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000 tons of kerosene in 2010. All over the world. there remains a possible measure with high savings potential that could be implemented in the regional airlines sector. Manager Flight Operations Engineering. While the CI functionality is part of the standard equipment of every modern flight management system on Airbus and Boeing aircraft. we mean finding fuel saving measures. To achieve this. CI operations reduce fuel burn and harmful emissions by at least 2%. Regional air traffic is no longer a 20 minutes flight with a turboprop. Fuel experts at IATA describe the savings potential in their ‘IATA Fuel Action Plan. Supporting the strategic flight planning process and on-board tactical economic decisions.” The following calculation outlines the size of the savings potential: Fuel consumption of the Canadair and Embraer fleet of Lufthansa CityLine amounted to 195. This so called CI represents the ratio between event-related and flight time-dependent costs. writes Capt. and sometimes even more than. the price trend of crude oil and fuel prices associated with it demonstrated the need for airlines worldwide to act sustainably. but rather to the size of the aircraft fuselage. Even though the low hanging fruits have already been harvested. and even up . Compared to constant Mach speeds. it has not yet been established in the cockpits of regional aircraft. in this context. Lufthansa CityLine uel expeNses haVe always represented a large proportion of total expenditure for an airline. 100 F passenger seats. Joachim Scheiderer.3 million euro and reduced emission of 18. In the past year. a cost index operations optimization software was developed by PACE. The savings potentials. technology makes fuel efficiency decisions so much better. as much as 10% when a flight is restricted to a low altitude or in unusually strong winds. available with a change from fixed speeds to variable cost index based speeds are enormous.800 tons of Kerosene. Furthermore a supposed fuel price of euro/ton 744 would lead to a savings potential of more than 4. Therefore it is necessary to be able to calculate and identify a speed that generates the lowest costs within the given time slot (block flying time) with due regard to a scheduled time of arrival. And by ‘acting’.400 tons of CO2. a Berlin based company for aerospace engineering and information technology. The question as to why has to be answered by the manufacturers of those aircraft in light of a changing sector. That measure is the implementation of a new flight procedure on the basis of variable airspeeds which will entail turning away from the previous practice of a fixed airspeed. we understand. increasing numbers of regional jets are pushing forward into the medium haul range with aircraft of up to. a company-specific cost index (CI) can be applied. The word ‘regional’ does not so much refer to the geographic operation radius. Pacelab CI OPS significantly reduces fuel consumption and the emission of CO2 and other pollutants. and the fuel price. Pacelab CI OPS In order to use the cost index effectively for the fleet of Lufthansa CityLine. regardless of external parameters. A supposed fuel saving of 3% leads to reduction in use of more than 5. Guidance material and best practices for fuel and environmental management’ as follows: “CI optimization of planned speeds will yield savings from 2 to 3 per cent and in some cases.8 | CASE STUDY: LUFTHANSA CITYLINE | AIRCRAFT IT OPERATIONS | SUMMER 2011 How to implement fuel savings linked to EFB With so many factors to consider.

According to the previously optimized OFP. The crew receives and OFP from A to B which contains a taxi-out time of 10 minutes and a taxi-in time of six minutes with a block time of 100 minutes. In short-range flights. As well as calculating the optimum flight plan. This forms the basis for the planned flight and further tactical optimizations. as part of a total optimization. Normally.aviaso. this is not enough. made in advance of the flight and tactical planning. Until now the flight planning system used fixed published speed schedules and was not capable of calculating a CI based flight plan due to the missing respective Time/Fuel/Distance . cruise and descent for improved OFPs Cost Index Performance Data for Your Flight Planning System Tactical Planning Support of in-flight economic decisions on board following OFP deviations of any kind Electronic Flight Bag Paper Booklet Analyze fuel consumption More than 100 innovative analyses give you the power to thoroughly understand your fuel consumption. Aviaso monitors the progress “day by day” and “flight by flight”. The time window for the flight is therefore reduced by eight minutes – only 76 minutes are available. The tool for tactical planning is the Pacelab CI OPS software. the flight time is 84 minutes. concrete improvement initiatives can be started. ApplicatioN of CI OperatioNs Cost index operation is based on a two-stage optimization approach: strategic · info@aviaso. Aviaso provides sophisticated dashboards which can be configured according to your target group. Aviaso connecting aviation and software www. · Huobstrasse 10 · CH-8808 Pfaeffikon · Switzerland Phone: +41 55 422 0000 · www. cruise and descent flight phases. The cruise altitude is Aviaso Inc. Monitor progress Once the targets are set. ATC cleared unplanned flight level or ATC requested speed change. Flight crews are able to recalculate and update planned trajectories whenever there are deviations from the Operational Flight Plan (OFP).SUMMER 2011 | AIRCRAFT IT OPERATIONS | CASE STUDY: LUFTHANSA CITYLINE | 9 Click here for full SOFTWARE details aNd for a deMo to 10% in adverse conditions. How can the trajectories be changed in order to achieve an optimum ratio between flight time and fuel burn. The following example indicates the necessity of tactical planning.e. Tactical planning follows strategic planning. The crew is then in a position of being able to react to any unpredicted changes during the flight. cost? The main options are changing the climb speed. i. It allows for continuous checking and optimization during flight. for inflight corrections to the flight plan. Communicate results Communication to your stakeholders is crucial. higher cost index) leads to a gentler climb angle. Pacelab CI OPS enhances existing flight planning systems with supplementary CI performance data for the climb.aviaso. Strategic planning in the context of cost index operations means the calculation and creation of the OFP. The Aviaso software not only shows in what areas to save but also quantifies how much you can save. it also allows on board tactical economic decisions in response to in-flight changes such as delay or early arrival. The ecoNoMic fliGht profile Discounting external influences such as wind. Due to a high traffic density in A the 10 minute taxi time becomes 18 minutes before lineup. the (optimum) flight level or the cruise speed Discover savings Next step is to identify potential savings. The figure above shows that a high indicated airspeed in the climb segment (i. the horizontal segment is often only a small part of the overall flight profile. Fuel Efficiency Reduce your fuel costs Strategic Planning Provision of CI performance data for climb. only the cruise segment is optimized. it is generally possible to say that flights at high altitudes use less fuel than those at low altitudes.

ATC might advise you to change speed in cruise. Both cases have implications for the subsequent cruise segment and the overall flight time. This situation is reversed for a low cost index (CI=0) or a low speed. the position of the point changes in this space. the Pacelab CI OPS must be initialized with basic flight mission and weather data. the ‘Speed’ use case is available. trajectories for four additional flight levels (two above. In the results window the (non-time constrained) trajectory for even and odd flight levels together with additional information about fuel and total cost are displayed in the Profile View: Delayed or too early in cruise Because of various external effects. In case of being ahead of time.10 | CASE STUDY: LUFTHANSA CITYLINE | AIRCRAFT IT OPERATIONS | SUMMER 2011 therefore reached later. The Class 2 EFB system is considered as a controlled personal electronic device (PED) and is connected to an aircraft mounting device during normal operations. Based on this take-off time. CI OPS takes the system time and adds 60 seconds to estimate the take-off time. cruise and descent speed values. It is important to note that for each parameter set comprised of take-off weight (TOW). making rule of thumb estimates impossible. PerforMiNG CalculatioNs iN CI OPS Cockpit Preparation (PREP) Before flight. delays or early-in-timescenarios (for example. The trajectories calculated in PREP are not time constrained and therefore correspond to the most economical trajectory with regard to the total costs (time and fuel). caused by slot or taxi-out delay or shorter taxi-out times) are included in the time dependent trajectory. Class 2 EFB systems are generally commercialoff-the-shelf (COTS) based computer systems used for aircraft operations. there are implications to the cruise segment. two below) and the appropriate ECON speeds will be calculated. When this value is reached. They are portable and connected to aircraft power through a certified power source. Pacelab CI OPS will modify the CI up to a maximum allowable value. the pilot can click the ‘T/O 60s’ Button on the action toolbar to calculate the optimum trajectory considering the actual take-off time. CI OPS use iN cockpit Lufthansa CityLine uses so called Class 2 EFB systems in the cockpits of their Canadair and Embraer Jets. Following the fact that there is a specific optimum speed. A steep and short descent results in a longer cruise segment at the optimum altitude. the application calculates the trajectory and displays the results. so that the cruise altitude is reached earlier. The extra power of the engines results in a high climb angle. but the systems require airworthiness approval. The figure below shows such a speed triple for an example parameter set with an altitude restriction (Alt Cap) on FL340 as a point in three-dimensional space. where ‘speed triple’ denotes a particular combination of climb. CI. the ‘Calculate’ button can be used for a first optimum trajectory be calculated. Like the climb segment. distance and wind there is a particular combination of optimum altitude and optimum speed triple. it is often the case during a flight that the pilots realize they will arrive too early (or too late) at the destination. the trajectory for the minimum CI will be calculated. These data can be supplied using an eOFP or by manually entering the required data. a delay will be accepted. whereas a lower cost index (slower flight speed) allows for a gentler angle of descent. The . This is frequently caused by the staggering of aircraft ahead or behind. By comparing the take-off time with the on-block time. After having entered all data necessary for calculating the optimum trajectory. In case of a delay. In the case of the descent segment. Moreover connectivity to Avionics is possible. Line-Up (T/O 60s) After line-up clearance has been obtained and take-off is expected to be initiated in about 60 seconds. The time window for the flight is thus larger or smaller. Change of speed During the flight. a higher cost index (higher flight speed) leads to a steeper angle of descent. In addition to the trajectory for maintaining the current FL and applying the required speed. Each time the parameters are changed.

taking the new parameters in account. Continuously measure all the essential aspects of fuel usage. Visit www. CLICK HERE to leaVe Your feedback about this article aNd start or joiN a discussioN JOIN THE DEBATE ExpertInsightDelivered OSyS 1875 Explorer Street. putting the pilot in the position of being able to make informed decisions on a knowledge-based trajectory analysis. Reston. Singapore Qatar . Within the scope of this task. Flight Planning and Weight and Balance issues. CAPT. multiple users without multiple licenses Build a knowledge base of enablers to maximize fuel usage CLICK HERE to leaVe YOUR QUESTION ASK THE AUTHOR A QUESTION INTERACTIVE INTERACTIVE And for ETS demands.SUMMER 2011 | AIRCRAFT IT OPERATIONS | CASE STUDY: LUFTHANSA CITYLINE | 11 Click here for full SOFTWARE details aNd for a deMo reasons for this might be a stronger wind component or a short cut by ATC that was not known or included during the planning phase. reporting and verification that can be rapidly implemented. the pilot can quickly determine the optimum speed for the new situation. if applying a new speed is beneficial or not. flying the Bombardier Canadair Jet 200. By using Pacelab CI OPS. The second one came out in For example: during climb phase. • • • • Flexible analytical capabilities Identify the largest opportunities to save on fuel Role-based workspaces. shortening the total flight time by six minutes. Today he is focusing on improving operational efficiency by the ntroduction of adequate key performance indicators. Joachim Scheiderer teaches Airline Management as a lecturer at the Karlshochschule International University in Karlsruhe with a focus on operational issues. responsible for the area “Flight Operations Engineering”. cost-effective monitoring. From 1999 he was appointed to the Flight Operations Management Team at Lufthansa CityLine. The software would come up with a recalculated speed suggestion. As in the other cases. VA 20191 +1 703 889 1329 U. The question is whether the ECON speed calculated for the original FL is still the optimum and if there is an OPS or fuel restriction at the target FL. a higher head wind in a lower FL can lead to a higher recommended ECON speed. or email fuelperformance@o-sys.S. JOACHIM SCHEIDERER Optimized Systems and Solutions (OSyS) points you to a full understanding of your operational performance. For example: a crew receives several short cuts from ATC during the flight. Joachim Scheiderer holds a German university master degree in “Industrial Engineering“ with a course specialization in Traffic System Engineering and Corporate Management. if the arrival delay is not a factor. that Pacelab CI OPS is a very easy to use and powerful tool. 700 and 900 fleet. In 2008 his first book “Angewandte Flugleistung” (Applied Aircraft Performance) was published at the renowned Springer Verlag. Capt. Different Flight LeVel One of the most frequent cases is a deviation in the real allocated flight level from the originally planned one. Scheiderer has been responsible for the planning and coordination of the airline’s fuel saving measures.o-sys. The main focus encompasses Aircraft Performance. All the savings you generate go right to your bottom line. The previously mentioned examples show. This additional time could be used to reduce speed. the pilot can quickly check. U. you need the OSyS solution for systematic. That extra 1%-2% reduction in fuel is at your fingertips Joachim Scheiderer started his flying career in 1995 at the Lufthansa Pilots School in Bremen and Tucson/Arizona. named “Human Factors im Cockpit” (Human Factors in the cockpit). ATC tells the flight crew to maintain an altitude below or even above that planned. He started flying as a First Officer in 1997 and since 2001 has served as a Captain for Lufthansa CityLine. He successfully developed and implemented the cost index operation concept within Lufthansa CityLine. For example. Break through the complexity with more accurate views into your own data. Joachim was appointed to the environmental coordinator for the flight operations sector. making it possible to create fully total cost optimized trajectories for regional aircraft.