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Cornell University Library

UA 842.M16
The armes of
India /

3 1924 022 927 283

THE ARMIES OF

INDIA

UNIFORM WITH THIS VOLUME
EACH CONTAINING FULL-PAGE ILLUSTRATIONS IN COLOUR

INDIA
By

MORTIMER MENPES

akd

FLORA ANNIE STEEL

KASHMIR
By Major E.
Sir

MOLYNEUX,

D.S.O.,

and

FRANCIS YOUNGHUSBAND,

K.C.I.E.

BURMA
By R.

TALBOT KELLY

A.

AND

C.

BLACK,

4,

5

AND

6

SOHO SQUARE, LONDON, w.

AGENTS
America
. .

The Macmillan Company
64

&

66 Fifth Ayinue,

New York

Australasia

,

.

The Oxford University Press
205 Flinders Lane, Melbourne

Canada
India

.

.

The Macmillan Company of Canada, Ltd,
St. Martin's House, 70 Bond Street, Toronto Macmillan & Company, Ltd. Macmillan Building, Bombay 309 Bow Bazaar StSeet, Calcutta

....

V\

HIS MAJESTY

THE KING-EMPEROR

LONDON ADAM AND CHARLES BLACK 1911 .M. ROYAL FIELD ARTILLERY WITH FOREWORD BY FIELD -MARSHAL EARL ROBERTS V.G. D. K. Etc. MacMUNN.S.THE ARMIES OF INDIA PAINTED BY MAJOR A. K.P. F.. LOVETT THE GLOUCESTERSHIRE REGIMENT DESCRIBED BY MAJOR G.. C.. O.C.O.

Gardner's Horse. 1850 .

—with help of British training and example— achieved in the past. and often .FOREWORD It wiU readily be believed that I have read this short history of the Major MacMunn eventful years of Armies of India. Having spent so many my life in India. so intimately associated with the and having been Indian Army. written by and illustrated by Major Lovett. It is most imperfectly known in England. or has the to it is appreciate what capable of doing in the future under the same conditions. in is peace and war. with the greatest interest. I think that no one better able than myself to esteem that as regards what it Army at its proper value. ledge of its capabilities And this intimate kTiowme to realize to the enables fullest extent the enormxtus responsibility which rests upon all who are concerned with the administration and handling of such a splendid and potent machine.

the fighting efficiency the strength and of the bonds of loyalty and devotion to service. how diverse and insufficiently divergent in many respects are the numerous races creed. and the most careful consideration given to the difference of treatment they impose in arranging of service for such widely different if we would maintain and develop of our Indian our soldiers. Yet each and all of these factors must be attentively studied. the conditions idiosyncrasies. and traditions. in which we enlist into our Indian Army—in customs. by which they are attached Major present MacMunns state masterly review of the methods by its which the ewisting army has attained of perfection will greatly help to a proper understanding for the necessity of carefully study- ing the varying characteristics of the several Indian races J while the admirable illustrations by Lovett clearly depict the fine physical have in our Indian cordially soldiers. in temperainent.vi THE ARMIES OF INDIA understood in India. this For these all recommend the book to Major types we reasons I who are to all interested in welfare great officers Indian Army — more and prosperity of our particularly of the British and Indian Services whose .

the paramcmnt power which can hardly be overrated. therefore. me say that no account of the Armies of India would be complete which did not include a description of the Imperial Service Tro&ps organized and maintained by the Rulers of the great Feudatory States of Hindustan . let vii duty must constantly bring them into contact with In conclusion. ROBERTS. and advised and officers. to see that the origin I am and developthe British ment of forth in these fine. and I hope that their interesting and instructive narrative will have circulation which it the wide deserves. by British these corps —personally led by their own Princes—have more than tions first justified the high expecta- formed of them when their organization was proposed. at the present a mxrral and material accession of strength to time. and they constitute. and pleased.FOREWORD Indian troops. The joint authors of this interesting volume have done their work well.M. Encouraged by assisted Government. F. . serviceable troops are fully set this volume.

.

..37 CHAPTER The Army of the Great Mutiny 82 CHAPTER IV ... CHAPTER I PAGE . The Indian Armies under the Crown 106 CHAPTER The Military Races of India ix ..129 . . 1 CHAPTER n The two great Mahratta Wars .CONTENTS Foreword ... v The Army of the Honourable East India Company . m . V ..

.. . 1911 . ..173 CHAPTER The Armies of the Native States VII .. CHAPTER VIII 208 INDEX 221 .X THE ARMIES OF INDIA CHAPTER The Indian Armv in VI PAOE .... .... ipi Conclusion ..

. His Majesty the King-Emperor '.. 1st 4. British Officers of Indian Cavalry 6th King Edward's 10th Cavalry and 8th Cavalry 20 24 9. Frontispiece FADING PAGE 2. 14th Murray's Jat Lancers 15th Lancers 18th King George's 19th Lancers . 15. 11th King Edward's 12fh Cavalry 12. ' 2 4 . . 8.. . 6 10 Bombay Lancers and 3rd Skinner 6. Duke Own Lancers 10.. Madras Governor's Bodyguard. Lancers 40 44 Cavalry .. 11. Duke Horse of York's . The former "Hyderabad Contingent" 25th Cavalry 46 48 . 13.... Governor-General's Bodyguard Governor's Bodyguard. Own Own Lancers 28.. Own of Cambridge's Own 12 16 7.... 17. 16. LIST OF ILLUSTRATIONS 1. 32 > 34' 38.... 1857 3. Corps present at the Siege and Assault of Delhi. 5. . 14. .

. 27tli-irigfit Cavalry and 26th King George's Light Cavalry 19. 5th Light Infantry and 6th Jat Light Infantry 30.. and 36th Jacob's Horse 22. .. Punjab Regiments . . ^41. S3rd Punjabis -40. 1st and Miners and 3rd Brahmans Rajput Regiments 29..130 .... .. 38. 90 Ludhiana Sikhs 94 96 32. 64H 66 70 72 76 80 84 88 24. 26th Punjabis Dogras 39.104 108 22nd Punjabis 36. . ... 3rd Sappers 27.. Mountain Battery 2nd Queen's Own Sappers and Miners 26. 37th Lancers/35th Scinde Horse..... 31 25. . and 34th Prince Albert Victor's Own Poona Horse 31st Duke of Connaught's n ... 20th Duke of Cambridge's Own . Own Lancers 32nd Lancers. . 100 . .. Queen's Own Corps of Guides .. 54 56 •^"^ 21..xii THE ARMIES OF INDIA FACING PAGE 18. . No. 24th Punjabis 112 II6 118 37. 60 38th King George's Own Central India Horse . . .. .. 33rd Queen's Own Light Cavalry. 23.. 28. . Infantry and 30th i/ii Punjabis 34. 15th Regiments . . 120 124 Rifles 35th Sikhs 39th Garhwal 40th Pathans 126 42.. Pioneer 31... Own 52 -» 20. 19th Punjabis 33... . "•35. .

B Sir Pratap Singh 180 &Z. Gurkha Gurkha Gurkha - Rifles Rifles Rifles Major General H.. .. 2nd King Edward's Own Baluch Light Own Gurkha Rifles 168 . Bikaner Ganga Risala 192 . Own 156 158 53.. 125th '"57... *) ' . . . 50.. 52. 55. G.C. ...^gth'and33rdPmijabis J/'^?"^47.. 127th Queen Mary's 58. Frontier Force . 6th 61.. Bahadur of 184 188 Bikaner. Frontier Force 48.. Mahratta Infantry Rajputana Infantry 124th 54. Colonel H. The former "Hyderabad Contingent" Grenadiers 154 101st Grenadiers and 102nd King Edward's .C. 44. . ^ . K. xiii FACING PAGE 42nd D^' Regiment ..C.170 172 174 178 5^.. K.. Maharaja Bahadur.132 136 138 43rd Erinpura Regiment.I.. .I. 45th Rattray's Sikhs 46. i^i^r^ Camatic Infantry 148 82nd Punjabis 152 Infantry . 65. ^ 45. . and lOSthJirfantry .C. Maharaja Sir Ganga Singh. ..H.144 . Alwar Lancers Jodhpur Sardar Risala 190 &%. Napier's Rifles I66 Infantry .S.H. .E. 4th 60.. Own Baluchistan ^6.... G. . .. 9th 62. . . ^ .LIST OF ILLUSTRATIONS 43..1 64.162 l64 Duchess of Connaught's Infantry . 44th Mcrwara Infantry.S...140 142 49. 51.

Mysore Transport Corps and Mysore Lancers .THE ARMIES OF INDIA 67.

" The English have as yet ruled in India barely the one -half Britain.THE AEMIES OF INDIA CHAPTER I THE ARMY OF THE HONOURABLE EAST INDIA COMPANY "By the legion's road to Rimini. tramped the trunk roads of Hindustan as those of Rome tramped Merry England before it was England at all. Up and down the length and breadth of up and down Watling Street and the Via Fossa. in time that the Romans north ruled in though their rule in the East has much of the common with that last of Rome Channel. have tramped those India. or up and down "the legion's road to Rimini." at the legion's pace. For the century and a half have the English legions. as English legions since Clive decided that there . European and Indian.

2 THE ARMIES OF INDIA should be one king and not a dozen in India. Of great presidential armies. ruled and trained and led after the manner of the English. and that one. in a storm of unreasoned and uncalled-for mutiny. till it became the great shako -clad army of the Line that vanished in the for the most part the tragedy of the three '37. with a view to the efficiency. From first the doorkeepers and trained bands that guarded the factories of the early merchants. And the marvel of it all is that these tramping disciplined legions are not the beef and porridge but for the and potato-reared lads of the Isles. The army that now upholds the Empire of is Hindustan. and part of that of Bombay. the army of John prospered. larger part. most part men of the ancient races of Hindustan. that buried in a month the tradition of a century. Company Bahadur grew and by the secret of ever-increasing scope and labour. disappeared. based on a systematic grouping of men by full race and sept and clan. that of Bengal. neither French nor Dutch nor Portuguese. development of race . and with it the glorious record of successful war and faithful service.

.

loTH Duke of Cambridge's Own 9TH Hodson's Horse Lancers (Hodson's Horse) 1857 S7TH Wilde's Rifles (Frontier Force) 32ND Sikh Pioneers S5TH Coke's Rifles (Frontier Force) 1ST Queen's Own Corps of Guides . King George's (Lumsden's) Own Sappers AND Miners 2IST Prince 22ND Sam Browne's 54TH Sikhs (Frontier Force) Cavalry (Frontier Force) Albert Victor's Own Cavalry (Frontier Force) (Daly's Horse) 3RD Queen Alexandra's 2ND King Edward's Own 127TH Queen Mary's Own S6th Punjabi Rifles (Frontier Force) Baluch Light Infantry Own Gurkha Rifles Gurkha Rifles (The Sirmoor Rifles) .CORPS PRESENT AT THE SIEGE AND ASSAULT OF DELHI.

f'l


ARMY OF THE EAST
much
tribal

INDIA COMPANY

3

This careful grouping has been the subject of
attention during the last twenty years, and

has called for a thorough study of the clans and

systems of India, ending in a method of
is

recruiting which

remarkable, and

of a

rank
It

and
is

file

which

is

numerous and admirable.

also well calculated to prevent the decline of

martial qualities, which follows so quickly in the

East on an era of peace.
years of this system
it is

The

results of

twenty

the object of this book

to describe and Ulustrate.

To

arrive,

however, at

the present stage, and to understand that vast
organization
herein,
it is

by

class

and clan "which are

illustrated

necessary to trace the rise of the armies

of India through their separate presidential existence, to one vast whole.
It
is

proposed to deal with the subject in the
:

following order

The The The The The The

Army Army

of the Honourable East India Company.

of the Great Mutiny. Armies as transferred to the Crown. MiUtary clans and tribes.

Indian

Army

of to-day.
States.

Armies of the Feudatory

The army of great John Company took
from three separate
nuclei,

its origin

separated

by many

4

THE ARMIES OF INDIA
of

miles

road

and

sea

and

hostile

territory.

These three centres originated in, first, " an ensign and thirty men," reinforced by a "gunner and his
crew," stationed in Bengal towards the end of the

seventeenth century
to garrison

;

second, a detachment sent

Bombay, the dower of Catherine of
;

Braganza, Charles the Second's bride

and

third,

the forming of companies and soldiers from factory

doorkeepers and

watchmen
of three

in

Madras.

These

curiously haphazard beginnings were the unmedi-

tated foundations
horse, foot,

immense armies of
was
first

and

artillery.

The

raising of actual native regiments
it

undertaken by the French, and

was due to the

coming struggle
that

for
first

mastery in Southern India
conception of a regular native

we owe

the

army.
of

In 1748 Dupleix raised several battalions
soldiery

Musalman
in

armed

in

the European

fashion

the Carnatic, and a few years later
suit in

Stringer
distances

Lawrence followed
that
separated

Madras.

The

the

three

presidencies

resulted in each force
principles

growing up on divergent
which

and with

different organizations, of

some extent even to this European companies were formed from detachments sent from England, from runaway sailors,
the
ill

results survive to

day.

GOVERNOR-GENERAL'S BODYGUARD
Daffadar
Sayyid of Shahpur [Musalman)

ARMY OF THE EAST
men

INDIA COMPANY

5

of disbanded French corps, from Swiss and

Hanoverians, from prisoners of war, and any white
material in search of a livelihood.

In 1748 the

regular European corps of the Company's service,

who now form
Royal
panies.

part of the British Line and the

Artillery,

were

first

formed from these
and scattered

heterogeneous

detachments
first

In 1754 the

comRoyal troops came to

take their share in garrisoning the East Indies, the

39th foot being the "first in the Indies."

By

1759,

two years after Plassey,
corps were formed in

six regular native battalions

existed in Madras, and a few years later similar

Bombay.

During the constant wars with the French, with Mysore and the Mahrattas, the presidential armies grew and developed and were brigaded. In
1793 the
fall

of Pondicherry for the last time ended
all

once and for

the power of the French in India,

though

their influence lasted for
in the year of grace

many

years after,

and even

1911 there are old

native ofiicers to be found in the Feudatory States

who

can

drill

their

men

in French.

When

this

great struggle came to an end, and

Lord Cornwallis

had humbled the Tiger of Mysore, and, after the manner of the English, given him one more chance,
it

became high time

to put

some organization and


6

THE ARMIES OF INDIA
So
in

system into the mass of troops that had grown up
during the years of war.

1795

we come

upon the
principle,

first

general reconstruction, on a definite

throughout the three armies.

At

this

date there were 13,000 Europeans in the country.
King's and Company's, and some 24,000 native
troops in Bengal and Madras respectively, with

9000 in Bombay.
accepted form of

The

reorganization took the
artillery

collecting

companies

into battalions, cavalry troops into regiments,

and

forming the infantry into two-battalion regiments.
This of course meant renumbering the whole of the
battalions in each of the three armies except the
first half,

for

and incurring the usual dislike of corps a change of the number under which they have
fame,

however necessary that be. The uniforms of corps were more strictly assimilated to those of the King's troops, and a regular army came into being.

won

The

result

was

as follows

:

Benffal.-r-Europea.n Artillery.

Three battalions of 5 comThree battalions of 10 com-

panies each.

European Infantry.
panies each.

Native Cavalry.

Native

Infantry.

Four regiments. Twelve regiments of 2 bat-

talions.

.

MADRAS Madrasi Musalman .GOVERNOR'S BODYGUARD.

.

.

and a marine In those days the whole of India swarmed with men who of military predilections. Artillery. —European panies. or else by low-caste men. who on European food and with . still preserved many of their original characteristics. fresh recruits from relatives in the border The old coast armies were largely filled by these adventurers or their half-bred children. have been cribbed and at will through bidder. wandered the land to sell their sword to the highest Every native chief had Arab and Afghan soldiery. European Infantry. on the waning of the Mogul authority. confined to their own hills. with 15 companies of lascars. talions. the descendants of Afghan and Turki settlers. The Rohillas. battalions of 10 com- Two European battalions of 5 companies each. Artillery. Bombay. Afghan soldiers of fortune. Native Infantry. Two battalions of 10 com- Four regiments of 2 battalions battalion. for the last sixty years The Afghan races. Infantry. Four regiments. Native Infantry. had hacked their way to power and were forming principalities. Eleven regiments of 2 batSix companies.ARMY OF THE EAST Madras INDIA COMPANY Two 7 —European panies. and drew hills. Native Cavalry.

Then.8 THE ARMIES OF INDIA European leading gladly fought the high -caste The irregular races that had oppressed them. in which the cruelty and oppression endured by the long-sufferthe ing peasantry was beyond belief. because in it every land. soldiers of all Company's colours. and the leader of free-lances . It should be remembered that in few cases were the rulers then going down before us more than mushroom kings —adventurers . the old rulers who had themselves or the old Mogul governors displaced . when the peasant dare till the field and the woman creep out from her hovel. which came into being in Lord Lake's time. the the British uniform and white face were a sign of freedom and mercy." The slackening of Mogul authority had been the signal for a vast scramble among the free-lances. horse. too. but more is especially in the East. good to be on the kinds flocked to the winning side. was largely recruited from the falling fortunes of the soldiers of fortune and masterless men that broke away from the crumbling States. in hardly any case had they more claim to power than " the good old rule the simple plan. To every district free- from which British successes had driven the lance and the alien Schwartzrdter.

With the fall of the French State. he would have none of it. Buonaparte himself was openly traffickchiefs of the ing with Tippoo in Mysore. troops trained on the European model. ready to minister to the desire for what then seemed the secret of power. . but only one paramount power in the Peninsula. fighting the French wherever they found them." became GovernorGeneral. and that forthwith. seeing farther ahead than most. Mahratta and Musalman States. who at any rate paid regularly. far-seeing Already was to be one European power in Hindustan. with Scindia. and so determined that however so much others might care to fritter away an empire. French soldiers of fortune had drifted to most of the native courts of India.ARMY OF THE EAST tried to preserve INDIA COMPANY 9 some izzat^ in serving the new master. alarmed at the might of the English. with Holkar and the Bhonsla. later the Marquis Wellesley. and. were preparing to destroy the power of the Company. " The great Marquis. In 1798 Lord Mornington. and Lord Mornington settled that there men had had determined that there should not only be one European power. the leading ' Prestige. say. realized that whatever the folk at home would the British in the East must either go forward or be overwhelmed.

and fell once and for all to General Harris. Delhi fell. and formed a base for designs on itself. lest worse befall. led his troops from Bengal against the chief gatherings of the Mahrattas. and the British took reverses that lessened their care. the old blind Mogul was rescued from his Mahratta jailers and pensioned. profiting years earlier little by the chance given him by Lord Cornwallis. many years pursuit of General Lake left the final Holkar to a force under Colonel Monson of the 76th Foot. General Lake. Arthur Wellesley and Stevenson broke the power of Scindia in two pitched battles and a dozen successful sieges and assaults. Tippoo. So the great Marquis started forth himself to strike first. the army that De Boigne and Perron had organized with such Deig and Laswarrie. Then came the swing back of the pendulum. at hold on the imagination of the East for to come. again broke a lance. and Holkar was chased by Lake for 350 miles. defeating Scindia's trained forces. and that ofiicer followed far away from . the Commander-in-Chief. the Tiger of six Mysore. while the French of France and Bourbon India harboured privateers to prey on the Indiamen. till he fled to his own country.10 THE ARMIES OF INDIA Isles Mahratta confederacy.

.

BOMBAY Musalman Rajfut .GOVERNOR'S BODYGUARD.

.

.

tampering with his auxiUaries. not within the actual British Empire. Commander-in-Chief's his columns. its There an old medal. youngest wearer has long passed to his which com- memorates the days when the great sepoy army was evolving itself in the school of experience as an . despite the heroism of his Europeans. so old that rest. Monson was compelled to retire. and for years after. but to a definite state of allied feudatories. Holkar. and even with his regular troops. the three campaign against the Mahrattas was conspicuous by its success. hurled back from the impracticable breaches with heavy loss. changed to a his flight. and native troops. and by the treaties which brought the States concerned. Time after time were headed by the 76th Foot. usually the capital of a Hindu State.ARMY OF THE EAST his INDIA COMPANY 11 till own base and into the season of the rains. turned on him. when our action was thought high-handed." With years' the exception of these two failures. till at last the old soldier reluctantly determined to abandon the siege of the great mud fortress . we were told to "go bully Bhurtpore. some of The second reverse was the failure to take Bhurtpore. with in evil at many cases their power for any rate much is curtailed. and the withdrawal gradually and the flight to a debacle.

and " Battle of Delhi. both horse and foot. as well as the later and Malcolm and Hislop." " which were borne on the colours of corps the most part of the Bengal off the record in the whirlwind of till. in battle and march and siege." "Battle of Deig." Defence of Delhi. inscription. and after them the army became still more regular and controlled by regulation. and General Gerard Lake. the Silladar Cavalry are the legitimate ." " Laswarrie." "AUighur. During these wars more regiments. irregulars past. were continually being raised. in close touch with the increasing garrison of King's troops. It bears the earning much fame in the process. they were wiped Mutiny." "Capture ofDeig. for Army." are among the honours that the medal commemorates.12 THE ARMIES OF INDIA army of the Line." "Argaum. Arthur Wellesley. European in its dress and equipment. and more and at this more period. " Ghawilghur." Commandervictories of Lord Moira "Assaye. " To the Army of of India. it may be To-day." " Asseerghur. his brother." and its tally of clasps includes the history of the wars of the Marquis Wellesley. the in-Chief. Irregulars too were added to the army and as the question of regulars versus has been hotly argued in India in the well to understand the difference.

.

1st duke of YORK'S OWN 3rd SKINNER'S HORSE LANCERS (SKINNER'S HORSE) Hindustani Musalman Muscdman Rajput .

A B-Uwm .

.

In war time men no doubt came to earlier. both horse and foot. but in peace under the regular system the native officers were aged figure- In the irregular corps the British officers were few. promoted by seniority. holds in the Indian cavalry to-day. resembled that of the King's while the native and companies officers. its organiza- The establishment of officers service. resembled in tion the British Line.ARMY OF THE EAST heirs of the old irregulars. and native officers had definite command of companies and troops. with the exception of the three light cavalry regular . The irregular cavalry were enlisted on the old system of the country ladar system soldier —whereby is —the sil- in return for a sum down the came with This horse. The regular army. and troops were commanded by the British officers were but understudies for efficiency. the system which. and not were men of great age. 65 and 70. INDIA COMPANY 13 and the whole native army is largely modelled on what fifty years ago was termed the Irregular System. and came to great authority and efficiency thereby. commissioned rank heads. considerably developed. On the are inscribed the and cross over the long trench graves on the battlefield of Chillianwalla names of two Brahman subadars. arms. and against their names is recorded their ages. and accoutrements complete.

till their worth rest of the the wars in Afghanistan and the Punjab showed the immense value of the power of resource and while this spirit initiative that they possessed.14 THE ARMIES OF INDIA still regiments of the old Madras cavalry. So early as 1762. This was probably accentuated by the fact that was far more present it in all ranks in the earlier wars. the it Pdx Britannica had killed only remained among It the peasantry and class. earlier years of the nineteenth century the Indian army fulfilled an essentially imperial The reduction of the oversea colonies and naval stations European enemies during the Napoleonic wars was entrusted to it. The oversea expeditions of our were numerous. which exist as part of the old line. among a smaller should be remembered that during the role. . and this power to commence is expeditions from a self-supporting base. was and one of the great strategical assets which India adds to our imperial power. an expedition composed of Madras troops took part in the war with Spain by capturing Manila. and which still wear the French grey and silver of the old regular light cavalry that played so leading a part in the Mutiny. The by the irregulars were not esteemed at army.

a force of volunteers from the Bengal army proceeded to occupy Macao with a view to Native Officer. with the exception of some artillery companies from Bengal. forestalling the French. the native troops being from Madras. Bourbon and Rodrigues. a large naval military force . an expedition from Madras captured Amboyna and the Spice Islands from the Dutch. Expeditions. In 1808. the depredations of the French privateers on British commerce demanded the capture of Mauritius (lie de France).ARMY OF THE EAST INDIA COMPANY 15 In 1795. a force from India under Sir David Baird proceeded to join the British force in Egypt. an expedition from India captured Ceylon from the Dutch and French. In 1810. in which Bombay and Madras corps and volunteer battalions from the Bengal army took and part. 1795. Calcutta Kative Militia. In 1811. In 1795. In 1801. reduced the islands with little difficulty. and 13th Bombay Infantry and some native artillery tne 2nd taking part.

Weltevrede and the the South read like of African War. capture of actions The accounts of the actions. after manner of the English. the conquered race was formed into soldiers. The Mahratta States. Sir Samuel Auchmuty was in command. and and pioneers from Madras. chafing under treaties. In 1817 two causes once more involved India in a far-reaching war. From this time. from the well-known Dutch names which occur. and was entirely successful.16 THE ARMIES OF INDIA The troops included several proceeded to capture the Island of Java from the Dutch and French. some horse The expedi- met with considerable resistance. and after preliminary disasters was " brought to a successful conclusion field when General Ochterlony took the Lony Ochter " of the luUaby —with fresh troops the — the terrible and selected generals. and from it spring the Gurkha battalions that are such a famous part of the Indian Army of to-day. artillery volunteer battalions from Bengal. and garrisons that prevented their . In 1814 broke out the war with Nepal due to Gurkha inroads. the like. The end of the Mahratta Wars of 1803-4 meant no prolonged peace for the Indian Army. and the famous Gillespie was one of tion the brigadiers.

.

BS p u '^ 2 » Z K> O « w o El] ^ Q U « = 2 5 & w J} o J2- .

.

.

the Mahratta confederacy a proper status. who. and brought half India to the chiefly Europe in the days of Wallenstein and These vast bodies of masterless soldiery. and perhaps suffered. were busy planning fresh resistance. and had continually been reinforced from Afghan tribes- men. where they state of Tilly. had grown from the gradual break-up of Mogul armies. swept and raided listed. and any adventurous and lawless lad who liked to hear the lark sing rather than the lived at their ease mouse squeak. therefore. that if we were to live to to keep India as a land for honest men in. things had come to such a pass. were the to Pindaris. seizing strongholds and forming centres wherever they pleased. horse with many odd guns. was the name given the enormous bands of free-lances. Arabs. and they peasantry of India. keeps the grandchildren of those grateful to the British who who saved them. must be reduced and 3 the Pindaris driven from the land.ARMY OF THE EAST INDIA COMPANY 17 overrunning the territories of their weaker neighbours. scourged the country round. In 1817. while allied with them and even a worse This evil. on the The horror they inspired in the people has still hardly been forgotten to this day. If we realize that .

the battle of Mahidpore against Holkar.18 THE ARMIES OF INDIA the Pindaris were operating over a country about twice the size of France. had set himself. where the 2nd/lst Bombay Infantry (now the . consisting of seven divisions. commanded by the GovernorGeneral himself. commanded by Sir Hislop. which were reduced in subsequent intervals of peace. and Thomas the Grand Army. Mahratta States and the Pindaris at amounted to disciplined foot. the The combined horse. consisting of four divisions. Against these. Governor-General. as well ligtit as several regiments of British dragoons. the battles of Kirkee against the Peshwa. The events of this campaign are too numerous to be described in detail. Both armies were strong in cavalry. but among the most famous are the defence of Seetabuldee (the Nagpore Residency). and provided by nature with every kind of bolthole and fastness.000 70. and most of the regular native cavalry. there being several regiments of Rohilla horse. forces of the we shall perhaps understand the task that Lord Moira. and the famous battle of Corygaum near Poona.000 and over 500 guns. the Indian —the Army took the field in two large forces Army of the Deccan. with Gardner's and Skinner's Irregulars. least 100.

and the subsequent in the It attempt to improve organization of the army. must not be supposed that in all these years of an alien army there had not been mutinies a large army controlled by a trading company. in chasing from one stronghold reducing innumerable hill forts." "Maheidpoor. The medal to the Army of India already referred to bears for these campaigns the clasps. till the land had Perhaps the feature of this war was the increasing number of irregular horse. "Kirkee. months followed bands peace." When the main forces opposing many weary and Mahratta and Pindari to another. ." "Corygaum." " Seetabuldee. was bound to have passed through periods of well-founded In 1806 had been the serious mutiny grievance. with large ideas on the subject of profits." "Nagpore. that had shown defects wide strain put on it." "Seetabuldee and Nagpore.ARMY OF THE EAST INDIA COMPANY 19 102nd Grenadiers)." "Poona." "Kirkee and Poona. resisted the most desperate attacks of the whole of the Peshwa's army. with 250 horse and a detachment of Madras Artillery. us had been crushed as an army in being. of Vellore on the —that should have been the writing 1824 the corps ordered to wall—and as in . who proved the far the best suited to the final stage of the work.

The Bombay Army of 1824. be referred to in the chapter In 1824 the on the Great Mutiny. 1801. of which one troop was native. with a cadre of and a corps of pioneers. Five battalions of artillery of four companies each. one European native. 5 regiments of irregular horse. receiving their new numbers in accordance with in each their original date of formation. 68 battalions of native infantry. 3 regiments of light cavalry. as follows Bengal. was composed : Grenadier Battalion. therefore. Madras. and one 3 battalions of foot artillery of 4 companies each. 2 battalions of European infantry. —Three A brigades of horse artillery of four troops each. 2 battalions of European infantry. Several local corps and legions. and the line army was renumbered from 1 upwards by single battalions. with 4 companies of lascars attached.— THE ARMIES OF INDIA march to Arracan had refused to These will go. 2 corps of pioneers. whole of the armies were reorganized and renumbered. —Two brigades of horse artillery. and miners. . corps of sappers 47 engineer officers. 8 regiments of light cavalry (regulars). the double -battalion regiments being abolished. Naik.

.

6th king EDWARD'S OWN CAVALRY 8th Jdts cavalry .

.

.

therefore. Lord Combermere (the Stapleton Cotton fortress of Peninsula and Waterloo in fame). 2 battalions of European infantry. 1825. were the chief military events till we come to the First Afghan War. artillery. to how keep fast the great the armies were territories pace with we had acquired. 21 — 4< troops of horse artillery. It will be seen.ARMY OF THE EAST 52 battalions of native 3 local battalions. 3 regiments of light cavalry. 24 battalions of native infantry. and circumstances forced the Government to reduce it. It will be remembered compelled to after losing how. and the capture of Bhurtpore. in four separate assaults. In 1825 the insolence of the rulers of this virgin knew no bounds. in 1805. Lord Lake was abandon the siege of Bhurtpore killed 446 and 2479 wounded. Bombay. 2 regiments of irregular horse. From the close of the Pindari wars. INDIA COMPANY infantry. the expedition to Burma in 1824. and the responsibilities we had undertaken. advanced with a against force the place December consisting of a cavalry and two strong . 8 companies of foot A corps of engineers and pioneers. growing. The Commander-inChief.

a record of and harassing operations in in hill and swamp and jungle. with the 1000 killed and wounded. the only exception being the battalions. the officers being dressed as dragoons. though resembling a made of black cloth on an iron. and wicker frame." The Burmese War which was going on during 1825. cluding the local battalions. and a loss of close on loss to the garrison computed at 8000. the officers the same. The horse artillery officers were in the English dragoon helmets. was later a all The head-dress. About this time the whole of the infantry. The fortress was eventually stormed. with varying crests and plumes. rifle shako.22 THE ARMIES OF INDIA by what Lord Lake so infantry divisions. half the heavy guns in India. The prestige thus regained by the British was great. The regular cavalry were still in French grey with various facings. were clothed in scarlet with white pants. though we . was also com- memorated by a difficult clasp for "Ava. The irregular horse were in varieties of native clothing. lacked. both and Arracan Burma itself and in the Assam in- districts. and the native horse artillery wore high Persian skin headdresses. hussars or lancers." and its history. and the last clasp on the old medal was for " Bhurtpore. backed up. is while devoid of large engagements.

Shah Soojah ul Mulk. opposing the advance The rightful ruler of Afghanistan. and the Gwalior contingent came to be regarded as a corps d'dlite.ARMY OF THE EAST see portraits of as INDIA COMPANY " 23 James Skinner." he was called. As a result of the Marquis Wellesley's policy. was a pensioner in our midst. drilled like our own troops. and that followed by the Marquis of Hastings (Lord Moira) after the close of the Pindari war. driven forth by his own folk by reason of his incompetence. but commanded by Company's officers. He had apparently sufficient follow- . In 1838 a policy was adopted which was to involve India in four years' war. immense disaster and chagrin. Service in some of them was much sought after. there grew up many contingents paid for by the native States. all causes most directly traceable. in the case of the majority. For twelve years after the fall of Bhurtpore the army had comparative peace. famed for its discipline and appearance. the same races as the Bengal Army. of his regiment dressed as an officer of dragoons. This policy consisted assist of in forming a friendly Afghanistan to of the Bear. and a the Mutiny is loss of prestige to which perhaps of . or at the head Old Sekunder. and enlisting.

to rape. and Ghuznee. tables. swept into Hindustan to to devastate. disappointments. To place His Highness on the throne of his fathers and maintain him was raised in India. At any rate. the Maharaja of the there. Quetta. however.24 THE ARMIES OF INDIA him as our ally. the too trustworthy. it was desirable to turn the was only a question of expediency and counting the cost. Since. here. disasters. and the pros and cons. to those in power the course seemed good. which to the brains of the time or wrong. and in it the policy of security and good government. its The campaign that ensued. There was no question of right all On and every occasion Afghans had slay. and not was decided to advance into if Afghanistan by the lengthy easier route of Sukkur. with all successes. the Shah. Kandahar. and controversies cannot be discussed The . and the famous "Tripartite Treaty" was signed between ourselves. of Hindustanis to support it the Army it and Gurkhas. a The force consisted of a brigade of cavalry. division. it did. a contingent Punjab. and Ranjit Singh. to loot. with British officers. If. should ing to justify our restoring that course seem desirable. Punjab was foreign. and of the Indus was collected. a Bengal Bombay column. and the Shah's con- tingent. 6000 strong.

.

.

.

.

the brigades of occupation sat in Kabul and Kandahar. . the Khyber route was opened children. the gathering of the storm. withdrawn country . the squabbles of an garrison. rose. Then came the sinister rumours. All was couleur de his fathers . All was peace and content on We read in Sir Neville Chamberlain's Ghuznee to of officers riding in from Kabul he had for the races. cold and and after abandoning the useless baggage and camp followers responsible for much of the trouble. want of carriage. The Shah was to present a medal . and immense trouble due sickness. the contingent garrisoned the outposts. to the troops for the storming of Ghuznee already started a magnificent order of Knighthood. English officers rode freely over the ladies. life. soldiers. families." and had conferred it on the leading lights of the army and political service. the surface. the "Order of the Douranee Empire. the murder of the Envoy eifete Sir William Macnaghten and the Envoyinefficient elect Sir Alexander Burnes. to the derision of those who did not receive it.ARMY OF THE EAST force INDIA COMPANY 25 under Sir John Keane reached Kabul in to 1839. on the throne of much of the The Shah sat army was . commander and the . after the successful storming of Ghuznee. flocked to the canton- ment at Kabul .

with a few European artillerymen. not so much to rescue the English men and women in captivity as to help the sturdy Nott. Sepoy regiments. and a final advance. Besides medal . Then came the avenging army under Pollock. under Captain Craigie. This method capital. the defence of Jellalabad by Sale and the " Illustrious garrison. and lastly. defence of Kelat-i-Ghilzai by the 3rd now the 12th (Kelat-i-Ghilzai) Regiment. were bright pusillanimity. with trembling sepoys to be heartened and redisciplined at Peshawar. the massacre of half-frozen troops and frost-bitten followers — such a disaster and humiliation as had never before happened to British arms. the taking of hostages. who had agreed with Pollock to carry out the orders to evacuate Afghanistan their joint Kabul on by coming via responsibility." all to redeem incompetence and . with his " splendid spots. of evacuating Afghanistan enabled vengeance to be taken on the guilty prisoners to and the British the be rescued. Bright spots there were. The Shah's." the sturdy demeanour of Nott at Kandahar. But the world looked at the failure a British brigade annihilated under most pitiable circumstances was what the Eastern world saw. and rejoiced at.26 THE ARMIES OF INDIA in attempt to evacuate Kabul the snow.

Lord EUenborough. Despite. and armies. was the intense camaraderie between the 13th Foot and the 35th Bengal Native Infantry. passed the British frontier into Ferozepore. and with the 35th. rescued from begging in the Kabul bazaars. still India was able to find troops for Imperial . the maimed and remnants of the earlier occupation. however. for medals were given avenging the defence of Kelat-i-Ghilzai and Jellalabad respectively. the frost-bitten triumphant finale. another to the bearing the inscription The armies of Nott and Pollock then marched down from Kabul. at the head of a reserve army. '57. An interesting incident of the times. parts of the "Illustrious garrison." which ended in the whole of the latter feasting their British Even comrades before parting at Ferozepore. During the strain of the Afghan War. however." and after traversing an almost hostile Punjab. to find an immense reception awaiting them from the Governor-General. "Victoria Vindex. told a tale of lessened prestige that was not forgotten for many years. however.ARMY OF THE EAST for the storming of special INDIA COMPANY 27 Ghuznee in the first phase. went under in them the battery of artillery on whose guns Lord EUenborough had engraved a mural crown for its share in the defence.

i -r • ments took part with the 22nd Foot. British property in had been destroyed by the Chinese problem. three -n . had resulted in dissensions between two factions. Bombay Cavalry n and two Bombay Iniautry regiwhich -. still • i i The annexation of Scinde that followed. in A Grenadier Sepoy of 30tli uegimeDt of Bengal Native Infantry. was to see an important though short campaign in internal India. and an expedition under Sir an attempt to solve by a short cut the opium Hugh Gough was sent to por- South China. the Afghan wars was the trouble in Scinde. further extended the responsibilities of the sepoy army. This same year. 1843. a large amount of oversea purposes. ending in Sir Charles Napier's short and famous campaign. as it tion of the force were troops of the Madras Line. and necessitated more battalions. The major for. . .28 THE ARMIES OF INDIA In 1840. the State of Gwalior. 1815. A minority in Scindia's domain. usual volunteer battalions alone represented the Bengal An aftermath of Army. had the become a habit for the Bengal Army not to cross the seas.

.

llTH KING EDWARD'S RiSALDAR OWN LANCERS (PROBYN'S HORSE) Durrani [Afghan) .

.

.

The a severe engagement ensued. Eventually the state of affairs at Gwalior necessitated a move it was not expected to be more than a promenade. A six- . Hindu power. victories. and some ladies even accompanied the force. battle at lesser Punniar was scale. the Sikhs of the Punjab. To obviate any outbreak exercise of the Gwalior troops. an army of was collected as a precautionary measure near Agra. While Sir of the British troops on the capital. and at Punniar. Sir John Jhansi. in which the Gwalior artillery was especially well served. but Hugh Gough surprise. also a severe one. the advanced from Muttra. and to every one's Grey advanced from Mahratta army was found in position also near Maharajpore.ARMY OF THE EAST The army took INDIA COMPANY 29 opposite sides to that supported by Government. and the army was a very considerable force. still retaining the European organization and drill that it had learnt in the days of De Boigne and his successors. The and former force opened fire on Sir Hugh Gough. and another force at Jhansi. completed the overthrow of the Gwalior troops and ended the disturbing conditions in the Durbar. though on a These two however. Gwalior was a large and there was considerable danger of an attempt to combine with the other great Hindu State.

and the climate was rigorous to natives of Hindustan. put some strain . whose casualties were very severe. with a silver centre. and the words " Maharajpore " and " Punniar " respectively in the centre. tudes and successful conclusion. finally crossed the Sutlej in large numbers near Ferozepore. the severest foe that The Sikhs were far had been met in India. The canton- ing of a force of occupation at Lahore during the minority of the young Maharaja. and were burning to invade British India. Large additions were made to the army at the outbreak of the campaign. many years came to The Sikhs. including the formation of eight more regiments of cavalry. The native troops that took part in the campaign were entirely from Bengal. is its vicissiitself. while there was considerable feeling towards the last Hindu State.30 THE ARMIES OF INDIA pointed bronze star was awarded the troops. who had lost the firm hand of the sagacious Ranjit Singh. In the winter of 1845 the most serious trouble that had threatened India for a head. a story and has often been told from many points of view. The bulk of the fighting fell on the European troops. and acquitted themselves with varying credit. its The by Sutlej campaign with hard-fought battles.

was soon doomed to Sikhs had not yet failure. the passing of the Chenab. by a Bombay brigade. This took it place in the early summer of 1848. and the surrender of the Sirdars and their followers at Rawalpindi. into which Mool Raj. are all matters of history and of full record. and a special force was raised for the garrisoning of the JuUundur Doab. the final capture of the fortress. and a large army was organized at Ferozepore.ARMY OF THE EAST INDIA COMPANY 31 on the army. with the pursuit of the Afghan horse to the Khyber. the hard-fought battle of Chillianwalla. the rebellious Sikh governor. could be assembled. consisting of four brigades of cavalry and three divisions of infantry. . of two was British officers lent to the Durbar. Events. that was adopted as a definite policy after the First Sikh War. too. the final crush- ing of the Sikhs at Gujarat. The made up their minds to accept even British domination. had thrown himself. and an outburst was precipitated by the murder. at Mooltan. soon showed that the outbreak at Mooltan was likely to become general. The reinforcement of the force attacking Mooltan. The attempt to bolster up the Sikh State. and some time before a force for the reduction of Mooltan.

and from it. The annexation of the Punjab was followed by more additions to the native army. has known later as the Punjab Frontier Force. The frontier brigade organized in the Jullundur Doab was moved to the Afghan border. recruited largely from the Khalsa regiments that had been disbanded. and a very large native garrison. had been accustomed to experience for many years.32 Suffice it THE ARMIES OF INDIA here to say that the Bengal native army the formed the bulk of the crowning brigade victory force. with very little corresponding increase in the European garrison. far more so than any portion. but some of the native infantry corps were especially distinguished and suffered . reinforced for of Gujarat by in the Bombay that had taken part the storm of Mooltan. the Punjab Irregular Force was formed. while the exigencies of holding the immense area annexed. demanded a grouping of the European troops in the North of India. with the addition of several new corps. become so famous a portion of the Indian . especially the native infantry. this The brunt fell of the heavy fighting in war as usual on the European troops. The losses sustained by the British troops in these two Sikh wars were very severe. which.very heavy casualties. and of watching the Afghan frontier.

.

12tH CAVALRY Jemadar .

.

.

In countries where might had been right for perhaps a couple of hundred years. kind. for the ordinary pacification and maintenance of order in the districts. obey the law. or INDIA COMPANY 33 Dalhousie's policy of annexing States which had no successor in heredity on the demise of the reigning chief. hilly and jungle demanded far more effective forces than police. the barons and their retainers pay revenue. and the annexation of Oudh in 1856 was perforce followed by the immediate formation of the Oudh Irregular Force. and the hand alone had kept the head since the memory of man. dangerous though it seemed. and was with the fact that revenue was cheaper. Lord in hopeless anarchy. by no means therefore. ample. that demanded troops. and those of the The policy. In 1854 the annexation of Nagpore necessitated the formation of a local force. and cease to spoil the peasant and the was for many it years beyond the this need. there were scores of reiving barons and robber chiefs to be dealt with. To make trader. It should be realized that the state of the country. coupled power of mere police.ARMY OF THE EAST Army. with its poor communications and immense tracts. was an almost unavoid- . or native. added considerably to the demands on the native force in the country.

and many failings of a whole had been often pointed out. at the foot of the Between 1849 and 1857 the new Afghan hUls gave much trouble. meum and tuum on is the tribes. given the conditions as they appeared to men at the time. a Persian expedition removed several European Several native corps for the time beyond the seas. Minor infidelities and mutinies the service as there had been. still corps of the Bombay Army took part in the dis- Persian expedition and gained considerable tinction. to impress the laws of necessary. unavoidably thrust on us in 1853. that come rain come shine. with aberrations many the of judgment on the part of administration. however. The fact remains. and the services of the magnitude and the vastness of it rendered both in India and in the Empire generally. for . had called for more troops of occupation. frontier and numerous small frontier expeditions.34 THE ARMIES OF INDIA able one. The war in the Crimea had withdrawn some European troops from India which had not been replaced in 1857. were The foregoing in brief the outline of the causes which gradually formed the huge Indian Army. this vast alien force had. and in 1856. The Second Burmese War.

.

14th MURRAY'S JAT LANCERS Risaldar-Major .

.

.

with 39. up that sepoy army tragedy with all However. the result of the evolution of the portion of the army that remained of that that fell and the reconstruction in away. dressed and equipped for the most part on a pedantic model of the British Army. That great army stood (Imperial Gazetteer). and to understand in outline how and why it did so. kill I his sahibs. while an immense between of attachment had and men. 1857 at 311. In the great Sikhs. is essential to a right understanding of the conditions of to-day. So much officers ! so grown up that when the storm came. as we now know it. the retired from India families could not credit the news. It was. the lines of battle drawn up to meet the Native Infantry were European and their scarlet dressed in tall coatees and white ducks. INDIA COMPANY 35 rendered the most faiththeir military service feeling officers to masters.500 King's and Company's. careers with the sepoy regiments. " What dear old Jack mutiny. faithful. blow the romance and and inconsequence imaginable. with black shakos .— ARMY OF THE EAST a hundred and ful fifty years.538 Europeans. too. is The Indian Army. murder their impossible " of officers Such were the views of the mass who had spent happy and often glorious did.

after manner of the time. fought in their For the most the at Chillian- part. had their shakos pulled off to get corps. Some however. too. forcing their way through the thorn jungle at the Sikh guns. were also dressed much as their European brethren. will be outlined in the following chapters. How this enormous European costume of coatee and shako. in its the modern army grew up in its place. walla. other than the irregulars.36 THE ARMIES OF INDIA The artillery and white bufF cross -belts. came to mutiny and rue untold. and how army. and cavalry. for The 24th Foot instance. like the 61st Foot. corps full dress. went into action in shell -jackets and forage-caps with white covers. .

AUusion has been made to the great detail campaigns. List. the history of the army from its inception to the Mutiny has been run through in outline. however. more than any and resulted till formed the real India of to-day. and practically to other Presidencies. and the actions in which they individually came to fame. and which. Nor is it possible to dwell on the exploits of the this native regiments. but to describe these in and write a history of the wars of the Company's Army would require many volumes.CHAPTER II THE TWO GREAT MAHRATTA WARS In the foregoing chapter. 37 day in the . even if were still figure on the Army There are. two great campaigns in the early portion of the nineteenth century which confined to those that are specially remarkable. others. in that consolidated Indian Army which lasted this 1857 in Bengal.

The enemy who fought against us were principally the Mahratta chiefs. War are The Sikh wars and the First Afghan well known from the many histories and that biographies bear on them. are derived from them. These two little Mahratta campaigns. The country-side only longed . and comprising every in the lawless man country-side. with Persians. however. There was no case of the patriot fighting for his country-side. and the campaigns have. and curbed the immense pretensions and scrambling conquests that had ensued on the collapse of the Mogul Empire. and included the famous battles of Sir Arthur Wellesley and Lord Lake . represented the conclusions with the Mahrattas. of which the first lasted from 1803 to 1806. as well as those of the British Line.38 THE ARMIES OF INDIA These campaigns are the two great Mahratta wars. are yet known. and the final latter. but confined the Mahratta chiefs to their rightful provinces. from 1817 to 1819. to a great extent. Afghans. Arabs. and the ridding of the country from the scourge of the Pindari bands of free-lances and robbers. and even negroes. who controlled immense bands of mercenary horse and foot. largely trained and officered by Frenchmen. many of the most famous battle honours of the surviving Company's regiments.

.

15th

lancers (CURETON'S MULTANIS)
Honorary Native Commandant

Nawab

Sir Hafiz

Muhammad' Abdullah K«an,

K.C.I. E.

THE TWO GREAT MAHRATTA WARS
for deliverance

39

from an era

like to the

worst days

of the Palatinate.

The

daring of some of these troops

is

clearly

evinced in the casualties that they inflicted on the
victorious British, while the political conceptions

of some of the chiefs were magnificent.

None

of

them, however, possessed the power to consolidate
a

Hindu

rule,

and their pretensions resulted
our own.

in

constant devastation of their neighbours' or
territories, including

rivals'

The
British

result

of these

campaigns brought the

paramount to the borders of the Punjab, bestowed peace on millions of people, and gave
our

own

territories, for

the

first

time, complete
it

immunity from
the fortunes of

cruel raids.

Incidentally,

broke

many

of the barons

who

lived

by

raiding and pillage and adventurer service, and of

the thousands of hereditary and mercenary soldiers
for

whom

there was

no place

in

our

ranks.

Several thousands were absorbed in our irregulars,

but the remainder had, perforce, to turn peasant.

The campaigns that brought this about it is now proposed briefly to describe, as a fitting
complement to the outline history of the Company's Army, more especially as in these extremely
arduous campaigns the backing of British troops

40

THE ARMIES OF INDIA
far smaller thaji in later years.

was
the

Some
1817,

of the

events, too, such as the defence of Seetabuldee
fight

and

at

Corygaum, both
in the

in

against

overwhelming odds, with only a small force of

European

artillery

way of
events

backing,
in

are

among

the

most famous

the whole

military history of our Empire.

The

First

Mahratta War,

1803-6

The history of the Governor-Generalship of Lord
Mornington, afterwards the Marquis Wellesley,
India, as revived
is

one of struggle against the French influence in

by the plans and ambitions of the Emperor Napoleon, and against the hostility of the Mahratta princes. When Sivaji, the Mahratta
prince and leader

known

to the
his

Moguls

as

"the

mountain

rat,"

had established

Hindu kingdom
its

among the mountains
proselytizing influence

of Western India, he had

formed a barrier to the power of Islam and

which at

first

had promised

to revive
in India.

some

of the glories of the old
his death,

Hindu

rule

On

however, the solidarity

of the Mahrattas soon passed away.

The nominal

sovereignty remained in the hands of the Rajas
of Satara, but the high officers of state soon raised

18th

king GEORGE'S

OWN

LANCERS

Honorary Lieutenant
Hon. Malik

Umar Hay at Khan, CLE.
Tiwana
of Shahpur

[Punjabi Musalman)

THE TWO GREAT MAHRATTA WARS
semi-independent principalities for themselves.
their

41

The

Rajas of Satara exercised nominal control through

Peshwa

or hereditary minister of the crown,
territorial
ruler.

who

soon also became a
princes,

The

Mahratta
Scindia,

of

whom

the principal were
;

whose

capital
;

was Gwalior

Holkar, the

ruler of Indore

the Bhonsla at Nagpore, together

with the Peshwa at Poona, were always at war
with their neighbours in some form of confederacy,
or else individually against the

among

themselves.

Combined

Mogul power,

against the Nizam, or

against the British, fighting the Rajput princes,

and scouring the

territories

of their neighbours

with hordes of horse, they and their name had been
a horror and offence in the land for generations.

The
all,

first

steps

necessary to counteract

the

French influence had been

to destroy, once and for

the cruel and impossible ruler

of

Mysore,

Tippoo Sultan, son of the great Hyder
history of
British,
his

Ali.

The
the

and

his

father's

wars with

and

his

own

implacable and unreasoning

behaviour, had resulted, as has been related in the

previous chapter, in his death at the final storming

and capture of Seringapatam. In Hyderabad the Nizam had a force of 15,000 men trained by M. Raymond, and officered by many of the

and some guns marched and the French-trained force was re-enlisting in disbanded. to British territory cease from attack and raid on and that of its allies. and combine for the defence of Hindustan against the Afghan invader. Rao. For several years after the death of the Peshwa intrigue. This took place at the end The ground was now clear for compelling the Mahratta princes to enter into agreement with the British. that this force should be disbanded and replaced by a British subsidiary force. intrigue and counter - poisonings. of 1798. and many of the men the British service. in 1802. Some were by Napoleon to push French influence. Jeswant . The Governor-General insisted. and inter-Mahratta battlings with European leaders on each side. as a price of his protection of the Nizam against the demands and invasions of the Mahrattas. At last. Nizam in his resolution. French power had died from Europe. To fortify the four Madras battalions into Hyderabad. others sent when the and reinforced by royalist refugees. Madho killings. had torn the States to distraction. the officers coming to the British for protection.42 THE ARMIES OF INDIA officers left French officers out of employment out.

and necessitated the Arthur Wellesley the employment of several entirely separate forces. into the field for the campaign that practically made the modern India. The British had been organizing for some time The for a war that was obviously inevitable. Amrut Rao. now the head of them had accepted Holkar pro- claimed Bajee Rao's brother. and generally obtain some settlement. whereby he vowed alliance with the British. the Commander-in-Chief in Hindustan. fled to and signed the Treaty of Bassein. federacy had avoided and For twenty-five years the conall foreign alliances. Peshwa in became necessary for us to support Bajee Rao. in return for a subsidiary force of some European artillery and six of sepoys to protect him in his capital. the defeated 43 the joint forces of the Seindia close to Poona. . battalions The at other Mahratta chiefs were much the incensed the Peshwa's defection from cause all of independent and combined hostility to every neighbour. his stead. and Bajee British territory former. theatre of war was enormous.THE TWO GREAT MAHRATTA WARS Rao Holkar Peshwa and Rao. and it The foregoing description is necessary to understand the situation that in brought General Deccan and General Lake. and it.

the 6000 foot. far larger than any hitherto put into the Assaye The first move consisted of a forced march. to reinstate the Peshwa. 1700 cavalry. General Wellesley then stormed the town and powerful fortress of Ahmednagar.44 THE ARMIES OF INDIA The Army General of the Deccan Wellesley advanced on Poona with 8000 foot. and the Nizam's troops from Hyderabad. to save Poona from being burned by Holkar. Stevenson came up with the Subsidiary Force. bringing in his many Mahratta Colonel chieftains to support their head.000 men. leaving 3500 in reserve at Allahabad. which became an excellent . latter numbering 9000 horse and The Commander-in-Chief advanced with 10. were also sent was held by the Bhonsla (the Raja of Berar). through States. The British force totalled 50. which province Colonel Murray entered Gujarat. and 8000 under Five thousand towards Cuttack. and 2000 Mysore horse the Southern Mahratta from train Mysore. Eight thousand men under General Stuart moved Southern Mahratta States. which was field.500 men on into the Delhi.

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19th lancers (FANE'S HORSE) Punjabi Mitsalman .

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Scindia and. one of the strongest in days' India. in the territory of Aurungabad. The enemy's position desire to come to action indicated no particular for the time being. but to say General Wellesley shortly after found himself in a position to strike at the combined forces of Scindia and the Bhonsla near Jalna. the swollen Kelna being a mile in front of their position. with the troops under his immediate command. the British . the Jua and the Kelna. With that audacity which has never failed the in the combatant East who is ready to grasp the nettle danger with the hand of courage.the Bhonsla had with them a magnificent park of artillery.000 Mahrattas. though only a few miles and Wellesley found himself in front of some 55. Swollen rivers prevented Colonel Stevenson from joining him. that It not possible to follow the details of the suffice campaign. posted in the fork of two rivers. but the opportunity was too good to be missed. massed in the vicinity of the village of Assaye. 45 The storming of the town wall was a remarkable feat. surrendered after two it bombardment. while the fort. off. despite the fact that the British numbered but 4500.THE TWO GREAT MAHRATTA WARS base to store his reserve supplies. and cost 169 men is .

Pohlman's brigade. The impetuosity of the British attack resulted in a determined counter-attack their by the cavalry. The British was but 4500. the enemy were in leaving 1200 dead and 98 guns on the British casualties field.46 leader THE ARMIES OF INDIA decided to attack. 600 men M. This small cavalry. must mean a practicable ford. How to get at the enemy was the their front. however. advanced with enthusiasm on the enormous force of the Mahrattas. for at present their line faced him. The British were at once moved and succeeded in crossing. to find in that direction. however. he felt. that the enemy. rallied enemy and the descent of only driven off by determined charges of the British dragoons and native cavalry. Dupont. The were over 2000. immediately it could form up. difficulty. had changed front half left to meet them. pivoted on the village of Assaye. After full hours. three flight. which. in which . Four battalions belonging to the Begum Sumru were also present. and of their immense line of artillery. The enemy's infantry included 116 regular battalions. with a swollen and unfbrdable river in The quick eye of General Wellesley. and 2500 of M. number of the of whom some 2200 were total force. showed him two villages opposite each other on the river.

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THE FORMER "HYDERABAD CONTINGENT" CAVALRY 30TH Lancers (Gordon's Horse) Lance Daffadar Jat 20TH Deccan Horse Sik/i 29TH Lancers (Deccan Horse) Risaldar Dekhani Musalman .

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. After Assaye. with 10 officers killed and 6 wounded. 81st. now the 62nd Punjabis . these only three are viz. Colonel Stevenson moved on to capture the immense hill -fortress of Aseergurh. now the The present 63rd Palamcottah Light Infantry and 73rd Carnatic Infantry were with Wellesley at Ahmednagar. as well as 19th Light Dragoons. The native corps that took part were a party of Madras sappers. and 82nd were with Colonel Stevenson's force a few miles from Assaye. 79th. which formed the entire at the zenith of its native portion of the victorious army in the Deccan. l/8th. now 84th the 64th Pioneers Punjabis. the l/2nd. and l/4th and rank and file in proportion. and 7th Native Cavalry. while the 2/ 12th battalions of Madras native infantry lost heavily also. List all the corps of Madras cavalry that gained such fame in this campaign.THE TWO GREAT MAHRATTA WARS all 47 corps shared heavily. while the present 66th. 5th. and the 2/1 2th. besides the sappers. 1/lOth. the 4th. Of . the l/4th. 2/1 2th battalions and the Pioneers. still in the service. The 74th Foot lost the most. l/4th. and the l/2nd.M. 80th. It be seen that it will was the old Madras Line. then fame. removed fi-om the The reductions that the piping times of peace have necessitated have unfortunately Army H.

48 THE ARMIES OF INDIA belonging to Scindia. surrendered Some had already been found dead after different engage- ments. On the joined November Wellesley. now the 66th Punjabis. and his force numbers of Persian and Arab The fighting was desperate. The enemy's position was included large five miles long.commissioned on various occasions. mercenaries. as Scindia had arranged an armistice pending negotiations. and though late in the day. then which eventually several officers capitulated. an officer of high rank being found on the field of Assaye. the General decided to attack. the l/6th Madras native infantry. in the north of came on a troops large force of the Bhonsla's and of drawn up at the village Argaum. Scindia's Gawilgurh. repulsing an overwhelming charge of Scindia's . French During these operations officers and non . Argaum After reforming his force that had fought at Assaye. having with Stevenson for the purpose of moving 28th of hill-fort of on the strong Berar. General Wellesley moved on to complete the overthrow of the Bhonsla's forces. The troops of Scindia were there in contravention of the armistice.

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25th cavalry (FRONTIER FORCE) Bangash {Paikan) .

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and were followed by overtures for of The storming peace on practically our all own terms. possessed by the newly discovered " Sepoy operations of They were The severity. to 146. more than usual battle of Assaye was as desperate as any in our history. Gawilgurh From Argaum. succeeded in disorganizing many it of the native troops at the earlier stages. however. the battles of Assaye and Argaum. and the capture of the impregnable fortresses of Asdfergurh and Gawilgurh." The casualties. with the loss of much of their camp and treasure and 38 guns. The British loss was 346 all told. Our losses amounted Ahmednagar. On the 12th of December breaching batteries were opened.THE TWO GREAT MAHRATTA WARS horse. and in the face the place was stormed on the 14th. 49 The fire from the heavy batteries of the Mahrattas. Wellesley pushed on at once to the Bhonsla's fort of Gawilgurh. General. in their proportion to . were the main features of General Wellesley 's campaign. of determined opposition. and was not till late in the evening that the enemy were in full flight. and full in its promise of the power of leading.

far as the Indian Army is concerned chiefly '57. are. and award medals for half -forgotten services." some detail herCj war and that of 1817 that the real Indian Empire was founded. and the corps that took so continuous a share in the campaign in the Deccan was in this still survive intact. clasps for all these actions. were added to the medal " To the They have been because it described in army in India.50 THE ARMIES OF INDIA When. by the old Indian Army. the British Government came to make up its jewels record. that conducted by Lord Lake himself. were as heavy as any on on half a century later. however. the 1st Brahmans (then the l/9th of the . the work of corps lost in the cataclysm of There Chief. except Ahmednagar. still four corps on the rolls of the army who marched with the Commander-in- and a briefer outline of this phase of the war is therefore desirable for the glory of Jack Sepoy and the famous 76th Foot. The Grand Army The was so other campaign of the same war. who formed the kernel of this sledge-hammer army. The Indian corps who remain are the 1st Cavalry (Skinner's Horse). close the size of the force. equally famous.

infantry The force of the 17th Begiment Bengal Inegolar Cavalry. It first was here that the artillery horse was formed. the 76th. battalion. consisted of one European battalions. the successor of De This force numbered nine brigades. by attaching two six- pounder galloper guns to each cavalry regiment. which was disciplined under M. where the large force of cavalry. and eleven native The immediate object was the destruction of the large force belonging to Scindia. 18S0. three and five regiments of native cavaby had been exercised together for some months and trained as a division. . at Kanauj. and the 4th Prince Albert Victor s Rajputs (then the 2/16th). with a total of 43.THE TWO GREAT MAHRATTA WARS Bengal Line). the 2nd Queen's 51 Own Rajput Light Infantry (then the 2/15th). It was maintained by the revenue of what was Boigne.000 men and 464 guns. Perron. The Grand Army had been assembling regiments of dragoons.

. The assault made early on the 4th of September. lost 5 officers and 19 rank and file kiUed. within a few miles of M. the l/4th Native Infantry losing almost as many. in which the 76th Foot. been assigned to the administration of the pay of the Europeans. and carried with a loss of 260 kUled and wounded. to defray the cost of the force and In August the Grand Army slowly moved up towards the Mahratta frontier. his barracks which he had buUt it and stores. including 1 British officer killed loss' and 4 wounded. in spite of its twice triple series of gates and bastions. and on the 28th was at Coel. Alligurh As AUigurh was in General Perron's headquarters. regular advance of the army on the 29th so impressed the Mahrattas that General Perron A moved off after a skirmish to Delhi. it was was decided to storm at once. The enemy's was very heavy. and 4 officers and 62 rank and file wounded. Perron's army at AUigurh." being the Doab Boigne between the Ganges and the Jumna.52 THE ARMIES OF INDIA as known "The French State. leaving a Colonel Pedron in the fort of AUigurh. M. who were always to bear the brunt of aU Lake's battles. This had De and Perron.

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Musalman of the Carnatic .27th light cavalry 26th British Officer KING GEORGE'S OWN LIGHT CAVALRY Daffadar Madrasi.

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to surrender. Their guns soon opened on the British outposts. with 281 guns of all kinds. except two battalions. cut up. after a On the 16th of Septemmiles. when they found the Mahrattas. ber. decided to attack at once. of which the 76th. and all the regulars. hidden by long grass. with a con- siderable amount of treasure. THE TWO GREAT MAHRATTA WARS 63 Pedron was captured. Lord Lake's force were pitching their camp near the Hindun river. as usual. a few miles from Delhi. were drawn up within a mile or so of them. but General Perron himself rode in with some of his European officers. lost the most (137) . before another battle took place. himself the attack. and did leading Lord Lake so. and large quantities of sepoys' uniform of French pattern. Battle of Delhi No time was lost in following the enemy to Delhi. The was furious and teeth ordered of the attack of the British fire into the Mahratta artillery irresistible.. Sixty -three guns were captured. and the whole of the enemy were routed with severe loss. Louis Bour- quien's regular battalions. The British loss was 477. numbering sixteen of march of 18 M. and several thousand horse with plenty of artillery.

the force of several battalions camped on Twenty-six the glacis were attacked and dispersed or driven within the huge sandstone bastions. refusing. En route. . to still capture that stronghold. The next day Lord Lake entered Delhi. which maintained many guns regular troops. and the a Scotchman turned out in the many gun foundry. the only corps of the Indian this battle that is still Army taking part in extant. On the 19th M. while ruling under his seal. a treaty of alliance was concluded with the Jat Raja of Bhurtpore. guns were taken. the British Army returned south towards Agra. anxious for protection against the garrison at people of Delhi. while the 2/15th. the blind Shah Alam. loss amounting to the The 2/9th» now the 1st Brahmans. the fort and garrison were summoned to surrender and on . lost an officer and 16 men killed and 9 men wounded. from his Mahratta jailors. the British 228.64 THE ARMIES OF INDIA and the 2/4th Native Infantry again suffered nearly as heavily. now the 2nd Rajputs. Bourquien and four of his officers surrendered. After leaving a Delhi. On arrival before Agra. maintained him in poverty and squalor. who. and rescued the Mogul Emperor. where of the numerous Mahratta hands. and arranging treaties with minor chiefs.

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31ST DUKE OF CONNAUGHT'S OWN LANCERS Daffadae Dekhani Mahratta .

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The at Chevalier himself. and the Chevalier Dudrenac's brigades which had come up from the Deccan. After some negotiations Colonel the commandant of the fortress. had taken post on the flank of our communications with Delhi. took part in these opera- the 2/9th having two British officers killed. completed arrange- ments and all for a surrender. Laswarrie Still a further portion of Scindia's organized forces required to be dealt with. The Governor. had Lord Lake's arrival issued a Agra. and the l/16th. Sutherland. shortly with surrendered before two officers.THE TWO GREAT MAHRATTA WARS 2/15th. gun of Agra. Some battalions which had escaped from Delhi. was among the great The trophies. and needed attention.600 pounds. 55 now the 2nd Rajputs . with a calibre of 23 inches. weighing 96. promising safe conduct and protection for their property. the stores in this immense stronghold and palace.General had proclamation calling on foreign and British (EurO' pean) subjects now serving with the hostile States to leave their service. the 4th Rajputs. and many were by the availing themselves of this offer. which included 164 guns. now tions. hastened .

and was rewarded with entire success. By noon up marched the unfailing infantry. hearing that the enemy were at Laswarrie. On November 1. officers and 89 men wounded. pushed on ahead with the cavalry division of three regiments of dragoons and five of native cavalry. and at once with the object of. he pushed on. covering the 25 miles in six hours. and 19 horses. done to a . No better spirit can be quoted. and charged again. in the early morning.56 THE ARMIES OF INDIA had turned on and murdered them. The enemy changed position slightly. at any rate. far Before the day was advanced the cavalry came up with the enemy closed. anxious to bring the enemy to battle and end the the 27th of October 1803 On campaign. The enemy deployed an enormous line of guns linked with chains. with 17 troopers and 69 instance it wounded. forcing the Mahrattas to keep their ground. The British dragoons lost 8 officers and 34 men killed. fact that in several cases the troops their officers Lake marched from Agra in the direction of Deig. but up and down and through this the eight regiments charged. and 310 killed The native cavalry lost 1 officer killed and 5 wounded. and 172 of the cavalry horses. the infantry following behind. and formed again for battle. Lake himself.

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32nd lancers Lance Daffadak Musalman Rajput 53ed QUEEN'S OWN LIGHT 34th CAVALRY DAFFADAR Kaimkhani PRINCE ALBERT VICTOR'S O^N POONA HORSE Ratore Rajput .

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while the cavalry had done 45 miles in twenty-four hours. but the whole of the killed Mahratta army was destroyed. had totalled and by evening the British 834. 76th lost 2 officers The and 41 men killed. under their old numbers 1st The losing 16. the 2nd Rajputs. and 71 guns were taken. Scindia's capital. large numbers and many prisoners. The this victory of Laswarrie would have closed phase of the campaign but for the activity Scindia.I. 37. but ready for more. Bhurtpor§. Gwalior. The enemy's cannonade was losses terrific. 57 They had marched 65 miles in forty-eight hours. the Bhonsla. had been . of Holkar. and 4 officers and 170 men wounded. heavily. of which the present 69th Punjabis are the sole survivors. The 2/12th N. as a result campaign. After a short halt the whole force went into battle in the full heat of the sun. and the 4th Rajputs took part. also lost Brahmans. and 87 respectively of all ranks killed and wounded.THE TWO GREAT MAHRATTA WARS turn. this and Wellesley's In the The forces in Cuttack and Bundelkhund equally successful. had been former campaign some Madras native infantry had taken part. and most of the the Raja of minor Rajas had now entered into offisnsive and defensive alliances (rf with the British.

however. especially among the Europeans. but without any opportunity offering of bringing Holkar and his main forces to book. threatening the Doab. from the corps did intense heat. and Lord Lake in person made an advance skirmishing in force towards Holkar. the Monson's Retreat It was this the first real detachment which was to experience disaster to British arms in India. Colonel Monson was left on the Chumbal with a considerable detachment. till Many not get into quarters commencement of the rains. To cover the Doab. and endeavouring to up the chiefs who had made peace. after enduring heavy losses.58 THE ARMIES OF INDIA Brahmans shared. campaign involved many minor with the Summer of At last 1804 the army withdrew towards the Jumna. in which service the present 1st also and the troops had some hopes of going into summer quarters to escape the daily growing in stir heat. and much Mewatis in the broken country between Agra and Rajputana. This actions. The attitude of Holkar. necessitated one more effort. reduced. and . and moved into cantonments.

As the British . for camp and move to As Holkar withdrew Monson followed to leave his till. was the signal for the advance of vast hordes of all the enemy. Defence of Delhi The news English of this disaster to the invincible spread rapidly. and for the general hostility of those through whose country he passed. did well (now the 5th Light Infantry). entirely native. demoralization at last set and the force. fearful for his supplies fall and This communications. In July the news that Holkar had advanced. Of the five infantry battalions composing the force. many marches. the survivors arriving by detachments at the British border. and is the only survivor on the Army List. Lord Lake at once the army from its summer 1st and on the of October advanced towards Muttra from the vicinity of Agra.THE TWO GREAT MAHRATTA WARS 69 which was to prolong the war to 1806. Want of supplies and swollen rivers reduced the troops to the greatest straits. took steps to collect quarters. he decided to back. and though fighting constantly. Holkar had already occupied Muttra. a newly raised battalion. the 2/2 1st. induced Colonel Monson meet him. at last fell to pieces. in.

and 29th) and two regiments of native cavalry. always refusing then became known that were besieging Delhi. alert. so after him marched Lake himself with the three dragoon regiments (8th. however. after being repulsed in an assault on the 14th. disappeared on the I5th as suddenly as they had come. 27th. and a hot cannonade kept up. regardless of the flanks rear. swarms of horse who harassed The Mahratta force had appeared before Delhi on the 7th of October. General Fraser followed with . made The enemy. always on the tinual sorties. and his regular infantry it back. repaired at night. Commander-in-Chief at once pressed on to the and The relief.60 THE ARMIES OF INDIA fell advanced the Mahrattas an engagement. The con- crumbling walls were. had already in Colonel Burns' corps summoned and several detachments of lengthy bastioned wall. Lake's Pursuit of It Holkar was then discovered that Holkar was making for the Doab to ravage our territories. however. and shortly after Lord Lake marched up. local troops. and managed to hold certain portions batteries of the dilapidated and Heavy breaching were brought against the wall. and the garrison. but Colonel Ochterlony. the Resident.

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37th lAnCERS (BALUCH HORSE) ^ ' 35th Baluch SCINDE Baluch HORS\.v- KOT DAFFADAE 36th JACOB'S Pathan {All of the Derajat District) HORSE .

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horse. dawn by Holkar 's cavalry camp was ridden down at a charge of the British force. and almost got that desperate Mahratta himself. losing a British officer killed and another wounded. The enemy were completely overthrown with the loss of 87 of their guns. its and Colonel Monson brought the battle to victorious close. which destroyed a large number of his horse. took prisoners and all his many guns and baggage. 61 Lake's pursuit of feats of history. marching night. General Fraser himself was mortally wounded. Raja of Bhurtpore. in all Holkar is one of the great cavalry till and it was not 350 miles had been traversed the short space of a fortnight. by the 76th. led also.THE TWO GREAT MAHRATTA WARS the main body of the force. General Fraser. . Holkar's marching and This came up with infantry guns underneath the walls of the in the territory of the fort of Deig. that. The 2nd Rajputs (2/15th) took part. Battle of Deig In the meantime south. force consisted of 24 regular battalions with 160 guns and some attack irregular The the usual British audacious on the part of followed. The British loss was 643. as usual.

Siege of Bhurtpore Next this to reckon with was Bhurtpore itself. and by dawn on Christmas with the loss of Day the place was ours. and the dragoon whom regiments. belonged to Bhurtpore. On the 11th of the walls. and shattered troops relieved by fresh ones. By time the army with Lord Lake had been considerably reinforced. was necessary to reduce Deig.62 THE ARMIES OF INDIA Capture of Deig The It battle of Deig. our ally of Bhurtpore had agreement. however. On the 1st of January 1805 the British encamped before the virgin fortress. fallen away from its his The fortress of Deig opened gates to Holkar's troops after the battle. as did also Bhurtpore itself. saving always the 76th. which was protected by immense . December the British appeared before On the 24th the breaches were ready. 43 killed and 184 wounded. with friendly haunts to do it from. nothing daunted. and as an aftermath of the Monson disaster. sorts A hundred cannon of were taken. was by no means the last that the British were to see of the place. As the land could have no rest so long as Holkar was burning and slaying all it and sundry.

the 104th Rifles. the l/3rd. The diminished but still jaunty army then moved off to clear Bundelkhund of Mahrattas. Another deter- mined attempt to storm failed hopelessly. and finally went into summer quarters about Agra and Muttra. however. Holkar . and then the force stood back. 1805 preparations were made for a blockade while various forces moved against bodies of Holkar's horse that threatened In the communications or ravaged the Doab. Still a fourth and larger attempt was made. though again and again daring spirits carried the colours up the breach. the 105th and 117th Mahrattas. was to put Lord Lake inside Bhurtpore. meantime the Raja of Bhurtpore sued for peace. Summer of Immense and prolonged siege.THE TWO GREAT MAHRATTA WARS commanding bastions of solid 63 mud. nor the devotion of their native comrades. The new troops were burning for action. having lost 103 officers and 3100 men. now the 101st Grenadiers. Not all the daring of the 76th. With it were the 2/lst. Two assaults were repulsed with appal- Then there arrived a division of Bombay troops under General Jones. which was made on reasonable terms. and the l/9th of the Bombay Line. the 2/2nd. ling loss.

. where halted. though with his forces for the time being dissipated. Lord Lake had had from the to drive large bodies of Sikhs vicinity of Delhi. and the possibility of a Hindu combination of this nature was very serious. and was having its influence on Scindia. and marched north from This force Agra and Cawnpore and Muttra. near Agra. Many troops were cantoned at Fatteh- pur Sikri. marched straight past Delhi. the officers and their families occu- pying the tombs of the Omras round. Holkar being with the Sikhs at Amritsar. This display of force resulted in the Sikhs refusing to support Holkar. to the it banks of the Beas. Finally. it is The three regiments of recorded. Holkar made his way towards the Punjab. as their dwellings. two brigades of cavalry and one of infantry leading. after Holkar. The year before. with a view of inducing the Sikhs to overrun the Doab with him.64 still THE ARMIES OF INDIA being at large. spent the rains in the at immense courts of Akbar's tomb Sekundra. dragoons. So in ^October 1805 once again the Grand Army had to take the field. The Pursuit of Holkar to the Punjab As the rains passed the activity of Holkar became more marked.

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38th king GEORGE'S OWN CENTRAL INDIA HORSE Lance Dafpadar Gakkar [Punjabi Musalman) .

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" "Battle ofDeig. the hordes Pindaris were much reinforced by the disbanded soldiery of this war. was not of course rewarded.THE TWO GREAT MAHRATTA WARS and. had returned home. The Marquis WeUesley. and the Great Mahratta war of three years was at an end. for which capture the medal bears the clasp "Bhurtpore." "Laswarrie. the survivors half a century recognized the campaigns of Lord Lake by clasps for " Capture of AUigurh. The reversal of policy that 1817-19 had followed the successes of Lake and WeUesley had prevented ." "Battle of Delhi. a treaty with Scindia satisfactory basis being and Holkar on a reasonably concluded. The medal to the Army of India." Bhurtpore. change of policy had taken come." The Mahratta and Pindari War. awarded to later." "Defence of Delhi. of the on account of which possibly another Mahratta war was yet to And in the years to follow." " Capture of Deig. the most desperate business of the lot. who ha^' conducted affairs through so many stirring years. after 65 much negotiation. since the fortress never fell. and a place. In January 1806 the war-worn army commenced its march south. till Lord Combermere captured it in 1825.

Scindia. but promises. The forces of Holkar. originally formed on the break-up of the The Mahratta Mogul armies. far down into the British provinces. lest they. In 1817 things had come it was decided to organize a vast force. and the Bhonsla were to be watched at the same time. with fire and sword and torture. the Governorto such a pass that General. at the foot of the Vindhya Mountains. too. were continually intriguing.66 THE ARMIES OF INDIA approaching chiefs anything a permanent settlement. had grown to enormous size. They were overrunning the whole of Hindustan. The Marquis of Hastings. along which all sides the Pindaris had long established their centres. and the divisions Two large Army of four armies were formed. while the Pindari bands. the Grand Army of the Deccan. should elect to side against the cause of law and order. called on the Mahratta chiefs to aid against the him little more than tions was to advance from common enemy. the Peshwa. The general received plan of opera- on the fastnesses bordering the banks of the river Narbudda. under General Sir Thomas . which assembled at Cawnpore under the Governor-General himself. bandits of every race and tribe. and tramp out the immense area involved.

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QUEEN'S OWN CORPS OF GUIDES (LUMSDEN'S) INFANTRY JTanaoli {Pathan) CAVALRY Daffadab Adam Khel [Afridi) ..

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140 guns. against the British. and were approximately follows Scindia . had been compelled to agree to an arrangement which gave some promise of curbing his wayward character. acting from The Peshwa had after again been in trouble.— THE TWO GREAT MAHRATTA WARS dijBFerent points. 1. by the trouble that he had brought on himself. who was at Poona on a mission. and purposeless the entirely murder of the Gaekwar's envoy. . . he was watching for an opportunity to vent his hostility on the British. combined Irked.500 horse. The Pindari trouble seemed to him an excellent opportunity to arouse the Mahratta chiefs. At tion this time the forces that a united combina- might have : brought into the field were as extremely numerous. consisting of seven divisions. 16.000 foot. with all the Pindari hordes. Holkar . 67 Hislop. however.

The Mahratta force numbered some British horse.68 THE ARMIES OF INDIA working preferred plundering his neighbours to for himself. what is now the grand trunk road running through the present cantonment. levies of all descriptions. Elphinstone. The British under Colonel Burr was joined by Mr. The and 14 guns. the Resident. Bombay . was ample justification for the vast preparations of the Governor-General. and various debattalion tached British officers were murdered. The Peshwa now demanded the withdrawal of the European battalion. and advanced on the 5th of November 1817 to attack the British force. ostensibly to help us against the Pindaris. numbered some 2000 native troops In addition to the with 800 Europeans. Their general behaviour became insolent and threatening.000 Poona. of the Bombay European regiment had been pushed A up to support the subsidiary force cantoned at Dapuri near Kirkee. who had with difficulty escaped from 18. KiRKEE AND PoONA Matters were soon quickened by the action Poona had been filling fast with of Bajee Rao. which had withdrawn from its canton- ment and was drawn up on a close to ridge at Kirkee. 8000 foot.

however. with some native artillery. with one auxiliary battalion. it and swarmed round on the plain between Ganeshkind and Bamburda. the other battalions that still survive are the 102nd the Grenadiers. had poured out of Poona over the Mutha river. a cannon-ball struck down the Mahratta banner. and five Bombay native infantry regiments. encore Vaudace force . 1840. and 112th and 113th Infantry. this The of glory in battle Kirkee lay in the audace. . The good Atkins of the day led the charge. the Mahratta horse swept round to the con- some of the native corps. it. latter eventually This formed while what is now the 123rd Outram's Rifles. for the small advanced against the huge hordes that On the March.THE TWO GREAT MAHRATTA WARS 69 European regiment a detachment of the 65th Foot was present. a grape-shot killed the leader of horse. fusion of As the force advanced. 65th B«giment of Bengal Native Infantry. quickly rallied. who.

at to assist against the Pindaris. the l/20th and l/24th Madras Infantry. the Mahratta ostensibly chief had been assembling his own forces. its Since a fine daring often brings own reward. one from the to tell huge force broke away its fears to the Peshwa. with some local troops. his troops at once became threatening. and the moment Poona and the Peshwa's outbreak. The British subsidiary force at Nagnews came of the trouble pore consisted of three troops of the 6th Bengal Cavalry (not the present 6th). So . praying to heaven from the gilt-topped temples of Parbutti Hill. The Bhonsla. and the field. and some details of artillery. and these to the number of 3000. drove the hills enemy from the city to the beyond. forcing the ford near what is now the Bund at Poona. the Bhonsla's capital. was then on the left unthe molested. as did most of the other chiefs.70 THE ARMIES OF INDIA Moro Dixit. advanced portion of the 4th division arrived under General Smith and. 13th. swarmed round the Residency. Seetabuldee and Nagpore At Nagpore. maintained a large force of Arabs. The Kirkee and shortly force after. with huge bodies of horse. the British casualties were not severe.

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No. 31 MOUNTAIN BATTERY Gunner Punjabi Musalman .

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before the British had lost killed. Captain Fitzgerald made several desperate charges with the 6th Cavalry. and . officers.THE TWO GREAT MAHRATTA WARS moved out of their lines 71 threatening had been their attitude that the British on the 15th of November and occupied the two small hills of Seetabuldee which overlooked the Residency. the smaller taken and retaken. as General Sir John Bennet Hearsey. however. All that night and the next day the Arabs and Mahrattas attacked the position. whom five were European officers. commanded the Dinapore division when Mangal Pandy. being long wounded known "The Hero of Seetabuldee. shot his adjutant and thus shed the first blood in the great hill rising. left their families in the and heard the shrieks of the occupants. who were killed and ill-treated. and entrenched themselves. The unfortunate troops had lines. of whom of calling 13 were strained European relations. in which young Hearsey was and achieved great as distinction. and 241 wounded. though the enemy 121 of off the fight. not. In the period word had been sent up the this 2nd division under General Doveton. just before the Mutiny." This officer. the Arabs being most daring in their attacks. The Seetabuldee one was broke finally main was definitely held.

000. only the 61st Pioneers a long part in remain. but time been the 1/lst. Of the troops that shared in the desperate defence of Seetabuldee. force reached and on the 16th attacked the enemy who. Lord Lake and General Wellesley had trained infantry that destroyed the maintained. courageously. however. each chief With the exception of the Arabs. Nagpore were is It very noticeable in this war that the in the earlier casualties were not nearly so heavy as one. who had for The troops who took still the battle of Nagpore that are on the Army . and who were an immense dread were to our native troops. Five thousand Arabs and Hindustanis. chiefly assaults before the garrison The from British artillery losses at fire. gardens near the After several hours' fight- ing they were in full flight. the chiefly masses of elusive who could not be destroyed in it one pitched battle. and took months of weary pursuit before they could be accounted for. then the l/24th. to the number of 21. 141. threw themselves into the several days of and it took bombarding and attempted surrendered. city. leaving 64 guns on the field.72 THE ARMIES OF INDIA Nagpore on the 12th of December. were entrenched in villages and city. who fought most object of forces against us irregular cavalry.

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2nd QUEEN'S ' OWN ' SAPPERS AND MINERS The Workshops " Havildar SUBADAR Christians - .

>Q< rl ^^.tovtTf .

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73 now the 6th and the present 61st. 83rd. and 250 Reformed Horse under Lieutenant Swanston.THE TWO GREAT MAHRATTA WARS List are the l/22nd Bengal Infantry. Colonel Burr com- manding there then called to his assistance the garrison of Sirur. General Poona were pursuing the retired to his chain of forts in the Western Ghats. he was again threatening Poona. and of course the ubiquitous Madras Sappers and Miners. 86th. which place lies between Poona and Ahmednagar. 10 . These latter in were the some of partly organized horse recently Peshwa's service. 81st. CORYGAUM While the Bhonsla was adding Smith and the troops Peshwa. evading General Smith. 2 guns of the Madras Artillery under Lieutenant Chisholm. and losing his throne thereby. Jats. 62nd. At the end of December. from which every sort of opportunity existed for successful doubling. aiid 97th. who had at his share to the confusion. On marching into the village Corygaum they found the whole of the Peshwa's force encamped on a stream opposite the village. Captain Staunton in command marched with the 2/lst Grenadiers. now the 102nd Grenadiers. Twenty thousand horse with 8000 infantry.

and Lieutenant Chisholm's head was cut off and taken to the Peshwa. who were lying severely wounded with him. By noon the British were closely invested and cut off from the water. men to recapture the This mortally wounded giant of six feet Arabs. One of the guns was carried by the Arabs. when tas at last the disappointed off after all Arabs and Mahratsevere loss. that night the attacks continued.74 THE ARMIES OF INDIA this small force. men equally with the com- the former being killed later in the day by the enemy. led his gun. including 3000 of the dreaded Arabs. immediately advanced on into which threw itself such of the village enclosures as were not already in the possession of the enemy. seven. were only rescued at the . and Lieutenant Pattinson. Lieutenants Swanston and Conellan. 9 P. himself accounted for five troops to renewed batant Assistant - Surgeons Wyngate and Wyllie led the officers. and exhorted the failing efforts. and a heavy artillery Till fire. drew suffering In the fight almost killed or the European gunners were wounded. in his dying effort. and exposed to the most desperate attacks of the Arabs. a gigantic subaltern of Grenadiers already mortally wounded.M. who captured the courtyard in which he was lying wounded.

and the Reformed Horse had 96 casualties. and the Grenadiers yearly keep festival on the anniversary. made off and broke up. Out of the 24 Europeans of the Madras Artillery 12 were killed and 8 wounded. the other divisions of the Army of the Deccan and the area the Grand Army had advanced into which contained the various strongholds of the commanders of the different Pindari darras or These various hordes were driven from bands. and two other officers were unhurt. their fastnesses and gradually broken up. with the troops that they had assembled ostensibly to help us against the Pindaris. At daylight next morning the Mahrattas. scared to the by the news of General Smith advancing rescue. Sir . tall basalt column to this day stands to commemorate the gallantry of this small A band. while the Grenadiers lost 50 killed and 105 wounded. Only Captain Staunton. who commanded. The losses of this determined band were more than heavy.THE TWO GREAT MAHRATTA WARS last 75 moment. Mahidpore While the attacks on their subsidiary forces by the Peshwa and the Bhonsla had been taking place.

break on the 21st Sir Thomas advanced with Sir John Malcolm.76 THE ARMIES OF INDIA Hislop. was not to be. whereon the war faction in the State chopped her head off and set their troops in motion. keeping. one flank opposite the village of Mahidpore. a few miles ahead. the British found the Mahratta force was at Mahidpore. however. . too. with the Durbar he went. Holkar himself of the was a lad. however. commanding a strong advanced guard. some 5000 There infantry with 100 guns and 30. and consisted of were. under the guardianship of Tulsi Bai. the other on the river. had crossed the Narbudda and advanced to Thomas Ujein. the 20th of that December 1815. and on peace. should play us false. Sir Thomas Hislop then advanced negotiating towards as them. commanding the Army of the Deccan. a mistress of the famous Jeswant Rao Holkar former wars.000 horse. of many with that small British force 5500 men who had fought a larger number of So before day- Mahrattas with even smaller numbers at Assaye. however. Tulsi Bai was in favour of peace with the British. with a view to the preservation of Peace. The enemy were as usual drawn up with a river on their front (the Sepra). and knew the value of Vaudace. one eye on Holkar lest his forces.

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.3rd sappers and miners Jemadar Dekhani Mahratti Lance Brahman Nai{c of Oudh .

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of the immense camp and in treasure was all sorts. The following corps that took part are the Madras Sappers and Miners. It totalled 174 killed and 604 wounded. . while the came from the Madras Army. with supplies and munitions of The British loss was as heavy as some of the like so battles of the earlier war. followed by the cavalry and their ground. The infantry crossed the stream and attacked in the face of a long line of guns. and 95th (both of the Russell Brigade. though the infantry stood and the gunners died at their guns. which Hyderabad contingent). and Holkar's Durbar concluded a was later the treaty. and the Mahratta horse broke away at once. of the The troops engaged consisted of the flank companies of the Royal Scots. and the 28th Light Cavalry. The whole captvu-ed. and the whole Madras all native troops European regiment. though nothing serious as Assay e.THE TWO GREAT MAHRATTA WARS The details 77 its of the battle were as many of forerunners. artillery. the 63rd. and the RusseU Brigade. the 87th. the 94th. the 74th. A pursuit was organized a few days later. the 91st. the 88th.

He was removed to Bithur and pensioned. however. and completing the destruction of the It was to take. chase of Bajee Bajee Rao still himself surrendered to Sir John Malcolm in May in 1818. and he was run up and down in the country. or Pindaris. while the people say that the beat of the hoofs of his thousands of horse still may be heard o' nights.78 THE ARMIES OF INDIA The Capture of the Peshwa and the Break up of the Pindaris Scindia. and had not joined. The mountains in the theatre of war were covered with inaccessible while numerous strong walled towns and fortresses in the plains acted as continual havens of rest to the enemy. After this there still remained the Bhonsla and . had been overawed by the advance of the Grand Army. over a year more of forts. with the settled with. Pindaris. let his troops join. as were the remnants of the com- manders finally South Africa. dying there in 1854. Holkar was now and little remained but the weary task of finishing up the operations. after sides The pursuit of the Peshwa the action at Corygaum was taken up on all in succession. pursuits and sieges. it should have been explained. The Rao is famous the country-side.

but whose killed governor refused to obey his order to surrender. forts. Chetu eventually fled to the Punjab. Appa Sahib. was by a tiger. Garhakotah. Pindari. and a similar campaign to that against the Pindaris was necessary to free the land and hunt down Tantia Topee. 79 lesser Numerous columns reduced the mountain while the mounted corps pursued the broken horse. for all confined to their legitimate were once and . The big Mahratta States. and were almost entirely the Arab. In the Southern Mahratta country the sieges of Belgaum and Sholapore were important.THE TWO GREAT MAHRATTA WARS the Pindari chief Chetu. the Bhonsla. after a siege and a loss of 323. Mekrani. fall With the of Aseergurh the land had peace till the Mutiny once again stirred Arab and Pathan and free-lance to run riot over Central India. The garrison surrendered a few days before the storm. with dozens of bands. Among the many more important sieges in which the Arabs were were Malegaon and also the principal garrisons. had become the refuge of the desperate. hunted and solitary. to the It British. and Sindi mercenaries from the State troops and Pindari bands. and there only remained Aseergurh. which belonged to Scindia. and finally fell. as a result of this war.

which was still at The Grand Army. except so far as a few traces endured in the Punjab. were added the following clasps for this war : " Kirkee. with many improvements enlistment and equipment." " Kirkee and Poona. and of system introduced. and with last trace it of the old French military pattern." fell It will have been noticed that the bulk of the heavier fighting to the prime." "Nagpore. Madras Army." "Seetabuldee and Nagpore. These two prolonged wars are certainly . To that belated medal " To the Army of India. for which the experience of the Peninsula and recent wars in India was utilized." and "Maheidpoor." " Poona.80 territories THE ARMIES OF INDIA and such conditions as suited us. some uniformity in After the war the military organization of the three armies was overhauled. it is true. did break out owing to the domestic disturbances. and did not again dispute with the British the overlordship that they had tried to wrest from the Mogul. The army of Scindia. was more immediately concerned with watching some of the larger States and preventing the Pindaris from breaking into the Doab and Bundelkhund." already alluded to. though engaged its in plenty of harassing work. and was destroyed in the short Gwalior campaign of 1843." « Seetabuldee.

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West Provinces .IST AND 3ed BRAHMANS SUBADAK Brahmaiis of Oudh and North.

<^ Q TTo rm^'Tj hm .

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and train. How the demands on them further increased with their responsibilities in Afghanistan.THE TWO GREAT MAHRATTA WARS noteworthy as the 81 two greatest wars m which the army of John Company had been engaged. and the Punjab. Scinde. The employment of eleven divisions at once. of the large force which their responsibilities and dangers had enforced the Company still to maintain. is striking proof . has already been the result that followed in its referred to. as many think inevitably. and also the hardest. besides many detachments. must now be described before the modern army that can be treated of rose from the ashes of the old 11 .

there came what is spoken of as the " brahmanizing " of the native army. lances and warring barons flocked the low -caste in to the British standard. the consideration of other matters than securing the best fighting animal. regular. as war became less constant. and how Hindu became an efficient soldier the coast armies. We have seen how at one irregular. That is to say. if we may believe the diaries and the autobiographies of the old officers. actuated the 82 . time the remnants of the fighting forces of the free - shown how that army of doorkeepers and watchmen.000 native soldiers. and local.CHAPTER The III THE ARMY OF THE GREAT MUTINY hard-fought battles of the Sikh wars and the annexation of the Punjab bring us within a few years of the turning-point in the history of the Indian Army. It has been grew from a force to an army of 311. Then gradually.

that had made such good soldiers. had deadened the habit of the sword. At any rate. In Bengal. The army came to consist castes. and the need to employing disbanded hostile soldiers came people.THE ARMY OF THE GREAT MUTINY authorities. long years of aUen rule and con- many of the peasantry of the South to a state of spirit that made them officers unsuited to military service. The . became less pressing. of course. while our officers know more of the better classes of the It was perhaps thought desirable to get them into connection with the army. but in the East. To get these men of social prejudice to serve. the higher castes in Southern India were by no means and generations of oppression. were beneath contempt as fellow-men. however. In the eyes of many of the old the best soldiers. it was necessary to discontinue enlistments of the lower castes in the same corps. in this for many ways be no better stock than stant invasion had reduced a soldiery. men who were chiefly of the country. largely of the better the yeomen peasants Now there can. to whom certain other classes. the desire became general to confine enlistment to high-class races. 83 The race of adventurers began to die for out. the same tendency if had different not less harmful results. or years of peace.

in were not welcomed. and Sikh wars with some Sikhs. In the lines. or men of the eastern . locals. provinces clans A very large number of these were words Rajputs and Brahman In the ranks of the regular Poorbeahs. in Bengal alone. In 1857. Gradually. the whole of the army in Bengal. latter.000 regular troops. enlisted more and suitable material. irrespective of con- and military police. after the These by reason of their wild appearance. Hindu and Muhammadan. class There was no separating by companies. more of this convenient and tingents. local corps dependent on Bengal officers and corps to which the were appointed. and became . and clan into with a The Bengal regiments were leavened considerable number of Muhammadans. men stood mixed up as chance might befall. of whom close on 20. there were 137. with the various contingents and it. in other from Oudh. Sikh and all lost Poorbeah were mixed up.84 THE ARMIES OF INDIA Behar and Oudh consisted of a manly and warlike peasantry of fine physique and and withal orderly and appearance. army. as they were called.000 were cavalry. so that each and to some extent their racial prejudices. and were only enlisted deference to stringent orders of Government. martial population of obedient.

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g .O < Q Z H td s o W D 3 IS < a: z O oi H o „ 3 IS X Is f-.

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mental cadres were large. Oudh and Behar. 1000 privates. which had but three . 120 N.O. It is and 24 British officers. vast increments to our dominions called for The many Europeans to It fill the various offices of government. militated against the discipline of the army. by 1857. the bonds of discipline slackened. was economical to draw on regiments for officers The regifor civil and semi-civil appointments. At any rate. true that some of the best corps were the irregulars. the Sikhs in the Bengal regiments.'s.C. The gradual regularizing of administration. while their compatriots flocked to the British standards. petitions from sepoys to superior authority received attention. The power of commandants of corps had been reduced. the desire of the Court of Directors for information.THE ARMY OF THE GREAT MUTINY inspired with one 85 common sentiment. the mass of the Bengal Army consisted of the same material. the soldierly and obedient Brahmans and Rajputs of chiefly the former. the call for statistics and all the bureaucratic tendency of a vast government. When men the trouble came. either infected with sympathy for the of their corps or too isolated and distributed throughout the companies to dare assert their joined in the own feelings. on the scale of the British service. viz. 20 Native. Mutiny in the first instance.

in the interesting work of developing of station therefore new provinces. The vast numbers of the native corps. and though as many officers were not required in peace as for war. tracts to be held. In the Line the British officer did most of the work. financial position always field - affected to abolish the allowances . Added to this was the fact that the permanent occupation of districts that had already been occupied as a temporary measure induced Govern- ment. together with the un- expected severe casualties suffered by the troops in the Sikh wars. without increase in the any counterbalancing increase in the Europeans. but the irregular system especially developed the initiative and responsibility of the native officer. added to loss been described. to the humdrum routine The regiments of late years had lost some of their best blood. still. the process of selecting officers from corps. has been This. withoutfilling up their places. and the what has already of prestige due to our disasters in Afghanistan. had gradually reduced the to prestige and content that had appertained military service. resulted in many of the best men preferring employment life. due to the vast new already noticed.86 THE ARMIES OF INDIA British officers. whose their actions.

the as a warning. In 1764 the Bengal sepoys had mutinied for higher pay and gratuities. and ceased from duty on a question of batta (field-allowance). and usually over the question of pay and allowances. its significance it might well have been regarded Vellore dwelt the pensioned Sultan. ordered the immediate disbandment of the corps. At family of Tippoo ousted ruler of Seringapatam. British officers in and only two years later the Bengal conspired. During the hundred years that had elapsed between the battle of Plassey and the Mutiny. which was In far more serious than any of its predecessors. Wazirabad showed such ill-feeling on a sea that the Commander-in-Chief. Sir Charles Napier. who had fallen in the final storming . in the absence of the Governor-General voyage. many acts of mutiny of varying gravity had occurred. and this mutiny was only put down by the determination of Lord Clive. 1806 was specially remarkable for the mutiny at Vellore.THE ARMY OF THE GREAT MUTINY outside British India. signal for 87 usually granted to temporary garrisons in districts This latter step was the considerable at The 66th show of insubordination. On two occasions had these mutinies been on the part of the British officers of the Company's Army.

some Bengal infantry battalions. of the Madras Army owing to certain real or imaginary grievances. and had to be suppressed with a heavy hand. This relieved at the last gasp mutiny was found to have widespread In 1809 the British rebelled. and the pattern of turban to be worn. in 1824. that he father Hyder Ali. Again. under orders to march towards Arracan. pensioned in favour of the himself. The native troops of the Madras Army garrisoning in the fort. till by Colonel RoUo Gillespie of the 19th Light Dragoons at the head of an advanced detachment of his regiment. An unthinking order regarding the wearing of caste-marks in uniform. refused and were severely handled for their pains. Vellore fell on the British troops also and killed surprise. or rather his planted.88 THE ARMIES OF INDIA His family were removed and of the fortress. had sup- probable that the discontent of a dispossessed family and their entourage had resulted in an endeavour to tamper with the fidelity of the native troops. officers ramifications. gave light to a conflagration that had been preparing for some time. After the occupation of Scinde and the annexation of the . many before they recovered from the The remnant were barely able to defend with considerable themselves further loss. It is Hindu dynasty.

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5th light infantry 6th JAT LIGHT INFANTRY -^"^ Havildars Musalman Rajput .

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in a vast imitation of a European Line. the fortress of Mooltan. howof a nightmare. the huge of possibilities underlying the preover ponderance its this vast mercenary force European counterweight had the obsession The warning utterances. so superior to that of 12 the . as has already been described. and the letters of Colonel Jacob criticising the discipline.THE ARMY OF THE GREAT MUTINY the hatta came to be acute. ever. Sir Henry Lawrence and others. organization. he seeing the tells A Year on the Punjab (himself a Bengal officer) of his Bombay brigade join the Bengal troops before under General Whish. Frontier. To many of the statesmen who had served in India. the troubles and insubordination regarding For some time occasional warnings had been uttered against the native army. The Bombay Army of those days had a practical efficiency far ahead of the Bengal troops. which included water-bottles and haversacks. as already described. 89 Punjab. In Herbert Edwardes' book. and efficiency of the Bengal Army. or were given under circumstances that deprived them of their value. organized. practical He relates how struck he was with the equipment of the troops. and with their military alertness. had not sufficient weight. such as Sir Charles Napier's criticisms.

is age of the native service officers. but which he attributed to the —to —dangerous officers custom of promoting and native officers for non-commissioned their military efficiency apart service. Lord Dalhousie. The inscriptions on the cross alongside a witness to the the long trench graves at Ghillianwalla. . It is interesting to note how the army. as already related in the preceding chapter. from their length of Safety apparently in the Bengal Army had should been provided for by assuring that no man come to any status till he was past the age of activity. modelled on the safe system of incompetence. and in the Company's British the same system prevailed for In the old graveyard at Saugor. some- time the headquarters of a division. was the one to blow up so soon after this comparison had been drawn. officers. the grave of a general officer who died may be seen in " command at over of the Narbudda division of the army" eighty years of age. It is hard to expect the characteristics of the soldier at even three-score years and ten. was aware of the volcano on which he sat.90 THE ARMIES OF INDIA his ideas Bengal battalions. as may be seen from letters that his private very fully have only recently seen the light.

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Lord Dalhousie had recognized that the wrong in its constitution. that he had never foreseen anything in the way of a general mutiny and massacre. however. and a universal feeling that however well the army was dressed and the belts pipeclayed there was something rotten. and deficient in European counterweight. and that with a hundred years of fidelity and more behind confidence. 1857 found us with the army as described. The its literature its that has causes is Mutiny and discussed perhaps only beaten in volume by that of the its American War of Secession. So. THE ARMY OF THE GREAT MUTINY 91 and long proposed to himself to try to reform it but constant pressure and growth of territory were to prevent difficult him from putting his hand to the ploughing. despite warning and premonitions and head- shakings. and . there was ample reason for some On the other hand. the private accounts of the Sikh wars constantly allude to the accepted belief that the Sikhs had been tampering with the Poorbeahs. native Though. it. with peace on the surface and a canker described the below. and various phases need only be lightly passed over here. written in this case during the Mutiny. still he himself confessed in these same army was out of all proportion.. letters of his.

A new Governor-General found little to harass him. 1857 opened peace and contentment. At Barrackpore. the 19th at Berhampore in Bengal refused to take the ordinary exercising blank cartridge. and its hundreds of miles of ample much promise to many thousands of peasants. After threats and persuasions they took them in suUenness and flew to arms that night. the Ganges Canal had not long been open. and cavalry to the 19th and the men were finally persuaded to replace their arms.92 THE ARMIES OF INDIA some corps to advance was in considerable this. with- out recourse to force. In the end of February. to which the 19th had now been ordered to march. the headquarters of a division. which probably the other troops would have refused to use. Oudh had been annexed with unexpected simplicity. Then came the water had brought whence the general Early in name of the mutineer was derived. January of that year came the first news of the outbreak at Barrackpore. who had . greased cartridge incident. were the 34th Bengal Native Infantry. The officer commanding the artillery station marched down the native lines. It had flown all over India with extraordinary speed. that the reluctance of due to Be that as it may.

for way of Mangal Pandy and the native shot before a officer in charge of the guard were the state month had elapsed. and the General at once promoted who had come to the rescue of his adjutant. General Hearsey. Gurkha B«giment. interesting to know that the General received a wigging for doing so from the Military Depart- ment. famous as their rifles. and the European sergeant-major who came state. Mangal Pandy. 186L The a naik It is disturbance was then quelled. the guard of the 34th were reported in an excited and one. who then iRt tried to shoot himself. Some show of promptness in the punishment did follow." coming up at straight at this juncture. In the evening of the 29th of March. and known when a lad as the " Hero of Seetabuldee. . By this time of the army was the absorbing interest. shot the adjutant who rode up. A Soldier oat of TJniform. up also and called on the guard to their officer. however.THE ARMY OF THE GREAT MUTINY 93 openly avowed their sympathy with the 19th. The divisional a leader of sepoys. protect The guard then struck them with the butts of commander. rode Mangal Pandy.

and feasted these same their rations to the comrades at parting. much derided by outsiders at the time. continued up to the however much neighbourThis attitude. affair with their native but no apprehension of a large mutiny was enterAll over the country. officers professed the most profound confidence stages of the Mutiny. and in their own regiments. would mutiny? spirit This same exists will of trust between British officers and their it and only so long as the native army be a fighting force. will believe that they are about to rise? Who would expect. curiously enough. exists to-day.94 THE ARMIES OF INDIA classes at the The musketry schools had spread the Officers officers* tale of the greased cartridge all over India. officers had full confidence in theirs. had given up Europeans of the 13th Foot in Jellalabad. and heard all their When who troubles. was perhaps one of the most remarkable tributes to the innate faculties that enable British officers to lead alien troops. last This. the 35th Native Infantry. men With the great shadow behind. so ing corps might misconduct themselves. it cannot be carried . years. for instance. however. emulating Clive's sepoys at Arcot. you have lived with soldiers for led them to victory. the portion of the "Illustrious Garrison " who. were discussing the tained.

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15th LUDHIANA SIKHS Jit Sikhs "The Colouk Paktv" .

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had become of the princes for administration. with unexplained fires chiefly in . many reasons that need not here be To of the dread of priests. The greased cartridges. many and the hatred of the felt disgust all was added the long- those classes.THE ARMY OF THE GREAT MUTINY officers 95 to the blind extreme that so honoured the sepoy of 1857. and its craving unpopular. It is always hard for the Baron and his men-at-arms down to a reign of peace and simple agriculture. to whom the free- booting services and conditions prior to the Pindari war had brought to settle so congenial a livelihood. and discontent and uncertainty appeared at many stations. that the greased cartridges were a fortunate incident. and by the extremely capable heads who were pulling the strings of the moveAfter this occurrence rumour followed ment. It is agreed by all who have studied the subject. it was used to its full rumour. from the which merely gave head to a movement that had had many diffisrent plotters' point of view. The British rule. the admitted thoughtlessness of a military department. were a god-sent incident to act on the arrogance of a spoilt but reasonably contented army of mixed religions. its different ethics and standards. centres for many years. with its immense weight. for reviewed.

As the Europeans were parading evening service at Meerut the native troops broke into open revolt. European The refusal of 85 men to take the cartridges. from Patna to the Peshawar valley. is the English they equally a twice-told tale. the Barons in the country-side with . and half it. their trial by a court-martial of native officers. the Army of Bengal was in open mutiny. " The Bengal Army had Revolted. unpursued. their heavy sentences.96 THE ARMIES OF INDIA Then at officers' quarters. Meerut came the well- known test parade of the 3rd Cavalry to receive their old ammunition. murdering every Christian man. are well - known matters of for history. to likewise slay could lay hands on. and child that they came across. and the outbreak on the evening of the next day. Sunday. and the rabble that surrounded the mock court of the pensioned descendant of the all Great Mogul. In a few weeks. The stupor of surprise that allowed the mutineers to escape need not be described here the fact was patent that." . woman. the 11th of May. to the old Imperial city of Delhi. under the eyes of the large garrison. and were joined by the troops there. in the words of the^^c? Pamphlet. How those mutineers made off. the manacling parade of the whole garrison to see the fetters riveted on the mutineers.

.

a. .

1 -I .

.

before the Emperor's palace. wearing their British war medals. marched to Delhi. or to Cawnpore. The mutinous their native command of officers. The British on the ridge before Delhi could often hear the mutineer bands playing the airs their officers had taught them. The anomalies of the Mutiny were many. to pose as the Emperor of mutinied India.THE ARMY OF THE GREAT MUTINY The mutineers. received offisrs Some officers to assume command and lead them 13 . with their bands playing British airs. officers In some regiments the atrocity. were murdered with every possible In others great pains were taken to conduct them within reach of a place of safety. Sir in Henry Lawrence in Oudh had till held havoc hand for several weeks. Then as the tally of regiments in all the main cantonments. under bay. proclaimed the re-incarnation of the Mogul Empire. with their British colours flying. son of blind Shah Alam. they flocked to the great centre at Delhi and the old Imperial name. largely 97 Hindu soldiers from Oudh. Lucknow and the Oudh Irregular with the attraction of the Europeans at regiments. to Lucknow. formed a second focus for rebellion. the mutiny of the large garrison at Ix)rce. compelUng the aged pantaloon Bahadur Shah.

game thoroughly. Careful study of the inner history of the many mutinies of 1857 almost unfailingly great bulk of the elicits the conclusion that the to and massacre entrusted. in all its forms. its army did not mean officers. as children. One day the bulk of the regiment or the older native officers.conduct. an affectionate leave but demanding commanding epaulettes or his full-dress coatee as the price of safe . was to be experienced.98 THE ARMIES OF INDIA manner whose adventures to the service of the Padishah. were the of still a topic in the land. as officers were a regiment rushed to its bells of arms. The clever mutiny cliques in each regiment. many ways simple and confiding were fed on every possible rumour. Psychohgie des foules. with tears in their eyes. after the of the European free-lances. and devoted officers hurried into the lines . officers would be dead been It has urged as an instance of the it inconsistency and perfidy of the Asiatic that always seemed that the best-beloved the first to fall. would his protest their loyalty to their colonel and comrade of fifty years. to whom the ferment had been knew their in The soldiery. Here we read of his subadar-major his taking officer. The next morning he and in the rising sun.

. while the well-affected stood aghast. Then. of Delhi mutinied even after the must have proclaimed the hopelessness of their cause. or at ' ' . what moment the mutinous desire seized a regiment. the desire for blood rise . . hawa laga How. to shoot these officers pahlwans or wrestling before the rising clamour had got beyond control. Corps mutinied unexpectedly. . A few. rather tend to 99 this But does not ? show how well the men managing their business the rising knew In every native officers regiment there are always two or three whose disposition has gained them the confidence and aifection of the men in an exceptional degree. was no hard matter for the desperadoes. the ship would be without a rudder.THE ARMY OF THE GREAT MUTINY to calm their men's excitement. . in the palms of their hands. no one could tell. . Once they were out of the It way. the leaven would spread. Such. usually the clique. and the regiment would stand so committed that all must stand or fall together. no doubt. at times appalling in their at atrocities. as it were. a few more shots. In the a wind words of an old mutineer. times astonishing in their mildness. was the inner history of most of the mutinies. These officers hold a regiment. without regard to time and reason. or when. like the 50th fall Infantry at Nagode.

when the staunch.. remained the and operated vigorously against while the 65th and 70th N. a few honourable rest of the garrison mutinied. remained on the Army So departed the glory of the Bengal Army.. at Saugor. There were. however. exceptions. of the great Bengal Army with it had disappeared in this whirlwind. stances and a location that removed them from a participation in the feelings of the rest of the army. . fifteen battalions of regular infantry out of over seventy regiments of the Bengal Line. blew . At any the fact was soon patent that the whole. doAvn. At the end of the Mutiny. The irregulars in some cases and the local corps almost as hopelessly. who. rebels.I. though not so univer- sally as the regulars. exactly as a crowd is knows not who first kicks the man who rate. cavalry.100 THE ARMIES OF INDIA . with a few exceptions. may be given the benefit of the doubt. . who had there fairly volunteered for China and were serving while their comrades were in mutiny. taking affiliated most of its kindred contingents and irregulars.I. and none of the regular List. were little better. or debarred ing their failed them from the opportunity of displaydisaffection. Those corps that did remain true to mostly owed their escape to circum- their salt. notably the 31st N.

.

30th PUNJABIS 20th DUKE OF CAMBRIDGE'S AWAN i^PunjaU Muialman) OWN INFANTRY (BROWNLOW'S PUNJABIS) Lance Naik Malikdin Khel [Afridi) .

.

.

and on the march. notably in Central India. The Madras and Bombay Armies. as well as the Hyderabad Contingent. In the still smaller Bombay Army it sedition was not so universally absent. Difference in race. however. however. with confiscations and annexations. and only in one or two stations did . During the progress of the Mutiny Punjab in Hindustan proper. while the populace marvelled. garrison at the capital. never really assumed large proportions. diflFerence in system. and perhaps the embarrassing custom whereby a sepoy was allowed to have all his family with him in cantonall ments. Lahore.THE ARMY OF THE GREAT MUTINY 101 The Madras Army. was disarmed by a main. for was not to be expected that the Mahratta would In the miss so golden an opportunity for intrigue. Southern Mahratta country. helped to discount tendency to rebel. which. there was plenty of tinder to help kindle a flame. for reasons many and various. took an active part in suppressing mutiny and rebellion in various parts of India. of which Mian Meer was coup de the cantonment. had been little touched by the storm. Rebellion in the Peshawar valley was stamped out ruthlessly. the stern and resolute spirit manifest in the The overawed the Bengal regiments. where there had been a war in 1844.

Bengal Line regiments call to The disarming in of the Peshawar. some memories of the hard hitting of Sobraon. led by the Guides. the hardy This decision appealed to men of the north. some liking for English ways seen at their best in the cold of the Northern winters. a dislike of the Poorbeah. The Punjab Irregular Force eagerly responded to the march south. our abetting instrument in conquering them .. he will tell you perfunctorily of this skirmish and that . were no doubt mixed ones. however. Probably first. and the punishment of those who tried to mutiny.102 THE ARMIES OF INDIA raise its all mutiny head with success. all had. of Chillianwalla. Irregular Force. and Gujarat. captivated the mind of the border tribesmen. you talk to a veteran of the siege of Delhi. who. at first merely watching.. The motives Border to our that brought the Punjab and the aid. no doubt. if To this day. who were waiting to see how the cat meant to jump. among the motives of those who enlisted in the new corps was the thought of the wealth of Hindustan. their place. Some content with our administration. The south. order. now eagerly flocked to serve. some to keep themselves in others for Hindustan. marched tribal Every sort of irregular horse and levy was formed.

that much of the loot he brought away as of the fighting. they followed their gallant leaders unflinchingly. and with them wealth that was the A Khyberi of the Queen's envy of every soldier of fortune in Own 1853.THE ARMY OF THE GREAT MUTINY fight. and have . and rode in carts behind the baggage of the corps. transferred their affections to the men of the north. Corps of Guides. and with loyal salt and were more than true to the they The corps which they went to form. and was talked of in the Punjab for Beautiful ladies many a day after. ate. whatever the mixture of primary motives actuating the irregular soldiery that helped the British Line to reconquer India. the return of the Guides to the frontier was a sight to see. elite now remain as some of the of the army. the as relief is when he and capture of to say. the country-side. affection. fell. will talk Lucknow. 103 and show you on the ridge where So-and-so but his eyes will glisten and his old heart warm. According to him. tells you of the Chandni Chowkh. However. the jewellers' street of Delhi The old soldier who went to the Baillie Guard.

the Delhi Pioneers. The army before Delhi lacked neither supplies nor transport. corps. it The fidelity of the Frontier. together enabled us to reconquer Hindustan. Punjab Infantry. Irregular Force of the Punjab. Among fame the many irregular corps that came to in' 57. with eighteen regiments of innumerable. Cureton's Multanis. the task of rebuilding a new army on the . in served since. the alacrity of the Punjabi and frontiersman to serve. added to the steady loyalty of most of the Bombay and Madras though loot. chiefs It must also be remembered that and Barons and their followers turned against us. with as they won in much distinction many more of the as that which Sirkar's wars.104 THE ARMIES OF INDIA '57. the Sikh Irregular Cavalry (three corps). the Mahratta Horse. nor the most faithful domestic service. or as was then called. the last embers of the Mutiny had died and the last gang of hopeless fallen in Poorbeahs and outlaws had surrendered or action. from even the earliest days. in addition to the existing corps of the army. were Hodson's Horse. and villagers hastened to rob and to the great mass of the people had no desire to see the last of us. and local levies When out. Wale's Horse. Lind's Horse. the Sikh Volunteer Infantry (raised from the Sikhs of corps that had revolted).

.

^ >^ >^ -^ "3 '^4 tn .

q%-'^l.%}qU^-^'^'^' .

THE ARMY OF THE GREAT MUTINY
ashes
of

105

the

famous

red-coated

line

of

the

Honourable East India Company, was no light task. The Company hardly knew what its stock of
irregular troops was, for they had been raised as

emergency demanded and opportunity
authority which, even
writing,
if

offered,

on

existing at one time in

was often not forthcoming afterwards. Opinions innumerable existed as to what was to be

done.

The whole

subject was

much

complicated

by

the transfer of India to the Crown, and the
that task was carried out, and what the

formation of a Royal instead of a Company's Army.

How

measures then taken have ultimately developed
into, it is

the principal object of this book to

illustrate

and explain.

14

CHAPTER
With
When,
read

IV

THE INDIAN ARMIES UNDER THE CROWN
the raising of the irregular regiments in the

Punjab, commenced the Indian

Army

of to-day.

a year or so after the Mutiny, the pro-

clamation transferring India to the
before
it

Crown was
garrisoning
left

the
is

large

force

then

Peshawar,

on record that on the

of

a long line of troops, clad in the loose khaki
clothing that
is

now

so familiar,

stood a corps

that a twelvemonth had

made

as extinct in

Upper

There stood, in its scarlet coatees, its shakos and white cross -belts, a surviving Bengal regular battalion, that had alone, of the original Peshawar garrison, escaped disarmament and avoided mutiny. The influence and character of its officers must have been far
India as the dodo.

beyond the ordinary, to have kept that regiment still standing under arms.
106

INDIAN ARMIES UNDER THE CROWN

107

From

the discussions that ensued on the close
it

of the campaigns that succeeded the revolt,

had been decided to organize the whole of the native force on what has already been described
as

the irregular system.

The

existing

nucleus

and model was the now famous Punjab Irregular
Force.
raised

In the
infantry

first

hasty numbering of the newly

in

the

Punjab, they had

been

organized on the same status as the

Irregular

Force, numbered consecutively after the existing
corps,

and assumed to
time,

be,

as that force

was

in

peace

under the control

of the

Punjab

Government and not of the Commander-in-Chief. The eighteen new battalions had been numbered
from 7 to 24. It was now decided to renumber the loyal remnant of the old army from 1 onwards,
according to seniority, both infantry and cavalry,

and to add on to these the new

corps,

renumbering

them also in succession. The actual numbering between 1860 and 1861 was altered several times in the Bengal Army,
owing to change of policy and plans. At first the Gurkha regiments, which had been extra battalions, were numbered with the new Line.
Already the
original

Nasiri battalion

had been

taken into the Line as the 66th, when the original

108

THE ARMIES OF INDIA
'fifties

66th mutinied in the

over the hatta trouble,

and

it

was

first

decided to include

came

orders to

them all. Then keep the Gurkhas as a separate

Line of their own.

The
was

final

numbering of the new Bengal

Army
:—

as follows (under

G.G;0., 990 of 29.10.61)

1st

Bengal N.

22nd PUNJABIS

Awan

of Shahptir

i^>mm,rr.mmifmmmm>mmm,>mmm^^U^mm

INDIAN ARMIES UNDER THE CROWN

109

The 12th had been
Soojah's

raised as a battalion of

Shah
first

Contingent at

the
its

time of our

Afghan

venture, and after
it

famous defence of

Khelat-i-Ghilzai

was brought into the Com-

pany's service as an extra battaUon.

The

13th,

14th, and 15th had been local battalions, the
latter of Sikhs, raised in the Cis

two

Sutlej

States,

before the Mutiny.
in that it
is

The 16th

is

a famous corps,

composed of the loyal detachments who

stuck to their
mutinied,

when the Lucknow garrison and who formed a very much larger
officers
is

portion of the effective fighting strength of the
garrison

than

usually remembered.

It

was

remembered

at the time

and

after,

but at half

a century's lapse

we

are apt to forget

some of those
those weary,

who kept

the flag flying during

scorching months.
similar detachments

The 17th was formed from
from various regiments, while

the 18th were an old local corps
their

who

maintained

honour under trying circumstances.
to the 32nd

The new 19th

Native Infantry

were 14 of the 18 regiments of Punjab Infantry raised in '57 -'58, and temporarily numbered in succession with the six regiments of Punjab
Infantry in the Irregular Force; while the 33rd
to

the 40th were various local corps raised as

the second Nasiri Battalion. Three Line regiments that 4th. as as well several local battalions. down help keep the Delhi- disbanded. the 58th. is were the 1st Infantry of the Gwalior Contingent. the Kumaon Battalion became the 8rd Gurkhas. Jutogh and scared half Simla the jungles. went Madras Horse 1845. were disbanded. it "Levies" during the Mutiny. before to it into British Officer. was subsequently They had been raised to take the place taken into the Line as the of the original battalion 66th already referred to. as The Gurkhas were renumbered follows : the 66th or original Nasiri Battalion became the 1st Gurkhas . which had broken out into semi -mutiny at 4*1.. and the Hazara Battalion became the 5th Gurkhas. Artillery. 43rd. Punjab road open. remaining as before part of the Punjab Irregular . and 44th were the old Assam Sylhet and Light Infantry bat- talions. had survived the Mutiny. interesting to note. the Extra Gurkha Battalion became the 4th Gurkhas. The Sirmoor Battalion became the 2nd Gurkhas.110 THE ARMIES OF INDIA The 41st. and 73rd. and the 42nd.

1st Bengal Cavalry. „ „ „ „ 2nd 3rd 5th 6th 7th 8th 2nd 4th 7th 8th 17th 18th „ „ „ „ „ „ „ „ Then Mutiny : to these were added the famous regiraised for the suppression of the ments of horse . : 1861 as the Infantry. or otherwise come under suspicion. A few years 45th Sikhs. raised as a military police battalion after the Sonthal rebellion as the of 1856. Bengal Line remained at 45 many The All cavalry in Bengal were similarly renumbered. Before the Mutiny there were eighteen regiments of irregular cavalry. formerly the 1st Irregulars. finally retained Of these eight were same G.O. the regular cavalry and several of the irregular corps had mutinied or been disarmed.— — 111 INDIAN ARMIES UNDER THE CROWN Force. others local horse of recent standing. orders appeared renumbering the whole of the cavalry. according to their own original seniority.G. In 1861. some being old irregular corps. of and renumbered. under the viz. was mustered into the Line The highest for number of the years. later Rattray's Sikhs.

„ „ „ „ „ „ „ „ „ Rohilkand Horse. and 5 battalions of Punjab Infantry. Fane's Horse was originally raised after the Mutiny from volunteers from other expedition to China. and the . for the The Punjab Irregular Force. 4th Sikh Irregular Cavalry. Their light field batteries and mountain trains were finally fixed at four. and converted to mountain batteries. Robart's Horse. 12th 13th 14th 15th 16th 17th 18th 19th „ „ „ „ 2nd Sikh Irregular Cavalry. with one garrison battery. The Madras and Bombay Armies were not renumbered. 2nd 10th „ „ Horse (later Probyn's Wale's 11th „ „ Horse). Murray's Jat Horse.112 THE ARMIES OF INDIA 9th Bengal Cavalry. the former and but one or two in the Certain corps raised and especially developed during the long hun.t for Tantia Topee. as mutiny had made no gaps in latter. 4 battalions of Sikh infantry (the old Sikh locals of the JuUundur Doab). Cureton's Multanis. „ „ „ 2nd Mahratta Horse. was left at its original strength of 5 cavalry regiments. formerly 1st Hodson's Horse. which was not under the control of the Commander-in-Chief. Fane's Horse. corps.

.

24th PUNJABIS Malikdin Khel {Afridi) Subadar Jdt Sikh .

.

.

eventually and 2 Bombay Mountain (Bombay) Mountain were the four tingent. originally used to garrison in Aden and man the Jacobabad mountain became Nos. the Deoli Irregulars. etc. and Punjab Frontier Force batteries in in two native Bombay. The mutiny of all the native Bengal siderations. These Nos. 5 and 6 Another exception field batteries of the Hyderabad Con15 The whole of this contingent had done . Some of these foot. the Erinpura Irregular Force. train 1 and 2 companies Golandaz. lery was therefore gradually disbanded. Batteries. Batteries. and were not brought into the Line at that time. and other weighty conAll the native artil- had decided the Government to have no native field artillery in future. remained under the orders of the Government of India. and later 1 turn. and at one time The whole of the European artillery and the corps of engineers were transferred to the Royal corps under special conditions.INDIAN ARMIES UNDER THE CROWN US marauding bands into which the embers of mutiny had turned. irregular corps comprised both horse and guns. such as the Central India Horse. The only- exceptions to this rule were the four mountain batteries in the Punjab Irregular Force (which force was called the 1865). artillery.

The new corps had been organized on the so-called irregular system. and regimental officers. for troop -transport. with these exceptions. an ill-chosen in that it differed it was only irregular from the old sealed pattern organization. In that day there was no Suez Canal. that had tried to follow the regimental constitution of Europe. were in the hands of British had the merit of cheapness. and which in its early days the hands of the native officers. was far away. the artillery service in India was to be found by batteries and companies officered of the Royal Artillery. second staff. A sapper and miner corps Army. and was well suited to the immediate post-Mutiny military conditions. ^ The mass of opinion was in favour of water-tight . of course. The term one .114 THE ARMIES OF INDIA excellent service in 1857. and Europe. all was retained in each Presidential from the Royal Engineers. irregular was. The this question was also taken up of applying system to the Madras and Bombay Armies. and was retained intact. in command. In future. and that only the This command. which has already been meant that the command of companies and squadrons was in described. to or after the moot question had been decided as whether or no there should be one Indian army three armies.

Gradually the whole. 1846. by which it CROWN 115 was meant that three different armies. when it a regiment pected to have itself equipped in a uniform way. was organized on the silladar system which obtains to this day. officers. on the same system of the as The whole four except regiments of Madras Light Cavalry. organized and constituted differently. are required to enlist with a certain 3rd Madras Liglit Cavalry. in the recent trouble did certainly bear out the argument. and the regiment finds every- thing except firearms. however. were a great safeguard against general mutiny and the staunchness of the coast armies . the trooper received this meant that amount and In exis found himself in everything. amount of money towards the pur- chase of their horse. and the regimental commander administers their pay so as to make it gradually cover . means that the men British Officer. of these two armies was organized regards cavalry. these days. Its whole principle is that Government pay so much per head.INDIAN ARMIES UNDER THE compartments. In the original it days of sUladar cavalry.

as did the regiments and battalions of Bombay. therefore. and has appealed to requires the best material in the country. It is move when not a very easy system' to maintain in a war of any size or duration. while the continual rise in price of horses. raised for the Company during as the " the Mutiny." by also as the reason of the small and gin-fed recruits that were were transferred . and the need for a sudden well-equipped the tribes are rising. The adminFor this istration. the other coast army. and equipments always tends to make the of pay a little silladar rates behind the times. Cavalry. The system has produced some splendid light cavalry. ment also provides sum the regiits baggage animals. Dumpies. The Company's European battalions of the three armies were transferred to the Crown. food. practically retained its old The Madras Line numbers.116 all THE ARMIES OF INDIA the various articles of equipment they require as well as to feed the horse. and as regiments of the Line have much added to their already ample Three regiments of European Light laurels. It has also been admirably suited to irregular and frontier war. and known to fame at first forthcoming. of a sUladar cavalry regiment immense business capacity on the part of a commanding officer.

.

26th PUNJABIS Malikdin Khel (Afridi) .

V^.j^y .t.uy€tr .

.

close of the Mutiny. The "White Mutiny. and that legal. was one of those unfortunate occurrences of which the inner history is hard to know. led in some places by the artillery. 20th. called. The Crown had been advised that the terms of the men's engage- ment included service under the Crown. Allusion has been as to made to the vexed discussion in India it whether or no the European troops local. fortunate had be publicly The Government then decided to modify and thousands of men took their attitude. was both sad and dangerous. should be This waged very acutely." as it was was a widespread and determined opposition on the part of the Company's Europeans. all At the time of this transfer. an act of transfer was completely The men that thought otherwise. and . and considered that they should be allowed a discharge or a bounty. to the orders transferring them to the Crown. one unexecuted. and The crisis arose was a source of great anxiety just at the was by no means creditable it to the troops. occurred that instance of mismanagement. that while once and for clinching the argument against a local Ein-opean force. 117 and 21st Hussars.INDIAN ARMIES UNDER THE CROWN 19th. their discharge home It to re-enlist in the Queen's troops on arrival. Before to was quelled.

produced many anomalies and much discontent. it was held by well-informed men that if there were no local European service the native army would deteriorate to the level of a " Black Militia. the reforming of the Army of Bengal. viz. and officers throughout India were to be found of the old cadres doing general duty in cantonments or commanding isolated forts and sanatoria. The transfer of the large cadre of officers of the Indian Army. army. should consist only one or whether different races should be kept in different panies in the same regiments. It comwUl be restood by membered that." that So unkindly does print and time treat the prophets. in the old men . That of to say. another controversial question came into prominthat of is class regiments versus class companies. and its replacement with fewer corps with small cadres of officers. With ence.118 is THE ARMIES OF INDIA interesting to read in the reviews of the time. whether regiments race. meant that very many were without employment. they wished. to a force serving under entirely different conditions (for purchase still obtained in the Royal Army). As they had definite rights as regards periods of they had to remain on if service. The mutiny of about half the army with large cadres of oflScers.

.

a o o O en a o < oi a o a z .

3^^6^^ ^'7 ' ) ~ -^^ .

.

but the number of Poorbeahs (literally men of the Eastern provinces). Before. to some extent.INDIAN ARMIES UNDER THE CROWN chance in 119 the ranks. The object aimed at in the new construction was. There was much to be said for both of the proposed systems. the new Crown Army had . was strictly limited. Poorbeah and Punjabi. was though a battalion should have so many English. to put the races into water-tight compartments. while at the same time developing their feeling of clan emulation and martial characteristics to the full. cheek by jowl. The it balance of argument was on the class company. the race which had mutinied. however. or so many Catholic and so many Protestant companies. In the older armies the old constitution was to a great extent retained. and so many Scotch or Irish companies. or should be entirely of one race. and only a few Sikh and Gurkha corps remained entirely homogeneous. To put as the analogy into English terms. which will be discussed and described in the next two chapters. Accordingly. the majority of the new regiments became class-company ones. This system of class companies gradually led to a very close study of the clans and races of India. Hindu and Musalman.

forced into the operations in the Peshawar which brought the in their train the rising of the whole of the tribes in Swat. but and on the Assam frontier. which the part. during the Mutiny itself the usual frontier operations were taking place in the Peshawar district armies. In 1864-65 operations against Bhootan were necessary. and a strong force from India was hurried off from the campaigning ground of the Mutiny to the celestial capital. Pekin in 1860. and the desperate fighting in Ambeyla Pass. in in 1857. The force was drawn from all the some six of the newly raised irregular Even regiments from the Punjab took part. and in the autumn of 1864 we were valley. Bombay Army took a considerable with a strong Bengal Lord Napier of Magdala's march from . it was once more called on to perform its Imperial role. The desperate fighting con- nected with the repeated capture and recapture of the Crag piquet paign. once co-operation with a French force in the advance on %. brigade. is a famous incident of the cam- In 1867-68 the expedition to Abyssinia*' in was undertaken. The war in China that had been patched up more broke out. while in 1860 an expedition was sent against the Mahsud Waziris.120 settled THE ARMIES OF INDIA down after the struggle and re-organization.

.

33rd PUNJABIS SUBADAR Puruabi Musalmans .

$^3 M:'-AV\ .

.

The war that followed distinct was a long and phases . the advance to Kabul after the murder of the British agent Sir Louis Cavagnari and his escort The war is memorable for the famous there. and to . with the treaty of Gundamuk and the succession of Yakub Khan to the throne of his father Sher Ali and the second. the disastrous defeat of Maiwand. Afghan owing to the Amir's reception of a Russian mission and refusal to receive a British one under Sir Neville Chamberlain. and especially with the possession of British . with its 121 won''^ derful arrangements for food and transport over most difficult country. and Lord Roberts' march from Kabul to Kandahar.. and had two one. 1878 saw us once more involved affairs. later on came Ahmed Khel. with the successful battle under the walls of that city. will always be remembered. and Charasiab. paign left us The conclusion of the camwith a more convenient and logical 16 frontier. the Peiwar Kotal. costly one. and the heavy fighting round Kabul north. the advance towards Kabul on the Kandahar in the south. INDIAN AKMIES UNDER THE CROWN Zula on the Red Sea to Magdala. 1868 also saw an expedition against the raiding tribes of the Black Mountain and several other in minor operations. actions at Ali Musjid.

while several units from the Madras Army were moved up on to the communication. 1885 Indian troops again went to- wards Egypt. Batfadar. brought on the Third Burmese War.. During the Afghan and Burmese wars it had become evident that several corps in all three armies were recruited frova material that was no . eighty years after the original brigade under Sir David Baird had In sailed to join the British there. In 1882. Force formed the bulk of the Kabul the Army . and shared in the decisive fight at Tel-elKebir. a strong Indian contingent joined Sir Garnet Wolseley in Egypt. the Kandahar Army. and Bombay Army. an Indian force had been sent to Malta in readiness to join a British force to act if need be in the Russo-Turkish War. "Watson's 1885. 122 THE ARMIES OF INDIA The Bengal Army and Frontier Baluchistan. whole three armies took in the and which ended annexation of Upper Burma. Horse. lines of Just before this war. this time to the Soudan 13th Duke of Con- while the same year the situation naught Lancers. in which representative corps of the part.

western with hillmen from the uplands of Coorg. efforts. In the Bengal Army. The Madras Army had made too. Most . an uncouth race from the coasts. In 1885. however. were enlisted into class corps. and the for demand troops showed the shortsightedness of the of the reduced corps were '82 reductions. however. and also a corps enlisted from a kindred hillrace in Garhwal. and Punjabi soldiers in the ranks. more battalions of Gurkhas were raised. Pathan. Experi- ence eventually led.INDIAN ARMIES UNDER THE CROWN 123 longer suited to the trying climate and arduous conditions of the modern theatres of war. The immense expenditure mcurred in the prosecution of the war in Afghanistan led to the reduction of several corps of cavalry and infantry in 1882. to the corps being broken up. to immense limits . Several regiments of the Bombay and Madras Armies were The Madras regiments thus Burma. the necessity for war preparation that was the sequel to the Penjdeh incident. improve its its quality by tapping certain likely races within own territorial and Moplahs. altered were located in Pathan regiments in Scinde and Baluchistan. the Baluch and reconstituted with Baluch. had seen half the Indian Army mobilized to take the field in Central Asia.

forced on us an expedition against the Mahzud Waziris the third time. which brought us regularly into touch with 1888 to 1892 brought two expeditions to Thibet. including the tion. and one among the mountains of Hunza Nagar on the borders of the Pamirs. under an improved class constitution. there were several small Sikkim expedi- frontier operations.124 THE ARMIES OF INDIA The few blank numbers that a still restored to the establishment. as well as several minor expeditions in the Chin and Kachin hills of Upper Burma. scrutiny of the Indian Army List will reveal as vacant. one to the Samana. in addition to the overseas recorded. During the expeditions 'eighties. Agent at GUgit had occasion to dynasty. on the occurrence of one of the usual cataclysms in the reigning up in Chitral fort was attacked and shut by Pathans from neighbouring and in States. the British visit Chitral. and brought us into closer for relations with a more than usually faithless and fascinating class of tribesman. So that some portion of the Indian fierce fanatical attack Army was always under arms. the Black Mountain. the to the on the escort Boundary Commission in Waziristan. In 1894. This resulted the Chitral Relief . In 1895. are mostly a relic of the '82 reductions.

.

35th SIKHS SUBADAR .

"35 .

.

could gather to repel the cross Before the troops the fiery Mohmands and as had sped. in the north. en route to Chitral. the in tribes of Miranzai blaze. events of arms. seen. from the Peshawar Valley. the Mohmands British garrisons at the further south threw themselves across our borders. By time the situation had become most difficult. salt dues. and were defeated at Shubkadr. and Kelly's sensational march from Gilgit In 1897. and the many kinds. While the force that had relieved these posts was inflicting punishment on the offending tribes.INDIAN ARMIES UNDER THE CROWN Expedition. of more than usual . the encroachment of civilization. the Afridis of Tirah must needs Khyber posts and close the road. and the Samana were attack the this a troops were hastened there. the tribes of Swat threw themselves for days in succession against the Malakand and Chakdara. with its 125 fight at the Malakand Pass. and the Government all at once had some four different campaigns on hand. the joy of possessing better drum ecclesiastic rolled after the triumph of Turk over Greek. First Waziristan blazed in the treacherous attack on a small escort at Maizar. Then in the north. for the glory of God and the Prophet. combined to produce ^ such a crop of simultaneous frontier risings as we had never before off.

and the troops themselves gradually withdrawn. ments. was extended. to the ordinary control of the Commander-in-Chief in India. are well known. on the old Black Watch principle. troops of all kinds in motion. In 1886. the Punjab Frontier Force was transferred from the direct control of the Government of India. After the Mutiny this question was much discussed.126 THE ARMIES OF INDIA From the dimensions. Some of the events. During the period covered by these campaigns. north to the south of India. The in close of the campaigns found us for the time being with considerably increased garrisons. impossible. as separate armies under separate governwith separate Commanders - in - Chief. viz. and classes had to be put and operations lasted for practically ten months. was almost but at that time railways were hardly even in their infancy in India. till Lord Curzon's vice- royalty the policy of local levies. Central control the water-tight compartment immediate seemed the lesson to be derived from while . notably the storming of the Dargai heights on the road to the Afridi Tirah. the abolition of the Presidential Armies. while in 1895 came the great change which had been long foreshadowed. many changes had been in progress within the army itself.

.

39th GARHWAL Garhwalis rifles .

<7 C'\ 1 .

.

Infantry. the recruitment of and clan and the recruit-yielding capacity of . 127 As it India had modernized. however. The numbering of the various units of the army was. anomalies that in the such an arrangement presented. however. was the forerunner of Then during class this period. with a Commander-in-Chief over all. etc. the split much Bengal Army time. the 1st Gurkhas. the 1st Baluchi^. and often actually during the latter. manders-in-Chief were an anachronism last. the the 1st Sikhs. with the many side. was up into two commands. for the discussion. the 1st Bengal Infantry. and these with the Madras and Bombay Armies were constituted into four Lieutenant-Generals' commands. Burma and almost as many till was not Lord Kitchener's period of com- mand that this big question of renumbering could be successfully tackled. There were army. the 1st Bombay Infantry. left to stand. and the railway system had overcome the difficulty of the vast distances. the 1st Infantry Hyderabad Contingent.INDIAN ARMIES UNDER THE CROWN the Mutiny. the general numbering. after was evident that three Comand at . the 1st 1st cavalries. liable to serve side by both in peace and war. The abolition of the armies in 1895. It 1st Punjab Infantry. the 1st Madras Infantry.

128

THE ARMIES OF INDIA
to

the various races began
studied,

be

most

carefully

and as one
soldier

class after

another came to

show the
a better
stringent.

results of years of peace, the search for
-

bearing stratum became more

Orders appeared from time to time,

altering the constitution of regiments as experi-

ence and change of times proved the need,
gradually the present arrangements, which
it

till

is

now proposed

to describe,

were evolved.

CHAPTER V
THE MILITARY RACES OF INDIA
'

T

is

one of the essential differences between the

;

5ast

and the West, that

in the East,

with certain

I

ixceptions, only certain clans

and

classes can bear

irms; the others have not the physical courage
lecessary for the warrior.

In Europe, as

we know,
is

jvery able-bodied man, given food and arms,

a

ighting

man of some
as

but

still

some better, some worse, capable of bearing arms as any other of
sort,

his nationality. this is not so.

In the East, or certainly in India,

The

people of Bengal, even those
classes,

with the most-cultivated brain, the trading
the artizan
to
classes,

and the outcaste

tribes,

arekmen
never

whom the threat of violence is'tKe last wordji At
all

the bottom of

power and law,

disguise

it

so caremlly, lies the will of the hand to keep the

head.

llresumably the great conquest of India away
in the mists of time,
129

back

by the Aryan

race,
17

and

130

THE ARMIES OF INDIA
is

the subjection of the original inhabitants,

at the

bottom of this.
to races remained

Only
fit

certain races were permitted

bear arms, and in course of time only certain
to bear arms.
is

Conquest, pure and
responsible for
it

simple, with cruel repression,

in
is

some

places,

such as in Bengal and Kashmir.

It

extraordinary that the well-born race of the upper
classes
in
it is

Bengal should be hopeless poltroons,
absurd that the great, merry, powerful

while

Kashmiri should have not an ounce of physical
courage in his constitution, but
it is

so.

appearances of any use as a criterion.

Nor are Some of the

most manly -looking people
respect the

in India are in this

most despicable.

The
India.

existence of this condition, therefore,

much

complicates the whole question of enlistment in
It renders

any form of levy en masse imservice, while
it

possible, or

any form of Militia

emphatically forbids the English system, whereby

the

well-to-do pay for

the lower orders to do

their fighting for
classes alone

them.

In India

itself

certain
service.

do the soldiering and kindred

These
the

are, roughly, in central

and northern India

yeoman peasant, the grazier, and the landowner. Very good classes, too, as every one can
see,

and

in India there is

no exodus from the land

40th PATHANS,

Malikdin Khel
(Afridi)

— —
THE MILITARY RACES OF INDIA
to the crowded city.
to say, the
distinct
131
is

The

peasant in India, that
is

yeoman

peasant,

a well-born man,
birth

from the mere helot of low
the people by tribes from

who

in

some

parts helps on the land.

Now
(1)

whom we
:

take

soldiers in India itself are as follows

The

ancient

Aryan

races,

who invaded India
(lit.

in pre-

historic times,

viz.

Rajput

sons of princes)

and Brahman, who

for practical purposes

may

be

divided into two distinct classes, those of Hindustan

and those of the Punjab.
(2) (3)

The races of Jats or Jats, and Gujars. The Pathans and the Moguls of India.
outside the limits of India
:

Then from
(4)

(5)

The Pathan and Afghan of the The Gurkha.

frontier hills.

Then we have a
religion,

further division which

is

by

and

also another

by country.
Sikhs,

For

instance,

we have the

who

are largely

that portion of the Jat race which embraced the
calvinistic

reformed Hindu teaching of the Sikh

gurus, and

who

live in that part of

Upper India

known as the Punjab, the land of the five rivers. Then we have the Muhammadans of the Punjab, who are of many mixed races, but who
largely
consist

of Rajput tribes

converted

to

132

THE ARMIES OF INDIA
They describe than Muhammadan.

Islam at various times in the past.
themselves as Rajput rather

The Muhammadans

of India are either the

descendants of conquering or serving foreigners
of that faith, or of converts.

In whichever category

they

may

claim descent, they will generally be of

mixed
tics

origin

by now, and those who claim Pathan
will

and Mogul descent
rare to

have

lost

the characterisit is

of their race, and even their features, for

see a sign in these days of the Tartar

origin of the Moguls,

Then, again, in the Southern Plateau
the

we have

Deccan, of which

the

people

are largely

Mahrattas or Marathi-speaking, and, mixed with them,

Muhammadans

of varied origin.

For the purposes of describing the military tribes and castes it will be as well to do so by countries and provinces with certain exceptions.

The gradual
effect

raising of the military standard

by

the change of times and terrain, and the enervating

on Asiatics of a few generations of peace,
to.

have already been referred
of the northern races,
lesser period of the

It has resulted in a

gradual enlistment of an increasing number of

men
for

whom

a cold winter, and a

enjoyment of peace, have

the present preserved from military deterioration.

42nd DEOLI regiment Honorary Major G. Sir Umed Singh Bahadur.I. Maharao of Kota (Rajputana) . K. H.S.E. H.C.. C.I.

fak / A^^j^^^^f^^^ .

.

Nine gurus age of succeeded father Nanak the tenth guru. he taught a reformed or puritan Hinduism.West Frontier. a numerous religious sect. near Lahore. became a powerful sect embracing many of aU the Hindu of tribes and races the Punjab. starting as a perse- cuted set of reformers.THE MILITARY RACES OF INDIA It will 133 be reasonable. which. teacher of the in The first guru or spiritual new faith was Baba Nanak. of the Punjab and The Military The Sikhs. and brotherhood were principles. tion. influence of the teaching of a one and only God as conceived in Islam. the famous Govind. kindliness. guru the and peaceful community was changed into a powerful military sect. . Classes of the Punjab not correct to speak of the are. succeeding fifteen. In the hands of the religious at the hands of the teaXh. therefore. that constantly obtained fresh recruits and became the . to commence with the races of the north. his father at the on the former's suffering death and torture Mogul. in which simplicity. purity. the among the leading Stimulated by repression and persecusect grew and flourished. the North. — It . is Sikhs as a race they properly speaking. bom Brought up within the 1469. viz.

two-thirds of the Sikhs. the Jats. These same of Jats. however. The faith spread to most of the Hindu day is tribes of the Punjab.H. Because the Jats form. perhaps. which to this spread over the whole of Upper India. is lion.v. baptized into his sect and not born so that no man is is a Sikh till he has taken the pdJiul. Colonel 14th Sikhs. Hon. number many thousands the hostile while hundreds creed in who embraced of Islam. the warlike Govind added the the affix of Singh or race. till he has been baptized.). the term Sikh is (which means disciple) largely associated with the J&ts. originally men of Rajput into A Sikh it. are numerous Hindus of the same descent who call themselves Jats (q. Rajputana and about it Delhi and south of H.134 THE AHMIES OF INDIA champion of the Hindu inhabitants against the Musalman. . that to say. more especially to the vast cultivating race. To the generic title of Sikh or affix disciple. Raja Sir Hira Singh Bahadur of Nahba.

for whom life has few irksome restrictions. . by which all might enter the fraternity. . : who The thus described his retirement he preached the Khalsa. and the liberated. the faith of the pure. Resuscitating the old baptismal rite of the Sikhs. He openly attacked all distinctions of caste. has lain in his life adherence to the simple tenets and hardy of no non-baptized Sikh is admitted into a regiment of the Indian Army. that it is the British officer its has kept Sikhism up to creed of Govind Emerging from is old standard.— THE MILITARY RACES OF INDIA Sikhism is 135 an austere faith. in of their signs outward . faithful soldier. . while he gave to its members the pershad or communion as a sacrament of union in which the four orders of Hindu society should eat the higher orders murmured from the same dish . . . . he proclaimed it as the pdh&l or gate. But as the value of the Sikh as the simple. So careful are regiments in this matter. his forebears. . the short the unshorn faith. not without some shadow of truth. his numbers to flocked in hair. rejoiced at the new dispensation and orders lower but the He gave them the standard. that it has been said. and insisted on the equality of all who would join him. . that for many years there has been a tendency for young men to avoid the pdhul and grow up as ordinary Hindus. life demanding its some simplicity and rigour of from adherents. So much is this so. . the elect. and so much are regiments the home of the old martial and simple Sikh principles.

and political power.^ ceremonies. form largely the business and have been enlisted in small numbers for their brains . the Jat being proverbially thick in the uptake. his sayings are all of the plough. Ethnography of the Punjab. zealous devotion to the cause as the proof of faith. . by the and by the initiation by sprinkling water with a two-edged dagger. But while Nanak substituted holiness of life for vain Govind Singh demanded brave deeds and . and the blue dress. and all grades of and banded them together in face of a foreign foe. all classes. embracing all races. The Lobana. In spite toy of of the military tenets of his faith. The J&t else. and who is probably make the best soldiers. thus for the second time in history a religion became a and for the first time in India a nation arose. Sir Denzil Ibbetson. class. . . . who have embraced class. Religious fervour was entirely eclipsed by military zeal. The Khatris. and have served with distinction. and he gave them a feeling of personal superiority in their abstinence from the unclean of their calling. and a plough is the first the Sikh's son. Sikhism. title of Singh or lion. society. the hereditary carrying ^ ^ have always Sikhs. a peasant farmer before anything however. The Jat Sikh forming the bulk of the fraternity are who have served us most. . Bingley. wearing of tobacco. by the steel. .^ in brief is Such those Sikhism and its history.136 THE ARMIES OF INDIA He marked the military nature drawers. . .

.

.

. 4 ^. - i 0^: .^''7 <£i.

.

and the name . Buddhism soon Hinduism. of whom some are Sikhs. soldiers. is race. 137 though not very largely The greater demands of the army on the hardier races of the north have. and 18 later All J&ts are cultivators. but seems probable that they are in reality of a Scythian race. however.l the artificer classes. Kumboh Sikhs.THE MILITARY RACES OF INDIA done well as enlisted. The J&t made. but havej been successful in some of the smaller and humblerl Sikh communities. race. from whom so many Sikhs were described farther on under Jat and Gujar. caused the recruiter to closely examine the yield in Sikhs of other classes. with the result that certain regiments enlist no Jdt Sikhs. it is impossible to The Scythian tribes undoubtedly adopted tell. they mingled with the Aryan and to what extent the distinction between them and the Aryans is social. have all been swept into the] military net^ which only their Sikhism has made/ possible. a cultivating race o\ putativg foreign origin. with whom some identify the Jatii of history and the Magyars and gypsies of Eastern Europe. and when. after their arrival. To what extent. Sanis or/ gardeners. For instance. here. it but must be referred to There is much discussion as to their origin.

name of an occupa- The inhabitants of the Indus Valley when that river leaves the mountains are largely Muham- madan Jats. The term Mazbi the crucified means faithful. and the regiments of Pioneers. . " Jats and Gujars. and probably those outcastes whom they converted to Sikhism. They served under Ranjit Singh.138 THE ARMIES OF INDIA almost the has become tion. since when 'their courage and general good qualities have made them famous for the work of the military pioneer. such as the 14th or 15th Sikhs. and were formed into a pioneer regiment for service before Delhi. or the 35th and 45th (originally a military police corps). now have the title. the second successor to Guru Govind.") description. Their descendants of outcaste tribe. as are those regiments that enlist class squadrons and companies of Sikhs. whether those raised just before the Mutiny. are equally famous. and was applied to the sweepers of outcaste tribe who brought back body of Teg Bahadur. One more Sikh community needs (See later since they soldiery. The Sikh regiments. the regiments of Ferozepore and Ludhiana. The military services of the Sikhs in our service are well known. form so faithful a portion of the Sikh and these are the Mazbi Sikhs who serve in the Sikh Pioneer regiments.

.

45th ' RATTRAY'S SIKHS ' The Drums Jdt Sikhs " .

^c .

.

and wealth to spend on his returns home. this nationality. have made the is Sikh recruiting -market tight. but especially the Sikh. when Vthe Sikhs flocked to our standardsj^ Since those days. has become a world-wide adventureA In addition to enlisting in every sort of military or police body that will take him. all make their some length desirable. over-recruited from The large number of men they furnish. China. their beards and whiskers neatly curled up close to the face. if anything. their importance as a population. and there littlC'^ . is him. his slow wit and dogged courage give him many . or the East generally. mde the next chapter. High pay attractions.THE MILITARY RACES OF INDIA loneerned. doubt that we have. well-knit men. so far as our service from the Mutiny. he is to be found also as many private firms. with their long hair pulled up under their headdress. As a fighting man. and their military bearing all stamp the man. even to those with only a bowing acquaintance with Hindustan. the Punjabi generally.f tion of plague in the last few years. and the latent possibilities underlying the tenets description at of their creed. In appearance they are well known: tall. largely dates 139 is jTheir military reputation. in Africa. watchman in what attracts land when he These and the devasta.

among the . count kin in some sort with those of the tribe course.140 THE ARMIES OF INDIA of the characteristics of the British soldier at his best. military clan. The Muhammadan of the Punjab The Muhammadans of the Punjab. the land-owning peasant. who remained Hindu. and in some cases. such as the Chibs. consist for the most part of men of the various Hindu tribes who have at one time or other accepted Islam. The better classes inhabit more or less their own districts and are largely Rajput. who will be described later. having occupied the lands of others. Among them are certain clans and' tribes who claim a foreign origin. Among the latter are a well-known while the Gukkhars. and. There are. They keep themselves separate by clans. of tens of thousands of Muhammadans of the and classes of lesser castes no particular descent It is scattered about in every sort of occupation. exclusive of the Pathan. and who claim to be of Rajput stock and clan. the zemindar. and describe themselves as Rajput. founded a barony and brought the owners to subjection. and to have entered with one of the invasions. that the reputable mass of the population consists of.

.

' Zakka Khel Malikdin Khel Kuki Khel Kambar Khel .46th and S3rd. PUNJABIS Afeidis Havildar Orakzai ' •.

^c /^ .

.

so is a man seeking service given to say that he belongs to a better tribe than his own. Chibs. and since all the world over men are prone to exalt their station. so cultivator in They are many cases. some the Musalman tribes such as the Tiwanas. The greatest care is taken to see that men do not represent themselves to be what they are not. that tumbled pile of sand and limestone crag that lies between the Jhelum and the Indus.THE MILITARY RACES OF INDIA Rajput clans are the Bhattis. only going to the cavalry. and the ethnography of . Regiments deavour to enlist men of certain tribes and enkeep to men of those tribes. and it is doubtful if the term j&t does more than imply embraced Islam. Janjuas. are another whose origin is uncertain. so that in exist. Allusion has already been the made this to the Jats and numberless tribes of race that have numerous that they have not received any very close study. Rajput Muhammadan. soldiers. but from whom we draw many The Muhammadan tribes of the Punjab furnish many excellent soldiers. large tribe etc. Tiwanas. 141 Suttis. tribal pride the companies that and emulation and even tribal discipline and public opinion may be stimulated. All arms of the service enlist the tribes. again. The best of come from the Salt Range. The Awans.

Muhammadan Jat Muhamclass madans. however. are not at present largely enlisted. Each class regiment and company it is regiment has the tribes and clans enlist either laid whom to down by and superior authority. It must always be military service prestige. between the voluntarily enlisted army of the United Kingdom. and the voluntarily enlisted army of it is India. and their statements as to birth and tribe. etc. a much honour and born than so that pretenders will often try to pass themselves off as better they are. should the guarantee of the Indian officers in the regiment or other reliable evidence be not forth- coming in the that corps. The essential difference..142 THE ARMIES OF INDIA Jat tribes of the so-called the religion will bear far more study. The foregoing describes fighting races of the for the most part the Punjab other than the Dogras. The EngUsh because soldier does not always come to the ranks the most honourable career he knows. or is by regimental really are rule. then. are sent to the civil authorities to be verified and corroborated. this strictly observed. . The Indian soldier does. is at once evident. is re- membered source of in India. Great precautions are taken to ensure that the men what they profess to be.

.

FRONTIER FORCE" 5 1ST Sikhs Piper Punjabi Musalman 59TH SciNDE Rifles Gakkhdr 56TH Punjabi Rifles Sagri Khattaks .

s-r -$i tD .

.

the different physiognomy of the tribes and hair races. which in itself serves to distinguish race to the instructed observer. and not racial. from the agri- and land -owning and make good The various plates showing Sikhs and Muhammadan illustrate groups of the Punjabi regiments. and are the old Aryan Hindu stock and affiliated races who peopled the bulk of India. and also their national fashion of growing and beard. and the like. off the trampled path of the legions. valued —The Dogra is among the most Northern India. may account for their retaining the religion and habits of the Aryan race. They are Brahmans. who refused the Koran and the Prophet when many of the other Rajputs succumbed. Their situation in the foot-hills of the Himalaya. as well as the characteristic fashion of tying the pugaree. cultural soldiers. and who later kept clear of the Sikh movement. The Dogra. Rajputs. Certain of their related . of all the soldier races of is The name really geographical Dogras are people who come from the hills between the Punjab and Kashmir. Jats.THE MILITARY RACES OF INDIA 143 There are members of the great Brahman race scattered all over India. and those in the Punjab have imbibed the hardy habits that the climate has induced. A few are enlisted clans.

They exist.144 tribes. Three Dogra regiments the 37th. of a Rajput tribe. and physical endurance. undertaken during the as a last twenty-five years. and the cavalry Dogra squadrons. while numerous regiments take one or more Dogra companies. however. The Indian officer is of the 12th Cavalry in one of the illustrations a Dogra Another plate shows Dogras of Rajput and other tribes in the class regiments. His enlistment is. have in part. though in is common parlance that term hills. but those not themselves set hand to plough are as blue-blooded and as penniless as ever a will who Laird of Cockpen. and Their good behaviour. The best clans are perhaps to be found in the cavalry. 38th. and. however. courtly manners. accepted Islam. only come to be widely courage. The higher class of Rajput is the more favoured. country. invariably acquitted themselves with distinction. and 41st. have. . high make the Dogra a valued soldier by all who know him. and for body they have not had the opportunity acquiring fame that has presented itself to some of class the other races. THE ARMIES OF INDIA such as the Chibs. applied to the especially to more Hindus of the outer the Rajput tribes. however. are when living in the Dogra admittedly entitled to be styled Dogras.

.

"FRONTIER FORCE" 57TH Wilde's Rifles Naik s3RD Sikhs Subadar Sagri Khattak Adam Khel (Afridi) .

'^9 ^3 .

.

19 . force of Imperial Service troops Chapter VII. —We now come is to the great Pathan which so inextricably bound up with the are history of India. who are to great Kelly's in chiefly Dogras. and a Dogra of the 31st Punjabis.- THE MILITARY RACES OF INDIA 37th. 145 and 41st Dogras. devoid of almost all their racial characteristics. of whom many now settlers in India. 38th. Pathans. the predominant State the in the feudatory of Jammu and Kashmir (whose . a part of the Punjab province. ruler. and who came of Chitral. The State of Jammu and Kashmir maintains a considerable {v. while the bulk either occupy the hills unadministered between our administrative border and the treaty Afghan frontier.). and from the foot-hills and submontane tracts between Jammu and Kangra. which regiment is one of the many that has a class company of that race. or dwell in Afghanistan itself. Gilgit. race. distinction in the Defence from march to Chitral and actions with the Kohistanis near Chilas. Dogras come from the Dogra State of Jammu. Others live immediately within our North West Frontier. is a Dogra Rajput of Jamwal clan) from the British district of Kangra in the outer Himalaya.

^ Be this as it may. all Afghan and to and cling to the be 37th in Jewish legend. Prophet. themselves a Jewish one. do not belie the It is. however. by Europeans. the Afghans hold strongly by their Jewish origin. and half of Manasseh. the common descent. and their names. carried away to Central Asia by Tiglath-Pileser. Tate. and the legendary is ancestor one Kais.146 It has THE ARMIES OF INDIA been the fashion for all Afghans and that descent a that is Pathans for the last five hundred years to claim for to say. in Kais was said descent from Saul. the Children of Israel. . the chief of the descendants of a Jewish settlement in the Mountains of Ghor which this lie north-west of Kandahar. and The Afghan proper. Gadites. Abraham and the like. and which to visited day have never been To one Pathan of the three sons of Kais. and lived in the days of the There are settlements of professing Jews Bokhara who preserve what may be an original legend. that they are the descendants of Reubenites. call Durani themselves the Ben-i- Israel. clans. tribes trace their origin. Jacob and Joseph and Isaac and tale. pretty certain that a great many of the Pathan tribes do not belong to the real 1 The Kingdom of Afghanistan.

first Our venture brought us into touch with the Afghans of Afghanistan and the inde- pendent republican the Indus. or were allowed the privilege of doing so in return for faithful service. to restore the dethroned king. however. and the Sangarh passes. true blood. less Again. Shah Soojah. to the throne of his to fathers. the Gomal. however. dating from the days of . the Afghan connection with India. and graduallyassumed relationship with the Afghan confederacy. difficulties of livelihood. may be the pretensions of all the tribes claiming Afghan descent to be of the life. tribes between Afghanistan and of the Punjab brought Our annexation Previous to our border and our administration into close relation with them. the least homogeneity as a nation. therefore. this. and com- munity of religion. Kabul in 1838. or mingled and assumed relationship with older tribes. without. have perhaps left in their wake colonies that ejected. Whatever. the numberinto invasions that swept India by the Khyber. the fact remains that the mountain cold climate. the Tochi.THE MILITARY RACES OF INDIA Afghan stock. have produced peoples that resemble each other in their main attributes. as a British ally. but are 147 some Rajput tribes of the mountains who accepted Islam.

Their systematic enlistment dates from the early days of the Punjab Frontier Force.148 THE ARMIES OF INDIA Afghan rulers and adventurers. and inured to war. are these clansmen hills. claiming only the common Jewish. smouldering or active. at times finds vent in the moonlighting murder of the Emerald active. irre- sponsible sport. The clans or perhaps some more recent ancestor. have many subdivisions. courage when well led. mere Hardy. and capable of much in all exercise spirits. with knife and martini . and certain types of Englishmen appeal greatly to all them also. had brought many Afghans into the ranks of our irregular horse from the time of Lake and Wellesley onward. alert. and every clan and every Pathan are organized into sub-clan. To the best type of Englishman their open. Isle. The many entirely distinct clans. has a feud. but till it was not the Mutiny that tribes it was at all regularized. which at times breaks out into raids in force. by custom as . When in the British ranks blood feuds are closed. and almost every family. manner and delight their and with constant high appeal greatly. much as by his right- discipline and a man may be stalking in the hand man ranks. of the Afghan endued with considerable elan. and always kept up in some form.

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when an Afghan province . or between the administered . it is thought that the language it and the folk who a name to all originally spoke may have given who afterwards may have adopted it.THE MILITARY RACES OF INDIA rifle. or who had come within the Sikh provinces. Over the border 'tis border law. and the hand must keep the head. as the hard and soft dialects of the language are called. there are several wholly and some in part within the British line . faculties sharpened from the day he In addition to the clans beyond the administrative border. others whose hills have for one reason or another gradually come within the administration. those who already dwelt within the Peshawar Valley. some. so that the young tribesman has his natural is combatant weaned. All Pathans speak Pukhtu or Pushtu. 149 the moment furlough is open and they are across the border. Pukhtu is probably derived from the old Zend language written in the Persian character with many Arabic and Persian words. or Pakhtuns are the people who speak Pukhtu and since Herodotus speaks of the Pactydae who inhabited the Khyber. an eye for an eye and a tooth for a tooth. The Pathans . The Pathans who are enlisted in the Indian for the Army come most part either from within the British border.

A few. in east of the Indus in the Hazara what was viz.150 THE ARMIES OF INDIA border and the Afghan frontier. notably in the Guides and the Baluchistan itself. South of the Mohmands hills come the and Afridis. the Black Mountain. more accurately. and round the Malakand. The Afridis are probably a Rajput or at any rate an Aryan tribe. serving especially Between the Children of Joseph and the Khyber Pass. at times even paying no heed to their . and they make excellent in the Guides. or the They live within the Peshawar Valley. Their clans are many. and who are responsible for therefor. democratic. as well as in Buner. soldiers. for many years famous as a fighting-ground. 1 24th and 126th regiments. however. or the sons numerous of Joseph. in Swat. safety draw blackmail as many other highland clans before them in other lands. They are intensely repubhcan or. though they have been fitted out with an ancestry of the Jewish community of Ghor. and always are prepared to fight us. come from Afghanistan Great among the Pathan clans are the collection of the Yusufzai. who serve in our army. it. hills bordering on and in the mountains towards Chitral. They also dwell in the hills district. through whose the Khyber its itself passes. come the Mohmands and Utman Khel.

20th Brownlow's Funjabie. every 151 man a law unto himself. class. be Tirah. excel Several thousand are in our ranks. that on the are border. lads. and some of them. who also give us soldiers. in the valley Between the Afridi north of the Samana Range. of course. too. to be the in- especially among is so that it not _^Vcy^</* Subadar-Major. have a dis- It is European appearance. curious. serve in our as skirmishers. may still Kambar Khel (Alridl). credible that the traces of the Greek soldier visible. are the Orakzai clans. the tribal representatives. with close -cropped fair hair and blue tinctly eyes. Pathans of beautiful regular featm*es seen. . who came British service.THE MILITARY RACES OF INDIA counsels of elders. They army more than any other and are famous as good soldiers. usually wore in medals earned has less Jewish our The Afridi features than many of the Pathans. to discuss terms of peace. War (Tirah being the Afridi when they too had been drawn into the wave of fanaticism on the border. and. and during the Tirah hills).

They give us immense trouble. inhabited soldiers. Shiah tribe known as the the These only enlist into the local militia. them are the Bangash in Miranzai. but are thought to be of different origin. about whom and whose hiUs so much is heard . and make most courageous Closely allied to and reliable soldiers. especially but make remarkably fine when. from which comes another Avidely enlisted tribe. the Khattaks. as in the case of the Irish. they serve away from their own land. that they have lost some of the less-desirable characteristics of their wilder neighbours. They have now been within our borders so long. claim to the who also lay Afghan Jewish descent. South again of them. They lay claim to the usual Afghan descent. are the Khattak Hills. The foregoing are the main clans from and whom we take soldiery.152 THE ARMIES OF INDIA South again of the Afridi within our border. comes inhabited by a Kurram Valley. the Darwesh Khel. Farther down the border between the Kurram hills and Baluchistan comes the tumbled mass of known known by what are now as the Mahsud clans. up the road from Kohat into Afghanistan. beyond the Bangash. who speak the Pushtu. as Waziristan. but as such have obtained a considerable military reputation. partly Turis. and other Wazir clans.

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82Nb PUNJABIS AWAN {^Punjabi Musahnan) .

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and in the Baluch Horse. There are. and. especially the cavalry. the orthodox form of Islam. and others. obnoxious to the orthodox. His portrait shows a type of a specially fine class of men. from Zemindawar and Ghor. ordinary British subjects. the 21st Cavalry (Punjab Frontier Force). and as such. 153 The clans are all. always ready to support us so long as ourselves. and serve as in such regiments the 15th Cavalry (Cureton's Multanis). Alizai Section. and many of his family are serving or have served in the regiment. except in war with the unbeliever.THE MILITARY RACES OF INDIA from time to time. They are but have maintained their ancient valour. are Shiahs. The majority profess a most unenUghtened form of Sunni-ism. the Bangash. The great race of Afghanistan proper is the Duranis. but certain groups of clans. with the exception perhaps of the Afridis. intensely fanatical when stirred by the roU of the drum ecclesiastic. we are true to 20 . however. such as the Turis. and a few of them come to our ranks. head of the is honorary native commandant of the 15th. heretics. a considerable number of Duranis settled within British India near Multan and in the Derajat on the Indus. The Nawab AbduUa.

hills breed many and feed The Baluchis The Baluchis or Beloochis are a Muhammadan who entered hiU-race of probably Arab descent. for the few. to as Men India.154 THE ARMIES OF INDIA also Mention should be made of the Hazaras. except in so far as they come from Afghanistan. at a time when. indeed. the final extension of British rule to the Afghan border. who are are not Afghans. of Pathan descent are to be found aU over among the soldier settlers from old invasions. owing to trouble with the Amir. many of them had migrated to British territory. the 106th Hazara Pioneers. and who language India. the wild Afghan and Pathan clansmen have habitually sought their fortune in Hindustan. . as is Moguls conquered are enlisted India. and make splendid pioneers weU as extremely smart soldiers. They are a Tartar race and much the same people as the original Moguls and Tartar hordes who overran China and Europe. Until. was raised from them. and a few years ago. Their the old Persian of Afghanistan and in They the Baluchistan regiments. an entire regiment. They have for many years flocked to India work as navvies.

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Rajputs and Brahmans The Aryan great history of the is Hindu rehgion and the one with which all race in India are familiar. of the hills is The Baluch averse from military service except in local levies. How. but the broken tribe Baluch of the plains enlists freely. is They occupy a of what now called Baluchistan. the whole or almost the . but owing to the reluctance of the Baluch of hills to serve. In the they have distinct tribal organization hke the Pathans. How. down through the passes of Afghanistan to the plains of Hindustan.THE MILITARY RACES OF INDIA into their 155 present abode from Persia and portion hills. from the crucible of the human race in Central Asia. have but few companies of this race. known as Baluchi 129th. or migrated. the Aryan race overflowed. after many generations of war between the original inhabitants. back in the mist of ages. 130th Infantry are the The 127th. from the press of others. and regiments. the Persian Gulf. except Baluchis of broken that they acknowledge implicitly the authority of their tribes tribal chiefs. Many are scattered about the Indus Valley as tribal landowners and cultivators.

The Aryan invaders gradually common history. in the course of time. which spread lapse over the land and into to some centuries Thibet and China. only for back in India. of Aryan evolution. from being the followers leaders. merchants. Hinduism and Brahmanism. cultivators. The main story. centuries the Christian era. gradually called themselves Rajputs. a prince of or Buddha. all The Rajputs in the Punjab have been . increased far craft to bring beyond the power of their priestly them bread. named Gautama the reformed religion or rather philosophy as known Buddhism. so far as it is revealed to to us through the is many centuries that have elapsed. Rajputs and Brahmans are stiU to be found over India. and no doubt the clansmen of the princely of the rulers. and the Vaisiyas or traders.156 THE ARMIES OF INDIA How. broke up into three great divisions. and to the plains of the south and the west. too. the Brahman s or priestly class. The Kshattryas. or the sons The Brahmans soon . and the like. and took to cultivation classes spread over the length and all three and breadth of the land from Swat in the north to the hiUs on the fringe of the Himalaya. the Kshattryas or soldiers. a few before whole of India owned their sway. founded the blood.

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102nd king EDWARD'S GRENADIERS OWN lOlST GRENADIERS j^^^^ Punjabi Musalman .

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the Rajput centres to the edge of the Bikanir desert. in so far as recruiting is In India. then formed in what is now Rajputana. held their own to a the greater or less extent against the Musalman. however. however. the term Rajput usually under- stood to mean Rajputs of Rajputana and Delhi. The wave of Islamic and drove invasion. bearing the brunt of the invasion. Rajputs of for generations served as mercenaries in the many Muham- madan armies. and were finally admitted into alUance with of Mogul to agri- Empire. The Rajputana . The Rajput principalities. The Rajputs Oudh took culture. especially is concerned. broke these kingdoms. with Kanouj and Adjudya as the capitals. their tribal power broken.THE MILITARY RACES OF INDIA wave of Islamic 157 described already. and. and shall find and also in them far west in the Deccan. where. but remain Rajput. which is the name of a race and not of a religion. after desperate struggles they were compelled to accept the Prophet. We have seen that they are to be found as hills. and Rajputs of Oudh or Eastern Rajputs. the leading races in the Dogra Nepal. finally The chief centre of Rajput power came its to be in the country of the Ganges and tributaries. usually spoken of as Western Rajputs.

The few old regiments stiU enhst them.158 THE ARMIES OF INDIA their maintained feudal system and held aloof from of actual agriculture. which are to be found various parts of the country independent of religion. In fact there is no doubt that many of the aboriginal chiefs were endowed with Rajput ancestors exactly on the same principle as the Heralds' College will for find ancestors of renown parvenu families. The Rajputs are traditionally divided into three great branches. and lost their place in the army from class henceforth. Both military as classes traits. The three Rajput races are subdivided into thirty-six recognized and in so-called royal clans. the Lunar race. with many into the clans in . the Solar race. and has been carefuUy followed with far-reaching results. The Brahman race is roughly divided Gaur and Dravira divisions. The Rajput and Brahman of Oudh unfortunately formed the bulk of the army that mutinied. and the Agnicular or fire clans. and of late years the principle of and clan regiments has been extended to them. have those preserved many of their Rajputana beiog famous as horse soldiers and those of Oudh footmen. the latter being supposed to be Scythic clans admitted into the Rajput circle for political reasons.

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MAHRATTA INFANTRY IIOTH MAHSATTA Light Infantry 103RD Mahratta Light Infantry Subadar 116TH AND 114TH Mahrattas Konkani Mahrattas Dekkani Mahrattas .

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Rajput and Brahman in history and saga. 4th. The mihtary quahties of the Rajputs of Rajputana are famous The mihtary services of the Rajputs and Brahmans of Oudh in the service of the Company in the pre-Mutiny days are equally famous. corps have taken part in minor wars with distinction. 7th. The 2nd. 8th. 11th. the 13th are Rajputs of Rajputana regiments.THE MILITARY RACES OF INDIA each. . The 1st and 3rd Infantry enlist Brahmans only. Rajput companies and squadrons hoth Eastern and Western Rajputs. . Jats. Since the Mutiny. proud of the military history of The Jats and Gujabs The Jat imder or Jat race has already been referred to as one of the distinct races which are to be found different religious banners in different parts them who form the bulk of the Sikh commimity have been already of India. those of As discussed as well as those who range under the . being especially his forebears. infantry while several other enlist and cavalry. 169 The former are generally found north and the latter south of the Vindhya Mountains. The pride of race in both Rajput and Brahman is intense the former. especially the Rajput of Rajputana. and 16th regiments of infantry are Rajputs of Oudh and Delhi .

Originally. The failure of Lord Lake after repeated and costly assaults. and some of their were admitted to leaders the status of Rajputs. with a heavy battering. and of Rajpiitana. and in A Jat from Shekhawati. Getae or Jatii of history.train. except to say that they . Their history has in the . or "fire- born is The term Jat Hindu now universally accepted as referring to the Jat of Hindustan. and the success of Lord Combermere. it is believed. years is later. who twice besieged the Jat fortress of Bhurtpore.160 THE ARMIES OF INDIA The Jats. 1806 and 1826 they tried conclusions with the British.T:3^r^ >' loth Jats. they eventually joined the Brahmanical revival. crescent in the Punjab. were a Scythian race who from Bactria have entered India by way of Southern Afghanistan and Scinde. been already referred twenty to. embracing Buddhism. etc. has It not necessary to further describe them. and given Rajput genealogy as the Agnicular " race. past been that of a powerful warhke race. Rohtak. Delhi.

In the Punjab they event- ually adopted Islam. They have been soldiers. and to a great extent the 21 . long considered excellent horse late years class Jat regiments and of have been carefully recruited. while and squadrons. but had originally given their serpent worship for up Hinduism. Hindu Jats of Rajputana and Hindustan. As with other their enlistment has much improved military value. The Gujars are also a people found in the Punjab. in Kashmir. They colonized both banks of the Indus from district Scinde to the Hazara and spread to Gujarat. They have class of recent years been enlisted in certain com- They are largely pany regiments with success. scattered in tribal communities far and wide over India. graziers in modern times. regiments. 161 till who the land while the Rajput looks on. and Delhi. class or companies. who came into India slightly earlier than the Jats. in and largely and a Gujarat.THE MILITARY RACES OF INDIA are a fine sturdy race of cultivators. Rajputana. that many regiments take Jat companies The 14th Cavalry (Murray's Jat is Lancers) and the 6th and 10th Infantry are Jat class to say. List will show A reference to the Indian Army many other regiments with one or more Jat squadrons races. Scythian race They known are also believed to be to history as the Yuchi.

only the Mongolian tribes were taken. He is like the Hazaras. a comparatively small The inhabitants of Nepal consist part of Nepal. often applied to They are a powerful. The Gurkha The Gurkha differs very considerably in soldier of the Indian ways from the ordinary many Army. best known to the European world from seeing those of them who feed their flocks on the Kashmir hills. or conquered. The term Gurkha is now applied to the majority of the inhabitants of the kingdom of Nepal.162 THE ARMIES OF INDIA is term Gujar applied to grazing people irrespective is of their real race. and also the Mongolian races whom they supplanted old In the early days of the enUstment of Gurkhas. There are the Aryan and of varying races. Their . whom he closely resembles but for a difference in height. but in strict ethnography belongs to those races which formed part of the kingdom of Gurkha. and those chiefly from Central Nepal. also the inhabitant of an independent kingdom. strong-featured race. Rajput clans who spread to Nepal to fight for kingdom and barony in the days when the Aryan Rajput and Brahman races spread over Hindustan. just as Jat cultivator.

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and three local battalions were raised. As the demand for more men of Nepal increased.many clans. The principle of class and clan is here also strictly preserved and insisted on by the army authorities. The Gurkha . Kashmir Army. and the Kumaon battalions. and are. which is somewhat similar to Hindi and is derived from the Sanskrit. the Sir- moor. belonging to known tribes of as Limbos and Rais. viz. There are twenty battalions of Gurkhas in the service. more Buddhist than Hindu. Their language is Khas-fchura. of which there are . Their enlistment dates from the days of the Nepal War. The Khas Gurkhas go to They include one double - battalion regiment. the 9th. The principal tribes thus preferred were Magar and Gurung. they were. after which certain regiments took companies of them. recruits were taken from the tribes of Eastern Nepal. the Nasiri.THE MILITARY RACES OF INDIA 163 Hinduism was of the simplest. Then the Nepalese of Aryan stock claiming Rajput origin have now been Gurkhas. also Mongolian origin. in fact. as well as a few in the Guides and in the . enlisted under the general name of "Khas " what are known as the Khas tribes and the Thakurs. and. and Magars and Gurungs chiefly to the older regiments Limbos and Rais to the newer corps.

3rd. 6th. The 1st. and between him and forget their British troops who can Saxon awkrifle wardness. being applied to the inhabitants of the country known as Garhwal.164 THE ARMIES OF INDIA and wears in moderKilmarnock cap. the old Sirmoor battalion. and 9th Gurkhas are represented The Garhwali The term Garhwah is a geographical one. while the 2nd. come rain and last shine. in the plates. the universal soldier is clothed as a rifleman ate weather the old army forage-cap of the Crimean days. All are dressed in green. The services of the Gurkha soldier generally. in of the day memory when they and the 60th held the ex- posed flank of the Ridge before Delhi. who are probably chiefly to the Khasia an aboriginal race absorbed . and the Klias approaches more to the Aryan height. 2nd. The Magar and Gurung are short and powerful with a bulletshaped Mongohan head. wears the same uniform as the 60th rifles. which hangs under the buttress of the Himalaya its in the hills west of Nepal. against all comers from the first to the of the famous siege. Limbos and Rais are taller. the intense camaraderie existing between himself and his officer. 4th. The term in military sense applies race. are well known.

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124th duchess OF CONNAUGHT'S INFANTRY OWN BALUCHISTAN "The Quarter Quard" Lance Naik Khaftak Punjabi Musalman Hazara .

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Garhwalis. or country south of the river Narbudda. and gradually from Gurkha battalions. was among the last of the districts to which the early Aryan conquerors penetrated. The GarhwaU battalions are dressed in the well -known Gurkha style of rifle uniform with Kilmarnock cap. The 39th Bengal Infantry was finally made a class battalion of Garhwalis. Though not such soldiers by instinct as the Gurkha. they are a courageous hill-race who make active value. and later a second battalion was added. The Khasias demand. considerable reputation The advance of ethnological knowledge resulted in their being separated very properly eliminated from Gurkhas.THE MILITARY RACES OF INDIA to 165 some extent by custom and intermingling with the Aryan Rajputs. are practi- cally accorded. . but not so thickas the and muscular Gurkha. the status of Rajputs. and also certain purer Rajput immigrants. till of the tribes and races referred paratively recent years enlisted were comin as among the rank and file of ordinary Gurkha regiments. set and obedient soldiers of considerable fighting They are a small people. which they gained soldiers. Mahrattas The Deccan. and to.

This country was known as Maharashtra or Mahratta. and no doubt one of those mysterious absorptions of a newly conquered race did take place. the inhabitants of modern Maharashtra. of Hinduism. the " mountain rat. their seizure of the person of the great Mogul. as in the case of Scythian-descended agnicular Rajputs. The Mahrattas of to-day and of modem Indian history claim somewhat vaguely to be Rajputs. and its principal population was either the Aryans who had absorbed many only of the conquered tribes. a Mahratta of the Bhonsla family. The Mahrattas. are the land-owning class of the viz. to overthrow the power of the Muhammadans and This r&le as the champions Hindu Raj. Deccan proper. their defeat and slaughter by the . them to some The history of the successes of Sivaji." in his struggles against the power of Islam. They first came into fame in the struggle made by restore a Sivaji. or the original tribes tempered with a leaven of Brahmanism. the high plateau and the seaboard of western India. to this day attaches to extent.166 THE ARMIES OF INDIA the forests of the The Vindhya Mountains and Deccan long harboured fabulous aboriginal tribes who were overcome only after years of difficult advance and struggle. the growth of the Mahratta power and confederacy.

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126th NAPIER'S RIFLES Sueadae-Majoe Jat of Jaipur Havildar Punjaii Musalmans .

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near the " Black are all is 167 Mango tree " at Paniput. while several others have class companies and squadrons. 116th. into Dekhani and Konkhani. The Mahrattas have a reputation for great wiriness and endurance. the of the seaboard. in modern parlance. each enlisting companies of Mahrattas and only two comMarathi is is panies of other classes. rule over feudatory States.THE MILITARY RACES OF INDIA Afghans. famous in the history of India. Mahratta Brahmans who have dwelt Maharasthra. the latter the inhabitants former from the upland plateau east of the great mountains of the Ghats. an offshoot from the Sanskrit. In the days of the Mahratta Confederacy they wielded much of the power in the Brahmans are merely in . Several of the famous Mahratta still chiefs of the old confederacy. and of the Deccan spoken by many people who are not Mahrattas. credit They have long served with and distinction in the Bombay Army. and several class regiments exist. Well known their aUies. however. 110th. to also the long series of wars which they insisted on waging against the British and their undoing. The six 103rd. 105th. llith. The Mahrattas are divided. and 117th Infantry are Mahratta regiments. and have for many centuries an extreme reputation for ability and developed intrigue.

or Saiyid. are members of the Koreish tribe to which the Prophet belonged. such as the Muhammadan Rajputs. the . various offices of state. daughter of the Prophet. both those to Islam from who have been among the races of India. Muhammadans who claim to be of these races are therefore enlisted if more they come of land-owning and cultivating stock than for any purely race claim. Converts of low however. Pathan length.168 THE ARMIES OF INDIA alive. a lost position to which no doubt they are keenly The Muhammadans of India Reference has already been made in previous chapters. races. to and in the foregoing notes on various the different classes of Muhammadans converted within India. and Mogul are recognizable . of course. Sheikh. as descendants of conquering races Saiyids or elders are properly the descendants of Fatima. have constantly claimed to belong to one of these races. Mogul. The Musalat man races of the Punjab have been described Throughout India are to be found those who claim foreign descent and who are putatively either Pathan. while. and those who have entered India and settled there various in the train of the Muhammadan conquerors. whUe Sheikhs caste.

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127th queen MARY'S OWN BALUCH LIGHT INFANTRY Brahni Baluchfrom Dera Ghazi Khan Punjabi Musalman Subadar-Major Baluch of Khelat .

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Most of the experi22 . such as the Rangars from the neighbourhood of Delhi. tinguished the irregular The 5th Eastern Light Infantry and the 17th and 18th Infantry are class regiments of Musalmans of the and Hindustan. etc. who are such. Delhi. The Mogul settlers. many Punjab of Rajput descent. 1 to 8 have one or more squadrons The Military Races Constant of the Carnatic references have been made in the preceding chapters to the services of the Coast Army —the Army of the Madras Presidency —and for the various recruiting experiments that have been resorted to. and Hindustan. to obtain satisfactory recruits fit modem conditions of war. "Muhammadans of Rajputana. viz. are freely enlisted. and the 1st Skinner's Horse is entirely composed of Muhammadans of the Eastern Punjab. more in accordance with the province racial they reside in than with as distinction." descendants of Pathan and clearly recognizable as soldiers.THE MILITARY RACES OF INDIA Muhammadan Rajput They are all 169 tribes. taken into class companies and squadrons. while all the Indian cavalry regiments from of this class. make splendid cavalry most dis- and in in the past have been cavalry.

who had that definitely natural attachment of the British officer for the classes and men they have so long led. The Madras Army had for some years been divided into two portions decide on the in the minds of the authorities.170 THE ARMIES OF INDIA special races. were alone to enlist men of . and the other the ordinary Tamil and Madrasi Musalman corps. The of the three armies into one Line enabled the authorities to proceed with the question purely its on merits as part of one general policy. in one the sapper and miner and pioneer corps. It was possible to resist the feelings and sentiment of the older officers of the Madras Army. The two former classes of corps had long enlisted men of the artizan classes ready to go anywhere. with about half a squadron in each of the three Light Cavalry regiments. with the three pioneer corps and the corps of sappers and miners. have been abandoned. They had been famous for useful semi-miUtary service in many parts. such as ments with men of the Coorg race the recasting hUls and that strange Arab -descended Moplahs. and turn their hands to anything. and number of regiments to be recruited from the Madras Presidency. to be restricted to eight. and were eminently desirable. eat anything. The actual number of Line battahons was and these. viz.

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2nd king EDWARD'S OWN GURKHA' RIFLES (THE SIRMOOR RIFLES) S UB AD AR.Major Gurung Gurkha King Edward's last Indian Orderly Officer .

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An outcaste race. but only to a small extent. as elsewhere. The Muhammadans who coming as a rule enUst in the cavalry are probably nearer to the Pathan than anything else. especially in the pioneers and sappers. though at one time serving in considerable numbers. Sheikh. and have many useful qualities. have long been enlisted. Mogul. The Tamils and other Hindus are of the Dravidian races who were only affected by the Aryan invasion many centuries after the rest of India. 171 The reduction of the demand on recruit- ing centres has naturally enabled corps to raise their physical and mental standard for recruits. Pathan. of the converted races and those who claim have always tried foreign descent. converts to claim affinity. the Parraiyans or Pariahs. the Telinga or Telegus. or Saiyid. The military races of Madras consist of the Tamils and the Muhammadans. To these. as in other parts of India. and to a small extent in aU corps. The Muhammadans consist. One large caste. from Vellore.THE MILITARY RACES OF INDIA Madras. Brahman and Rajput blood and influence have to some extent affected them as it did aU the original races that the Aryans met. are now no longer enlisted. into many classes The Tamils are divided and castes. round which most of the descendants of Hyder .

. and stand well under arms. foreign critics have been known to say that it was not till they got to Madras that they saw regular native soldiers.172 THE ARMIES OF INDIA be found. 2 companies Pariahs. The eight Camatic battaUons of the Line enlist 4 companies Muhammadans. All's following are to Hyder All him- self was of the foreign-adventurer breed. The miUtary soldiers qualities. of Madras have many inherent They shoot well. 2 companies Tamils. and so far as this part of their professional requirement goes. drill well.

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4th GURKHA RIFLES Action" Magar and Gurung Gurkhas "A Rear-Guard .

<:^ ^ (^ iZ .

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yclept commands. similarly with the resulting of numbered units already described. the three presidential armies still retained their old multiplication numbers. The Empire had just been through a war on a large Russia and Japan were at war.CHAPTER THE INDIAN ARMY VI IN 1911 In Chapter IV. the whole army stood in four subordinate armies. one's minds. imder the one Commander-in-Chief The regiments of and clans as recognized to-day. with the gradual evolution of the carefully calculated modem system of enlist- ment. the reconstruction after the great Mutiny was traced. and war and scale. 173 . the various military castes W"hen Lord Kitchener came to India. the dangers of unpractical or complicated organization. and in Chapter V. were uppermost in every- Armies must either be organized for the immediate business of war or must be abohshed. or the lack of it.

Army of Madras.174 THE ARMIES OF INDIA in So the many changes that this spirit was working in the Empire. The regiments of the Bengal Army that therefore headed the Line. old names and old went forth that the old armies were to be renumbered on one roster. though not the then the old Coast oldest. numbering as the fij-st Thus the left numbering of the Bengal Force stopped at 59. the opportunity was taken to give to corps titles connecting officers them with the who had some raised them. Army and the Frontier The number 60 was . or with their early history. To minimize the blow. or suitable title of a similar nature. both Cavalry and Infantry. there was enough driving force to overcome the valuable though at times attachment to dangerous principles. and lastly. followed by the Punjab Frontier Force. the famous faithful old Army of Bombay. is to say. then the Hyderabad Contingent. corps that were originally one to stiU have the figure one its among their number. should stand first on the roster. enable corps to keep their To own digits. each army began of a series. and that the Bengal fiat The Army. and to bear testimony to the fact that the authorities were not hopelessly blind to the value of military sentiment.

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€th GURKHA RIFLES .

A) "^ Qd^C .

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The Frontier Force was and the 1st Sikhs partly accounted for in a similar way. and the old 1st IN 1911 175 Madras Infantry became the 61st. 43rd. was taken to bring into the vacant numbers one or two corps that had been recently raised. and put into the separate Gurkha Line. became Sikhs (Frontier Force). The Punjab trace of their Infantry of the Frontier Force and the Hyderabad regiments had to lose even this much older numbers. The Madras . Occasion. Those numbers that had been vacant owing to the disbanding of corps after the Afghan wars were left vacant so as not to disturb the digit of those corps following it. while the 42nd. however. and 44th Light Infantry Gurkhas who had been localized in Assam were ing. but the Frontier Force Cavalry were enabled to take up the numbers from 21 onwards. and the old 1st Bombay Grenadiers became the 101st Grenadiers. Shortly after this the 9th Bengal Infantry (Khas Gurkhas) were removed from the general Line. as the 9th Gurkhas.THE INDIAN ARMY vacant. also brought into the Gurkha number- and their place in the Line taken by certain special irregular battalions that had existed old 10th as local corps in Central India. the numbers 49 and 50 being the 51st left vacant.

These with the Guides Cavalry. the troop. mounted on Government horses as are the British Cavalry. that is to say. and 28th are Light Cavalry. or composed of loyal remnants. The two regiments of the Central India Horse. They are the only survivals of the Light Cavalry of the pre -Mutiny days. famous relic of the numerous irregular horse that the suppression of the Mutiny called forth in Central India. : Infantry. an independent squadron in the Deoli and Erinpura Irregular corps. received the numbers 38 and 39. reduced after the Afghan War. except that the number of the old 4th Punjab Cavalry of the Frontier Force. Aden and the three Bodyguard corps form the regular cavalry of India. silver French grey and . and are non-Silladar. result of this The renumbering was as follows The Cavalry First the Cavalry of the Line received their present numbering from 1 to 39. Only " " three of the cavalry regiments are class corps. troopers. changed in 1890 to a finally became the 1 0th Gurkhas. 27th. has been left vacant and there is no 24. The 26th. and still wear the of the older times.— 176 THE ARMIES OF INDIA Gurkha battaUon. without break. They are.

various regiments im- A Kajput f rom iHiasar. of Multani races. The men of these regiments depict one or other of these classes. Dogras. possible to speak here suffice it to say that they are numerous and of the corps varied. Of the exploits of the it is . Hindustani. various plates of the Jats. of which the principal divisions are Sikhs. 17th Infantry (The Loyal Eegiment). of Jats and the 15th Cureton's Multanis. Punjab. Pathans and kindred neighbouring the regiments consist The remainder of of class squadrons. the 14th Murray's Jat Lancers. composed entirely of Hindustan and the Southern entirely entirely of Muhammadans . or Dekhani Muhammadans. The more and of cavalry generally comes wealthy from the cultivating land -owning members the classes described. Punjabi. IN 1911 177 the 1st Skinner's Horse. Pathans.THE INDIAN ARMY viz. but that the fact that many 23 date from the Mutiny accounts . show the distinctive features and methods and clearly of wearing the lungi (headdress) of each soldier race. and Rajputs.

last Its later services have been in the Afghan War. having been the second of two by Colonel James Skinner." in It practically came over to the British 1803 from the remnant of the After De Boigne-trained Mahratta Army. long affectionately known to his friends in the army Old Sekunder. and later numbered as the 2nd Irregulars while the 3rd are also . and the battle honours of each corps. the previous history. while the 2nd served in the First Burmese War and both the Sikh wars. and the relief of Pekin in 1900. the fancy of " Old Sekunder. marched to pre- Kandahar in the First Afghan War. formerly the old 1st Irregulars. the imiform." In the Skinner Church at Delhi is a stone on which is Risalahs raised . having viously taken part in the storming and capture of Bhurtpore. The 1st is noted for its uniform of bright canary. The Indian Army List details the class composition. having been raised in 1809. was raised as " by the famous half-breed James Skinner. referred to as typical. The 2nd Gardner's Horse has a history nearly as old. A few may perhaps be The 1st of the post-Mutiny Line. much service in the pacifiit cation of India in the early days. Skinner's Horse. The 3rd took part also in the First Afghan War.178 for THE AKMIES OF INDIA the shorter tally of fame of some.

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9th GURKHA A RIFLES Khas Gurkha .

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Among many incidents might be re- called the charge of the 25th Cavalry. which is border law." to the accomplished and equally dashing modern trooper. Vousden . in the the repeated charges in Swat in tunities for Afghan War. Of late years. were oppor- service rendered full. the hopeless. and the 13th led by Atkinson. all '97. when another Battye fulfilled his weird.THE INDIAN ARMY recorded the corps. fame. since their formation. from the days of the staunch old native officer who knew no more drill than the principle of the attack contained in " Draaw swaards and HuUa. the 11th in Swat in 1897. IN 1911 179 name of all the commandants of the is The Mutiny record of most of the corps more than distinguished. to other corps. have spent a life of raid and counter-raid on the border : an eye always for an eye and a tooth for a tooth. have given evidence is of the dash that inherent in this branch of the Service. Their charge at Fattehabad. and honour gained that were seized to the The cavalry of the Frontier Force. opportunity Sirkar's The Guides perhaps have found to enhance their own and the more than has been vouchsafed No opportunity was ever wasted. in a timely charge over extremely bad ground at a critical moment at Shabkadr. dogged defence of last the "Residency at Kabul.

when newly raised. When we come to the three Light Cavalry regiments. of are borne by the British mountain which there are eight. artillery of to - day consists of twelve mountain batteries numbered from 21 to The lower numbers batteries. have a long record. the cavalry of the Bombay Army. 27th. Two out of the cavalry regiments of the old Hyderabad Contingent served in the burning Central India The 31st to the 37th. 25 and 26 are of older origin. of which Campaign. The Indian Artillery The Indian 32. being the only of the native artillery of the Company's army. from Sholinghur and the Carnatic wars to Seringapatam and Mahidpore. and 28thj we touch the very origin of Indian military history so far as the British are concerned. The first four Indian batteries are the old light field batteries and mountain trains of the Frontier Force relic . at the King's Afghan War. and then on through the last century. with vacant numbers to spare for any possible increase. the 26th. sharing in the famous stand against the Peshwa's hordes at Corygaum. are the most notable. in the leading.180 THE ARMIES OF INDIA Garden near Sherpore. perhaps the 33rd charging the Persian squares at Kooshab in 1857. and the 34th. .

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B.S.I. K. Hon.C.C.H. MAHARAJA Hon.. BAHADUR G. Aide-de-Camp to His Majesty Commandant Imperial Cadet Corps .H. Major-General SIR PRATAP SINGH .

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latter 27 and 28 having been raised at the time of the Third Burmese ing of 1 War. specially selected The gunners assembling and are their height and strength. the 25th at Maizar in Waziristan. gained more than average distinction. origin. the 22nd in the Kurram and on the Samana. been famous for mountaineering The services of this branch of the artillery are more than notable. On the frontier one more artillery corps exists. and familiarly the " Blokes " (owing to its being formed of veterans from the mountain batteries past their prime on . Mountain peculiar to a special is arm India so far as our army its concerned. IN 1911 181 formerly numbers 1 and 2 companies of Bombay The remainder are of more recent numberAll the Punjabis. and 24th batteries in the last Afghan War. with the batteries original and 2 Bengal mountain mountain half batteries. and the 28th at the Malakand and in Bajour in the '97-'98 frontier campaigns. formerly known as the Punjab Garrison Battery.THE INDIAN ARMY Golandaz. The 21st. the being almost entirely Sikhs. 22nd. and has long capacity. dis- with a view to the rapid mantUng of the guns from artillery is practically off and on to the backs of the powerful mules that carry them. Indian half consist of Muhammadan and for Hindu.

The heavy have gunners and native drivers. striking a In the mountain . artillery alone that British in the and Indian personnel serve together. which are India. mountain batteries have long been Those in and have acquired a high reputation. and the two races do succeed in happy modus vivendi. is what mountain but the men It promise is to be as good at the one as the other. The drivers of the established. These men classes of the are enhsted from the usual fighting few come from Punjab. Driving powerful " Waler " horses is quite different columns are work from leading mules. A plate shows In addition to these mountain batteries. Their name describes their the mountaineer gunner.men.182 THE ARMIES OF INDIA hillside). while the fully horsed in ammunition columns. r61e. which artillery driving consists of. The British all mountain British batteries have British gunners and batteries similarly native drivers. the heavy batteries and ammunition a comparatively new experiment. have native drivers and as native gunners waggon . the now the Frontier Garrison Artillery. reference must be made portion to the Indian soldiers serving as a of the European batteries of artillery. The horse and field batteries have a few native drivers. A Hindustan.

so as the men are concerned. Own Sappers and Miners are the old Bengal Sappers and Miners. several and consist tively consecu- numbered companies into grouped three corps. Subadar. which corps are the lawful successors without break of the corps three famous engineer Presi62nd FunjabiB. and a special sections. therefore.THE INDIAN ARMY batteries IN 1911 183 many of the drivers are old soldiers with several campaigns to their credit. aU of Indian. Punjabi Muhammadans. which is a fair token of camaraderie. six service companies They enlist Pathans. of the three dencies. The 1st Prince of Wales' A Dhund from Kawal Pindi. The Engineers The rank and not come missioned to file of the Royal Engineers do for to India save a few non-com- officers attached sapper companies. The far engineer services are. and consist of and various attached Sikhs. . Atkins is wont to borrow their bemedalled tunics to be photo- graphed in.

com- mencing from the fight at Beni-Boo-Ali in 1823 on the shores of the Persian Gulf. and Muhammadans also is aU drawn on. The 3rd Sappers and Miners are the old Bombay Sappers and Miners. The British officers of the Sapper Corps are. Royal Engineers. The remainder enUst sections Madrasis. of course. Several to this special are attached corps. even more complete than that of the and commences from a far earlier date. Four divisional signal companies have been added recently to the army with the object of . The 2nd Queen's Own Sappers and Miners are the old Madras Sappers and Miners. Their war record 1st. and Mahrattas.'s from the corps for special duties. Rajputs. with a few N. Their record varied and distinguished. with headquarters at Bangalore. are very varied. is The class composition of the companies Sikhs.C. few Hindustanis of various Their battle honours include every campaign of any importance since the storming of Bhurtpore.O. consisting of six service companies and a fortress company with certain special sections. and consist also of six service companies.184 THE ARMIES OF INDIA classes. with one company locahzed in Burma also is and enlisting Burmese.

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C. Hon. Aide-de-Camp to His Majesty Commandant Bikaner Ganga Risala .C.I. Colonel H. BAHADUR OF BIKANER G..Hon. K.S.I. MAHARAJA SIR GANGA SINGH.E.H.

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of Which three enlist Mazbi Sikhs. the 39th Garhwal Rifles. 24 . Pathan. numbered 1 to 10 total number of battalions of Indian Infantry The infantry. IN 1911 of 185 signal services in the a division division) field. as has been explained. that 117 battalions remain. in which the classes are some variation of Muhammadan. That is to say. and the infantry of the Guides. of which 14 numbers are vacant. or Dogra.— THE INDIAN ARMY managing all the (one company per companies units.Line and the Gurkha Line. These have also been formed as engineer and their personnel. 9 Sikh battalions. are classed and rated for the time being as Sappers. The follows : constitution of class them under the has careful as system of recruiting now resulted 41 class-company Punjabi battalions. is 138. though drawn from the army at large. in — . and one. The Infantry is numbered two separate lines the ordinary. Sikh. The Line itself consists of battalions numbered from 1 to 130. In the Gurkha Line there are ten twothus the battalion regiments. is a double-battalion corps.

. being grouped by brigades into organization of the Empire divisions.186 THE ARMIES OF INDIA 3 Dogra battalions. India alone of the British Empire has pioneer corps. but also trained as infantry. are combined into formations of the Imperial war organization. and equipped to that end. 28 class-company battalions. with the British troops forming part of the garrison. 6 Mahratta battalions. and three exclusively from the Punjab and the transfrontier. is The war brigade divisions by strong threewith brigades of mounted troops. Of these battalions. I two-battalion regiment of Garhwalis. I battalion of Afghan Hazaras. The foregoing describes the fighting troops of the Indian Army. 2 Jat (Hindu) battalions. exclusively Mahrattas save for two companies of Dekhani Muhammadans each. of which three are from outside the Punjab. 6 purely Muhammadan battalions. II battalions recruited from the classes of the Camatic. 2 Brahman class battalions. which. of which the classes are not exclusively from the Punjab. since India alone expects campaigns by way of goat -tracks and mountain watercourses. 7 battalions of Hindu Rajputs from outside the Punjab. 12 are pioneers with special in training road and rail making and rough engineering work. 20 battalions of Gurkhas.

This Indian Army of British is Indian regiments and batteries able to furnish nine war divisions and several cavalry brigades. as units that take the the same formation as they stand in peace time. after furnishing the internal garrisons civil for the support of peace and order and the power. administrative troops are an essential component.THE INDIAN ARMY and the Empire has discarding thoughts of IN 1911 187 practically copied India in army corps. with certain exceptions as regards field in Transport Corps. though a the pity of it. themselves war formations. None That of these are in to say. and the Supply and Transport Corps. more outwardly The administrative troops of India are principally the Indian Subordinate Medical Service. and masses of battalions and regiments and batteries do not make an army. the Army Bearer Corps. they is do not exist. the Army Hospital Corps. as do . column of bakers' of war. carts does file A may quarter not convey the pomp make of ambulances suggest yet these are the services that men with muskets into an army. and should not tally for their be forgotten in the effective comrades. But since an army crawls on its belly. and preferring and to find the force required by the grouping of strong divisions. or even divisions of it.

a pool from which war units are mobilized. as a result of the energy and movement of the West. and from these classes alone do good bearers come. and even traverse it. who form the pageant of the East. by profession. bearer corps are enlisted from that class. rather. who are hereditary bearers and India for ever has been a land without roads. is decreasing the men who are. corps which form. Brides and bridegrooms. the ambu- The Supply and Transport Corps The men of the by caste mobilizes the various supply units that accompany a force in the field. Therefore has a caste of hereditary carriers existed Special thews and sinews its the weight and bear pressure have developed. bearers. and purdah ladies. we know the oflF when trunk roads and railways the majority of the villages are the road along tracks. have ever been from time immemorial. those classes practice. as term. as were. for instance. whence come the Hindu Kahars. and corpulent folk in general. The Army Bearer for Corps. The change of life that is so rapidly coming over the East. supplies the bearers also for regimental field ambulance carriage and lances. to lift carried. especially in Oudh. There is a question connected with bearers which .188 THE ARMIES OF INDIA They exist as it the fighting troops of an army. who are the best. or.

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ALWAR LANCERS Commandant Ckohan Rajput .

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however. contain this class. and from him soldiers Hindu wiU take food and water. almost all is The Kahar of Oudh. The devotion of good bearers to the wounded they carry has often been borne testimony to. therefore. The rules of caste being specially strict where food and drink are concerned.THE INDIAN ARMY illustrates IN 1911 189 one of the difficulties of organization in India. varieties of camel corps which are They are the Silladar Corps and the . the wounded Hindu will starve or die rather than take food or water from an unfit man. or men of the classes lesser clans from the Mules and camels being njore bred and used in the Punjab than elsewhere. an hereditary servant. as and some extent permanent war many corps. Efficient bearer corps should. are mobil- from reserve and registered animals. for. fighting men have to be taken from the ranks to tend Hindu soldiers in hospital. but ized are of several kinds. of course. There are two interesting. if chance bearers are entertained in war- time. either from smaller-sized enlisted in the regiments. it is but natural to enlist from the classes used to them. apart from their physical incapacity to carry the dandies. and castes. The majority of the transport personnel comes from the Punjab. The Transport Corps these do exist to formations.

Grantee Camel Corps are furnished by men who have received grants of land on the new canal lands in the Punjab on condition of producing certain camels whenever required. Jat. long-haired rogues. is. — of the sand and karoo-like plains between the Ravi. the Jhelum. The Camel Corps men come from the Muhammadan tribes — Baluch. etc. Camel Corps are raised silladar somewhat on the same cavalry. of irrigation off the land. driving the camel from The camel -owners are wild. They are called up by and at work at times during the year. . principle as the Camel-owners are paid a sum down to serve with their own camels. pic- turesque.190 THE ARMIES OF INDIA Silladar Grantee Corps. and the Indus. almost as weird as their camels. other times are doing their own work at their homes on unemployed pay. an employed and an unemployed troops for rate. the Chenab. The march however. The troops of the camel corps have two rates of pay. They are embodied for a short period each year.

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• .JODHPUR SARDA^ RISALA Ratore Rajfut .

C-1.*V£TT . r "> m ^.c^^ PlJK Cpy^-^^v r^ > ^.

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is almost as large as the portion that chiefs are is The Indian feudatory their territories many.CHAPTER It VII THE ARMIES OF THE NATIVE STATES is often forgotten that the portion of British is India that not under direct rule is. and did not coalitions to allies. and the extent of cases very considerable. Native States that occupied themselves with their own affairs. in accord- ance with treaties and sanads granted or entered on during the course of the treaty obligations. in some The nature of their tenure varies in almost every case. but in every case those circumstances seemed at the time to have been forced on us. engage in the numerous intrigues and favoured expel the foreigner. are stiU our trusted as now and unmolested 191 as when we first . rise of our power . it has ever been our policy to adhere rigidly to our Circumstances at times have caused us to go back on them.

in the service Scindia. and compelled to get rid of his French allies as the price of protection. while Golab Singh of Jammu and Kashmir organized many lines. of De Boigne. French. corps on the same . the Savoyard. Nizam of Hyderabad is a case in point.— 192 THE ARMIES OF INDIA The more entered into relations with them. Maharaja of Gwalior State. . had large armies organized to some extent on European lines. the Maharaja of the Punjab. had a the Nizam's service regular establishment and cadet service like the Company's organized. Uttle dreaming of the extent to which our rule would extend. had a similar service. Enghsh. often led the armies of their respective masters into action against each other. and American training and officers some adventurers. Since those days the relations between his State and the sovereign power have remained practically unchanged. It is than a century ago since the Nizam was guaranteed protection from the Mahrattas and other encroach- ing neighbours. as well as the Feudatory States. was similarly Later Ranjit Singh. others deputed commanding these State officers —were They armies. Italian. Scindia's and the Nizam's services were organized on lines resembling our own. At the end of the 18th century the independent States.

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BIKANER GANGA RISALA Ratore Rajput .

(3] Kh Ayefc C/] }v6-^ j^ ^^(JC) . I .

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the irresistible force of the trained British sepoy. their services were freely given. Jind and Patiala and Nabha. and as such were naturally dear to them. or assigned the British to pay for them. however. especially those of the Cis Sutlej States. 25 . In the Mutiny some of the troops of the native States were able to render excellent service. for their discipline state. was never as a rule in a satisfactory They. represented the outward and visible sign of power and dominion to the rulers. They even preserve the dress of the early Victorian period. as much for the unneces- sary drain on the resources of the States as for their possible danger in the event of disturbance. and were only districts to a portion of the State forces in so far as the State concerned paid for them. too. armies preserve some trace of the days To this day the when State their armies were organized on European Unes to enable them to oppose. if necessary. in keeping the road open from the Punjab to Delhi.THE ARMIES OF THE NATIVE STATES i 193 The by armies of these States were entirely separate officered from the various contingents which were officers of the Company's Army. The large armies that some of the States maintained. were at one time a source of anxiety to the supreme government. In Rajputana.

and. A Kabtor Bajput of Bikaner. in the case of many. as to if Now and discussion not before. if any. and to the larger the terror of the north was never absent. had been argued that they owed some assistance to the government that gave them peace. of native States towards the expense of protection under they flourished.194 THE ARMIES OF INDIA again since the Mutiny. To the smaller States the Mahratta pretensions and power were always a menace and a nightmare. a protection from outside that It . flavildar. fair had taken place the It is what was a which contribution. great invasions from the north had ceased to flow across the Indus to loot and to slay. not a century and a half since the Sadul Light Infantiy.

The offer was . impressed on the rulers of the States how necessary was that they should stand in with the supreme government in some of the burden of military preparation. so strongly brought home it to all in India after the Penjdeh incident. is therefore. however. was well to let things develop by themselves. 1885 saw half the army in India on the move to the Bolan. of Hyderabad offered a large sum from revenues to Government in aid of the war and spontaneous example was promptly followed by others. From. did not feel that a contribution to the war patriotic His chest was so desirable as an entry into some share of empire by the maintenance of a portion of the troops required for defence.THE ARMIES OF THE NATIVE STATES they had never 195 slow- known before. The Nizam his chest. The dangers of a large war. some portion fit of the troops in each State should be trained and improved so as to be field to take their place in the alongside the Indian Line. In' the it progress of evolution that was going on. gested that. in lieu Government sugof money offers. sprang what now known as the Imperial Service Troops. the Penjdeh incident and the patriotic offers of the Feudatory States. Government. and immense sums were spent in preparing for a war that seemed inevitable. however.

These troops are in the same relation to their rulers as the older and less-organized corps from which they were formed. and there had already from time time been proposals put forward for some of the State troops. them The States are grouped into circles for this purpose. to advise the official terms for the State governments) on military matters connected with the troops.196 THE ARMIES OF INDIA to very eagerly accepted. and visits each State in turn. . The result of this movement has been that almost every State of any size has contributed a force. They are deputed to assist in the training of the troops. and to see that they generally do attain that standard of efficiency that will justify the authorities in accepting as part of the recognized contingent. and lent officers to train organizing the troops. The Government offered up-to-date arms. and an inspecting officer with assistants presides over each. An officer was appointed assistant in- Inspector-General of Imperial Service Troops. with a staff of inspecting officers and specting officers. who are in no way the servants Durbars (the of the States. The service of and inspecting has been for many years thoroughly organized. a force training From the first beginnings has risen of many thousand men.

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alman .MYSORE TRANSPORT CORPS Musalman MYSORE LANCERS Madrasi Mus.

i/Sot' .

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or practically with. since their troops could not share. siderable share in the earliest days of their . The defence of Chitral was largely carried out by the Kashmir troops while in the Hunza Nagar campaign they bore a conhave constantly been engaged with border. The Rehef of Chitral. and on her amount of frontier service. the best class of sirdar into touch with the best class of British officer. the campaign across the Swat river. from that obtaining Her tribes troops therefore garrison her own frontier districts. in Somaliland. In the South African War. The in that State of Kashmir enjoys a pecuhar position it not only marches with the outer boundary. a part of the Russian frontier. China. result of this experiment has 197 been a happy has brought In addition to providing a satisfactory career it for the feudal gentry of the States. a war or threat of war. the Mohmand Expedition. have aU been shared with State troops. horses and equipment in charge of State personnel were freely sent. The States are lavish in their offer of troops for service whenever there is The Imperial Service many operations since Troops have been engaged 1895. but with. and have seen a very considerable . Tirah. which is an entirely different condition in other States.THE ARMIES OF THE NATIVE STATES The one.

ceremonial The various States. took part in the trained and weU-equipped Tirah Expedition of 1897-98. therefore. own officered by British In most parts of India these contingents were not recruited actuated from the population of the State whose troops they titularly were. have in most cases considerably reduced their numbers to meet the extra cost of the Imperial Service Corps. The upkeep of highly troops costs which and for more than the older units they replaced. it The pro- contingents. several who staunchly maintained the British authority in every way in their power. should be remembered. however. One. but were largely drawn from what had become so universal a . by treaty for their officers. rulers. organization on Kashmir alone has Imperial Service Artillery. It will be remembered how. in the days of the Mutiny. were themselves betrayed by the action either of their contingents or of their other troops.198 THE ARMIES OF INDIA modern lines. two mountain batteries being organized principally for the defence of the Gilgit frontier. They were not by personal loyalty to their chief. were bodies of troops maintained tection. while retaining what are styled their regular troops. fifty years had purely existed for guard purposes.

In many States the rulers themselves command their own corps. The leading ease is that of ground. and the feudal spirit and system does really exist. notably in Kashmir. An Imperial Service and also a regular battalion in Kashmir enlist a large number of the men of Nepal. where has been the custom.Chief of A one of his own Imperial Service Corps. It is no uncommon . The loyalty his of Scindia was beyond dispute and his actions were unequivocal. so be expected to follow else. Oudh and Behar. but mercenary troops and the It has contingent followed the prevailing wind. that they may his lead and that of no one Certain exceptions are allowed it to this rule. a Rajput of famous race. as the Colonel-in. or appoint their sons and relatives to do so.THE ARMIES OF THE NATIVE STATES recruiting - 199 They followed the example of the Bengal Army. and not of their ruler. far older than our days. so that these troops are Royal Troops in the old-fashioned sense of the word. for Gurkhas to serve in considerable numbers in that State. was one of the elite The Gwalior Contingent forces in India. the famous Gwalior Contingent as well as the other troops of Scindia. plate shows the Maharaja of Bikaner. viz. therefore been decreed that the Imperial Service Troops shall be subjects of the ruler they serve.

the Ughtning battery are common terms. and at a review in some State capital one is able to step back a couple of generations. The corps of a State army bear names reminiscent of the names in the days of the Mogul forces. and yet nothing betrays more clearly the strength of purpose behind . For manoeuvre and service the dress of course the regulation khaki and plain accoutrements of India. It has taken years to inculcate the principle in all armies. modern -armed troops of the Imperial Service. and the Imperial Service cavalry are often superbly dressed. especially the full dress. with a dash that they thing to see the chiefs lead their troops in review past are equally prepared to maintain in the field. especially the is officers. have the arms and equipment and often the clothing of the early Victorian or Georgian period. which stand on parade as stand the troops of the Indian Army. the battahon of victory. as distinct from the Imperial Service. The regiment of the sun. The imiforms. the war dress must be simple and easy as possible. are more elaborate in many cases than our own. that in as however you may dress your troops glory for gala occasions. Side by side with the troops of an old regime.200 THE ARMIES OF INDIA some high authority. are the highly trained. The regular forces.

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BHARATPUR INFANTRY' The Commandant Jat .

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The troops are subject to the mihtary law of the States both in peace and war. The first status of these States. should be explained. hands of the Government of India. shall to for the various purposes of the Acts. and three battalions of infantry. which has one squadron. however. which is assimilated to the Indian Articles of War Act). with acting. we promise to assist. two mountain batteries. 26 . in most cases that the commander of the which they are be the higher legal authority referred British force in the field.THE ARMIES OF THE NATIVE STATES active 201 a disciplined army than the mass of loosely clad men in a drab or khaki dust-proof dress. situation is The is therefore clear and understandable. Their relations to the Army and to the Government are practically those of the troops of aUies. however. (recently remodelled into the Indian Army enact The disciplinary Acts of the States. as these circles are grouped for geographical reasons. troops The States oiFer to maintain on our model. and then and strain the States place in times of stress at them His Majesty's disposal. The State maintaining the largest contingent Jammu and Kashmir. It will be convenient to refer to the troops of each State in the circles to which they are arranged for the convenience of inspection at the and expert advice.

C.L. have Patiala with one regiment of cavalry and two of infantry. Gwalior. enlisting aliens. this force fits by a considerable Outside these it share of his personal attention. or perhaps equal to it. two States wiU be simpler to refer to the States according to the i^W>/. The latter corps has taken part in frontier expeditions.202 THE ARMIES OF INDIA The frontier conditions peculiar to this State demand a considerable force. and in the days when Chitral and Hunza were more prominent factors. viz. of the first whom took part in the frontier campaign of . circles already referred to. Next to Kashmir. The Maharaja being thusiastic Scindia en- himself an and well-read bene- soldier. A. Reference has been already made to the peculiarity of this State. Snbadar-Major. with a strong transport train of 300 carts. In the Punjab we A Suni Husalman. is It has three regiments of lancers and two battalions often of infantry. the number of battahons was six.V^!l^^ 9th Ehopal Infantry. Gurkhas. for historical reasons.

and Faridkot each maintain a Sirmoor. THE ARMIES OF THE NATIVE STATES 1897 . Rajputana and the Bajput States are naturally the centre of loyal service and soldierly instinct. Kapurthala. with own mounted The action of escort as a military camel corps. Nabha. Alwar maintains a regiment Bharatpur of lancers and a battaUon of infantry. and Jind. who first came up to Herbert Edwardes. is its men and history. (the Bhurtpore of earlier history) has a battalion and a transport corps. Jodhpore has two lancer the famous Sardar Kissalah. by which the Punjab was able to send down unmolested. it of In the Multan assist rising in was the Daudputras. which served both China corps. the troops of Bahawalpore. the Sikh States.. a of sappers and miners. in keeping open the road to Delhi in 1857. State in the hills of Garhwal. and Somaliland. Bikaner has a battalion and a in camel corps 500 strong. a form of contingent as specially useful as the transport corps. with the bluest blood in . alone with his levies and doubtful Durbar troops from the Derajat. the other furnishes Sikh States. company Tehri. each furnish a battalion of infantry while Bahawalpore a camel transport its corps of 966 camels. also maintains a company of sappers. Malerkotla. material a matter 1848. properly disciplined.

The ancient and our ancient corps. four companies of sappers. and three transport escorts for the protection of transport corps provided by the State.204 THE ARMIES OF INDIA in its Kajputana ranks. has two regiments of cavalry. two camel transport corps aggregating 1200 camels. Junagarh and Navanagaar and Udaipore each maintain a squadron of lancers. ten regiments of four squadrons each. Rampore maintains two squadrons of lancers . five mule or pony cart transport corps aggregating 1650 army carts. a fighting camel corps of 500 rifles. and Indore a transport corps with an escort squadron. Jaipore has a double- strength transport corps of 550 carts. The Muhammadan State of Bhopal has a lancer regiment. battalions and six six -company battalions then two mountain batteries. Infantry. and one of three squadrons. Down still in the Deccan and farther south. ally Hyderabad. Bhavanagar has two Rajput squadrons. This . movement holds good. and Mysore a cavalry regiment and a transport The total then of this force voluntarily organized by the more important States is as the best way of contributing their share to the burden of empire as follows : Cavalry. with eight squadrons in corps of lesser strength than three squadrons. the State. six eight -company .

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« -- w 0. ft! ^6 S o Q Z Z < >-• M O en < H q^l a. 5 * Z M 2 2 1 . 5 2 <.< m 1. uj Q H M Z < « O a < a ^1 ^1 « w O « o a i^ z o o o t^ H H y > w 1/3 a.

-JfjoO .

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It is in the feudatory courts. The uniform referred to as being of the same general Indian Army. and some of the chiefs who lead them. Such in outline are the forces feudatories of India. Alwar. but more varied. with pride of race still and pride of weapons. Among the plates will be found the uniforms of the Bikaner Camel Corps. because a dozen or . because they often form troops necessary to the ceremony of the various households. the Jodhpore. remains. and more elaborate in its fuU dress.THE ARMIES OF THE NATIVE STATES force 205 means a very considerable accession of fighting numbers in strength. and of the same simplicity in service order. while the transport corps and sappers are an asset far above their actual value. forces maintamed by the which are now enlisted Indian Army. especially at felt the Rajput courts that least. while in Rajputana the old Rajput chivalry. the Mogul influence the that the old traditions and customs of the centvuies ago are stiU to be itself. so different States are concerned more elaborate. Hindu kingdoms of seen . and Mysore Lancers. More varied. and has already been style as the its field on the same class lines as the which are composed of the races already referred to in Chapter IV. and hence provides a mounted soldier .

and perhaps sad reflection. so quickly does peace enter into a race's bones. to side. is The lament of the days to be read in Sir Alfred Lyall's and there are many who mourn the days that are going When I rode a Dekliani charger with the saddle-cloth gold laced. Yet the hard word softens and change My And It is sons must leave the ancient mays. the land shall rest. THE ARMIES OF INDIA second to none. My son he keeps a pony and to the I grin to see him astride.— 206 . is a matter for reflection. are the factors make is the horse-soldier and the men-at-arms cradle. from the Feudatory States. even the almost gone. the old I cannot Rajput chief: is best. And a Persian sword and a twelve-foot spear. and above aU from Rajputana. that are passing verses. but in the States the . the gods are kind for I end my days. and a pistol at my waist. The folk are weary. learn in an English school. How long in the process and change that railways are carrying to the uttermost ends of Hindustan. that the born horse-soldier comes for the legend of the hand keeping the head is barely law. that Hard knocks and border the Schwartzreiter and the baron. Jogging away market and swaying from side And again. from the tradition In British India. dead a generation.

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THE KHYBER RIFLES ' Malikdin Khel .

.#^<Afi/tf^./xi)K(6^'f (!?'n£'5 .

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.THE ARMIES OF THE NATIVE STATES past is 207 barely yet a legend. is the aim and object of the class by clan grouping that has been described. In British India. to make the yeoman and the peasant into the necessary number of citizen battaUons and preserve as much as necessary of the old spirit.

In ordinary represented by the mihtary garrison which brought into play on rare occasions. though does not comprise the whole tally of armed forces at the disposal of the Governor-General. but to them is necessary Indian Army. some places mailed this is is necessary. In all districts to complete an account of the where the ordinary of law civil police suffice with their truncheons and lockups do not for the maintenance fist is and order. In frontier is districts where an uncivilized neighbour 208 always . of these other forces is A some detailed description outside of allusion the scope of the present work. wherewith shall it be seasoned ? " The foregoing completes the description of the it regular native troops of India.CHAPTER " If the salt VIII CONCLUSION have lost its savour.

and where the always an object of enmity. entirely under the control of the civil power. The levies are retainers armed un. by battalions tribal and who hold the frontier levies. that is to say. armed arresting parties. recruited. Two other varieties of irregulars exist on this portion of the frontier organized posts. some- thing between the wielder of the truncheon and the regular soldier is required. a semi-military force. treasure guards. is This force exists in varying forms. and the hke are harassing and undesirable In the thousand -mile -long for regular soldiers. It most highly developed of in the corps of the North-West Frontier militia.uniformed of chiefs 27 and . on irregular civil under the power. The requirements of armed escorts. which under the command army Its officers carries out the functions performed for Irregular Force. from the border tribes. a permanent force. marches of India from the Mekran coast round to the extremity of Burma. —they the are the border miUtary police. as lines. there exists." of "set a thief to catch a original Black on which the It is Watch was raised. many name is years by the Punjab it is a misnomer. therefore. It is raised on the old border plan thief.CONCLUSION tempted by the wealth of civil force is 209 others.

" not from raiders so toilet. if raised as regular troops of the Line. The military poUce in Assam largely recruited from Gurkhas or . and the harder are better than the are Uvy. military police deals in corps guard the frontier. methods of catching much as for the mysteries of the tribal Along the marches of Assam. in return for certain allowances.210 THE ARMIES OF INDIA headmen. while after the annexation of Upper costly Burma the necessary military garrison. but a large them were taken number still remain for the necessary watching of the unadministered tribal tracts and the actual is frontiers. contract to police and protect certain roads and districts. would have been A large force of military police. who. the best of into the Line. The mUitia are more highly disciplined and trained than. the border military police (known as the harder). which large tribal frontiers. pacification of the country As the need for these corps diminished with the settling of the country." their or "catch 'em ahve ohs. from the fighting races of India. and largely assisted in the and the destruction of the bodies of armed dacoits into which the disbanded soldiers of Theebaw had resolved themselves. The levies more familiarly known as "catchies. was therefore raised on military Unes. in the extreme.

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KURRAll MILITIA SUBADAE (Out of Uniform) Turi .

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and our power to give peace in the land. it is. We may with the situation as and the fact that so long as India as a whole acquiesces in our presence. own To expect more is We may more profitably content ourselves with observing the marvellous nature of the glamour which the handful of English officers has from the earliest times been able to alien race. faithful miUtary service. at It is not profitable to consider its faithfulness. though scattered along many hundred miles of frontier. and has faith in our prestige and our equity. . that is to say. and those 211 now in Burma from the Punjab. . is very considerable. therefore.CONCLUSION kindred races. one of the marvels since is of modern times. but some of the local tribes also do excellent service. to ask for the impossible. throw over these men of an The men . After. due reference to this force that bears much of the biirden of ordinary come-and-go on the Indian borders. and incidentally their land. of all armies that serve voluntarily for a rest content wage. The total of this military police force. any time the question of the measure of the fidelity of this great force the measure of the fideUty of all mercenary armies. so long will the Indian Army continue to give us. little remains but to review the Army as it stands .

the servant of the English. From no one and than from race his does the freely more given help and sepoy get officer. through snow and to and furnace. unintelligible entity his From the plains of Madras to the snows of the Hindu Kush. disinterested advice. from the Deccan fiery from the Punjab frost Burma. and occupying the position to some extent of demigod.— 212 THE ARMIES OF INDIA of the Indian Army follow their alien officers with a devotion and a gallantry that has no precedent. the sepoy has lowed and trusted that sahib. philosopher. the sepoy has followed the sahib. Quite how why we know two not. come weal come fol- woe. and friend. chanting the old chant of the patient East Kahhi sukh aur kabhi dukh Angrez ka naukar — which may be interpreted." . to China. has remained that for centuries. but at any rate a leader as well as guide. exception of the madness of 1857. We see this handful of white men controlling many many thousands of men of high courage. sometimes pain. "Sometimes pleasure. more British that man or of alien and a widely but the fact with the different faith. come rain come shine.

and bring men of martial proclivities to a service in which profit and suitable recognition of devotion foUow on services. the acting up to the provisions of an attestation paper. or took the Gurkha and sell their lives Punjabi soldiers up and through the Delhi breaches. some power of the white man for attracting faithful service and admiration. and do. But the is reasonable fiilfilment of the written word. No contract alone takes the native of the plains to serve the Sirkar in the snows of the Afghan hiUs. Arcot give up their rations to the or the 35th Native Infantry do the same when the earthquake kiUed the remaining live stock in JeUalabad. Some love of service. to the mob and the dog Heratis.CONCLUSION 213 Regular pay. or made the Guides escort in Kabul for the sake of their British officer. was not the European fulfil- ment of a contract that made Clive's sepoys at soldiers. or down to the swamps and the fever of the eastern frontier. was not the acting up to the letter of the law that kept some hundreds of Poorbeah It sepoys true to their salt within the shattered defences of Lucknow. and to tramp the burning desert. not to account for the It deeds of the Indian soldier. and prompt justice may. . due sympathy. appeal to the mercenary soldier.

in the the small British forces never Mutiny of the Bengal Army. ever. to an alien ruler and an alien race. no doubt. so long wiU the soldier races of the East serve the Sirkar. Sikh and Gurkha. service it but there is more than it. Sir John Seeley especially pointed out the hmits of this conception. Afghan and Indian. captured at the battle of £00shab. mounted by a silver hand. this.L British Atkins alone keeps us rule in India.214 THE ARMIES OF INDIA must be the motive power that brings Hindu and Musalman. The Foona Horse surStandard. For honour. in a very very Except. wanted for ready . suppression of the He pointed out that. and hereditary love of the sword the man and of a martial clan takes to military . is and strictly subordinate sense. to serve for small guerdon and smaller pension. It is the fashion among the un- thinking to say that the bayonet of good HC. this the result of a great misconception. would seem that so long as the British are worthy of as courage so long and justice and the strong arm keep up the confidence of a hundred races in our power to keep the ring. how- Umited manner. and that we hold and India by the sword.

because every one And why ? Probably knew that the sepoy could not keep the peasant and the trader in peace and safety nay. and domestic servants thronged to our Never for a day was the force clinging to the Ridge at Delhi in want for anything that the natives round could supply. welcomed those that let the old man and for over a thousand years. feeling of That is to say. to maintain that races all civil power that gives safety to to live their all and all religions. Here indeed we do strike the point where the in the 75. assistance. on them.CONCLUSION assistance. own lives against comers. confidence that they give as the strong arm. trodden out by the companies of free-lances and the wars of the barons. The British bayonets and that sign of might. Since no other rule has done the same wonder that the length and breadth of the country. that he was among the first to prey . There was no feeling that the patriot fought for his country-side. viz. there was no was sympathy with the rebels. power. or that it disgraceful to ^ve assistance to those opposed to the brave Indians trying to shake off an alien yoke. military followers. and . small the maiden sleep secure o' nights.000 British bayonets hold India. 215 Transport supplies.

John Seeley who pointed out. do. But it is not the holding of India by the sword. that it It was Sir is only necessary for a feeling to arise. for the whole of our fabric to tumble like a house of cards without a shot being fired or a sword unsheathed. the prince from from the peasant." as the outward and visible sign of a will. with their reserve police force of 75. it is impossible also to imagine such year. and while Because serving give true and faithful . For many a it is nay for many a if only the presence of the strong alien rule that can religion. The distinction is not even a subtle one.216 THE ARMIES OF INDIA majesty and dominion that bulks so large to the Eastern mind. service.000 hearty English people Atkinses. hold India. that it is impious and disgraceful to serve the British. but rather the possession of a sword to draw against those that disturb the people. race keep religion from the throat of race. in this sense. serve for therefore the mass of the a wage willingly. Fortunately a situation. and any one who knows India wiU acknowledge it. English can do this for a long-distracted country. Because the and the thief from the banker. generation. the "twenty yoke of the forty- pounder strong train.

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OFF TO PENSION (A Sikh Officer) .

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ensue to those for whom we we do it. It wiU be enough if in the future shall have deserved success in a problem as large and as difficult as ever faced the Empire of Rome. But since armies in modem pomp Indian alluded times do not exist for the pleasure and of kings. army in The strategical is aspect of the great India also history of far how the great removed from this. but to some stem purpose. the extraordinarily favourable position of India and the Army to. so do the martial men of India ruler gladly serve the alongside those same Atkinses.CONCLUSION also it is 217 well to be in the train of the strong and successful. is no part of the scope of this book to inquire what the future may bring forth. or to peer into It the crystal globe to see how long the anonialy of West pace nvu-sing East to peace and prosperity and national ideals at must continue. for the purposes of empire may be 28 Amphibious war. nor to discuss the which the East shall share its own government with the West. war by land and by . To the wisest the and we plod on trying to play the game. so that pleasure and profit may crystal has Uttle to tell. the outline army has grown and come to its present stage.

and the dominion of the world. and that it red ulcer enabled us to keep open in Spain. when of seathe small of the influence power. stands for is This aptly power and described talking by Captain Mahan." These same storm-beaten ships equally protected expeditions overseas from India. The power of transporting troops to distant scenes. it is not the omnipotent navy alone that can clinch a war. is one of those that only the mistress of the seas can hope all it to wield. The peculiar power that we have possessed in the past.218 sea. Since ships do not sail over dry land. From India as from a fresh base we are able to send forth expeditions at the bidding of an ocean cable . that stood between Marine Battalion. on which the Grand Army Havildar. He writes of the " Storm- beaten ships. has belonged to Britain. 1885. to land our troops at that point where their very presence must produce an effect far out of proportion to their actual numbers. THE ARMIES OF INDIA has for many years been a peculiar asset of the British Empire. never it looked. and to protect them on the high seas.

Egypt in 1801. Egypt in modern times. longing for peace and A Russian officer who has lately given to the world his impressions of a tour in India. Bourbon. China time after time. fulfils Just so long as our rule in India the conditions that have hitherto to a people made it acceptable protection. over the sea on Imperial quests in return for the peace we give her. and remarks that . the answer is perfectly straightforward. Time after time has India sent her native army Manila. in return for the British backing its nucleus. to contribute to the general purpose of empire. is ready. Java. Macao.CONCLUSION which other powers can but start 219 from Europe. but. when its own immediate needs are not pressing. in paying tribute to the faithful soldiery and their military bearing and efficiency. has for centuries served the ruler. The army and that forms of India exists for its own protection^ security. have seen the native troops from India bearing their share of an Imperial purpose. and to those who see fit to inquire how long he wiU continue to do so. has exactly described the He is mindful that the Indian soldier situation. carried the Eagles in triumph The sepoy has from the shores of the Mediterranean to the Great Wall of China.

^ ' Mankind belongs to God. The land to the Government. For at present Khalk-i-Khuda Mulk-i-Sirkar Hukm-i-Sahiban Alishan.220 THE ARMIES OF INDIA is he. attached to the house rather than to the master. And power to the powerful Sahibs. . like the cat.

110 Atkinson. 6 Corygaum. 150 „ Bengal Infantry. 188 Aasam and Sylhet Light Infantry. 150 126th. „ „ „ „ 13th. 205 Army Bearer Corps. 66. 144 . 67. 73 31st. 63 „ 3rd. 213 Combermere. 21. „ 112th. 9th. 121 Chillianwalla. Lieut. 64 12th.. 28th. 37th. 92 21st. 69 „ „ „ „ „ „ „ 22nd. Lord. 1st. 153 Curzon. 50th. Lord.. 47 Catherine of Braganza. 69 9th. 124th. Sir Alexander. 13 Chisbolra. 94 99 100 100 Bombay Mountain Batteries. 1st. 18 Craigie. 104. Lord. 175 „ „ „ Bengal N. Sir Louis.. 64 5th. „ 65th. 69 Brahmans. 69 113th. 35th. 74 Cornwallis. 68 Burnes. 113 Chamberlain. Lord. 179 Balucb Horse. 39th. 11th. 63 2nd. „ "Blokes. 4 Cavagnari. 126 21st. 50.. 163 25th. Captain. 26th. 160 Conellan. 113 Dogras. 90 Deoli Irregulars. 15. 122 Bombay N. 179 Auchmuty. 60. 25 Camel Corps.I. Dalbousie. 63 „ „ 13th.. 15 221 153 179 176 176 „ 176 „ Central India Horse. 205 Carnatic Infantry. Lord. 16 Baird. 113 Bombay N. 121 Cavalry. Lieut. 26 Cureton's Mnltanis. Sir David.INDEX Alwar.I. 161 16th. 87. „ 70th. 18. 55 19th. 153 Baluchistan Regiments. 26. 63 „ 9th. 67 15th. 165 4th. Sir Neville. 100 34th. 52. 73 Clive. 179 14th." 181 92 27. 27th.I. Sir Samuel. 15.

West Frontier. 66. 38thj 144 41st. 12th.93 Hislop. Indian Subordinate. 76 Hodson's Horse. Jodhpore. 10th. 26 Madras Artillery. Sir John. 144 „ Dragoon Regiments. 167 „ Malcolm. Lord. 63. 77. Captain. Sir Thomas. 10. 161 2. Sir Hugh. 89 Jats. 76 Madras European Regiment. 39th. 1st. 73 „ Grey. 4 Lind's Horse. 203 Jacob. 206 „ „ „ „ 4th. 18. Colonel. 198 Mool Raj. 70 24th. 18 Kitchener. 1st. 1st. 9th. 8. 31 Monson. 199 Harris. 29 Grantee Corps. 38. 29 Guides. General Sir John Bennet. 76. 50. 28. 176 Madras Light Cavalry. 61 . „ 6th. 70 Mahan. 19th. 117 „ 21st. 75 101st. 18. 47 Madras Native Infantry. 19. 190 Grenadiers. 112 Fitzgerald. 66 Hazara Battalion. 113. 5th. 77 Madras Infantry. 47. 61 3 Jones. 167 „ 114th. Colonel. 185 Gillespie. 176 Gurkhas. 73. 167 „ 116th. 116 Madras Native Cavalry. Colonel RoUo. Stringer. General. General. 58 Militia. North. Sir John. 178 Gardner's Irregulars. 104 Lyall. 26 Kelly. 187 Mewatis. 63 Keane. General. 10. 48 20th. 110 „ Lake. 62. 167 „ 117th. 127 Imperial Service Corps. 71 Fraser. 60 Dnpleix. 163 Gardner's Horse. 97 Lawrence. Marquis of. 104 Hussars. 160 Lawrence. 175 „ 102nd. 29 Gwalior Contingent. 173 Kumaon Battalion. 69. 218 Mahidpore. Herbert. 10 Hastings. 26 Kelat-i-GhUzai Regiment. Sir William. 78 Medical Service. 31 Mooltan. 110 „ 3rd. Lord. 101. 73. 88 Gough. 23. 4 Edvrai-des. 110 Hearsey. 160. 126 Khalsa Regiments. 23 Gwalior. Sir John. Sir Henry. 73 10th. 71. 209 Moira. 12. 110 110 176 176 Macnaghten. 68. 18 Mahratta Horse. 103rd. Lord. Captain. 18 Garhwal Rifles. 19. 27 Erinpura Irregular Force. 117 „ Hyderabad Contingent. 113 Fane's Horse. Sir Alfred. Lord. 205 John Company. 21. 32 Kirkee. 110 2nd. 117 20th. 167 106th. 23. 2nd. 63 „ 110th. EUenborough. 63. 43. 16. 104 Mahrattas. 127.THE ARMIES OF INDIA Dogras.

182 Murray. 181 26th Battery. James. 1st. 67. 146 Sappers and Miners 1st Prince of Wales's Own. 63rd.. 2nd. 77 Sale.. 178 Skinner's Irregulars. 175. 77 Russell Brigade. Colonel. 169 „ 16th."23 Oudh Outram's Irregular Force. 7 Royal Scots. 47 66th. 73. 28. 5 Polloclc. 29 Musalmans of 6th L.7th. 23. 66 Pioneers. 47 Pattinson. 102. 48 „ 69th. Colonel. 47 Ninety-Seventh Foot. Lord (later Marquis Wellesley). 189. 33. 32. 18 Rohillas. General. 73 64th. 107 Nineteenth Light Dragoons. 26 Pondicherry. 183 2nd Queen's Own. 203 Scinde Campaign. 175 Sikh Irregular Cavalry. 104 Punjab Irregular Force. 63. 214 Seetabuldee. 181 22nd Battery.— — INDEX Moruington. 76 Roberts. 97 Rifles. 60. 184 3rd. 163 Sixtieth Rifles. 36 Skinner. 73. 69 Sixty-first Foot. 62nd. Lieut. 169 „ 11th. 177. 123rd. 10 Seeley. 163 Nasiri Battalion. 104 Plassey. 169 Mysore Lancers. 64. 18 Seventy-fourth Foot. 206 Napier of Ma^dala. 63 Shah's. Sir Charles. 3rd. Lord. 61st. 9. 153. Delhi. 121 Rohilla Horse. 16 Rajputs. 120 Napier. 176 Punjab Infantry. 47 Punniar. 181 28th Battery. 104 Sirmoor Battalion. 181 24th Battery. 126. 209 Punjabis. Sir John. 181 Frontier Garrison Artillery. 44 Murray's Jat Lancers. 107. 67.I. 12 Silladar Corps. 61. 55. 11. 73 „ 106th. 181 Punjab Garrison Battery. 159 8th. 61. 40. 184 Sardar Rissalah. 47. 18 . 60 Ochterlony. 66 Mountain Artillery 21st Battery. 169 „ Reformed Horse. 169 4th. 109 Silladar Cavalry. 32. 66. 26 Shah Soojah's Contingent. 74 Pindaris. 169. 17. 161. 12. 164 Sixty-fifth Foot. 164 „ Pioneers. 72. 177 Punjabis. 28 Scindia. 169 „ „ . 26 "01dSekunder. 1st. 9. 47 Seventy-sixth Foot. 87 Nasiri. 6 Punjab Frontier Force. 26 Ochterlony. 190 Sikhs. 67 „ 84th. Lord. 62. 73. 69 Palamcottah Light Infantry. 31st. battle of. 23 Skinner's Horse. 73 Nott. 67. 47 „ 81st.

43 Whish. 73. Limited. 38. 36 Twenty-second Foot. 19 Vousden. 188. 187. 27 Thirty-ninth Foot. Sir Garnet. Colonel. 12. Arthur Wellington). General. 55 Twenty-fourth Foot. 9.. 10. 44. 89 Wolseley. 189 Sutherland. 179 Wale's Horse. 122 Wyllie. Lieut. 10. & R. 47 Stuart. 5 Tippoo. 44 Supply and Transport Corps. 170 Thirteenth Foot. EditiJmrgh. Clakk. . 73 Stevenson. 74 Tamil and Madrasi Musalman Corps. 41 Wyngate. 28 Vellore Mutiny. 74 THE END Printed by R. 104 (Duke of Wellesley.THE ARMIES OF INDIA StauntoHj Captain. General. 74 Swanston.

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