tr. >See *!g "?. T,!$ !$ t,e re<u!red &o+tage !n(ut to

Fig. 3: Inside, Circuitry under metal panel Solar Cells

Indigenously Designed T,e $.$te/ !$ de$!gned $o t,at !t o/(onent$ >na/e+. t,e $o+ar need to 0e !/(orted !nto t,e 0ut1 $!n e t,!$ o an 0e a$$e/0+ed o/(+ete+. 'ro/ o/(onent$? onta t$

$ rat , )!t, t,e re$our e$ a&a!+a0+e to our

o//un!t. (artner$. So/e !r u!tr.

e++$ and $o/e

o//un!t. 0. t,e!r A/er! an

ur$ an.)a.1 )e do not t,!n3 !t )!++ 0e a (ro0+e/.


Page 18


Fig. 4: Images of Solar Panels currently in production


y of the Solar Cell

Photo!oltaic Cells T,e (,oto&o+ta! dr!&!ng 'or e 0e,!nd $o+ar (ane+$ 0eg!n$ )!t, t,e

e++$. T,e$e

e++$ are re$(on$!0+e 'or

on&ert!ng (,oton$

'ro/ t,e $o+ar +!g,t d!re t+. !nto e+e tron$. T,e na/e !t$e+' or!g!nate$ 'ro/ Gree3 )ord$ and F+!g,tH and &o+ta! an 0e 0ro3en do)n to (,oto ),! , /ean$ e++$ ) , ! , t r a n $ + a t e $ t o F e + e t r ! ! t .H . P , o t o & o + t a ! ondu tor$ and !n$u+ator$ ),en !t ' + o ) . E o r / a + + .1 t,e /o$t

are 'a0r! ated 'ro/ $(e !a+ /ater!a+ 3no)n a$ $e/! ondu tor$ ),! , 'a++ r!g,t !n 0et)een /agn!tude o/e$ to t,e o' e+e tron o//on+. u$ed

$e/! ondu tor !$ S!+! on.

Silicon" Se

iconductor Material


Page 1%


S!+! on !$ t,e /o$t 0e au$e $o+ar o' !t$ a0!+!t. o//on $e/! ondu tor u$ed !n $o+ar (ane+$ to re/a!n a $e/! ondu tor at &er. ,!g,

te/(erature$ under t,e $un. Ho)e&er1 t,e $!+! on /ater!a+ u$ed !n e++$ /u$t 0e do(ed and /ade !/(ure 0e au$e (ure $!+! on ondu tor o' e+e tron$. On e t,e urrent. r .$ t a + + ! n e $ e r & e $ a $ a & e r . ( o o r e+e tron$ out o' t,e!r

$!+! on /ater!a+ !$ do(ed1 a +ot +e$$ energ. !$ needed to 3no 3 t,e onne t!on$ !nto a 'ree '+o)!ng

Solar Panels

F:odu+e$H or grou($ o' (,oto&o+ta! on entrated. T,e$e

e++$ e+e tr! a++.

onne ted an 0e

toget,er are (+a ed !nto 'ra/e$ ),ere energ. a0$or(t!on

a$!ng$ are (+a ed ne7t to ea , ot,er o&er a oat!ng !$ added to t,e $o+ar reate dura0!+!t. and

re+at!&e+. +arge $ur'a e area to 0e a$ e''! !ent a$ (o$$!0+e ),en a0$or0!ng t,e +!g,t. An ant!Bre'+e t!&e A 0 o & e t , a t + a .e r 1 a g + a $ $ (rote t aga!n$t ero$!on. (ane+$ to redu e (o)er +o$$e$ and o0ta!n /a7!/u/ a0$or(t!on a0!+!t.. o&er (+ate !$ u$ed to


Page 1C


Con!ersion of Photons to #lectrons

G,en $o+ar ra.$

o++!de )!t, t,e (,oto&o+ta!

e++$1 t,e (,oton!

energ. !$ a0$or0ed and tran$'erred )!t,!n t,e $e/! ondu tor /ater!a+. On e t,e (,oton$ are a0$or0ed1 t,e ,eat re$(e t!&e $,e++$. T,e (,oton! energ. au$e$ e+e tron$ to +ea&e t,e!r o++!de$ )!t, t,e e+e tron$ an '!e+d$ (rodu ed 0.

'ree!ng t,e/ to '+o) )!t,out re$tr! t!on$. T,!$ 'ree '+o)!ng energ. 0e /o&ed !nto an. d!re t!on 0. t,e natura+ e+e tr! t,e (,oto&o+ta! d!re t!ng t,e e++$. T,e e+e tr!

'!e+d$ 'or e t,e e+e tron$ !nto a onta t$ are (+a ed urrent !$

urrent '+o)!ng !n a $!ng+e d!re t!on. Anot,er 'or/ o' a $u((ort to urrent !$ art!'! !a++. /ade. :eta++! a0o&e and 0e+o) t,e $o+ar e++$1 $er&!ng a$ a gu!de to t,e 'ree '+o)!ng e++1 t,e (o)er )attage !$

e n e r g .1 d ! r e t ! n g ! t ! n o n e d ! r e t ! o n . O n e t , e ' + o ) ! n g o/0!ned )!t, t,e &o+tage 'ro/ t,e (rodu ed.


Page 22


Po$er %osses

ord!ng to t,e U.S. #e(art/ent o' Energ.1 t,e a&erage $o+ar a n 0 e e 7 ( + a ! n e d 0 . a n a + .9 ! n g t , e e + e t r o / a g n e t !

e++6$ e''! !en . !$ on+. a0out 12J to 1%J. T,e (o)er +o$$e$ are $u0$tant!a+ and $ ( e t r u / . G , e n $ o + a r r a .$ a r e $ , ! n e d d o ) n 1 + ! g , t ! $ t , e o n + . & ! $ ! 0 + e (art o' t,e $(e tru/. Ho)e&er1 t,ere !$ a 0road range o' )a&e+engt,$ t,at a++ o / e ) ! t , ! n t , e $ o + a r r a .$ ) , ! , an 0e a (ro0+e/ ),en a 0 $ o r 0 ! n g e n e r g . e ' ' ! ! e n t + .. I n o r d e r ' o r t , e e + e t r o n $ ! n t , e d o ( e d $!+! on to 0e 3no 3ed 'ree1 a $(e !'! a/ount o' energ. 3no)n a$ t,e 0and ga( energ. !$ needed. P,oton$ )!t, too /u , energ. or not enoug, energ. )!++ not d!$ onne t t,e e+e tron grou($. T,e /o$t o(t!/a+ ,o! e 'or 0and ga( energ. !$ a+ u+ated to 0e a0out 1.4 e;.

Anot,er $!tuat!on ),ere (o)er !$ +o$t !$ ),en t,e e+e tron$ are 3no 3ed 'ree+. and tran$'erred a ro$$ t,e $o+ar e++ !n urrent$ reated


Page 21


0. t,e e+e tr! '!e+d$ and ondu t!ng /ater!a+$. #ur!ng tra&e+1 $e&era+ urrent.

e+e tron$ are 0+o 3ed o'' 0. t,e gr!d or 'a++ out o' t,e

Ad!antages of Solar Po$er

Current+.1 $o+ar (o)er ,a$ t,e $/a++e$t /ar3et !n t,e Un!ted State$ o/!ng !n at 2.21J o' a++ (o)er generat!on1 .et t,ere !$ an un+!/!ted $u((+.. Ho)e&er1 t,e !ndu$tr. !$ ga!n!ng (o(u+ar!t. ea , .ear. It !$ e$t!/ated t,at !n 222"1 o' t,e ent!re )or+d6$ (o)er generat!on1 12 (er ent )!++ 0e $o+ar (o)er. T,ere are /an. ad&antage$ to $o+ar (o)er generat!on. *!r$t+.1 t,e o$t 'or o0ta!n!ng $o+ar (o)er !$ e$$ent!a++. 'ree. A$ +ong a$ t,e +ean and 0e$t ,u/an ra e )!++ 0e around1 t,e $un )!++ a+)a.$ 0e $,!n!ng $o t,!$ !$ t,e /o$t a0undant energ. $our e. So+ar energ. !$ a+$o 'or A on$er&!ng t,e en&!ron/ent a/ong 'or/$ o' energ. generat!on. ord!ng to a $o+ar energ. )e0 (age1 FIn one ,our /ore $un+!g,t 'a++$

on t,e eart, t,an ),at !$ u$ed 0. t,e ent!re (o(u+at!on !n one .ear.H T,!$ energ. need$ to 0e ,ar&e$ted.

In or(orat!ng $o+ar (ane+$ !nto t,e $tru ture o' re$!dent!a+ ,o/e$ or o//er !a+ 0u!+d!ng$ an $a&e +ot$ o' /one.. T,e 0u!+d!ng an an generate !t$ o)n (o)er to run $u''! !ent+. and an. e7 e$$ energ. 0e $o+d 0a 3 to (o)er

o/(an!e$ 'or (ro'!t. So+ar (ane+$ ,a&e

re+at!&e+. +ong +!'e $(an$ o' 32B42 .ear$ and rare+. need to 0e re(+a ed ' o r 0 e ! n g ' a u + t .. T , e . a + $ o ( r o d u e a $ / u , e n e r g . o & e r t , e ! r + ! ' e t ! / e a$ nu +ear 'ue+ rod$ )!t,out ,urt!ng t,e en&!ron/ent. So+ar (ane+$ )or3 )!t, no /o&!ng (art$ ),! , re$u+t$ !n $!+en e a$ )e++ a$ a /!n!$ u+e re<u!re/ent 'or /a!ntenan e. T,roug, !nno&at!&e te ,no+og. !n on entrated (,oto&o+ta! 1 t,e e''! !en . o' $o+ar (ane+$

!$ due to dou0+e or tr!(+e$.


Page 22


So+ar (ane+$ a n a + $ o 0 e u $ e d a n .) , e r e t , e r e ! $ $ u n + ! g , t . T , e an 0e u$ed to 'or o++e t!ng $o+ar ountr!e$ to

de$ert ),! , !$ /o$t !n,a0!ta0+e (rodu e t,e!r o)n energ. at &er. ,a$ t,e a0!+!t. to (o)er to re'+e ted.

e n e r g .. T , ! $ ) o u + d a + + o ) / a n . o ' t , e u n d e & e + o ( e d

, e a ( r a t e . A $ o + a r e n e r g . $ .$ t e / an 0e on&erted !nto AC

on$tant generate energ. non$to( )!t, t,e 0a 3u( an 0e $tored !n 0atter!e$1 !n$u+ated1 or

,e+( o' a 0atter.. T,e energ. 'ro/ t,e $un ,arge de&! e$1

T,e (otent!a+ 'or t,e $o+ar energ. !ndu$tr. !$ ,uge. A$ /ore and /ore (eo(+e 0eg!n to rea+!9e t,e great 0ene'!t$ o' $o+ar (o)er u$to/er$ to generat!on1 t,e. )!++ $tart to $,!'t to)ard$ u$!ng !t. T,e !ntrodu t!on o ' t , e F S / a r t H g r ! d ( o ) e r $ .$ t e / a + $ o e n o u r a g e $ (rodu e t,e!r o)n energ. 0e au$e (o)er e7 e$$ energ. (rodu ed 'ro/ re$!dent!a+ ,o/e$. o/(an!e$ are )!++!ng to 0u.


Page 23


&uantitati!e Analysis

Battery Charge

T,!$ $e t!on d!$ u$$e$ <uant!tat!&e+. t,e

,arg!ng o' (,one

0atter!e$ u$!ng our un!<ue de$!gn. L!t,!u/B!on 0atter!e$ are t,e /o$t )!de+. u$ed due to $e&era+ ad&antage$ $u , a$ 0e!ng +!g,t1 (orta0+e and a0+e to o(erate 'or +ong (er!od$ o' t!/e. An A((+e !(,one4 >our ( r o t o t .( e ? u$e$ a T,e L!t,!u/B!on $o+ar e++$ 0atter. )ou+d )!t, 0e 3.8; and ".2" G,r to $(e !'! at!on$. u$to/ de$!gned

on&en!ent+. $at!$'. t,e$e re<u!re/ent$ and 0e a0+e to to 122J !n u$ua+ re ,arge (er!od >a0out 1 ,r?.

,arge 'ro/ 2

S(e !a+ attent!on )ou+d 0e (a!d to $u$ta!n 0atter. +!'e. In t,e (ro e$$ o' ,arg!ng a

L ! t , ! u / B ! o n 0 a t t e r .1 e + e t r ! ! t . / o & e $ t , r o u g , t , e at,ode to t,e (o$!t!&e anode1 ),ere t,e. )a!t 'or t,e +o$ed and return 0a 3 to t,e gra(,!te L!B!on 0atter!e$ $,ou+d 0e

e++ >!.e.

&o+tage !$ a((+!ed? and t,e +!t,!u/ !on$ /!grate 'ro/ t,e negat!&e !r u!t to 0e at,ode. Un+!3e E!BCd 0atter!e$1 . +e$ redu e +!'e >1

,arged ear+. and o'ten. T,e$e $,ou+d not

0e 'u++. d!$ ,arged and t,en re ,arged a$ t,e$e

. +e (er /ont, re o//ended 0. a((+e. o/K0atter!e$?. Our de$!gn )!++


Page 24


ta3e ad&antage o' t,!$ ,ara ter!$t! and $tart ,arg!ng a$ $oon a$ !r u!t )ou+d e++$1

t,ere !$ enoug, energ. (rodu ed. A $!/(+e tran$!$tor en$ure t,at t,ere !$ enoug, &o+tage re ,arg!ng !r u!t ),!+e a regu+ator on$tant &o+tage.

>3.8;? (rodu ed 0e'ore t,e a(a !tor$

+o$e$ 0et)een t,e 0atter. and t,e t)o $o+ar !r u!t >anot,er tran$!$tor )!t, d!ode$1

a n d r e $ ! $ t o r $ a $ $ , o ) n ! n t , e ( ! t u r e ? ) o u + d , e + ( ! n $ u ( ( + .! n g a

*!na++.1 )e )ou+d a+$o g!&e t,e u$er a d!$a0+e t,!$ !nno&at!&e 'eature. A+t,oug, on$tant+.

,o! e to ena0+e or !$ no ,ar/ !n


,arg!ng t,e L!B!on 0atter. a$ /ent!oned ear+!er1 $o/e (ro e$$1 ),! , /ean$

u$er$ /a. not +!3e t,e 'eature turned on at a++ t!/e$. In 'a t1 re ,arg!ng o' a L!B!on 0atter. !$ an endot,er/! add!t!ona+ ,eat (rodu ed !n t,e (ro e$$. t,e 0atter. a0$or0$ ,eat ),en !t re ,arge$ and t,u$ t,ere !$ no

Solar Panel 'utput T,e o&era++ energ. (er entage o' e+e tr! on&er$!on e''! !en . o' a $o+ar e++ !$ t,e


on&erted 'ro/ t,e !n !dent +!g,t. T,!$ !$

a+ u+ated 0. u$!ng t,e 'o++o)!ng 'or/u+aA

In t,!$ 'or/u+a1 P/ re(re$ent$ t,e /a7!/u/ (o)er (o!nt ),!+e E !$ t,e !n(ut +!g,t !rrad!an e and A / o d u + e o r a r r a .1 a $ a ( ( + ! a 0 + e ? . !$ t,e $ur'a e area o' t,e e++ >or

T,e $o+ar $o+ar

e++6$ out(ut !$ de(endent on t,e te/(erature o' t,e e++ re$u+t$ a +o)er out(ut

e++. A ,!g, te/(erature o' t,e $o+ar


Page 2"


a$ )e++ a$ +o)er e''! !en .. Ho)e&er1 !t !$ ,ar/'u+ 'or t,e 0atter. to o&er,eat. A +!t,!u/ !on 0atter. t,at !$ re$(on$!0+e 'or (o)er an IP,one 4 $,ou+d re/a!n at C2 degree$ *a,ren,e!t or +o)er. Ge are add!ng a 'eature t,at )ou+d a+ert t,e u$er to (ut t,e (,one !n t,e!r (o 3et and a)a. 'ro/ t,e $un !' t,e te/(erature o' t,e 0atter. rea ,e$ o&er C" degree$ *a,ren,e!t due to t,e $un6$ ,eat. Ge are go!ng to !n$ta++ a /!n! t,er/o/eter and $en$or )!t,!n t,e (,one to dete t o&er,eat!ng. T,!$ $,ou+d 0e one o' t,e $a'et. 'eature$ to (rote t t,e (,one.

G e d e $ ! g n e d o u r $ .$ t e / a n d ! n t e r n a + ea$!+. re(rodu ed g!&en de$!gn (ro e$$ doe$ not !n&o+&e

!r u!tr. $o t,at !t T,e a tua+

ou+d 0e 0u!+d!ng

$ ,e/at! $.

o/(+e7 /a ,!n!ng or e+e tron! $. T,e !r u!t d!agra/. T,e !r u!t ,!(

e7terna+ de$!gn !$ !ntu!t!&e and ea$. to under$tand ),!+e t,e !nterna+ !r u!tr. !$ ea$. to a$$e/0+e g!&en a !t$e+'1 $,o)n 0e+o)1 a n e a $ ! + . 0 e 0 u ! + t + o a + + .. T , e !r u!t d!agra/ at

!t$ +e't !$ a &er. $!/(+e one1 )!t, a++ (art$ e7 e(t t,e $te(Bu( !t$e+' a&a!+a0+e +o a++..

Fig. 5: Circuit Diagram and Final Circuit using this Setup

Aesthetics, Durability, and Usability


Page 2-


T,e de$!gn !$ +oo3$ a &er. o/(a t and ro0u$t. It !$ not o&er+. ornate 0ut )!++ en4o. u$!ng !t. It !$ e++ (,one$ $!n e )e ,a&e 'or t,e eng!neer to

+ean and e''! !ent1 $u , t,at t,e (u0+! ,arg!ng t,e!r to ta3e

+ean and $!/(+e (rodu t ),! , )!++ not re<u!re (eo(+e to

,ange t,e )a. t,e. a((roa , (ro0+e/$ o ur1 !t !$ ea$.

!n +uded t,e $a/e (ort$ t,at are $o+d )!t, gr!d ada(ter$. I' an. a(art trou0+e$,oot. T,at 0e!ng $a!d1 t,e de$!gn !t$e+' !$ ,ard. and )!++ not o / e a ( a r t e a $ ! + ..

Rat,er t,an u$!ng /o&!ng (art$ to ad4u$t t,e ang+e1 )e de&e+o(ed a $ ! / ( + e ) e d g e $ .$ t e / . B o t , & ! $ u a + + . a t t r a t ! & e a n d / o r e r o 0 u $ t t , a n / o r e t . ( ! a + a n g + e a d 4 u $ t ! n g $ .$ t e / $ 1 t , ! $ a 0 ! + ! t . + e t $ t , e ( a n e + /a!nta!n a $tead. ang+e to t,e $un1 )!t, /!n!/a+ e''ort re<u!red 'or ad4u$t/ent.


: !otch and "edge #d$ustment System

In ta+3!ng to our /o0!+e (,one u$age1 )e /ode+$ o' 'or 0ot,

o / / u n ! t . ( a r t n e r $ a n d $ t u d .! n g $ u r & e .$ o n a/e to t,e on +u$!on t,at t,ere are t)o /a!n ,arg!ng (ort $o a$ to

e++ (,one$ (eo(+e u$e !n Sa0ana Grande. Our de$!gn a++o)$ o/(at!0+e (ort$ to 0e atta ,ed to our

, a r g e 0 o t , t .( e $ o ' ( , o n e $ .


Page 28


Meeting the Specifications






!n or(orate$



$(e !'! at!on$

to t,e greate$t e7tent (o$$!0+e. It$

o$t ,a$ 0een

/a!nta!ned at 4u$t o&er t,e L22 $(e !'!ed >$ee 0e+o)? t,roug, t,e u$e o' +o)B o$t and +o a++. a&a!+a0+e /ater!a+$. *or !n$tan e1 (rotoB0oard$ are not ea$!+. a&a!+a0+e !n Sa0ana Grande1 0ut 0read0oard$ are1 $o our '!na+ de$!gn ,a$ !n or(orated a 0read0oard1 /ade /ore (er/anent )!t, t,e add!t!on o' ,ot g+ue and ta(e to 3ee( t,e (!e e$ !n (+a e.

T,e $!/(+e ,!nged de$!gn +et$ t,e u$er $et t,e ang+e o' t,e (ane+ (er(end! u+ar to t,e $un1 ad4u$t!ng !t a$ ne e$$ar. t,roug,out t,e da.1 ),!+e u$!ng dura0+e /ater!a+$ )!t, a$ 'e) /o&!ng (art$ a$ (o$$!0+e. Rat,er t,an ,!nged +e&er$ to $et t,e ang+e1 )e de&e+o(ed a )edge $ .$ t e / t o $ ! / ( + ! ' . t , e $ .$ t e / a n d + o ) e r o$t$. G,!+e t,e (ane+ an $ t ! + + 0 e a d 4 u $ t e d t o a n . a n g + e 1 o u r $ .$ t e / e + ! / ! n a t e $ ( ! e e $ t , a t / a .


Page 2%


0rea3 )!t, u$e. Be au$e o' !t$ $!/(+e de$!gn and no na3ed t , e $ .$ t e / an 0e u$ed 0. t,e (u0+! !r u!tr.1

)!t,out 'ear o' 0rea3!ng or

da/ag!ng !t. T,e. on+. need to (+ug !n t,e (,one1 ad4u$t t,e ang+e1 and (o!nt !t to)ard$ t,e $un. I' trou0+e$,oot!ng !$ re<u!red1 t,e eng!neer at t,e So+ar Center $,ou+d 0e a0+e to ea$!+. a !nterna+ !r u!tr. to ,one !n on t,e (ro0+e/. e$$ t,e

T,e /a!n $,ort o/!ng o' t,e roug,+. 12 ,our$ to ,arge a

urrent de$!gn !$ t,at !t ta3e$

e++ (,one. G,!+e t,!$ doe$ not /eet our o/(+ete a ,arge . +e /!g,t dro( to

!n!t!a+ -B,our $(e !'! at!on1 )e are ,o(e'u+ t,at ),en e7(o$ed to tro(! a+ $un+!g,t1 t,e t!/e to a((ro7!/ate+. % ,our$.

Be au$e o' t,e ea$e )!t, ),! , a (ort out(ut +ead$1 t,e (o$$!0!+!t. to atta , /u+t!(+e d!''erent e++ (,one 0rand$.

an 0e atta ,ed to t,e onne tor$ to a $!ng+e ,arg!ng

de&! e re/a!n$1 g!&!ng our (rodu t &er$at!+!t. !n ter/$ o'


Page 2C

SOLAR BATTERY CHARGER (esults and Discussions

On e t,e $o+ar e++ (,one ,arger (rotot.(e )a$ e++ (,one o/(+eted1 !t ou+d )a$ ne e$$ar. to te$t !t$ rea+ +!'e (er'or/an e. Our /a!n goa+ at t,e 0eg!nn!ng o' t,!$ (ro4e t )a$ to ,a&e a ,arge a 'u++. d!$ ,arged our /ode+ our !r u!t and !nto t,e ,arger t,at e++ (,one !n +e$$ t,an - ,our$. To te$t !' o/!ng out o' e++ (,one and ,arg!ng. o/(ared !t to t,e energ.

ou+d 'u+'!++ t,!$ ta$31 )e /ea$ured t,e (o)er

a(a !t. o' t,e 0atter. )e )ere

Charging Time T,e energ. ,o) +ong !t a(a !t. o' t,e ta3e 'or e++ (,one 0atter!e$ !$ %22 /A,. I' ,arger1 )e e++ ou+d '!gure out around 0atter. to ,arge t,e (,one

)e te$t t,e a/(erage out(ut o' our )ou+d o / ( + e t e + ..

Experimental set up It )a$ ne e$$ar. to under$tand t,e a/ount o' (o)er go!ng !n to our !r u!t 'ro/ t,e $o+ar !r u!t and !nto t,e e++$1 and t,e a/ount o' (o)er o/!ng out o' t,e e++ (,one. To '!nd 0ot, o' t,e$e &a+ue$1 our

de&! e )a$ $et u( a$ $een !n '!gure % 0e+o).

Ge atta ,ed t)o d!g!ta+ /u+t!/eter$ t,at /ea$ured t,e and &o+tage out(ut !n rea+ t!/e 'ro/ t,e +ead$


o/!ng out o' t,e $o+ar


Page 32


e++$ $o t,at )e t,e u$ to ou+d a+ u+ate t,e (o)er !n(ut ),en t,e de&! e )a$ !r u!t1 ),! , a++o)ed

)or3!ng. :oreo&er1 )e a+$o atta ,ed t)o /u+t!/eter$ t,at /ea$ured urrent and &o+tage out(ut 'ro/ our !nterna+ a+ u+ate t,e (o)er out(ut.

U$!ng t,!$ data1 )e


ontra$t t,e &a+ue$ and /a3e an !r u!t and o' t,e t!/e needed to

e$t!/ate o' t,e e''! !en . o' our

, a r g e t , e 0 a t t e r .. O n e t , e a ( ( a r a t u $ ) a $ $ e t u ( 1 ) e u $ e d & a r .! n g a/ount$ o' +!g,t to $,!ne on t,e $o+ar (ane+. Ge t,en /ea$ured t,e d!''erent !n(ut and out(ut (o)er &a+ue$. Ge d!d t,!$ 'or % d!''erent a/ount$ o' +!g,t1 !n +ud!ng 2 d!''erent +a/($1 and $un+!g,t.

!esults T,e gra(, 0e+o) (+ot$ t,e (o)er data !n Gatt$ 'or t,e !n(ut (o)er1 or (o)er t,at )a$ /ea$ured out o' t,e $o+ar (o)er1 or (o)ered t,at )a$ /ea$ured out o' t,e $,o)$ t,e e''! !en . o' t,e !r u!t. e++$1 and out(ut !r u!t. T,e $+o(e

!r u!t1 and ,o) /u , (o)er !$ +o$t !n t,e


Page 31


Fig. %: Input&'utput Data (raph. Figure a)o*e sho+s the input and output data for the solar cell phone charger. !ote the linear fit on the input o*er output data.

*ro/ data t,at )a$

o++e ted ),!+e !n E! aragua1 )e )ere to !r u!t )ou+d out(ut !' !t )a$ !n

e$t!/ate ,o) /u , (o)er t,e

E! aragua. T,!$ data !$ $,o)n !n t,e gra(, 0e+o).


Page 32


Fig. ,-: Input&'utput Data (raph ./tended. Figure sho+ing the pro$ected efficiency calculated using data of solar panel output from !icaragua

Conclusions of testing T,e e7(er!/enta+ data +ead u$ to A/(erage o' t,e on +ude t,at t,e out(ut ou+d 0e a0out %2 e++ (,one %22/A,?. ,arge1

!r u!t1 !' u$ed !n E! araguan $un1

to 122 /!++!a/($. *ro/ t,!$ data1 )e e$t!/ate t,at !' a 'u++. ,arge >t,e 0atter. ,a$ an energ. a(a !t. o'

0atter. )ere 'u++. d!$ ,arged1 !t )ou+d ta3e a0out 12B12 ,our$ 'or !t to Rea+!$t! a++.1 /o$t e++ (,one 0atter!e$ are ,arge. ,arged 'ro/ ,a+'

redu !ng t,e t!/e needed to


Page 33


So+ar de&! e$ or , a r g e r e / ( + o .$ $ o + a r e n e r g . t o $ u ( ( + . e + e t r ! ! t . t o ,arge 0atter!e$. T,e. are genera++. (orta0+e.




,arge +ead a !d or E!BCd 0atter. 0an3 u( to a(a !t.. *or $u , ontro++er$ are an ,arge

4% ; and ,undred$ o' a/(ereB,our$ >u( to 422 A,? t .( e o ' $ o + a r roo' to( and ,arger$1 genera++. !nte++!gent an 0e u$ed. A $er!e$ o' $o+ar

e++ arra. (+ate$ are !n$ta++ed $e(arate+. on ,arger$ 'or energ. $a&!ng

onne ted to 0atter. 0an3. Su , arrange/ent

a+$o 0e u$ed !n add!t!on to /a!n$ $u((+. dur!ng da. t!/e$.

:o$t (orta0+e


a n o 0 t a ! n e n e r g . ' r o / t , e $ u n o n + .. an ,arger$ !n (o(u+ar u$e !n +udeA

Porta0+e 3no0@$ are a+$o $o+d. So/e1 !n +ud!ng t,e K!ne$!$ K31 ) o r 3 e ! t , e r ) a .. E 7 a / ( + e $ o ' $ o + a r

S/a++ (orta0+e /ode+$ de$!gned to /o0!+e (,one$1

,arge a range o' d!''erent

e++ (,one$1 !Pod$ or ot,er (orta0+e aud!o e<u!(/ent.












auto/o0!+e and (+ug !nto t,e u( ),!+$t not !n u$e.

!gar +!g,ter1 to 3ee( t,e 0atter. to((ed

Tor ,e$ o'ten $u , a$ a 3!net! Pu0+! $o+ar

o/0!ned )!t, a $e ondar. /ean$ o'


,arg!ng $.$te/. ,arger$ (er/anent+. !n$ta++ed !n (u0+! (+a e$1

$u , a$ (ar3$1 $<uare$ and $treet$1 ),! , (a$$er$0.

an u$e 'or 'ree.

Solar chargers in the



Page 34


Porta0+e $o+ar $/a++ e+e tron! &ar!ou$ t.(e$ '!+/ (ane+$ o' ,arger$ are u$ed to $o+ar 12J (ane+$1 rang!ng or ,arge 'ro/ +e$$1 e++ (,one$ and ot,er t,e to !ne''! !ent t,!n /u , /ore

de&! e$ on t,e go. C,arger$ on t,e /ar3et toda. u$e e''! !en . t,e


e''! !ent /onoB r.$ta++!ne (ane+$ ),! , o''er e''! !en !e$ u( to 1CJ. T , e o t , e r t .( e $ o ' ( o r t a 0 + e $ o + a r ,arger$ are t,o$e )!t, ),ee+$ on$!der!ng t,e 'a t t,at

),! , ena0+e t,e/ to 0e tran$(orted 'ro/ one (+a e to anot,er and 0e u$ed 0. a +ot o' (eo(+e. T,e. are $e/!B(u0+! 1 t,!$ 3!nd o' (orta0+e $o+ar are u$ed (u0+! +. 0ut not (er/anent+. !n$ta++ed. A good e7a/(+e o' ,arger !$ Stra)0err. :!n! de&! e. M1N

Pu)lic solar charger Stra+)erry 0ree 1lac2 in 0a3ma$dan Par2 in 1elgrade

T,e $o+ar

,arger !ndu$tr. ,a$ 0een (+agued 0.

o/(an!e$ /a$$B on$u/er@$ ,arger o/e$ to energ. $o+ar !n 0u!+t

(rodu !ng +o) e''! !en . $o+ar o/(an!e$ to ga!n t,e tru$t o' (er/anent+. ,arger 'or !n$ta++ed /o0!+e (u0+!

,arger$ t,at don@t /eet t,e on$u/er$. So+ar $o+ar ,arger$1 Tree.

e7(e tat!on$. T,!$ !n turn ,a$ /ade !t ,ard 'or ne) $o+ar $tart!ng to o''er ,!g,Be''! !en . $o+ar ,arger$. G,en !t Stra)0err. #ue to a

o/(an!e$ are '!na++.

Co/(an. 'ro/ Ser0!a ,a$ !n&ented and de&e+o(ed t,e '!r$t (u0+! de&! e$1 Stra)0err. r e , a r g e a 0 + e 0 a t t e r . ) , ! , $ t o r e $ e n e r g .1 ! t $un$,!ne or at n!g,t.

an 'un t!on )!t,out


Page 3"


The )''S 'range by Solar)''S* So/e $o+ar ,arger$ a+$o ,a&e an onB0oard 0atter. ),! , !$ ,arg!ng an.t,!ng e+$e. T,!$

,arged 0. t,e $o+ar (ane+ ),en not to ,arge t,e!r e+e tron! So+ar ,arger$

a++o)$ t,e u$er to 0e a0+e to u$e t,e $o+ar energ. $tored !n t,e 0atter. de&! e$ at n!g,t or ),en !ndoor$. an a+$o 0e ro++a0+e or '+e7!0+e and are

/anu'a tured u$!ng t,!n '!+/ P; te ,no+og.. Ro++a0+e $o+ar an !n +ude 0atter!e$ genera++.1L!B !on.


A 0atter.

,arger !$ a de&! e u$ed to (ut energ. !nto a $e ondar. urrent t,roug, !t.

e++ or re ,argea0+e 0atter. 0. 'or !ng an e+e tr! T,e

, a r g ! n g ( r o t o o + d e ( e n d $ o n t , e $ ! 9 e a n d t .( e o ' t , e , a r g e d . S o / e 0 a t t e r . t .( e $ , a & e , ! g , t o + e r a n e ' o r an 0e re ,arged 0. onne t!on to a ,arge on$tant &o+tage . +e1 or /a. ,arger /a. on$tant ut o'' urrent $our e5 $!/(+e ,arg!ng ,arger$ o' t,!$ t.(e

0atter. 0e!ng $our e or a

o&er ,arg!ng and

re<u!re /anua+ d!$ onne t!on at t,e end o' t,e ,a&e a t!/er to t .( e $

urrent at a '!7ed t!/e. Ot,er 0atter. !r u!t$ and a /! ro(ro e$$or ut o'' at t,e end o'

annot )!t,$tand +ong ,!g,Brate o&erB ,arg!ng5 t,e ,arg!ng urrent1 and

,a&e te/(erature or &o+tage $en$!ng ontro++er to ad4u$t t,e ,arge. A tr! 3+e urrent1 on+. enoug, to

,arger (ro&!de$ a re+at!&e+. $/a++ a/ount o' ountera t $e+'Bd!$ ,arge o' a 0atter. t,at !$ ,arger$ /a. ta3e $e&era+ ,our$ to

!d+e 'or a +ong t!/e. S+o) 0atter.


Page 3-


o/(+ete a ,arge5 ,!g,Brate ,arger$ /a. re$tore /o$t a(a !t.

)!t,!n /!nute$ or +e$$ t,an an ,our1 0ut genera++. re<u!re /on!tor!ng o' t,e 0atter. to (rote t !t 'ro/ o&er ,arge. E+e tr! ,!g,Brate o' e+e tr! ,arger$ 'or (u0+! ar$. a &e,! +e$ need ,arger$ and e$$5 !n$ta++at!on o' $u ,

t,e d!$tr!0ut!on $u((ort 'or t,e/ !$ an !$$ue !n t,e (ro(o$ed ado(t!on

Flo$ chart


Page 38



Page 3%

SOLAR BATTERY CHARGER Su ary and Conclusions




(ro4e t







$u((+e/ent!ng t,e!r energ. re<u!re/ent$ ),!+e /a!nta!n!ng e ono/! & ! a 0 ! + ! t .. O u r ! n ! t ! a + g o a + ) a $ o n + . t o d e & e + o ( t , e e o n o / ! a + + . & ! a 0 + e !r u!tr. re<u!red to $te( u( t,e 1."; to ";. On de&e+o(!ng t,e ! r u ! t r . 1 ) e d e ! d e d t o ( r o t o t .( e t , e e n t ! r e $ . $ t e / a n d d ! d $ o $u e $ $ ' u + + .. T , e r e a r e a n u / 0 e r o ' ) a . $ t o ' u r t , e r o ( t ! / ! 9 e t , ! $ o//un!t. (artner o//un!t. and o n t ! n u e d e & e + o ( / e n t o n t , e $ .$ t e / . T , e on&er$at!on$ )!t, t,e $ .$ t e / . G e ! n t e n d o n $ , a r ! n g o u r r e $ e a r , ) ! t , o u r and )or3!ng )!t, t,e/ to

(ro4e t ,a$ a +ot o' (otent!a+ to 0e !/(+e/ented !n t,e )e are eager to $ee !t !n a t!on. Ba$ed on our and L!nd$e. o' t,e So+ar t,at

o//un!t.1 t,e. $ee/ to ,a&e re e!&ed t,e de$!gn &er. )e++. :aur! !o oo(erat!&e ,a&e agreed to )or3 )!t, u$ ,arger dur!ng t,e /ont, o' Dune to tr. and de&e+o( a &er$!on o' our !/(ort!ng t,e /! ro ,!(?.

an 0e 0u!+t u$!ng on+. +o a++. a&a!+a0+e (art$ >a$ o((o$ed to

A$ o' no)1 )e (+an on $end!ng t,e/ deta!+ed $ ,e/at! $ o' our (rodu t a+ong )!t, t,e o u r ( r o t o t .( e . G e o/(onent$ re<u!red to 0u!+d t,e!r &er$!on o' need$. Ge ,!g,+. re o//end t,at anot,er ou+d t,en )or3 )!t, t,e/ on 'urt,er o(t!/!9!ng t,e

/ode+ to $u!t t,e!r $(e !'! redu !ng a/(+!'!er.

#B+a0 grou( ta3e u( t,!$ (ro4e t and )or3 on 'urt,er o(t!/!9!ng !t and o $ t $ 1 ( o $ $ ! 0 + . d e & e + o ( ! n g a + t e r n a t ! & e ) a .$ t o $ t e ( u ( t , e o/(onent$ +!3e t,e d!''erent!a+ &o+tage )!t,out t,e u$e o' e7(en$!&e

T,e de&e+o(/ent o' t,e )!re+e$$ $o+ar (ro4e t ,a$ 0orne an !nno&at!&e )a. o' u$!ng $o+ar energ. to

e++ /o0!+e (,one


,arg!ng (,one$. T,ere are

(+et,ora ad&antage$ and 0ene'!t$ to u$!ng a )!re+e$$ (ro e$$ a$ )e++ a$ , a r g e t , e 0 a t t e r .. H o ) e & e r 1 t , e r e a r e a + ) a .$


Page 3C


) a .$ ' o r ! / ( r o & e / e n t ! n t , e ' u t u r e . * ! r $ t + .1 r e $ e a r , e r $ a + + o & e r a r e )or3!ng to)ard$ !n rea$!ng and /a7!/!9!ng t,e e''! !en . o' $o+ar e++$. T,e '!r$t $te( )a$ /ent!oned a0o&e !n t,e 'or/ o' /agn!'.!ng on entrated (,oto&o+ta! !n $o+ar e++$. T,!$ )!++ ,e+( 0r!ng $o+ar e++ an e''! !en . to t,e goa+ o' 122J one da.. Anot,er !/(ro&e/ent t,at 0e )or3ed on !$ de rea$!ng t,e t,! 3ne$$ o' $o+ar $+ee3er $,a(e. An !/(ro&e/ent to $o+ar t,e tou , $ reen or t,e d!$(+a..

e++$ )!t,out +o$!ng

e''! !en .. T,!$ )!++ a+$o 0ene'!t t,e (,one !n ,a&!ng a $+!//er1 e++ '!+/ a ro$$ t,e 'ront o' e++ a$ to not ,!nder a+)a.$ roo/ 'or !$ t,e (,one !$ to 'a0r! ate a 'u++. tran$(arent $o+ar T,ere

! / ( r o & e / e n t 1 0 u t ' o r n o ) 1 o u r ( r o t o t .( e ! $ n e ) a n d r e & o + u t ! o n a r . .


Page 42