˴ performing matters ˴

Sigiswald Kuijken

A Bach odyssey
Downloaded from http://em.oxfordjournals.org/ at University of Macedonia on January 1, 2014

hen I was asked to write a contribution to the articles from the 2008 Leuven Bach Symposium, I was told that my subject should be simply ‘Performing Matters’. My immediate reaction was that ‘yes, performing does matter, indeed!’ I am very grateful to the Katholieke Universiteit Leuven, the initiator of the Bach Symposium. It was a happy occasion to get together and discuss some important topics in Baroque performance practice in general, and Bach in particular. Although the symposium was intended as a ‘prolongation’ of my doctorate Honoris Causa from K. U. Leuven, which was awarded in February 2007 in honour of my ‘innovatory initiatives’ in Baroque performance over the years, only a few of these innovations can be called my own in the strictest sense. These include: the widespread use of the violoncello da spalla wherever Bach prescribes ‘violoncello’ and, to a lesser degree, the promotion of the no-conductor idea, which evolved as an offshoot from my general reconsideration of various other matters. The other topics of interest that were discussed at the colloquium—the ‘one-to-a-part’ concept in singing, and the use of natural trumpet and horn—are practices which I did not initiate, but which I have strongly advocated, and have supported with conviction. These concepts are still far from being generally accepted or put into practice by today’s early music performers, and so the Leuven symposium was an ideal occasion to explore the issues further. One-to-a-part I have only been an enthusiastic follower of the concept of ‘one-to-a-part’ singing since the late

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1990s. My earlier relationship to this performance principle is an example of how musicians (including myself, I may add) can often be too prejudiced, and too lazy, to consider new information that does not at first attract them. When Joshua Rifkin published his ‘manifesto’ in the early 1980s, I felt something which I now recognize as being akin to indignation: what was this all about? how could this far-away American (sorry, Joshua!) claim to be more intimately informed than someone residing within our solid European tradition? Was this not a typical example of sensationalist pseudo-science? How did he dare, and how could one take such things seriously? I now realize that I was the one at fault. My refusal to consider the matter illustrates how you can mislead yourself when your convictions are too strong, when in fact you have simply accepted them as being obviously right without further reflection. We often behave as if we are born with this or that ‘truth’, and take it for granted—at least, that is how I could best describe my situation. For more than ten years, I barely paid any attention to the issue (refusing to engage with it when it occasionally crossed my path) until early 1998, when Graham Nicholson, knowing my predilection for risk and unconventional behaviour, faxed me some pages of the then-current debate in this journal between Ton Koopman and Andrew Parrott. I felt charmed and honoured by Graham’s beautifully handwritten statement (‘. . .I think this might interest you. . .’) and picked up the pages, still standing next to the fax machine in my room. Knowing and respecting both of the protagonists from occasional encounters in past years, I found myself (despite my earlier prejudices) intrigued and thought ‘I should

Early Music, Vol. xxxviii, No. 2 © The Author 2010. Published by Oxford University Press. All rights reserved. doi:10.1093/em/caq027, available online at www.em.oxfordjournals.org

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I had reached a point of no return. I feel warm gratitude and absolutely no regrets about what we all did together. I was entirely responsible for the piece. had already engendered a strong preference for some sections to be sung by soloists (such as the Qui tollis. fn2 Downloaded from http://em. the debate came to me—in the form of a discussion between two masters. and it was clear that I would need another kind of vocal preparation to put together a good and convincing ensemble of soloists for a piece like this. and I was full of support for the courageous and determined trumpet group participating in this experiment. trying out and experimenting en petit comité. and so on for the four works comprising the complete B minor Mass—thus distributing the work of all eight singers among four distinct combinations). I still considered the B minor Mass to be one piece. and taking into consideration that all the surviving autograph fn1 scores and authorized copies point to the practice of using soloists (at least. Having introduced the so-called ‘chin-off’ method of violin playing in the early 1970s. I was happy to be able to try out for the first time an instrumental experiment I had been convinced of for many years. and so I did. and some fugal entries). Rather dissatisfied. neither choir nor soloists had been asked to participate in this kind of ‘mixed’ performance. as it happened. a sort of modern-day Plaine and Easie Introduction for those who lacked the courage to take up and engage with the subject directly themselves. and certainly 264 early music may 2010 . The fact that the B minor Mass is not the easiest piece in which to experiment with uncommon playing techniques did not deter us. However. with eight singers. the musical evidence which convinced me to adopt ‘one-to-a-part’. and to celebrate it. when compared to what I now consider to be the best way. the Crucifixus. but very soon I had to accept that. which had recently and so unexpectedly entered my life. scheduled for several months later (as usual. given my practical experience with soloists. I stick to one ‘constellation’ of singers for the Missa. I began efforts to find my way in ‘soloistic’ practice— listening and talking to many young singers. The underlying historical evidence (which in all its complexity is sometimes difficult to analyse) seemed to me to be of less interest. and leading from the violin. the one-to-a-part vocal scoring. with choir. the period during which I had produced several of Bach’s motets. full of fresh energy. I should emphasize that it was. and the results encouraged me to continue on the same road in the future. In those days. so I started to work in the ‘normal’ way. I can no longer support a theory that maintains that Bach used 16 or so singers. above all. for the time being. is he crazy?’. and I had begun to be aware of its innate difficulties.read this carefully’. I was preparing for a series of performances of Bach’s B minor Mass. many years after I could have developed a thorough idea about the issue myself. My past served me well. no one was committed to making this change.oxfordjournals. soloists and conductor. satisfaction and mostly success—had come to an end. Shortly after my final ‘choral’ Bach production.1 At the time. no conductor. By the time the first rehearsals began. We had a number of important performances in Europe. Now. but which had always been considered impractical: the use of trumpets without vent-holes. For the first time. Looking back on the years prior to Graham’s intervention. It offered plenty of opportunity to realize all the complexities and difficulties of the task at hand. I was very aware of how it feels to be swimming against the tide—so many eyes and ears are observing with an expression of ‘look what this guy is trying to do. I planned a ‘new’ B minor Mass.org/ at University of Macedonia on January 1. that is the only way I can interpret them). However. Thus. soloists and conductor). . That B minor Mass was to be La Petite Bande’s last Bach performance with choir. with slight variations in the composition of the vocal (and instrumental) group during this long project. some ten years on. 2014 The natural trumpet In 2000. I decided to try out some (choral) passages with soloists. this was not going to be the solution either. our instrumental set-up was still somewhat old-fashioned.2 The Bach Year of 2000 came and went. But after that production. It was an important experience. the Magnificat and some occasional cantatas in the conventional way—with pleasure. Although it was not perfect (how could it have been?). it was altogether important and memorable. another for the Symbolum. . Mexico and China. and moved the singers around throughout the score in order to match their vocal characteristics with the musical needs of each section as well as possible (today. particularly in the vocal sphere. his Passions.

and there seems to have been some variation in practice.oxfordjournals. made us realize how much progress and assimilation we had achieved during the numerous concerts and recordings of Bach’s cantatas. preferring to use a horn (even a too-‘Classical’ horn!)3 was coming to an end. the question of whether or not one should. two second-violin parts and one viola part for the upper strings—just as we generally find only a single partbook for each vocal part. The one-to-a-part vocal practice is linked. Compared to this initial B minor Mass concert series using ‘one-to-a-part’. . A more or less stable nucleus of singers and instrumentalists was by then very much accustomed to working together in the new way—it was all much easier and more organic. passions. La Petite Bande is in the process of producing a limited series of Bach cantata recordings for the German recording company Accent. include a 16′ string bass is important. pavillon en l’air—and how convincing it was! We were all thrilled. this can allow some leeway (should it be wanted or needed) when choosing a group’s composition.4 We have now passed the half-way mark with these recordings. On studying the scoring of the many cantatas and other vocal works with instrumental participation where Bach’s autograph parts (or those of his copyists) have survived. I will present my arguments below. The use of a single vocal quartet (or two quartets for double-choir works) and the smaller instrumental ensemble referred to above leads me to conclude that in this context a 16′ string bass makes little sense—and I doubt it was ever intended. motets etc. which present a marvellous opportunity to develop our ideas and skills. The historical trumpet. The time when I had considered it necessary deliberately to shock the trumpet world (some 15 years ago) with our recording of Bach’s Brandenburg Concerto no. The clear distinction between various groups of singers—to mark the different components of the work as a whole—was no longer used. which is now clearly pointing to an obvious future.2 by refusing to use a trumpet with holes. Bach’s intentions are not always clear— he apparently himself resorted to last-minute solutions to get the work performed on time—and for some parts (particularly in the continuo group) it can be quite difficult to fathom their intended use. which fortunately worked well. to my mind. which will eventually present one cantata for every Sunday of the liturgical year.). In general. Today. However. The occasional presence of a figured but nontransposed continuo part would seem to confirm harpsichord participation in the particular performance for which that part was intended—that much can be said. I could now enjoy the anticipation of a change in the direction for which I had been longing for so many years. it is striking to find again and again the same set of two first-violin parts. I start from the premise that each part served only one player (or singer). fn3 The 16′ continuo string bass Time and experience go on. Having to replace her obliged us to make some last-minute changes in vocal distribution. the vocal set-up was disturbed only by one of our sopranos from the just-completed concert tour who could not participate in the recording (because she gave birth to an impatient boy who decided to arrive six weeks early. it is important to observe the number and allocation of the continuo parts destined for a particular performance under Bach’s leadership. in principle. For the continuo. . 2014 early music may 2010 265 . in the intervening years. our second production. for the continuo parts it is often less clear how the parts were assigned. Indeed. A close examination of many cantata scores confirms this.a significant link in a long chain.org/ at University of Macedonia on January 1. and the composition of the string ensemble was more defined than in the 2000 production. Any decision concerning the 16′ string bass must take into consideration choices made in relation to the 8′ instrumentation. in 2008 (recorded on Challenge cc72316).and horn-playing (and instrument-building) had progressed. to a growing awareness of a parallel and specific instrumental configuration. I do not claim that this production was the only or definitive one to reveal the progress being made in playing without vent-holes—but it was certainly an important contribution. however. On a positive note. Equally refreshing in 2000 was the fact that the horn part in the ‘Quoniam tu solus sanctus’ was finally played without hand-stopping. and there is no standing still. the vast majority of performances (including historically informed ones) still use the normal (or ‘Baroque’) cello as an 8′ string bass—as though there were evidence that this fn4 Downloaded from http://em. when I still used the 16′ violone as well as the current ‘Baroque cello’ (see below for more on this).

In its purely literal meaning.8 Another reason to doubt the validity of a 16′ violone in Bach’s oeuvre is the fact that many compositions (instrumental as well as vocal/instrumental) have extremely ‘busy’ parts (often in quick tempos) which—even when played by today’s virtuoso 16′ instrumentalists—do not produced a satisfactory result.9 Most of these fragments are only written in the original basso continuo parts. all this is only about the relative size of the instrument. the term ‘violoncello’ occurs only in a small percentage of the scores of Bach and his contemporaries. There are. If we presume that Bach intended a 16′ instrument when he used the word ‘violone’. In general. remember that Bach could always use the organ’s 16′ register whenever he felt it appropriate. it usually indicates an obbligato part.5 Indeed.org/ at University of Macedonia on January 1. When it occurs. First. one should. ‘violoncello’ is the Italian diminutive of ‘violone’ (a large viola)— thus we can define the ‘violoncello’ as being a ‘small large viola’! (See illus. in extenso. musically there is no good evidence that the 16′ continuo string bass should be used. the violone is still considered by many (if not most) people today to be primarily a 16′ instrument. in the above-mentioned finale of Brandenburg Concerto no.3: if we consider the violone to be an octave lower than the three violoncello parts (which play unisono for the entire movement) then again the same problem occurs of too much quick figuration to give an acceptable result. flute. in the same way that there are obbligato parts for other instruments: oboe. For years. however. the same music for violoncello as for violone (the latter being on a separate staff. the cello was not a constituent of the standard orchestra—but it was used as a soloist in the concertino group in his concerti grossi (this is analogous to Bach’s use of it primarily as an obbligato solo instrument). yet this is exactly what would happen if one considers the term ‘violone’ to refer to a 16′ instrument. however. in all descriptions of Corelli’s large orchestras for performances financed by patrons such as Prince Ruspoli and Cardinals Ottoboni and Pamphili.1) Clearly. though there are many other bass lines. often together with figured bass). rather. For instance. the only justification seems to be that ‘it has been our habit for so many years’. for example.6 In these descriptions. in some cantata arias for instance. a few examples where Bach’s autographs do show. the continuo string bass is specified ‘violone’ (if not simply ‘basso’) in Bach’s cantatas. where the figuration is so quick that its execution by a cello doubled by double bass is more reminiscent of an athletic feat (albeit sometimes admirably well done) than a meaningful musical experience. the correct reading of which clearly does not imply any doubling by two stringbass players in two different octave registers (as so often happens). 2014 266 early music may 2010 . and does not give any information about a necessary fn5 fn6 corresponding 16′ or 8′ register (nor about the playing position. The word ‘violone’ is (as generally accepted today) a collective denomination for a (normally quite large) bass instrument. see below). of course. There is reason to doubt the sense of a two-octave gap between these lines. it is intended to be played by a single instrumentalist: the violone player. A good example is the final Allegro of Brandenburg Concerto no. This is not always wrong. in his vocal works whenever there are passages where this instrumental bass line is notated an octave lower than the 8′ vocal bass line (and this occurs quite often).is how it has always been—and this is usually doubled by adding another instrument an octave lower (16′). yet it is only possible to decide whether it means an 8′ or a 16′ instrument by studying both the configuration in which it is used and the part itself (there is often a great deal of subjective opinion in this decision). there is no doubt that the ‘violone’ is an 8′ instrument and ‘contrabasso’ a 16′. I followed this practice.7 This occurs in instrumental works as well. a closer look reveals many reasons to doubt its validity. In the late 17th and early 18th centuries. but I suggest that in the case of Bach’s music it is highly unlikely. I have included this example to indicate how obvious the concept of an 8′ violone was in the Baroque.3. My conclusion is that fn7 fn8 fn9 Downloaded from http://em. it leads to some highly questionable musical consequences: for instance. etc. even the traditional Italian use of the word ‘violone’ did not necessarily imply the 16′ register. As an adjunct to this discussion about string bass. violin. however. Also note the striking absence of ‘violoncelli’ in this list: even for Corelli. where the violone part is notated an octave below the normal continuo in some passages. the terminology used is invariably ‘violini–violette–violoni–contrabassi’. Thus.oxfordjournals.

and Wilkins C. The Adolph D.org/ at University of Macedonia on January 1. Williams Collection) in Bach’s mind the violone must have been an 8′ instrument. where it tends to be much larger (sometimes approaching the size of the modern cello. in my opinion.Downloaded from http://em. Allegory of Marital Fidelity (1633) (Richmond. 2014 1 Jan Miense Molenaer. instead. Virginia Museum of Fine Arts. where we might expect them to be located. this is not valid. This coincides neatly with the evidence that during the Baroque the 16′ bass was used more for events involving larger numbers of instrumentalists. two further pieces of evidence can be brought to bear when considering Bach: the most fn10 striking is that he never notated the (rather rare) violoncello parts of his cantatas in the partbook of the normal string-bass player(s). Let me explain why. The violoncello da spalla.oxfordjournals. Some might argue that if both violone and violoncello are to be 8′ instruments.10 In addition to these sources. even when being played horizontally fn1 fn12 early music may 2010 267 . the violoncello da spalla is depicted in (mostly Italian) pictures from c.1670 until the 1740s. as used on the (by then considerably smaller) ‘arm-violoncello’. occasionally. in the partbook of the violino primo. and probably even as a local variation. In general. they are found either on a separate sheet or. there might be insufficient sound differentiation when they do occur side-by-side (as is sometimes required)—and this would weaken my argument. or shoulder cello Contemporary local theoretical sources reveal that Bach and his colleagues in that region of Europe understood the term ‘violoncello’ to mean an instrument played on the arm.11 Another strong argument is that some passages in his suites for solo violoncello point to the use of more violin-like fingering and playing technique.12 It is my conviction that Bach’s violoncello da spalla is to be understood as the last stage in a rather short history of the instrument. assuming the violoncello was played ‘da gamba’. Bach was not primarily orientated towards such performances. known as the ‘viola (or violoncello) da spalla’.

c. from c. The same treatment was also given to the bigger 8′ violone (or. I can testify that by using the violoncello da spalla next to an 8′ violone markedly bigger than today’s cello.13 which became the smaller modern cello. there remains much to be done. more comfortable dimensions.105b (Bologna. Take the Brandenburg Concertos as an example: Bach combines both types of string bass in the score of every concerto. only Concertos nos. Indeed.1 and 5 exist in earlier versions without violoncello (thus requiring only violone). 2014 2 Anziani consoli.XI. vol. in France.1710 onwards. Insignia. the early examples are considerably larger than the rare surviving instruments from which we draw our inspiration. 268 early music may 2010 . The clearer and more penetrating. Archivo di Stato) in front of the chest) (illus. This—sempre in my opinion as a musician—perfectly reflects the different treatments Bach himself accorded to violoncello and violone when they are played together in his compositions. there is a significant contrast between the two sounds.oxfordjournals.Downloaded from http://em. the basse de violon).5 often discreetly doubling the harpsichord’s left hand in the passages with the two other soloists) as well as participating in the tutti sections. Bach’s supposed ‘invention’ of the viola pomposa seems to me to be the possible record (after several decades of the instrument’s decline and final disappearance) of an attempt by Bach (together with a violin-maker in Leipzig?) to adapt the existing and rather large violoncello da spalla to smaller.2 and 3). In both cases.org/ at University of Macedonia on January 1. So Bach’s revisions of some of the concertos before dedicating them to the Margrave of Brandenburg included introducing a differentiation in the string-bass parts. fn13 Violoncello versus violone To return to the ‘sonic argument’ between Bach’s violoncello and his (8′) violone mentioned above. Even though some serious research into this topic has been carried out. and which may be related to those used in Bach’s music. the new violoncello part primarily supports the solo instruments during their developments (in Concerto no.

along with the 8′ violone.15 It is unclear why Bach specified violoncello in this case rather than the usual violone. and not to a violone (which was often simply called ‘basso’).10756S (Florence. and at the same time leave more aural space for the violas. two violas da gamba and an 8′ violone) makes it clear how the piece is scored in perfect balance for three da braccio and three da gamba instruments.14 fn14 There are only a very few examples in Bach’s works where the current basso continuo line is explicitly given in the autograph to a violoncello. in this work. fn15 early music may 2010 269 . The use of the violoncello da spalla in Brandenburg no. sound of the violoncello da spalla suits this purpose perfectly.6 (with the two violas. The sound that results is attractive and convincing. but it was a pleasure to obey the master: his idea turned out to make plenty of sense! One further example is the Concerto in D minor for two violins and strings: the autograph score calls for ‘violoncello e cembalo’ on the lower system as continuo instruments. Uffizi Gallery) although no louder. there is no mention at all of a violone in that work. is particularly refreshing. significantly. One outstanding exception is Cantata no. whereas the darker and more robust violone timbre is ideal for supporting tutti passages.oxfordjournals.3. the balance and colour was amazing. I believe that. In the other four concertos. the two violas being organically supported by their natural ‘big brother’. and brings a transparency to the music. Thus.org/ at University of Macedonia on January 1. here the original parts indicate that Bach wanted two ‘violoncelli unisono’ on the continuo line.23. Du wahrer Gott und Davids Sohn. the new sound obtained by using these two types of string bass is very pleasing. there is a similar distribution of roles. The violoncello parts are heard much more clearly than with three conventional cellos. there is an analogy with the Italian concerto grosso. 2014 3 Gabinetto Disegno e Stampi n.Downloaded from http://em. La Petite Bande performed and recorded this cantata with two violoncelli da spalla and no 8′ violone. The use of three violoncelli da spalla in Brandenburg no.

who then holds the instrument. 2014 4 Eustache Le Sueur.1 and 4 and illus.1 in Marc Vanscheeuwijk’s article in this issue) creates a new sound production and projection: it is 270 early music may 2010 . Erato et Polymnia (1655) (Paris.oxfordjournals. not between the legs. This is the only concerto in which Bach indicates ‘violoncello’ in the string bass. but resting on a little ‘tabouret’ (stool) next to which he or she stands. rather than ‘basso’ or ‘violone’. A provisional conclusion There is always more to discover. So far. This position (which can be seen in so many representations—see illus.Downloaded from http://em. the two solo violins are often accompanied only by the bass line. I have not been disappointed by taking a new approach based on historically informed practices. exactly the set-up which is encountered in the concertino group of two solo violins and violoncello in the concerto grosso. Musée du Louvre) Indeed. We should remain open to trying out new aspects of music- making related to the past and see where they lead. La Petite Bande is currently experimenting with the ‘standing’ position for the 8′ violone player.org/ at University of Macedonia on January 1. in the D minor concerto. Les muses Melpomene.

chorale no. all of us can drink from the everlasting source of energy which never has stopped flowing. recorded by La Petite Bande. and be thankful for her smile. 364–7.be 1 Thomas Morley. R. final chorale (bar 3). is the resulting double octave of a 16′ instrument really meaningful? Dozens of other similar passages occur throughout Bach’s vocal works. nor become. Wind players. Poulin and I. . opening chorus (bars 32–8. From 1971 to 1996 he taught Baroque violin in The Hague. a 16′ brings what is really too pompous a double-octave doubling of the theme in bars 44–51. the instrumental bass. if not more. (The musical guide. rather than holding it under the chin). I would like to express a personal credo: Through humble but vivid imagination and genuine interest. and 25–9 June 1998 in Oyé. See also Brandenburg Concerto no. directed by Sigiswald Kuijken (BMG fhm 05472 77308 2. and in Australia. 3 J. 1717). 113–16). 1995). conductor and teacher he has been active throughout Europe. A. in this concerto I believe that in the second movement the violone. 29–31. Harman).oxfordjournals. the now so-called ‘chin-off ’ position (resting the violin on the shoulder without a shoulder rest.4.1665 and initially was used mainly for the lower strings).org/ at University of Macedonia on January 1. the Far East. and Brandenburg Concerto no. it does matter! The ‘early music’ movement has become a significant economic segment in the classical music world as a whole. will realize how many interesting and inspiring particularities still remain unexplored. of course) violoncello da spalla is certainly worth a try. 6 J. bars 20–4.118–26. S. I was happy to experiment freely in a relaxed environment. the effect of a 16′ violone in a small transparent ensemble has a similar effect. To conclude this epistle. Burgundy. Ich elender Mensch. 68–73. Brandenburgische Konzerte. North and South America. Musicalischer Handleitung dritter und letzter Teil (Hamburg. der eing’e Gottessohn. 1650-1815 (Oxford. Yet this should never be. A Plaine and Easie Introduction to Practicall Musicke (London. such as bwv96 Herr Christ. Downloaded from http://em. kuijken. we can observe how frenetic activity in the name of economic growth is slowly but surely poisoning the world’s cultural climate. further investigation should (in my opinion) include: a much more conscious use of (good) gut strings (the wound string was only invented c.more direct (the instrument is higher off the floor) and less of the sound is absorbed by the player’s clothes. Together with the carefully chosen young singers and a small instrumental group (also mostly young musicians).2. In 1972.6. first movement. should not participate and should leave the part to the cembalo alone. and thus all musicians can take inspiration. 1989). 88–9.thiers@skynet. . since it asks for a low B . The birth of the orchestra: history of an institution. In 1969. To my ears. Herr Christ. hosted by the Festival Île-de-France. too. . Even in chorales such as bwv96. which is already written in the lower octave. Spitzer and N. Bach. and from 1993 to 2009 in Brussels. Taylor (Oxford. early music may 2010 27 1 . mainly in four-part ensemble pieces. 2004). he introduced a more historically accurate manner of playing the Baroque violin. Moreover. As a violinist. even at 8′ pitch. trans. bars 25–6. 1597. ‘to make [the sound] buzz and boom’. and which can refresh our ideas with ancient wisdom . first movement. 5 I am grateful to Stephen Rose for bringing to my attention the highly informative remark in Friedrich Erhard Niedt. our ultimate goal: all around. p. where he criticizes the habit of so many organists who cannot refrain from overusing the 16′ register. As a way of gentle opposition. 155–8. 4 See www. . 7 See passages. If one wishes to use ‘period instruments’ and ‘historically informed performance practice’. It would provide welcome new insights. This pairing of a standing 8′ violone with (also standing. or bwv48. let us remain in harmonious contact with our Muse.158). Zaslaw. pp. P. Kuijken founded the Baroque orchestra La Petite Bande and in 1986 the Kuijken String Quartet. r1966. where the notation of the violone part excludes the use of a 16′ instrument. 2 Two remarkable experimental sessions have to be mentioned here: 28 February – 1 March 1998 in the Castle of Villarceaux near Paris.accent-records.3 (bars 3–4). as Bach indicates in the slow movement of the second concerto. 8 See Brandenburg Concerto no. too modern). and the choice and use of truly contemporary bow types (too many performers still use bows which are 20–30 years. 2014 Sigiswald Kuijken graduated as a violinist from the Brussels Conservatory in 1964. and more. is remarkable. ed. the bow grip can be underhand (the modern overhand grip for string bass da gamba only came into general use later in the 18th century).com. der einge Gottessohn.

1708). .4 bwv1010. President 272 early music may 2010 . the result shows how ‘obvious’ this music becomes when seen through a different perspective. no. bwv49. 12 For example. Ich bin ein guter Hirt. i. writes: ‘Violoncello heiss [sic] auch Viola da Spalla’. nun sei gepreiset. . bars 27–59). Jakob Adlung. wird fast tractiret wie eine Violin. theils aber wird es wegen der Schwere an des Rockes Knopff gehänget. Historischbiographisches Lexikon der Tonkünstler (Leipzig. Polisi. Downloaded from http://em.edu/historicalperformance Joseph W. 13 Ernst Ludwig Gerber. William Christie.161: ‘Violoncello ist ein italiaenisches einer Violadigamba nicht ungleiches Bass-Instrument.90 and 491. members of Les Arts Florissants.org/ at University of Macedonia on January 1. neml. Praecepta der Musicalischen Composition (Weimar.212. for example. . 56 and 58. 15 See La Petite Bande’s 2008 recording on Accent acc25306. for release in October 2010). New York. Bleib bei uns. NY 10023 +1. In 2006–7. Gavotte. bwv41. 2014 Juilliard Historical Performance A Two-Year Advanced Program in Period Instrument Performance • Master of Music or Graduate Diploma • Full-Tuition Scholarships Guaranteed • Annual Residencies and Master Classes by Jordi Savall. 11 See for example Cantatas bwv6.Wird gestimmet wie eine Viola’ (The violoncello is an Italian bass instrument resembling a viol. Cantata bwv18 Gleichwie de Regen und Schnee vom Himmel fäll. partly however. In my opinion. hier wird mein Herze sein’ (e. Prelude. or Suite no. Anleitung zu der musikalischen Gelahrtheit (Erfurt. It is tuned like a viola). it is attached to the button of the frock coat . p. Early 2011 Apply online beginning September For information & Application: Juilliard Admissions.599. Jesu. 60 Lincoln Center Plaza. bar 5.5000 www. 2010 Auditions in Paris & New York. others • Exceptional Performance Opportunities Fall 2011 Admission Faculty MONICA HUGGETT Artistic Director and Violin Cynthia Roberts Violin Phoebe Carrai Cello Robert Nairn Double Bass Sandra Miller Flute Gonzalo Ruiz Oboe Dominic Teresi Bassoon Kenneth Weiss Harpsichord Robert Mealy Chamber Music Apply by December 1. bars 49. and bwv85. 1758). p.juilliard. . it is partly supported by the left hand and the strings are stopped by the fingers of the left hand.g.oxfordjournals. 10 Johann Gottfried Walther. Ich gehe und suche mit Verlangen.e. 14 In October 2009 La Petite Bande recorded the Brandenburg Concertos with this ‘new’ set-up (Accent acc24224.es wird mit der lincken Hand theils gehalten . owing to its weight. cols. 1792).3 bwv1009.3: ‘Mein Gott. it is played like a violin. denn es will Abend werden.9 See. i.799. I recorded the Six Suites for Violoncello on the violoncello da spalla (Accent acc54196). Suite no. und die Griffe formiret.