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Domestic violence in India - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia

Domestic violence in India
From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia

Domestic violence in India is endemic and widespread predominantly against women.[1] Around 70% of women in India are victims of domestic violence, according to Renuka Chowdhury junior minister for women and child development.[2] National Crime Records Bureau reveal that a crime against a woman is committed every three minutes, a woman is raped every 29 minutes, a dowry death occurs every 77 minutes, and one case of cruelty committed by either the husband or relative of the victim occurs every nine minutes.[3] This all occurs despite the fact that women in India are legally protected from domestic abuse under the Protection of Women from Domestic Violence Act.[3]

Contents
1 Background 2 Forms 2.1 Physical violence 2.2 Emotional abuse 2.3 Sexual assault 3 Regional differences 3.1 Kerala 3.2 Uttar Pradesh 3.3 Distribution of prevalence 4 Factors 4.1 Patriarchal structure 4.2 Dowry 4.3 Hesitancy to report cases of domestic violence 4.4 Other 5 Effects 5.1 Health 5.2 Women's agency 6 Policies 6.1 Domestic Violence Act of 2005 6.2 Prosecution shortcomings 6.3 New sexual violence legislation 7 See also 8 References

Background
Domestic violence, or Intimate Partner Violence (IPV) as it is sometimes called, is a worldwide problem.[4] Cultural and household stress factors contribute to the prevalence of domestic violence, and it has been argued that these factors need to be thoroughly addressed through such channels as the institutionalisation of routine screening for
en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Domestic_violence_in_India 1/8

individual socioeconomic status and other factors. In a 1995-1996 PubMed study conducted in Northern India. hitting. rape. and among those who had STD symptoms.55%. and support and empowerment stemming from women’s groups. strangling. touching. Of the Indian women who participated in the study.[6] Forms Physical violence Physical injury is the most visible form of domestic violence. and marital rape.[8] Physical injuries as a result of domestic violence against women are more obvious than psychological ones. degradation and blaming. throwing objects. a court in Mumbai ruled that depriving a woman of sex is a form of cruelty. sexual/reproductive coercion.[5] In 2010. suicide attempts in India are correlated with physical and psychological intimate partner violence. Emotional/psychological abuse can include harassment. Abuse was most common among men who also had extramarital affairs. According to a study by the National Centre for Biotechnology Information. and isolation.[10] In 2013. threats. threatening with any form of weapon. 7. Sexual violence can include a range of forceful and non-forceful acts including unwanted kissing. biting. kicking.Wikipedia.wikipedia.5% reported attempting suicide. verbal abuse such as name-calling. as well as disturbingly high occurrences of suicidal thoughts and attempts. beating. This correlation is supported by the high rates of domestic violence in India.org/wiki/Domestic_violence_in_India 2/8 . or using a weapon. the percentage of women who suffer serious injuries as a result of physical domestic violence tends to range from 19% . legislation (along with feasible mechanisms for enforcement). Emotional abuse Emotional abuse has been gaining more and more recognition in recent years as an incredibly common form of domestic violence (and therefore a human rights abuse) within the private home throughout developing nations such as India. a movie based on Domestic Violence titled Bell Bajao was released with the support of the Ministry of Women and Child Development which won an award at the Cannes Film Festival. 22% of the 6632 adult men surveyed reported sexually abusing their wife without physical force in at least one instance and 7% reported sexual abuse with physical force.[7] Women who experience domestic violence overwhelmingly tend to have greater overall emotional distress. Psychological abuse can erode a woman’s sense of self-worth and can be incredibly harmful to overall mental and physical wellbeing. The scope of physical domestic/intimate partner violence includes slapping.1/15/14 Domestic violence in India .[7] Worldwide. [9] Sexual assault Sexual assault is another common form of domestic violence in India. or fondling. and can be more easily discerned by health professionals as well as courts of law in the context of legal prosecution. wife abuse appears to be fairly common throughout the region as a whole. stalking.[11] Regional differences en. although the rates differ greatly by region. pushing. the free encyclopedia warning signs of domestic violence by health professionals. Abusive sexual behaviors were also found to be correlated with an elevated rate of unplanned pregnancies.

[20] Factors According to Unicef's Global Report Card on Adolescents 2012. women in southern Indian states tend to benefit from relatively less prevalence of disparity in these areas. a 1998 study conducted by Bina Agarwal found that while only 13% of all women in India with landowning fathers inherited that land as daughters. religious groups and regions except North Sentinel Island and the Jarawa reserve. In general. non-consensual sex rates range from 18% . On the other hand. up to 45% of men acknowledged that they at one point or another had physically abused their wife. and physically forced sex rates range from 4% .Wikipedia. that rate was approximately 55%. limited inheritance/property rights. it was found that while overall approximately 50% of women surveyed had experienced some form of domestic violence throughout their married life.45%.wikipedia.[16] In rural areas and urban slums. 24% of such women were able to do so in the state of Kerala. there are very clear regional differences that must be addressed when analysing domestic violence rates and prevalence in India if policy measures are to be effective. the rates varied significantly by specific location as well as overall region.[13] Kerala Kerala.[14] This is important because it has been shown that measures to improve such access to property and economic independence through channels such as education not only directly improve women’s wellbeing and capabilities.[12] However.org/wiki/Domestic_violence_in_India 3/8 . less individual economic opportunity. the free encyclopedia Domestic violence in India is prevalent in all castes. women in northern Indian states tend to have relatively less autonomy.[15] Distribution of prevalence In a 2000 multi-site household survey conducted in India. For example. as inferred through various indicators.[21] en. socioeconomic classes.[16] Domestic violence is known to happen in upper-class families[17][18] as well as NRI families.[15] The highest of these rates tend to occur in the district of Bandha within Uttar Pradesh.[14] Uttar Pradesh The northern state of Uttar Pradesh experiences relatively high rates of domestic violence and gender disparities.1/15/14 Domestic violence in India .[19] According to a study made by Michael Koenig about the determinants of domestic violence in India published by the American Journal of Public Health in 2006. as well as greater female inheritance and property rights. is often viewed as the ideal progressive leader in the women’s rights movement in India among states.[4] According to a 1996 survey of 6.7%.902 men in Uttar Pradesh. Average physical abuse prevalence in Uttar Pradesh ranges from 18% . Kerala maintains very high relative levels of female literacy and women’s health. a state located in the southern tip of India. 57% of boys and 53% of girls in India think a husband is justified in hitting or beating his wife. but also reduce their risk of exposure to marital or any sort of domestic violence. higher socioeconomic status tends to be protective against physical but not sexual violence. and these rates could likely be underestimates as they are largely the result of surveys of self-reporting by sampled men.40%. whereas in urban non-slum areas the rate was less than 40%. and higher rates of domestic abuse. making gender disparities in these regional differences unmistakably clear.

or property the woman/woman’s family brings to a marriage to now become under the ownership of the husband. active discrimination by means of abuse (marital or extramarital).org/wiki/Domestic_violence_in_India 4/8 .Wikipedia.[12] Other Other factors outside culture that demonstrate differences in domestic violence prevalence and gender disparities in India include socioeconomic class. goods. A major reason for this reluctance is the patriarchal structure that is the framework for the vast majority of households in India and the misconception that it is almost always the woman’s fault for provoking domestic abuse that such abuse occurs. poverty.[22] In all these dimensions. having multiple children.1/15/14 Domestic violence in India . and family structure beyond the patriarchal framework. and other limiting engendered development factors.[23] Dowry payments are another manifestation of the patriarchal structure in India. A 1999 study published by the American Journal of Epidemiology identified so-called “stress factors” that are critical to understanding varying rates of domestic violence in other scopes outside of region-specific factors. results from a survey pointed to a negative correlation between dowry amount and inter-spousal violence. The results of this hesitancy to report cases is clear in that reported data overwhelmingly tends to underestimate actual prevalence occurrences of domestic violence.[citation needed ] In a Srinivasan 2005 study published in World Development. and in recent years dowry amounts have risen dramatically. indicating the potential dangers of a wife falling short on dowry payments or expectations. These stressrelated factors within the household include low educational attainment. educational level.[22] Dowry See also: Dowry law in India Domestic violence often happens in India as a result of dowry demands. but in some cases dowry death and bride burning as a result of the husband’s dissatisfaction with the dowry payment. which are strongly correlated with causal factors for domestic violence such as gender disparities in nutritional deprivation and a lack of women’s role in reproductive decisions. a steep rise from 6995 such reported cases in 1997. there is a clear relationship between strong patriarchal familial structures (which tend to be stronger in northern India than in southern India) and limited capabilities and agency for women. and diminished women’s agency through limited economic opportunity through stifled opportunity for independence.[4] Effects en.[24] These dangers include not only common physical and emotional abuse such as hitting and continual degradation. 8391 dowry deaths reported in 2010. the free encyclopedia Patriarchal structure There are three main aspects of the patriarchal household structure in India that affect women’s agency: marriage. a cultural practice deeply rooted in many Indian communities. In fact. young initial age of marriage. There are strong links between domestic violence and dowry.[25] Hesitancy to report cases of domestic violence There is widespread hesitancy amongst most Indian women who experience domestic violence to report or prosecute against such crimes.wikipedia. which is the money. This practice continues even today in India although banned by law since 1961.

reducing domestic violence is imperative not only from an ethical and human rights perspective but also because of obvious instrumental and immediate health benefits that would be gained from such reduction. verbal and emotional abuse and economic abuse.org/wiki/Domestic_violence_in_India 5/8 .[16] Women's agency The act of domestic violence towards women is a human rights violation as well as an illegal act under Indian law. eating disorders.[27] Health Serious health problems often result from physical.[26] In India.[15] Fatal effects can include suicide.[15] Negative public health consequences are also strongly associated with domestic violence. Unwanted Pregnancy.1/15/14 Domestic violence in India .[28] Domestic violence is currently defined in India by the Protection of Women from Domestic Violence Act of 2005.[8] Physical health outcomes include: Injury (from lacerations to fractures and internal organs injury).Wikipedia. “any act. Permanent disabilities. harms. whether mental or physical. emotional. limb or well-being. anxiety. homicide. low self-esteem.[8] Social and economic costs have been identified as direct results of these public-health consequences. fear. public healthcare. obsessive-compulsive disorder. Domestic violence is one of the most significant determinants of this denial. or post traumatic stress disorder. sexual dysfunction. and costs associated with the criminal justice system). Self-injurious behaviours (smoking. Pelvic inflammatory disease. Irritable bowel syndrome. and there is a growing recognition in many Indian regions that the nation can reach a higher potential through obtaining greater social and economic capital than by reducing women’s participation in society. sexual abuse.(a) harms or injures or endangers the health. and those who have experienced some form of domestic violence tend to have greater long-term mental disorders and drug dependencies than those who do not. life. Headaches. Chronic pelvic pain. and it is argued that these justify state action to act in the interest of the public to reconcile these costs (specifically including costs such as worker earnings and productivity.[15] Policies Domestic Violence Act of 2005 Main article: Protection of Women from Domestic Violence Act 2005 The Domestic Violence Act of 2005 provides victims of abuse with a means for practical remedy through prosecution. Asthma.wikipedia. and sexual forms of domestic violence. STDs including HIV. safety. Greater gender equality through greater women’s agency cannot be achieved if basic health needs are not being met and if cultural biases that allow for domestic violence in India persist. injures or endangers the aggrieved person with a view to coerce her or any other person related to her to meet any unlawful demand for any dowry or other en. omission or commission or conduct of the respondent shall constitute domestic violence in case it . According to Section 3 of the Act. Miscarriage. of the aggrieved person or tends to do so and includes causing physical abuse. unprotected sex)[15] Mental health effects can include depression. maternal mortality. It is therefore widely considered a threat to women’s agency through any lens. or HIV/AIDS. the free encyclopedia Women suffer many types of physical and emotional abuse as a result of illegal actions taken within the private home. Gynaecological problems. or (b) harasses.

[30] In Mumbai.com/indian-decade/2012/04/14/india%E2%80%99sshame/). and raises to 20 years from 10 the minimum sentence for gang rape and rapes committed by a police officer. ^ Ganguly.[36] The law makes stalking. critics point out that there is often a disconnect between law and practice in India. the act cannot be used against women. acid attacks and forcibly disrobing a woman explicit crimes for the first time. whether physical or mental.”[29] The Domestic Violence Act of 2005 has been reportedly used against men in some cases. The new law doesn’t address marital rape. men alleged that women were misusing the Domestic Violence Act. 2013 On 19 March 2013. Retrieved 27 April 2012.[31] while in Karnataka. "India’s Shame" (http://the-diplomat. Additionally. or (c) has the effect of threatening the aggrieved person or any person related to her by any conduct mentioned in clause (a) or clause (b). Sumit.[39] See also Domestic violence Feminism in India Capabilities approach References 1.[32] The Delhi High Court clarified that the Act could also be used to prosecute women. This allows for cultural biases.wikipedia. The Diplomat.1/15/14 Domestic violence in India .[38] For example. The study cites the need for more systematic and thorough record keeping throughout all levels of the Indian court system. and the Protection of Children from Sexual Offences Act. as well as the imperative need for more clarity in current legislation that provides a very unclear definition of what domestic violence even is. en.[37] Reformist lawmakers have argued that the higher age of consent could result in abuses and wrongful arrests in statutory rape cases. voyeurism.org/wiki/Domestic_violence_in_India 6/8 . according to a 2012 United Nations report. 2012. the Indian Parliament passed a new law with the goal of more effectively protecting women from sexual violence in India. or (d) otherwise injures or causes harm. which further amends the Indian Penal Code.[33] Prosecution shortcomings According to 2000 study by the National Law School of India University. rape committed by the armed forces or rape against men. the Indian Evidence Act of 1872.Wikipedia.[35] It came in the form of the Criminal Law (Amendment) Act. 2013. to the aggrieved person. the free encyclopedia property or valuable security. it was observed that there were an extremely low number of convictions in a large sample of domestic violence cases in various Indian courts. 47% of Indian women marry younger than 18 (the legal marriage age is 21 for men and 18 for women). the Code of Criminal Procedure of 1973. provides capital punishment for rapes leading to death.[34] New sexual violence legislation Main article: Criminal Law (Amendment) Act. social (patriarchal) institutional structures and gender disparities to cloud the nature of many of these cases. though the vast majority of cases involve abuse of a woman. and is a major reason why the vast majority of husbands charged with any form of domestic abuse tend to be acquitted.

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