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What Is Information Systems
Analysis and Design?
• A method to create and maintain
information systems that perform basic
business functions
• The main goal is to improve organizational
systems, typically by applying software
that can help employees accomplish key
business tasks more easily and efficiently.
Dr. Hyunju Kim, Jackson State University 08/2012
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System Analyst
• The primary role is to study the problems
and needs of an organization in order to
determine how people, methods, and
information technology can best be
combined to bring about improvements in
the organization.
• Should have
– An understanding of the organization’s
objectives, structure, and processes
– Knowledge of how to exploit information
technology for advantage
Dr. Hyunju Kim, Jackson State University 08/2012
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System - Definition
• An interrelated set of business
procedures, objects, or components used
within one business unit, working together
for some purpose
Dr. Hyunju Kim, Jackson State University 08/2012
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System - Components
• Application software
• Hardware and system software
• Documentation and training materials
• Specific job roles
• Controls and security mechanisms
• Users
Dr. Hyunju Kim, Jackson State University 08/2012
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System - Characteristics
• System components
– An irreducible part or aggregation of parts that makes
a system; also called a subsystem
• Interrelationships
– Dependence of one part of the system on one or
more other system parts
• Boundary
– The line that marks the inside and outside of a system
and that sets off one system from other systems in
the organization
• Purpose
– The overall goal or function of a system
Dr. Hyunju Kim, Jackson State University 08/2012
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System – Characteristics (cont.)
• Environment
– Everything external to a system that interacts with the
system
• System interfaces
– Point of contact where a system meets its
environment or where subsystems meet each other
• Input
• Output
• Constraints
– A limit to what a system can accomplish
Dr. Hyunju Kim, Jackson State University 08/2012
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Dr. Hyunju Kim, Jackson State University 08/2012
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Systems Concepts
• Decomposition is the process of breaking down
a system into smaller constitutions, which may
be subsystems or terminal units.
• Modularity is a direct result of decomposition. It
refers to dividing a system into smaller chunks or
modules.
• Coupling means that subsystems are dependent
on each other.
• Cohesion is the extent to which a subsystem
performs a single function.
Dr. Hyunju Kim, Jackson State University 08/2012
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Dr. Hyunju Kim, Jackson State University 08/2012
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Steps in Systems Development
• Systems Planning
• Systems Analysis
• Systems Design
• Systems Implementation and
Management
• Systems Testing
Specification
Design and
Implementation
Validation
Evolution
Dr. Hyunju Kim, Jackson State University 08/2012
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Systems Planning
• Identifies the need for a new or enhanced
system
– Results: a written plan and a schedule for
developing new major systems
– Feasibility tests
• Investigates the system and determines
the proposed system’s scope
– Results: a baseline project plan and a formal
definition of the project
Dr. Hyunju Kim, Jackson State University 08/2012
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Systems Analysis
• Studies the organization’s current
procedures and the information systems
• Identifies each task
• Employs a use case, which is a
description of a set of sequences of
actions that a system performs
• Develops test plans
Dr. Hyunju Kim, Jackson State University 08/2012
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Steps in Systems Analysis
• Determine requirements of the system
• Study the requirements and structure them
according to their interrelationships, eliminating
any redundancies
• Generate alternative initial designs to match the
requirements
• The final output of the analysis is a description of
one of the alternative solutions.
Dr. Hyunju Kim, Jackson State University 08/2012
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Systems Design
• Specifies how the recommended alternative
solution is translated into detailed logical and
physical systems specification
• Logical design is not tied to any specific
hardware and software.
• In physical design, the logical design is
translated into technical specifications.
• The final output of the design is the physical
systems specifications.
Dr. Hyunju Kim, Jackson State University 08/2012
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Systems Implementation
• Coding
• Documentation
• Developing training programs and user
manuals
Dr. Hyunju Kim, Jackson State University 08/2012
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Systems Testing and Management
• Tests subsystems
• Tests systems integration
• Tests the whole system according to the
test plans
• Installs the system
• Evaluates the system
• Maintains the system
Dr. Hyunju Kim, Jackson State University 08/2012
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Characteristics of Successful
Teams
• Diversity in background, skills, and goals
• Tolerance of diversity, uncertainty, and
ambiguity
• Clear and complete communication
• Trust
• Mutual respect and putting one’s own
views second to the team
Dr. Hyunju Kim, Jackson State University 08/2012
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Software Process
• A structured set of activities required to develop a
software system
– Specification
– Design and implementation
– Validation
– Evolution
• Software process model
– An abstract representation of a process
– A description of a process from some particular
perspective
Dr. Hyunju Kim, Jackson State University 08/2012
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Plan-driven and Agile
Processes
• Plan-driven processes
– Process activities are planned in advance and
progress is measured against this plan.
• Agile processes
– Planning is incremental and it is easier to
change the process to reflect changing
customer requirements.
• In practice, most practical processes
include elements of both plan-driven and
agile approaches.
Dr. Hyunju Kim, Jackson State University 08/2012
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Software Process Models
• Waterfall model (plan-driven)
– Separate and distinct phases of specification
and development.
• Incremental development (plan-driven or agile)
– Specification, development and validation are
interleaved.
• Reuse-oriented SE (plan-driven or agile)
– The system is assembled from existing
components.
Dr. Hyunju Kim, Jackson State University 08/2012
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The Rational Unified Process
(RUP)
• A modern generic process derived from
the work on the UML and associated
process
Dr. Hyunju Kim, Jackson State University 08/2012
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RUP Phases
• Inception
– Establishes the business case for the system
• Elaboration
– Develops an understanding of the problem domain and
the system architecture
• Construction
– Includes system design, programming and testing
• Transition
– Deploys the system in its operating environment
Dr. Hyunju Kim, Jackson State University 08/2012
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RUP Good Practice
• Develop software iteratively
– Plan increments based on customer priorities and
deliver highest priority increments first.
• Manage requirements
– Explicitly document customer requirements and keep
track of changes to these requirements.
• Use component-based architectures
– Organize the system architecture as a set of reusable
components.
Dr. Hyunju Kim, Jackson State University 08/2012
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RUP Good Practice (cont.)
• Visually model software
– Use graphical UML models to present static
and dynamic views of the software.
• Verify software quality
– Ensure that the software meets organizational
quality standards.
• Control changes to software
– Manage software changes using a change
management system and configuration
management tools.
Dr. Hyunju Kim, Jackson State University 08/2012