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AU

ROR J^:

THEIR CHARACTERS AND SPECTRA.

BY
J.

RAND CAPRON,

F.R.A.S.

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The colours como and go; and change from crimson The snow ..stained with rosy light. Twofold
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from the zenith,

purple clouds

white as silver

and a broad band passes athwart the heavens, like a summer sunset come sailmg over the sky, and through their vapoury folds the

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LONDON SPON, 46 CHARING CROSS.

NEW YORK
446

BROOM
1879.

STREET.

RED LION COCET.PRINTED BT TAYLOR AND FBANCIS. 97' . FLEET STREET.

F.K.S. THIS VOLUME IS EESPECTFIJLLY DEDICATED BT THE AUTHOR. ASTRONOMER ROYAL FOR SCOTLAND.R. ONE OF THE EAELIEST SPECTEOSCOPIC OBSERVERS OF THE AURORA AND ZODIACAL LIGHT. CHARLES PIAZZI SMYTH. .TO Prof.

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The early contributions seem relatively more numerous than those of a later date. and the substance of them will be found well . Whether contemplated the long low quiescent arc of silver light illuminating the landscape with a tender radiance. such a spectacle cannot fail at all times to be a subject of admiration. or as " Northern Lights " as is popularly called. aptly compared by old writers to aerial spears. in some cases even of awe. Arctic Regions character . made list constant and important observations of and its and the it of references to works given in the Appendix will show how often formed the subject of monographs and communications to learned Societies. Probably few of the phenomena of Nature so scientific entirely charm and interest and non-scientific it observers alike as the Aurora Borealis.PREFACE. Hence it is no wonder that the Aurora has always received a considerable Early explorers of the it amount of attention at the hands of scientific men. or as sheaves of golden rays. as broken clouds and columns of glowing ruddy light.

both as to fact and ' theory. and more refrangible but doubtfully referred to the bright and sharp red and green lines. however. my friend Mr. o In spite of the obser- and researches of Angstrom." Dr. and others at not yet reached. Schuster has lent me tubes showing the true oxygen spectrum . Procter.vi PEEFACE. in summed up "Aurora. the goal lines ai'e is Piazzi Smytli. in his task. of the exhaustive way. and that they to illustrate rarely have the very desirable aid of drawings and engravings their subjects. a drawback to Ency- clopaedic articles that their matter is of necessity condensed. For much of the history of the Aurora I am indebted to.' article " Aurora Polaris. Backhouse. Lemstrom. Henry R. has enabled me . Mr. for while the faint air. and Vogel abroad. having for its object the description of Aurorse. H. Procter to the present (9th) edition of the 'Encyclopaedia Britannica. me with much in the way of information and Dr. Herschel. their characters and spectra. Backhouse. I have been induced to publish the present volume as a sort of Auroral Guide. with any known AVith these views. are analogue. In spite. and of home. the Norwegian naturalist. Brewster's 'Edinburgh Encyclopaedia' (1830). article A most complete and able epitome of our more recent experience its and knowledge of the Aurora and friend spectrum has been contributed by my Mr. The question of the Aurora spectrum seems the more worthy of extended discussion in that vations it still remains an unsolved problem. Procter. W. and referred to. and to incite to further and closer observations. including the two excellent Encyclopaedic ones before Mr. which the contributor seemed to to the still Encyclopaedia Britannica has realized ' it me there was room left for a popular treatise. and quote from former articles and records. while Herr Carl Bock. Olley have each kindly furnished suggestion." It is. which as yet unassociated mainly characterize the spectrum. therefore.

Those from other sources are acknowledged. . &c. Varley. were suggested by the earlier ones of De la Rive. and others. Messrs. moon- patches. E. a picture in oil painted vn by the light of a Lapland Aurora. Mintern have well reproduced in chromo-lithography the coloured drawings illustrating the Aurorae. to For assistance in these am indebted my The friend Mr. to reproduce a veritable curiosity. and demonstrate the I eflfect of the magnet on electric discharges. viz. Dowlen. illustrations are mainly from original drawings of my own. The experiments detailed in Part III.PKEFACE.

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October 24th. 18. Weyprecht (Payer) pp. 17. J. 21. Capron's Aurora. 16-30. 11-14. . 16. 8-11. 7. 20. 6th January. 6. By Lieut. Article in 'Edinburgh Encyclopaedia ' : pp. CHAPTER Some specific Descriptions of : III. 6-15. 1817 : : p. 1-5. 15. 1st September. Aurora seen at: p. R. 19. 9th November (1870?) p. Lemstrom's Aurora. Capron's Aurora. 16. 1870 : pp. 1872 : pp. 1861 pp. 1868 pp. 18. PART THE AUEORA AND I. pp. known to the Ancients : pp. : pp. 19. 19. CHAPTER The Aurora as I. pp. Barker's red and white Aurorse. : Prof. Dr. 14. 16. J. : Mr. February 4th. : By Rev. Lottin (Lardner) pp. By Mons.TABLE OF CONTENTS. CardiflF. : . 8. Mr. Aurorse p. 17. Sabine's Auroroe Aurora seen at Sunderland. CHAPTER Some general Descriptions By Sir John Franklin of Aurorse : : II. James Farquharson pp. February 8th. Hayes's Aurora. Mr. ITS CHARACTERS. Capt. R. 7.

: : : VI. 67-69. 1874: pp. : Phosphorescence attending Aurora pp. pp. : W. light : pp. 55-58. : p. 29. 66. 51. 45. : Aurora and Meteoric Dust pp. and Sun-spots Electricity : : pp. 32. AUnatt's Aurora. Duration of Aurora : p. 46. . 30. : . 55. 32. June 9th. 62-64. Capron's white Aurora. 41-44. Herbert IngaU's Aurora. 25. 52-69. J. 26-29. 52-54. 1874: pp. R. 34. Prof. 24. 48. : Aurora and Planets Venus and Jupiter pp. 67. J. 26. 1875-76 Aurora Australis pp. 33. Webb's Aurora : pp. : English Arctic Expedition. pp.^ Mr. 54. 50. 44. Height of Aurora : pp. CHAPTER Aurora in connexion with other Phenomena Aurorse and Clouds pp. 31-33. : A\rrorae. : Travelling of Aurorse (Donati) pp. Aurora and Thunderstorms pp. 37-40. Piazzi Smyth's typical Aurorse : pp. 45. Mr. • CONTENTS. 49. 23. 1874 pp. 47. 1877 p. July 18th. CHAPTER Phenomena simulating Aurorse Auroric Lights (Kinahan) : IV. : Noises attending Aurorae Colours of Aurora : pp. Aurora and Magnetic Needle pp. : Loomis) Geographical distribution of Aurorae (Fritz and Extent and principal zone of the Aurora : pp. Dr. 25. T. Aurora and Zodiacal Light pp. Aurora and pp. Capron's Aurora. Aurora: pp. 47. 35-37. 1876 p. _ Number of Aurorse : p. October 3rd. 26. 22. : : Herr Carl Rev. pp. 64. 23. Mr. pp. 21. 48. R. 58-62. CHAPTER Some qualities of the V. September 24. Magnetic Disturbances. 33-51. Bock's Lapland Aurora. pp. 46. : Luminous Arch : p. Aurora and Ozone Polarization of Aurora : pp. February 4th. 22. 31. 65. 11th.

107. 1870 Spectrum of the Aurora Australis pp. Backhouse's graphical spectra of four Aurorse Lord Lindsay's Aurora-spectrum. : Mr. 89. its spectrum : pp. 110-114. 102. : IX. 100. 115. 52 . : p. : : Carbon. 87. 94-100. 88. Author's Catalogue of the Auroral lines Theories in relation to the Aurora and : pp. pp. Becquerel and De'la Rive : p. 82-87. : Moon pp. pp. 90. CHAPTER Spectroscope adapted for the Aurora : X. : Lemstrom's Theory : Theories of MM. Geissler mercury-tube and barometer mercurial vacuum : pp. 108-120. Plante's electric experiments pp. PART II. Professor Piazzi Smyth's Aurora-spectra : p. . xi CHAPTER Aurora-like patches on the partially-eclipsed VII. 78-81. XI. 106. pp. 101. 88. Spectrum of Aurora described Flickering of the green line : : pp. 70-77. October 21. 108-110. CHAPTER pp. : p.and oxygen-tubes pp. The comparison of some Tube and other Spectra with the Spectrum of the Aurora Hydrogen-tube pp. M. THE SPECTRUM OF THE AURORA. 91-93. pp. p. 104-106. CHAPTER Supposed Causes of the Aurora Prof. 104. 104. 103. 114.CONTENTS. CHAPTER Aurora and Solar Corona : VIII.

: in relation to the Aurora (Procter and Schuster) pp. 141-143. PAKT III. 117. Hydrogen-tubes Water-gas tube : Ammonia-tube Chlorine-tubes Iodine-tubes : : pp. 145. Oxygen-tubes: p. 117. 146. . 136-146. MAGNETO-ELECTEIC EXPERIMENTS IN CONNEXION WITH THE AURORA. 117. : pp. 117. 139. pp.118. 138. 141. Air-tubes : pp. 139. 144. 116. : Phosphoretted-hydrogen flame p. Spectrum of mercury Table of coincidences : p. : Bromine-tubes pp. 119. 133-135. p. 144. Sulphuric-acid tubes: pp. Spark in air : p. 144. 116. CHAPTER XIV. 140. Inteoduction : pp. pp. 119. p. CHAPTER The Oxygen-spectrum XIII. 140. 140. 115. 118. 136. : Notes on Professor Angstrom's Theory of the Aurora-spectrum pp.137. CHAPTER XII. 143. : pp. : Phosphorescent tube pp. 121-127. pp. : Silicic fluoride-tubes p. 128-131. 139. Sulphur-tube : pp. : Spark over water Iron-spectrum: p. 145. 138. : Examination of Geissler-tubes under action of the Magnet Nitrogen-tubes: pp. : Carbonic-acid tube : p.xii CONTENTS.

Stratification (note on) pp. . : Pliicker tube (tin chloride) : pp. : 157. CHAPTER Action of the Magnet on the Electric Spark : XVIII. : magnet on Effect of magnet on Effect of Pliicker (air-) tube pp. 149. 166. 168-171. magnet on small phosphorescent (powder) tubes pp. xiii CHAPTER XV. 152. 154-156. 160.CONTENTS. Magnet on wide Air (Aurora) tube : : pp. pp. 161-165. 147. : Lighting-up tubes with one wire only (Marquis of Salisbury's observations) 157. 156. Some concluding Remarks : pp. Effect of magnet on tin-chloride Geissler tube CHAPTER Effect of Effect of XVII. 158. Effect of Magnet on a capillary Glass Tube : pp. CHAPTER The Discharge in vacuo in XIX. 150-152. 147. CHAPTER XX. 148. pp. : Larger Vessels. and Magnetic Effects thereon tested : pp. : Magnet on bulbed Phosphorescent Tube pp. 165. 148. CHAPTER Effect of XVI. 159. : Action of magnet on a bar of heavy glass pp. p. 150. 167. 153. 149-153. Summary of the foregoing Experiments and their Results : p. Some of Baron Reichenbach's magnetic researches pp. 153.

189-193. Extracts from the Manual and Instructions for the (English) Arctic Expedition. 174. APPENDICES. 175-181. E. 194-207. D. containing the " Results derived from the Arctic Expedition. Dr. . References to some Works and Essays on the Aurora : pp. Extracts from Parliamentary Blue-book. B. Vogel's Inquiries into the Spectrum of the Aurora : pp. A. 1875 : pp. 173. Aurora and Ozone : pp. 1875-76:" pp.xiv CONTENTS. C. 182-188.

Phospboretted Hydrogen.. Aug. &c Effect of . 23. Oct. and Oxygen-spectrum .. Hydrocarbons. Compared Aurora and other Spectra.. . 4. Aurora-lines near G.110 . &c Aurora. Plate. 6th January. and Solar Spots „ „ „ „ « 59 91 X. Sept. Graphical Auroras. Aurora. Eclipsed Moon.LIST OF PLATES. „ „ „ „ 16 18 III. Feb. Candle-spectrum XI.. „ 108 XIV. 4. 1874 Herr Carl Bock's Lapland Aurora. The Aurora during the Ice-pressure Aurora seen by Dr. &c Aurora. 1872 24.. . Spectrum dcs Nordlichts (Vogel) „ „ 22 VII. To face page 14 II. Loomis's curves of Auroras.134 „ 154 Same. 1874. Oct. Solar spectrum. „ „ „ „ 20 21 V. Isle of Skye.. VI. Spectroscope. and Candle-spectrum .115 XV. XVIII. Tubes Aurora-spectra. Aurora. Corona. XII.. Kyle Akin. and in the red and green „ „ „ „ .... Aurora and Air-tubes. XVII. „ 102 „ 104 Aurora-spectrum. 1870 Aurora. VIII. XIII. Feb. 1877 . Guildford. 11.. 1861 Aurora. Magnetic Declination. Hayes. Guildford. 1877 . Iron. Zodiacal Light.117 Magnet on Tubes and Spark . Micrometer.. „ Vogcl's Aurora-lines. IV. Guildford.. Oxygen . „ „ „ „ 24 25 IX. I. 24. XVI. 3. .

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orbem coeli Sunt Pithitai^.imus. Sunt Bothyno^. Is Seneca's * Qoaeationes Natnrales. aliquando ardores sunt. et flammam debisceos. velut in abdito. quorum diTersse figurs sunt. coelum ardere visum ipsa sidera videatur. lucidus crassi fumidique ignis. ostentat.) ruboris acerrimi. nonnnnquam volnbiles.' Lib. "Sub parum Tiberio Caesare cobortes in auxilium Ostiensis colonise cucurrerunt. dolio similis. alios qnoqne ignes percurrere.xiT. quum magnitudo flagrat. sine eruptionibus aut radiis fnlvL "Inter baec ponas : licet et quod frequenter in bistoriis l^. XT. quidam evanid^ ac quidam aequaliter et C. aliqxiando Ifitaala. Aliqnando emicat stella. quum ali- qnod spatinm desedit. SeBanptaoD of Aiiiuue. THE AUBOBA AND ITS CHABACTEBS. XW/iO.' Iib.— PART I. tanquam quum cceli ardor fdisset per magnam partem noctis. nonnunquam tam sublimis ardor est ut inter nonnunquam tam bonulis ut speciem longinqui incendii cujus c rr. La idv^ we find the following : "Tempua est. quum in yelnt corona cingente introrsns igneos cceli recessus est sinulis effoasse spelnncae." . quidam candidae quidam micantes. Quidam lucis. Tel fertur vel in uno loco Sunt Chasmata^. levis flammae. Horum plura genera conspiciantor. CHAPTER L THE AUBOBA AS KSOWS TO THE AXOENTS. conflagrantis. fixi et baerentes. prsebeat.Le. Tasti rotundique ignis shoOov. Colores quoque omnium borum plurimi sunt.

" Sometimes a star shines forth fixed persistent. some of a and yellow without some of a white light. when the expanse of a vast and rounded similar to a tub (dolium) is either carried about or glows in one spot. it assumes the form of a it were in flames. others shining. m some cases actuaUy) near the The calls description of the cohorts running to the fii-e only to find it an Aurora. Of these many space." From the above passages many striking particulars of the Aurora may be classes it is gathered. shows. 2^ Translation. at times there are fire-glows. " The expression " et quod frequenter in historiis legimus phenomena of Auroral displays were a matter of record and the writers of the day. the fiery recess of the like to a cave dug out of fire There are Pithitae. A spurious Aurora. THE AUEOEA AND ITS CHAEACTEES. and Aurora seen in the horizon or apparently (and no doubt Earth's surface. The colours also of all these are many. We may translate this:—" It and sometimes is time other of which there are diverse forms. sometimes Under Tiberius Caesar the cohorts ran distant fire. in an opposite direction. a careful those seen on the zenith or the upper regions of the sky. xv. Not. however. happening in our own days. xiv. sometimes distin- flitting. who was given to making the near Frankfriend of the Baron's went to an evening party to mind the many similar events information. but that a mistake may sometimes occur anecdote is related of one In the memoirs of Baron Stockmar an amusing most of easily picked up Herr von Eadowitz. when a certain portion of the sky opens. A . what we frequently read of is in history. the it sky seen to burn. fires also to describe. the subject of frequent observation.. « There are Chasmata. . shining dimly of the sky lasted through a great part of the glowmg like a vast and smoking fire. the glow of which occasionally so high that may be so near the Earth (humilis) that seen amongst the stars themselves. and by the division of the forms of Aurora into at evident they were. « Amongst is these we may notice. some steadily eruptions or rays. Aurora) frequently read of in history. when the together in aid of the colony of Ostia as if night. that the discussion with passages from Chap. too. sky is as within a surrounding corona. that period. Certain axe of the brightest red. and gaping displays the flame as in a porch. when. Various forms of Aurora may be recognized in the distinction is drawn between the while in those from Chap. flitting and light flame-colour. sorts may be guished. There are Bothynoe.

which they were supposed to foretell. same time Antiochus prepared his second voyage into Egypt that through all the city. An explanation followed as to the his hat bam on fire : Radowitz was some ten minutes. I was there myself. about We " find in Book this II. " Certainly. S where he expected to meet Heir von Radowitz. Radowitz asked Stockmar's " friend. 3). " 4. Aurorse are said to have appeared in the Aurora as shape of armies of horse and foot engaged in battle in the sky before the death of Julius Ccesar. stopped his carriage. chap. for the space almost of air. encountering and running one against another. sect. band of soldiers.) (This. and drawing of swords and casting of darts. fort. an Aurora. Wherefore every man prayed that that apparition might turn to good. assisted the people. invested the imagination of the beholders. About 2. On his way he saw a till barn burning. there were seen horsemen running in the in cloth of gold.— : THE ArEORA AS KNOWN TO THE ANCIENTS. 4 (b. round about the altar and the holy house. V. with shaking of shields and multitude of pikes." silent He replied. And troops of horsemen in array. dilating on terrestrial magnetism. v. and glittering of golden ornaments and harness of all sorts. in referring to the signs and wonders preceding the destrucand that a great light shone for half tion of Jerusalem. must have been an instance verses 1. to It is probable that many of the fire phantom combats which are recorded have appeared in forms of battles in the air on the evenings preceding great with distinct characteristics by might be traced to Aurorse. and so forth. then took up and quietly disappeared. and waited flames were nearly extinguished. the Aurora was said to have been frequently visible in Palestine. For more than P*"^"**- a year before the siege and destruction of Jerusalem by Titus Vespasian. " Have you seen the it beautiful will soon Aurora Borealisl be over. the When he arrived at his friend's house he found Herr von Radowitz. electricity.c. and that a few days after the feast of unleavened bread a certain prodigious and incredible phenomenon appeared and surrounding of of a daylight one. And then it happened like a forty days. which light lasted an hour. Book VI. speaks of a star or comet. Josephus. of Maccabees. 176 years): " 1. in his 'Wars of the Jews' (Whiston's Translation. 3." among the clouds. who had previously taken the party to the top of the building to see an Aurora." b2 . 2. if —" for before sunsetting chariots and troops of soldiers in their armour were seen running about cities. chap. and armed with lances " 3.

Liberti Fromondi Meteorologicorum ' (London. p. Brit. and of a light seen in the nighttime equal to the brightness of the day. surrounded by a corona pithice. "De Meteoris supremae regionis aeris. II. ii. both of which may be referred to Aurorse. sembling a large luminous cask. arrow . 260. sagitta. sunt a septentrionali usque ad occidentem iii. in the Consulship of Csecilius and Papirius (Lib. these and other fantastic forms attributable to Aurorse are more ' fully described." " the cave. 117. Encyc.. " the bothyno'e." /aces. In the article in the Edinb. 1656). iv. II.— 4 Early descriptions of THE AUEOEA AND In Aristotle's ' ITS CHAEACTEES. The first account on record in an English work is said to be in a book . from a curious passage in Ceylon and the Cingalese." capra saltans. and v. I. who air relates that in a. where the natives call it " Buddha Lights. or blue colour. c. In the article " Aurora Polaris. &c. edit. " the beam. "the torch. the " bothynoe " and "pithiae ' The two In v. Halley had begun to despair of seeing one the fine display of 1716. it is In the ' Annals of Philosophy. Sirr's we find noted that vol. " the tun." De Capra. 1. ' sorts of Aurorge distinguished as " are evidently taken from the passage in Seneca's Qusestiones ' before quoted. visse 555 lances were seen Encyc' vol. c.' Lib. before referred to it is it was to much more than. it would seem that the Aurora. ix. the Aurora . Lib.). which Foylcher O'Moyloyer stated that was not slain. II. art." a luminous cloud having the appearance of a recess or hollow in the heavens." and that in many parts of Ireland a scarlet Aurora is supposed to be a shower of blood.." Encyc. article in the 'Edinb." an Aurora re. vulgar as " streamers " or " the " tranquil " trabs. stated that the Aurora among English cearum in aere In the described by Matthew of Westminster." Musschenbroek enumerates as forms : (1830). xxxiii.' p.) speaks of a bloody appearance of the heavens which seemed like a fire descending on the earth. xxvii. in the 'Annals of Cloon-mac-noise.d. in the ("quasi species lan"). is visible occasionally in Ceylon. c.' writers is first vol. a century ago that the phenomenon had been noticed till occur with frequency in our latitudes. De Meteoris. ix.. Pyramide." an oblong tract parallel to the horizon (known to the merry dancers ") is distinguished in two kinds " and the varying.' in between Leinster and Munster. seen in the third year of the 107th Olympiad. the Aurora is described ^^ ^^ appearance resembling flame mingled with smoke. or something like it. "the dancing goat. Trabe. Dr. The earliest mentioned Aurora after a battle (in Ireland) was in 688. cap. and of a purple red Pliny (Lib.

September 2nd of that year. recorded by Stow as occuriing on October f'*M"'"»* '" 1574.' was seen all over France. 13th February and 28th September. occurring an interval of eighty years. described by Gassendi Physics.d. says that in Iceland the inhabitants themselves were astonished at the frequent Aurorse then beginning to take . according to Stow 7. of Hamburg. Then we have no record in his ' till 1621. 1441 Aurorse were observed between a. D. which speaks of " burning spears is being seen January 30. In our next Chapter we propose to give some general descriptions of Auroras from comparatively early sources. The next Aumrw tuded. all In November 1623 another. again. Anderson. . Nor did Aurorse appear more frequent Polar Regions at that time. which Dr. 583 and 1751. From 1666 to 1716 no appearance . 1560. Copenhagen. being seen from the west of Ireland to the confines of Russia and the east of Poland. while Torfaeus. while in 1707 and 1708 the Aurora was seen after The Aurora of 1716. fortified and armies fighting in the Auroras were seen in 1580 and 1581 in Wirtemberg. 1G54). D. for Cselius states that the oldest inhabitants of Upsala considered the phenomenon as quite rare before 1716. Halley describes. described by Kepler. over almost all the north of Europe. the Icelander. An is Aurora called a in the observed in Bologna in 1723 was stated to be the seen there . entitled ' 6 '^"•'y ""- A Description of Meteors by " W.THE AURORA AS KNOWN TO THE ANCIENTS. and from about the 50th degree of latitude.' (reprinted. Cornelius Gemma air. compared these to spears. 14th and 15th November. and in all places exhibiting at the same time appearances similar to those observed in London. of which 972 were observed in the winter half-years and 469 during the summer half-years. F. when an Aurora. Germany.' is recorded in the ' Transactions of the French Academy of Sciences but in 1707 one was seen in Ireland and at five times. According to M. was seen over Germany. 1564 and Camden. was very brilliant and extended over much country. extending nearly 30° of longitude. . Mairan. who wrote in 1706. an Aurora was seen in Brabant. London. an Aurora was seen on two nights. Twice. was old enough remember the time when the Aurora was an object of terror in his native country. writing about the same place to time. first ' that for had ever been and one recorded in the ' Berlin Miscellany 1797 very unusual phenomenon. 1575. uot and. cities.

assumed the shape of arches at some distance to the southward. but the other two were faint and uniform. ranged in parallel lines. because they are similarly shaped flashes." Arches of the Aurora. and arches.) .: — THE AUEOEA AND ITS CHARACTEES. and mentions a case when an Aurora. exhibiting wreaths of beams or coronse boreales on its way. afterwards fading away. John Franklin then mentions seeing three arches together. in the years 1819. and again and again brightening without any visible expansion or contraction of matter. one of which exhibited beams and even colours. with their pointed extremities towards the earth. As it approaches the zenith it resolves itself into beams which. the light It is of which faint. CHAPTER 11. (See example of a doubled arc Aurora observed at Kyle Akin. passes the zenith without displaying Sir any irregularity or additional brilliancy. and is inflnitely larger. which is pale and uniform at the horizon. flashes. very near the northern horizon. He then continues " But the Aurora does not always make its first appearance as an arch. generally in the direction of the dipping-needle. by a quick undulating motion. assuming . parts of the sky. and the motion of the beams undistinguishable. and crosses the sky towards the opposite point. 1820. Plate VII. I have called them because their appearance the Aurora is sudden and seldom continues long. Skye. 1821. " The beams are little conical pencils of light. Aurora. flashes. " The flashes seem to be scattered beams approaching nearer to the earth. House from the northern horizon to the zenith with wreaths and flashes. then in the horizon. and arches. Aurora. SOME GENEEAL DESCRIPTIONS OF AURORA. An arch also. It sometimes rises from a confused mass parts to be equidistant from the earth filled which the sky at Cumberland : — of light in the east or west. When Formation of the first becomes visible it is formed like a rainbow. which I term beams." Sir Numerous this flashes attend in different John Franklin then points out that mass would appear like an arch its to a person situated at the horizon by the rules of perspective. 1822 ') describes an Aurora in these terms : " For the sake of perspicuity I shall describe the several parts of the Parts of the Aurora beams. Sir John SiE John Franklin (' Narrative of a Journey to the Shores of the Polar Sea Franklin's description. project themselves into wreaths.

m. arch is of low elevation it is of considerable breadth from north to south. and after it has reached . having re- marked this effect strongly one day at 11 a. 1788.] The Rev. John Franklin further remarks that the Aurora did not often appear immediately after sunset. makes the stars flutter in the telescope and that.. James Farquharson's obsen-ations. Brit. 1821). that it still makes progress southwards..' 1829). appeared in fifteen minutes.— . previous to the disappearance of daylight. he examined the sky. Instances are by no means rare of the principal Aurora-line having been seen in waning sunlight. and saw an Auroral corona with rays to the horizon. A delicate electrometer. and he subsequently states that on four occasions the coruscations of the Aurora were seen very before daylight distinctly had disappeared. He also mentions an arch It visible to the southward exactly similar to one in the north. Usher notices that . The motion of the whole body The Aurora from the northward to the southward was at angles not more than 20° from the magnetic meridian. centres of the arches were as often in the magnetic as in the true meridian. and he suggests it probably had of the passed the zenith before sunset. that the arch moves forward towards the south. the Royal Irish Academy. [In the article "Aurora Polaris. and in anticipation of an Aurora which afterwards appeared. concluded: that the Aurora follows an invariable order in its appearance and progress first The Rev. Aurora does not oft«n appear until some hours after sunset. that the streamers appear in the north. however (March 8th. was never perceptibly affected by the Aurora. from the in Aberdeenshire in observation of a number of Aurorse 1823 ('Philosophical Transactions. James Farquharson. forming an arch from east to west. stretching across the zenith at right angles to the magnetic meridian . having its vertex at the line of the magnetic meridian (when this Auroral arch. the Transactions of where Dr." Encyc. and all south of the zenith) it . GENERAL DESCRIPTIONS OF AURORiE. are referred the Aurora to. ix. and then the arch seen in a narrow belt 3° or 4° only in breadth. edit. and that the absence of that luminary for some hours was in general required for the production of a state of atmosphere favourable to the generation of the Aurora. contracting laterally as approaches the zenith. suspended 50 feet Sir from the ground. till at is length these streamers become parallel to that line. its having the streamers placed crosswise in relation to directed towards a point a little own line. he observed it distinctly Aurora' seen in daylight. and increasing its intensity of light by the shortening of the streamers and the gradual shifting of the angles which the streamers near the east and west extremities of the arch make with its own line. On one occasion.

Sometimes they were prolonged where their directions intersected. sometimes they would dart out. sometimes instantaneously. but they all converged to that point of the heavens indicated by the direction of the southern pole to the point of the dipping-needle. Lardner. progress that the only conditions that can explain and reconcile these appearances are that the streamers of the Aurora are vertical. x. and a Seas. by exhibiting its several degrees south of the zenith again enlarges its breadth an order of appearances the reverse of that which attended towards the zenith from the north .m. rays. preserving its direction at right angles to the magnetic meridian. During this period sixty-four were visible. its Lottin : " Between four and eight o'clock p. and that the fringe moves southward. The is " succession of appearances and changes presented by these " meteors thus graphically described by M. besides many concealed by a clouded sky. took the form of an arch. This luminous current would appear several times in quick sue- . of a pale yellow colour. and resolved into a system of These rays were alternately extended and contracted. in his ' Museum of Science and Art. or nearly so. an officer to the observations. this savant observed nearly 150 Aurorae. became coloured on upper edge. being the interval when the sun was constantly below the horizon. sometimes slowly. is It would the zenith. but which is of no great thickness from north to south. becoming gradually more of the meteor rising behind yormation of the auroral it. a light fog. its vertex being constantly on the magnetic meridian. Lottin. the edges of which This were difi'use. light. but the presence of which was indicated by the disturbances they produced upon the magnetic needle. The inferior parts. of the French Navy. and formed an arc more or less regular. increasing and diminishing suddenly in splendour. The length of these rays was very various.. being fringed with the light This border. and form a deep fringe which stretches a great way from east to west at right angles to the magnetic meridian. THE AUEOEA AND ITS CHAEACTEES.' vol. bow swelled it slowly bow. Dr. It ascends to and formed the summit of an enormous dome of to ascend light " The bow then would continue an undulatory motion in its toward the zenith. that from one ex- tremity to the other the brightness of the rays would increase successively in intensity. regular. presented always the most vivid light.— 8 Passage across the zeiiith. Blackish streaks divided regularly the luminous arc. or the feet of the rays. Member of the Scientific Commission North Between September 1838 and April 1839. rising to the altitude of six degrees. Lotfcin'f alludes to a description of " this meteor " (sic) supplied by M. p. suffer —that to say. the extremities resting on the horizon. upwards. 189 et seq. M.

a retrograde motion would . its clear the middle green. the bow would change character and assume the form of a long sheet of rays returning into curves. and sometimes both of its folds its its extremities would desert the horizon. by the effect of perspective. the base exhibiting blood-red. these rays would rapidly like the folds of a would be formed and developed affect various colours. After this disappearance fragments of the bow would be reproduced.GENERAL DESCRIPTIONS OF AURORA. and consisting of several parts forming graceful The brightness of the rays would vary suddenly. sometimes suritself. producing such an effect that it was impossible to say whether the rays themselves were actually if this affected by a motion of translation in a direction nearly horizontal. Sometimes one. and curves magnitude . would be gradually shortened . and then would become more numerous and marked. the system of rays them- selves suffering The bow. or the point to which the south pole is Reaches the zenith. If they were coloured they tints would appear as a large red band. either c . and would constantly preserve their mutual parallelisms. through which the green of their superior parts could be distinguished. them would form a long sinuous undulating zone while throughout all these changes the rays would never suffer any oscillation in the direction of their axis. to ray. but rarely. Sometimes. thus presenting the ap- pearance of an alternate motion in a direction nearly horizontal. the colours disappear and all be extinguished. Such was the arrangement which the colours always preserved. serpent . or more vivid light was transferred from ray no change of position. it light had run successively over all the rays of the Aurora from west would return in the contrary direction to the point of its departure. of the dipping-needle directed. take place immediately afterward and as soon as this wave of to east. the middle being that of the pale emerald They were of admirable transparency. their feet "While these appearances are manifested new bows are formed. had usually the appearance of the undulations or folds of a ribbon or flag agitated by the wind. which presented then the appearance of a large zone of parallel rays. the brightness would diminish. would be extended . and the green of . and if the wave of light above mentioned passed along . the thickness of the arc. would continue their upward movement and approach the zenith. then the rays would the base would be red. At that moment the rays would be seen in the direction of their feet. the rays. sometimes suddenly and some- times by slow degrees. cession. then the vertex of the bow would reach the magnetic zenith. first passing in splendour stars of the dart out. 9 to cast than in and it would pass much more frequently from west the opposite direction. and the remainder would preserve yellow hue.

forming bows gradually paler and generally disappearing before they reach the southern horizon. sometimes forms suddenly. doubtless at and an observer placed at the same instant a certain distance to the north or to the south would perceive only an arc. and to form. " The total zone. the mass of rays appear suddenly to come from the all south.. which frame for a sea calm and black as a pitchy lake. the unequal rays not extending to a greater distance than from eight " Let to twelve degrees from the zenith. measuring less in it . same diffuse manner or with and ready formed rays as nine have been they succeed each other. west. and two or more of them close upon each other. while at other times they reach the horizon. • " The corona becomes gradually faint. But sometimes when this zone extends over the summit of the firmament from east to Corona formed. that the vast firmament presents one immense and magnificent dome of light. As many counted having their ends supported on the earth. . may be obtained of the splendid spectacle which presents itself to the Aurora from the Bay of Alten. since expected to have an elliptical form upon the corona. converge to the zenith. therefore. passing through nearly the same phases. 10 THE AUEOEA AND in the ITS CHAEACTEES. vivid commencing Multiple bows. though an imperfect one. the direction north and south than in often leans the direction east and west. would be but that does not always happen it has : been seen circular. that currents of light succeed each other and in fine. becoming rapidly feeble after passing the zenith. Sometimes the intervals between these bows diminish. . Duration of corona. and intended to represent the sky. him who it witnesses " The corona when it is formed only lasts for some minutes . And some idea. All this most commonly takes place . reposing on the snow-covered base supplied itself serves as a dazzling by the ground. the real boreal corona. There are rarely more than two on the same night. and many of ^the Auroras are attended with no crown at all. them . subject to continual and sudden variations in their length and brightness tervals . also. and in their arrangement resembling the short curtains suspended one behind the other over the scene of a theatre. forming one large zone traversing the heavens and disappearing towards the south. and arrange themselves at certain distances from each other. it then be imagined that all these vivid rays of light issue forth with splendour. the whole phenomenon being to the south of the zenith. the mere effect of perspective the rays of which is This appearance of a crown. that these beautiful red and green tints colour them at in - that waves of light undulate over . without any previous bow. with those from the north.

and its distinctly marked edges are strongly defined on the profound darkness of the Arctic heavens. when the read. The arch mounts higher and higher. The phe- / nomena become gradually more the appearance of twilight. Disappear- Sometimes. It printed book may be then disappears. a second detaches itself from the dark c2 . thrice the breadth. like motions of dilatation and contraction. p. perhaps. the bands. stands a faint arch of looks as it light. . . and it. 11 to have lost its which the Aurora appears rays the pencils of rays. to the zenith. and ultimately merge into the vague and feeble grouped like clouds. arch is still distant from the zenith. which are propagated reciprocally between the centre and the circumference. convince us is that the darkness of the segment a delusion produced by contrast. of the rainbow. in the first half of the niglit. after intensity . and advance rises. sometimes suddenly but it often happens that. i. as the daylight augments. Wey- limit of a dark segment were the upper of a ° ^ ^ _ circle . and the fragments of bows appear at intervals. Then the little become more and more light diffused. takes a whitish colour. 328 et seq. which shine through it in undiminished brilliancy. but the stars. It begins to grow clear over the ice some of its groups are discernible. however. The light of the moon appears yeUow contrasted with this tender colour. which is spread over and designated by the name of auroral plates (plaques aurorales). low on the horizon. its two ends almost touch the horizon.— GENERAL DESCRIPTIONS OF AURORA. Their milky light frequently undergoes striking changes in the brightness. so pleasing to the eye and so indescribable in words. and disappear the heavens. It is transparent white with a shade of light green. Pi^^ts descnption. The stars shine through it with undiminished brilliancy. like those which are observed in marine animals called Medusae. the Aurora continues is ""^^ commencement of daybreak. a colour to the Polar Regions which nature appears to have given only The arch is broad. and is ultimately so mingled with the cirro-stratus clouds that it is impossible to distinguish it from them. the Aurora becomes gradually vague and undefined. The by way of compensation. not unlike the pale green of a young plant which germinates in the dark. An air of repose seems spread over the whole phenomenon here and there only a wave of light rolls slowly from one side to the other. west in proportion as the arch No beams are to be discovered in but the whole consists of an almost uniform light of a delicious tender colour. after the faint." ' Lieutenant Weyprecht has grandly described forms of Aurora in Payer's New Lands within the Arctic Circle (vol. rises Gradually the It is perfectly to the east arch of light grows in intensity and regular . and generally disappear altogether on light so strong that a .) as follows ' : " There in the south. It ' Lieut.

that an treatises on the subject. and pales A . The upper continually Second band which the south towards a point near the zenith to and rays. THE AUROEA AND is ITS CHAEACTEES. on the horizon. it rolls itself up in streamers. The colour is stronger arch. The band is broad. The light grows in ends of which are lost far oif colours appear other more rapidly. edges. but place and colours of the band change in a and its intense pale green stands out remain unaltered. prismatic colours round it as a centre. but the continually undulate rapidly through through the others. sometimes its whole extent. sometimes from light to left. . again. Now the band with wonderful beauty on the distinctly innermost folds are still to be seen into many convolutions. side of the firmament. Then. then sinks slowly the zenith the first passes beyond Arches of light are now stretched intensity. to shoot forth from it freely suspended. The lower Often they all return they utterly fade away. the with the magconnexion of the whole phenomenon a sign of the intimate flare Bound the magnetic pole short rays flash and netic forces of the earth. it returns again it sinks. which we see in regular the horizon thin bank of clouds lies on in mosi cases does not exist. All now rise towards gradually succeeded by others. pole of the magnetic needle. the sported with the broad flaming high in the air played and intensity. over the zenith. and rises to the zenith. towards the nor hern it. Waves of light from left to right. begins a brilliant play of rays "The band has nearly reached it. waves of light roll shorter rays alternate with when a band is almost always seen What we see is the auroral corona. and this . gradually The band now lies on the northern time to the south to change and as it sinks. points. increases in intensity of pears. expands. the brilliant white of on the upper and lower edge of Out of one band have narrow stripes of red and green. each other. of arches. seven they sink towards the north the though of inferior intensity. is enclosed between approaches the zenith. however. longer and are discernible on all their on aU sides. passes over the magnetic pole. prismatic the waves of light follow each the centre the band. and it Corona but a short This peculiar phenomenon lasts formed. is twisted dark background. and as it sinks loses its formation on the sky. It seems almost as if breezes graceful folds. paler they grow.12 segment. which it is developed a band Band of The upper edge is illuminated out of The colour light apcolour. and become extinct so Aurora runs a course so calm and "It is seldom. of light. horizon. but the intensity of the is the same as in the form never-ceasing play. The typical dark segment. rays begin now grown two. are apparent at the same time over the whole heavens. till at last just as they came. and now magnetic polecentral point of which is the lasting for a short time.

it Through these fragments visible. glorious veil of transparent Hght is spread over the starry heavens. Stars twinkle here and there through the opening of the clouds we see the darkfirmament' and the rays of the Aurora chasing one another towards the zenith The heavy clouds disperse. there has been tempestuous weather. Below. it is gone appears again light: m ! Scarcely has it vanished before another place. violet-coloured auroral vapour is often seen simultaneously on different parts of the sky. one moment they are scarcely drive the waves of intense brilliancy. : Aurora in stormy weather. the rays extend through the whole length of the band. which twists and turns in constant motion. but the clouds are still driving rapidly across the sky. again. which. GENERAL DESCBIPTIONS OP AUKOILE. IS no longer that glorious green. but lighter in colour than the band itself. Fragmenta. often seen in a perfectly different form. It is often difficult vapour. and was driving them hither and thither . edged with green and red. again. Frequently it consists of smgle rays. Often. Their colour IS yellow. and it is now let us suppose. the wmd has fallen. and it seems as if thousands of slender threads of gold were stretched across the firmament. the threads of light with which this veil is woven are dismctly marked on the is came and where " But the band it went . behind the clouds appears an Aurora amid the darkness of the night. h to distinguish what is AuLa Ld what pL . play as before IS It goes on for hours. simply. IS But in the next they shine with their light is a dull yellow. standing close together. mist-like masses drive on before the wind. rapidity. and their green and red edges dance up and down as the waves of light run through them. the Aurora incessantly changes It often entirely disappears for a short tiS^ only to appear again suddenly. hence each ray appears to flash and dart con inually. passing away. on the ice. without the observers clearly perceiving how it So pkce form. it is there. is a broad A " Or. These are sharply marked. and in this particular form they are at some distance from each other. Fragments of the northern lights are strewn on every side it seems as if the storm had torn the Aurora bonds to tatters. so that in the upper regions its force IS not yet laid. and intensity. A dark background. Single-rajed band. Here is one ! lo. its lower border intensely white band. the illuminated mists as they fly past are scarcely distinguishable from the auroral vapour which comes and goes on every side. These become more intensely bnght with each successive wave of light. point in an almost paial lei duection towards the magnetic pole./. Over the ice it becomes somewhat clear. and reach almost up to the magnetic pi.

For a moment some faint." A Plate reproduction of the woodcut in Payer's ' Austrian Arctic Voyages. approach nearer and nearer to the magnetic pole. will be found on Descriptions of AurorsB In the Edinburgh Encyclopaedia. " They frequently occupy the whole heavens. they become shorter .' article " Aurora. ice. some rays it mount towards the zenith. rays shoot The and were up more rapidly. or from below upwards issues a sea of flames all : Do the rays shoot from above down1 1 Who ! can distinguish 1 From the centre ? is that sea red. scarcely In the south a it rises band lies close to the horizon. a race It looks as if there first. visible lights. such a spectacle must. in its fullest splendour. 228). Blagden (Phil. to the east and the west. now eight o'clock at night. Aurora of the coming storm can draw it. and spreads east and west. wards. the edges assume a deep red and green colour. This was the —the Aurora it. and dance up and down. For a short time remains stationary. according to the description of Gmelin. another form. Northern latitudes. ' some of the features of the above description. The waves of light begin to dart and shoot. eclipse the splendour of stars. and they shoot out on every side. and. ITS CHAEACTEES. to the north and the south. and gloomy night has again stretched her dark veil over everything. listen . itself. springs to life. and even terrific. Once more it becomes clear over the and the whole phenomenon has it disappeared with the same inconceivable rapidity with which came. the hour of the greatest intensity of the northern bundles of rays only are to be seen in the sky. vol. according to the testimony of some. all rise together Eays reach the pole. p.— : u Bands. and even of the sun In Siberia. All at once rapidly. we No noise. Nature displays before us such an exhibition of Involuntarily fireworks as transcends the powers of imagination to conceive. then suddenly The waves of light drive violently from east to west. be accompanied with sound. " In the south-eastern districts of Siberia. Ixxiv. THE AUEOEA AND " But. No it pencil no colours can paint and no words can describe in all its magnificence. Trans. among the is rays. and that each aspired to reach the pole And now the point reached. or green Who can say It is three colours at the same is moment The rays reach almost to the horizon the whole sky in flames. planets. stillness prevails. and moon." we find " In high Northern latitudes the Aurorse Boreales are singularly resplen: in high dent.' illustrating I. white. cited and translated by Dr. we think. again. possible form Bands of every It is and intensity have been driving over the heavens. But unbroken not the least sound strikes on the ear. .

I To Am page U.] THE AURORA DURING THE ICE-PRESSURE.''\ .3^laU I. [Payer's ^Austrian Arctic Voijages.

.

The light was for some time all fixed. a vast tent were expanded in the heavens. the Norwegian naturalist. A more beautiful but whoever should see such a northern light it behold without terror.\uror8E rare in Lai>land. Maupertius adds that he observed only two of the red northern lights in Lapland.. if dyed in blood. 1876. rush about from place place with incredible velocitj'. An extensive region of the heavens towards the deMcriptiun at Oswer- south appeared tinged of so lively a red that the whole constellation of Orion Zornca. . seemed as and blue. and finally almost cover the whole sky up and produce an appearance as if to the zenith. and detailed in Chapter observation quite confirm this of Maupertius as to the rare occurrence of red Aurorae in Lapland.GENEKAL DESCKIPTIONS OF AURORj:. rubies. which. glittering with gold. The observations of Carl Bock. and. rising in the almost at the same time in the north-east. and sapphires. it after having successively assumed the tints of violet formed a dome of which the summit nearly approached the zenith in the south-west. spectacle cannot be painted for the first time could not . to is 15 described to begin with single bright pillars. he having only seen one. Kwl ." Maiiportiuit's Maupertius describes a remarkable Aurora he saw at Oswer-Zornea on the 18th December. and that they are of very rare occurrence in that country. gradually comprehend a large space of the heavens. the Aurora north. but soon became movable. kindly III. com- municated by him to me. and increasing.

16

THE AUEOEA AND

ITS CIIAEACTEES.

CHAPTER

III.

SOME SPECIFIC DESCEIPTIONS OF AUEOEJ<;, INCLUDING EESULTS OF THE ENGLISH ARCTIC EXPEDITION, 1875-76.
Captain Sabine's Aurorce.
ssCaptain

Captain Sabine describes Aurorae seen at
voyage, January 15).

Melville

Island

(Parry's

first

Sabine's

Aurorae.

appeared.

Towards the southern horizon an ordinary Aurora The luminous arch broke into masses streaming in difi"erent
arrange themselves
in

directions, always to the east of the zenith.

The
Curvature of
arches to-

various masses seemed

to.

two arches, one

passing near the zenith and a second
horizon, both north and south,

midway between the zenith and the but curving towards each other. At one

wards each
other.

time a part of the arch near the zenith was bent into convolutions like a
snake in motion and undulating rapidly.

Aurora seen at Sunderland, February
('Annals of Philosophy,'
Aurora seen
at Sunder-

8th, 1817.

vol. ix. p. 250.)

It

began about 7

p.m. during a strong gale

from the N.W., with single

land, Feb. 8,

1817.

bright streamers in the N. and N. W., which covered a large space and rushed about from place to place with amazing velocity, and had a fine tremulous

motion, illuminating the hemisphere as

much

as the

moon

does eight or nine

days from change.

About 11

o'clock part of the streamers appeared as if

projected south of the zenith and looked like the pillars of an

immense

amphitheatre, presenting a most brilliant spectacle and seeming to be in a

lower region of the atmosphere, and to descend and ascend in the air for
Formation of
corona.

several minutes.

(This appears to have been the formation of a corona.)
its

One

streamer passed over Orion, but neither increased nor diminished

splendour.

Description of Aurora by Dr. Hayes, Qth January, 1861.
Dr. Hayes's Aurora, 6th January, 1861.
'

Recent Polar Voyages
sailed

'

contains a narrative of the voyage of Dr. Hayes,
at

who

from Boston on the 6th of July, 1860, and wintered
Avitnessed a

Port

Foulbe.

He

remarkable display of the Aurora Borealis on the

morning of the 6th January, 1861.

Sflate 11.
ITu faea |Mg*
I8.J

AURORA SEEN BY

Dr.

HAYES, 6th JANUARY.
Polar Voyages.']

1861.

['JB«ren<

SPECinC DESCRIPTIONS OF AURORJ:.
The darkness was
Presently an arch of
so profound as to

17

be oppressive.

Suddenly, from the
ray.

rear of the black cloud

which obscured the horizon, flashed a bright

many

colours fixed itself across the sky, and the Aurora

Develop-

gradually developed.

ment of
Aurora.
filled

The space within the arch was
capricious,

by the black cloud
it

;

but

its

borders

brightened steadily, though the rays discharged from

were exceeding

of

now glaring like a vast conflagration, now beaming like the glow morn. More and more intense grew the light, until, from summer a
bursts, it

irregular

matured into an almost uniform sheet of radiance.
its

Towards the end of the display
and grow
pale.

character changed.

Lurid

fires

flung

Raya
changed to
glow.

their awful portents across the sky, before

which the

stars

seemed

to recede

The colour of the

light

was

chiefly red
;

;

but eveiy tint had

its

turn,

and

Mixed
colours.

sometimes two or three were mingled
the terrible glare, or, starting side

blue and yellow streamers shot across
side

by

from the wide expanse of the
subdues and overcomes
subtle rays of violet

radiant arch, melted into each other, and flung a strange shade of emerald

over the illuminated landscape.

Again

this green

the red

;

then azure and orange blend in rapid
flash of yellow,

flight,

Colours change.

and the combined streams issue in innumerable tongues of white flame, which mount towards the zenith. The illustration which accompanies this description in the work is reproduced on Plate II., and forcibly reminds one of the " curtains " of the
pierce through a broad

Tongues of
white flame formed.

Aurora described in the preceding Chapter by Mons.

Lottin.

Prof. Lemstrom's Aurora of 1st September, 1868.

In the

first

Swedish Expedition, 1868, some remarkable observations were

made on the appearance of luminous beams around the tops of mountains, which M. Lemstrom showed by the spectroscope to be of the same nature as
Auroras.

Prof. LeniBtrom's

Aurora, 1st September, 1S6S.

On
falling

the 1st September, 1868, on the Isle of
fall

Amsterdam

in

the

Bay of

Sweerenberg, there was a light
obliquely.

of snow, and the snowflakes were observed
Aurora from
earth's surface.

All

at

once there appeared a luminous phenomenon

which, starting from the earth's surface, shot up vertically, cutting the direction of the falling snowflakes, and this appearance lasted for some
seconds.

On

examination with a spectroscope the yellow-green line was

YeUowgreen line
seen.

found by Lemstrom (but of feeble intensity) when the slit of the instrument was directed towards a roof or other object covered with snow, and even in
the snow
all

round the observer.

18
Lemstrom's
conclusions.

THE AUEOEA AND
M. Lemstrom concluded

ITS CHAEACTEE8.

which could only be

that an electric discharge of an auroral nature, detected by means of the spectroscope, was taking place
all

on the surface of the ground

around him, and that, from a distance,

it

would appear
[It should,

as a faint display of Aurora.

white or

a however, here be noted that the reflection of an Aurora from spectrum of the bright surface would give, in a fainter degree, the
and, apart from the

Aurora
fails

itself;

phenomena seen by the

eye, the case

to

ground was be conclusive that an Aurora on the surface of the

examined.]

Mr.
Mr.
J.

J.

B. Capron's Aurora of October 2ith, 1870.

E.

The
follows

description,

from

my

notes

made

at the time of this fine display, is as

Capron's Aurora, Oct. 24, 1870.
Silver glow

:— " Last

evening (October 24) the Aurora Borealis was again most
(Guildford).

beautifully seen here

At

6 p.m. indications of the

coming

in north.

silver glow in the north, which display were visible in the shape of a bright For two hours this contrasted strongly with the opposite dark horizon.

Phosphorescent cloudstreamers.

crimson glow in the continued, with the addition from time to time of a of streamers of opaque-white phosphorescent cloud, shaped
north-east,

and

like horse-tails (very different

Crimson
masses on
horizon.

from the more common transparent auroral across the sky from diverging streams of light), which floated upwards and At about 8 o'clock the display culminated and east and west to the zenith. Two lovely sky-picture. few observers, I should think, ever saw a more themselves on the of intense crimson light about this time massed
;

patches

north-east

glow.

and north-west horizon, the sky between having a bright silver The crimson masses became more attenuated as they mounted upcrimson and from them there suddenly ran up bars or streamers of
light,

wards
Coloured
streamers.

;

and gold

Corona
formed.

which, as they rose, curved towards each other in the north, of coloured light, having at and, ultimately meeting, formed a glorious arch or cloud of similar character to the its apex an oval white luminous corona At this time the phosphorescent clouds previously described, but brighter. of appeared to be looking at the one side of a cage composed
spectator

the distant parts of the glowing red and gold bars, which extended from Shortly after this the Auroral display point over his head.

horizon to a
Aurora fades
away.

usual appearance, graduaUy faded away, and at 9 o'clock the sky was of its probably by indigo, of except that the ordinary tint seemed to have more shone upon it." contrast with the marvellous colours which had so lately showed itself at describing the same Aurora from Torquay, says it
T, F.,

sundown, attained

its

maximum

at 8,

and lasted until 11.

At 8

o'clock

more

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looks as if Mr. This was continued in a brilliant red. and as given at the time. at about 8 o'clock. Barker's {superposed) red and white Aurorce. liant Mr. returning from church a before 8 p. crimson rays shot up to the zenith. to the north. J. would seem as if the red were seen through the white. Masses of phosphorescent vapour. Capron's Aurora of Februart/ ith.) a most consisted of a magnificent crimson Aurora. little My description of this Aurora as is as follows : —" Last evening. to and beyond the Torquay. taneously and extended round to the north-east. seen at Guildford. brilliant streamer shooting At about a quarter Mr. which remained. 25). and quickly changing their d2 .m. he had the impression it of sets of vibrating rays behind each other. Spectroscopic observations of this Aurora were made. Barker that he had observed an equally brilliant red patch of auroral light in the north-east five or ten minutes earlier. 9th November (1870 1). Newton informed Mr. A white Aurora. Gibb«'i report in London. J. consisting of bright streamers. upon the clouds which hung around suggested the reflection of while scattered among these. may be here noted that during the Aurora seen by Carl Bock in Lapland. were tongues and brushes of rosy red. Capron's Aurora. but rather nebulous. V:» description of the general ground greenish yellow and pale rose. Carl Bock's \ibrating rays. and then disappeared. Mr.. p. its and painted by him by own light (described. while from the north. up from the north-western Its highest horizon. Gibbs reported that in London. A my water-colour sketch of this fine discharge is given on Plate III. B. with extensive shoals of deep rose in the east same at and west. Mr. S.SPECIFIC DESCRIPTIONS OF AUEOILE. Crimson line an hour. which at once struck the eye. upwards and altitude. the sky presented a weird and unusual aspect. the red being most remote. appeared simulProf. than half the visible heaveni was one sea of colour . 9th November (1870?). having a white and phosphorescent appearance. 1872.m. lasted less than half The crimson Aurora In the white Aurora. mass of light passing Eed Aurora. Since the lower end of the red streamers was white. line could not be seen. and in the drawing streamers were seen behind an arc. 19 T. streaming upwards zenith. On the 9th November (1870 1) Mr. it much lower than that of the Ked seen through white. so deep that the sky between looked black. brilfire. it (U. 4. Barker saw at New Haven to 6 p. points were from 30° to 40° in AVhite Aurora. and the sky seemed one mass of facsimile of Mr. 1872. A lurid tinge a distant fire . the crimson It not seen in white Aurora. Feb. Barker's Aurorae. torn and broken masses of vapour. K.

before described. it was a remarkwas lost in a general Aurora lasted for some time. was presented a most beautiful phenomenon. and the diverging streamers apparently shooting downwards. not by small clouds or rays but more in the way that a cloud sudden]^ forms by condensation in the clear sky liquid.20 forms. the north-west horizon being free from cloud and glowing brightly with red light. rain was descending at one time while the Aurora Wind during night. 1868) concludes that the corona of the Aurora BoreaUs not entirely a phenomenon of perspective. but. The spaces of sky between the streamers were of a deep purple (probably an effect of Duration of corona. contrast). an almost traceable nucleus or centre. same direction and attyact each other. display of the corona. The Aurora was probably very extensive. Lemstrom (Swedish Expedition. which still rested on the eastern horizon. in fact. 16] of an Aurora at Melville Island (Parry's first voyage). The peculiar clouds referred to must have * is M.15. the grand display of October 1870. was nearly as bright as moonlight. From this corona in a few seconds shot to forth diverging streamers of golden light. Eain during Aurora. The to. While looking upwards. that they are currents flowing in the \_ante. at about 8. whereas in general the streamers are seen to shoot up from the horizon and converge sky. in which two arches were seen curving towards each other. was quite bright. extent broken away. Formation of corona. though lasting a few minutes only. of was followed by very violent storms. with the overflow of the Tiber and the flooding Eome. from which spear-like rays projected. I saw a corona or stellar-shaped mass of white light form in the clear blue sky immediately above collecting. The The . reminded THE AUEOEA AND ITS CHAEACTEES. About 8 o'clock the clouds had to Aurora from behind clouds. 1870. able one. was equal if not excelling in beauty. my head *. partly arranged themselves in columns from east to west. There is also an account p. in which case. a ring or disk of white light of considerable size took the place of the stellar-shaped corona. and the Aurora shone out from behind heavy banks of vapour. on a mountain 'top. Rose tints and at the time appeared the characteristic patches of rose-coloured light often seen in an auroral display. . as I thought. till it clouded sky and. me of a similar appearance jfreceding the great Aurora of Shortly some of these shining white clouds or vapours 24th October. effect may have been an illusion . overhead. but that the rays have a true curvature. however. notwithstanding the clouds. on the east coast of Sicily. And now. or a crystal shoots in a transparent having too. same which are a certain appeared. What struck me particularly Streamers was the corona developing itself as from a centre in the clear from corona. as the evening. which descended and mingled with the rosy patches of the Aurora hanging about the horizon. t A brOliant display in December 1870. Strong wind prevailed during the night f . if so.

1. Fi g. FEB. 24. 1872. . GUILDFORD. AURORA. AUG. FROM A WATER COLOUR DRAWING. 23. 4. FROM WATE.. 1877. GUILDFORD.Plate IV.R COLOUR DRAWINGS. ECLIPSED MOON.

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2. 1870.) Pi ^-. SOLAR 1 1) 1 E t 1 ^^^^^^^^^^^B^^^^^^^^^l ZODIACAL ^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^1 SEA I 2 3 NUMBER OF AURORAS IN EACH MONTH OF THE YEAR (K/EMTZ. POLES OF MAGNET. M"? BACKHOUSE. PLUCKERS TUBE. Fig. CORONA. Mm tern Bros litV. GRAPHICAL AUROR/E. GRAPHICAL AUROR>E. Pig:*.3. CAPRON.6. .c. VIOLET Pig: PJAZZI 7. RED CARBON VIOLET CANDLE LINES. BETWEEN. 18 Ajn-il 1873 Pig -. PIAZZI SMYTH. ZODIACAL LIGHT *. 21.Plate V. Oct. CORONA AND RAYS. SMYTH & ANGSTROM.

The edges were it. February ith. The corona was when Aurora died Out. W. thrown out from corona. horizon. Guildford. and extending itself across the zenith westward. looked dense and misty. A corona of deep hue. and vast cupola of fire. 21 preceded the Aurora in daylight. stood out prominently in the zenith. supposed to be in February 1872.SPECIFIC DESCRIPTIONS OF AURORA. my attention was drawn to a silvery brightness in the north- Silver V Above. that I predicted (as came to pass) a display later in the evening. when the sky was suffused with a rich crimson glow. extending to the N. Aurora predicted. 1874.) Capron's Aurora. as the Aurora of that date did not reach its maximum development Mr.E. reaching from N. lea^ing masses of cloud fell drifting up from the (The date of south. was a bright cloud of light. 7 P. and having its centre almost immediately over the head of the spectator. 2. hard an outline) on Plate V. as I recollect seeing them at 6. elliptic in form. which brightness inN.E.M. I and phosphorescent appearto c«Kl(*d th«' and so much resembled some Aurura ill had seen accompany the Aurora given on daylight. and a shower of rain fell. and in its broadest diameter about four Radii times the size of the moon. A dusky red aspect of the sky towards the . but could hardly have been on the 4th. at Edinburgh till 8 P. but for the stars shining in might. made its appearance about half-past 5 p. bright that the adjacent sky. hours. while the corona and rays are represented (with rather too fig. peculiarly wild. of my water-colour sketch of this Aurora is Plate IV. A facsimile iig. The lights reached their greatest intensity at 6 o'clock.\urora seen at Cardiff. as the account from an undated newspaper cutting. and still more so to the east. ragged. and gave one the impression of an illuminated fogcloud. remarked upon as unusual. have been taken for a dark storm-cloud. to W. and presenting the appearance of a Rain At half-past 6 the lights died completely out. J. An Aurora was seen at Cardiff. this At Edinburgh the sky was Aurora It is is brilliant for several is uncertain. apparently on a parallel plane to the earth. there were thrown out brilliant silvery blue radii. a broad band of colour Formation of corona. From this corona.m." They had even then a ance.. . north. seen at Guildown.M. R. having rugged sharply defined edges.E.30 as we Pho«pboreooeut cloudii i)rt»- went to church. 1. by contrast. of October 1870. Description of an Aurora seen at Cardiff. About east.

Ingall was shortly after remarking the sky in the S. July 18. sort of Champion About 11 the at sky was clear at midnight the sky was covered by a stars. 1874. and S. Herbert Ingall Aiu-ora. An Aurora of July 18th. and formed for N. figs. the arch and tumed-up ends were in shape like a Tartar bow. which moved from E. Taylor informed before. Mr. however. when his drawn to a growing . Mr. which had more the appearance of the aura in the large end of an illuminated Geissler tube. Horizontal clouds of until. did not happen. fleecy I should also mention that horizontal clouds of misty light floated in the north above the streamers. July Mr. Haze canopy formed. horizon as being more luminous than usual. and o found Angstrom's Spectrum of the Aurora described. a silver tinge in the east alone remained. not so. sometimes quite obscuring the and then suddenly fading away. along the northern horizon. where the sky. looking like the reflection of a distant fire. until it reached the due west. having a brighter patch at each extremity . 1874. Formation of are in some time a luminous spot in About the same time a long low arch of light formed along the it rested. seen by Mr. as an extraordinary one. was described by him . 8. Hill. and then moved rapidly from east. bow across the misty light. H. These drawings are I reproduced on Plate VI. and the Aurora gradually faded away. actual mist-clouds illuminated by reflection of the Aurora I think. am not sure that the horizontal light-clouds were not . line quite bright. W. S. and of the spectrum. I could also see at times a bright line beyond the bands towards the to take There was not light enough any measurements of position of the lines. which at one time threatened to form a corona. haze canopy. when the moon rose about. in me he saw a similar Aurora some three weeks which the bright horizontal light and short white streamers were I the main characters. the first-mentioned cloud. in the east. attention was Mr. at the time when the light-cloud had moved W. From the bow also shot up curved streamers of silver light towards the zenith. This bow was permanent .E. to The light-cloud expanded upwards until its apex became conical. This. however.22 Light-cloud. 1874. 1 and la. and by the side of it three faint and misty bands towards the blue end of the spectrum upon a faintly illuminated ground. Herbert Ingall's l?>th. and later on a cloud of rose-coloured light formed Streamers. and these being higher in the sky. THE AUEOEA AND ITS CHARACTEKS.. and the arc formed. Herbert IngalVs Aurora. violet. northern horizon. I examined the Aurora with a Browning direct-vision spectroscope.E. made a pencil sketch of this Aurora.

) Fig. 2.Plate.VI AURORA.g. FAC-SIMILt OF PENCIL SKETCH. F. F ^ i 1» Spectrum. FEIB. GUILDFORD. (Les NordlixJits. 4. (Vogel. Mirtem Bra li^ . 1874.3.

.

made an angle of 90° with each other. 1874.E. No Double arc of pure some time.W. up as if by the full moon. R. in the E. horizon. Ingall's remarks were corroborated by an observer in 64° 46' 6"-2 N. and a moment afterwards bright bluish flames S. and broke into brilliant beams and streamers. saw Rushall Vicarage. and their direction (from W. JR. at Oape saw flashes or In the E. but bright blue flames.) at right angles to the magnetic meridian. but towards evening the wind fell and the On September Mr. midnight illuminated the whole bore tints diff'ering district as with an electric The rays. while the smaller ones.S. Chas. and W.. between 9 and 10 o'clock. intensity of light at light. Gape Rev. seemed to partake of the the largest nature of the blue sky.W. The day had been wet and stormy. long." Mr.E. The day had been dull and close. Ingall a disturbance of an abnormal character. motion of rays. the . brightness in the S. else it was clear and starry. " swept over the 23 Bright bluish flames appeared.m. 1874. my attention was called to a beautiful Auroral display. in the Isle of Skye. sky became clear.S. however.S. the Eev. very frequent flashes or streaks of a pale blue colour darting from the earth towards the heavens like an Aurora. running parallel with the horizon. The display. Oscillatory and then disappeared. J.W. The rays had an oscillatory motion for about fifteen seconds.SPECIFIC DESCRIPTIONS OP AUEOILE. as if before a high wind. we were at Kyle Akin. but overhead and everywhere . The moon was only a day old. to E. was more brilliant. Mr. from one another. by the white light in the presence of a dark band running longitudinally through X. Norfolk. Capron's white Aurora of 11.E. and continued to shine with more or less brilliancy for Sept.. height above the earth's surface)." They lasted about a minute and faded but about two minutes afterwards a glowing luminosity appeared in the W. Occasional streamers of equally pure white light ran upwards from either end of the bow. 11. Ingall'H e'' 12° 19«-75 W. and the remarks corroborated. 1874. J. streaks of a pale blue colour. Scole. with distant thunder. The arc appeared to be a double one. Capron's White Aurora of September 11th.N. The extreme . C. suggested to Mr. the source of light. About 10 p.W. They were not streamers. the central altitude of 50°. were ever changing from blue to orange-red. crimson or rose tint was to be seen. " as if a shutter had suddenly obscured lat.. too. it was dark.S. Mr. but the landscape was lighted White streamers. and the effect of Kyle Akin lighthouse. but a long low-lying arc of the purest white light was formed in the north.. The extreme divergence of the streamers rays ray reaching an (indicating their Beamii and streamers appeared. On June 25 (same yearl). it.

1876. with a strong N. be noted how conspicuous the years 1877 and 1878 have been for absence of Sun-spots and of Auroras. wind and a disturbed sea. Allnatt thought might be manifestations atti'i- butable to the comparative absence of spots on the solar disk. motionless. auroral light appeared.M. noticed a some- what misty and foggy look about the brilliant arc. It is noticed in Parry's ' ' arch is generally well defined and unbroken. lovely sight. and divided the Aurora into nearly symmetrical sections. ITS still CHAEACTERS. The season had been singularly unproductive attri- Want of electric of high electric manifestations. Dr. and without streamers. writing to the ' Times from Abergele. No in trace of brown colour segment of sky below the arc.E. Dr. giving it almost a solid appearance. did the stars. lustre. was a and wonderfully unlike the cloud-accompanied and crimson Third Voyage that the lower edge of the auroral it Aurorae which I had seen in the South. reproduced on Plate VII. AUnatt's Aurora. strong impression that the I had a be near the earth. About midnight a long attenuated streak of black cirro-stratus stretched parallel Streaks of cirro-stratus with the horizon. divided the Aurora. homogeneous. The space of sky between the horizon and the lower edge of Auroral bow believed to the arc was of a deep indigo colour. AUnatt's Aurora. sea between numerous surrounding beauty. [It may here buted to absence of sun-spots. Allnatt. and the sky beneath so exactly like a dark cloud (to him often of a brownish colour). June 9. shining through with undiminished not discover the deception.24 THE AUEOEA AND islands. which Dr.] . Band of After a cool and gusty day. The segment below the arch resting on the horizon was of a deep indigo colour. Dr. and the was a true thing of The display itself formed a great contrast to the I particularly more brilliant but restless forms of Aurorse generally seen. and was almost conit vinced that the eastern end and some fleecy clouds in which was involved were between myself and the peaks of some distant mountains. horizon a broad band of vivid auroral light. bow was near to the earth. North Wales. probably the effect of contrast. there appeared at 11 P. 1876. June 9th. reported an Aurora on the night of the 9th June. I saw no trace of brown colour. On the preceding day the sky was covered with dark masses of electric cloud of weird and fantastic forms. I have not seen any other account of this Aurora. 1876. of which This is I was able It at the time to obtain a sketch. near the ' coast of the Irish Channel. in the N. that nothing could if convince to the contrary.

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:| .> IB r— .

50'. which. and certain of them seemed in perspective and behind fringed with Inner edge of arc the others. 25 Ilerr Carl Bock's Lapland Aurora. as in the former case. February 4th. were longitudinal. Lapland were most but generally of the yellow type (the Lap"). tents. &c. A reduced facsimile of Herr Bock's excellent picture is Herr Bock in also acquainted me that on the following day he saw an Aurora Aurora of longitudinal rays. the display much resembles. 1H77. instead of being vertical. in It lasted lat. at the Westminster Aquarium. two men and two women. In January 1878 I had the pleasure to meet. T. 1877. that seen by Carl in Lapland. Srd October. 1877. and so strong were continually swept along in several currents. Webb Bock has described to me in a letter an Aurora very like Bev. Plate VIII. entirely sketched by the light of the Aurora The painting remarkable for the tender green of the sky. contrary to the sharp and definite margin which is usually presented. on their ^isit to this The Laplanders (as mentioned elsewhere) did not confirm the accounts of noises said to have been observed by Greenlanders and others during the Aurora. Herr Carl Bock. like moving in the edges of two great revolving toothed wheels. which the lines of light. Probably two Aurorae or auroral forms were seen —a quiescent arc fringed with rays.SPECIFIC DESCRIPTIONS OF AUEOIlyE. in front. and apparently the prevailing type in Webb's Aurora. Webb's Aurora. indeed. and seemed to resolve itself into two moving streamers opposite directions (or the one set might be fixed and the other moving). with countrj'.W. Herr Carl Bock'H L«ii>land Aurora. It will be noticed that the inner edge of the arc rays. as in the case of the Aurora seen given on me at Guildown. W. Two larger and brighter patches of light are seen at each extremity of the arc. He kindly lent me is a picture (probably in way unique). Carl Bock mentioned to brilliant. sledges. and a by set of moving streamers beyond. T. its landers called the Aurora " yellow lights He saw only one red Aurora. They were not Bev.m. W. 3rd Oct. the Norwegian naturalist. on Movement of the rays.m. W. those regions. This picture was taken at Porsanger Fjord. The Rev. oil-painting of itself. till about 11 p. an an Aurora Borealis. The is rays kept continually moving. me that the displays he saw in Lapland AurorsB generally of the yellow type. 3rd October. 1874. probably due to a mixture of the ordinary sky colour with the yellow light of the Aurora. from 9 p. An arc similar to that figured by Carl Bock appeared sets of streamers in the in Arc resolved into sets of N. an 71° A pictnre effect painted by light of the Aurora. This lasted but for a few opposite directions. who accompanied four Laplanders. .. T..

and the spectrum citron-line it observations led to such poor results. Nares's report. Trans. as follows: " Although the auroral glow was observed on several occasions between TrueAuroraB seldom observed. 1773. which appeared again and several and most Long columns of white light spreading over the following nights. by Professor Stokes to . containing extracts from blue-book. 1875. (Phil. by Dr. . and lasted so short a time. — " On February 17th. has reported to the Admiralty. and the displays were so faint. 1875-6. were sometimes bent sideways at their upper extremities . Norman Lockyer and myself. The sky was when they appeared. Results derived from the Arctic Expedition. In an article liv. William Spottiswoode and as Spectrum work. and displays faint. and the air sharp and cold. who as naturalist accomsays: Mr. in south latitude of long 58°. and though respects similar to the northern lights of our hemisphere. by Mr.Forster's description. As these instructions were somewhat and in will apply to all Auroral displays. Sir George Nares. that no special report has been considered necessary. were prepared : — as to general features of the Auroras. Sir George Nares G. Instructions for use of officers. gradually spreading over the whole southern part of the sky. especially those of a fiery and purple hue. Cook on his second voyage round the world. The English Arctic Expedition 1875-76. No. 1876. (For Sir George Nares's further ' Report see Appendix C. Capt. tints were varied and brilliant. and then for so short a time that no measure could be obtained. They were unfortunately not brought into for want of the Aurorae themselves. on observed on only two only two displays of the Aurora was well defined.26 seconds . and vol. I have supplied a copy Appendix B." This account agrees very closely in particulars with Capt. It consisted columns of a clear white light shooting up from the horizon to the eastward almost to the zenith. In anticipation of the starting of this Expedition. Capt. we find that Mr. 25 October. Australis. 461. English Arctic Expedition. 1877. as to Polarization. These columns in whole sky. elaborate. Appendix B. including blue and green. and 26 February." Appendix C. under date 5th December. THE ATJEOEA AND but during that interval the ITS CHARACTERS. a beautiful phenomenon was this.') Aurwa Aurora Australis. true Aurorae were seldom observed. under Capt. Sir of them requisition. observed during the preceding night. whereas ours assume various generally clear tints. panied Capt. yet differed from them in being always of a whitish colour. some instructions for the use of the officers in connexion with the hoped for display of brilliant Auroras 1875-76. 53). . Forster. Citron-line Although the was observed occasionally. on Aurorae in high Southern latitudes No. the thermometer standing at the freezing point.

cloud. Capt. 54°S. lat. At midnight. and found the distinguishing auroral southward. extending from Jupiter (which appeared to be near the focus) through Orion and almost as far beyond. 3. 36°.' North Atlantic. 75° E. 28-8 fine in. ' Challenger.. ther. or because the dense masses of cloud prevalent in those regions prevented their being seen except when exceptionally bright. description of four Auroraj seen from the 'Challenger' in high southern latitudes (including the one Maclear's Auror» described in ' Nature. but south were two or three brilliant light clouds. 53° 30' S.30 on the morning of February 9th. 1874. 108° E. There were four appear- ances described (1. Maclear's notice of Aurora Australia [after referred to]. The height of the barometer does not appear to be mentioned... 27 and especially in the marked absence of red Aurorae. E 2 aeen. 31° one bright curved streamer. long.30 P.M. colour very white-yellow. 1874. 64° S. bar. March 1874. lat. Capt. Feb. in lat. either from the rarity of the phenomena.' communicated to me). and long. 109° E. The letter is mainly descriptive of the spectrum (which will be described in It connexion with the general question of the spectrum of the Aurora). 29-1. From Brilliant white clouds about west to near south extended a long feathery light of the same colour. shape cumulo-stratus. Capt. a brilliant sunset.. (2. 89° E. About midnight the sky was almost clear. '. and that the tint light appeared of a pale yellow. 1874. a Cai)t. rosy seen in the northern Light of pale yellow tint only.M. March some Soon 3rd. the sky by a morning.) : At 1. preceded by a watery in. ther. 1874. long. states that the red line was looked for in vain. bar.S.) At . February 21. line.. 9.m. and had none of the displays. sunset. The Aurora preceded a morning a black Feb. Maclear has since contributed to ' Nature.. Maclear was good enough to communicate to culars of an me some parti- Capt. Auroral line found in light to Maclear applied the spectroscope. 57° S. after fine days' stormy weather. followed after 8 p.. .SPECIPIC DESCEIPTIONS OF AUBOILE. 1876. with stars visible through it. the tempeI'ature being apparently much the same as in the more recent cases. Under this Real cumuli hid great part of the remainder of the sky. April 10th. 29-0 35°. lat. Aurora Australis seen 3rd March 1874. Day broke afterwards with high cirrus clouds and clear horizon. but there were two vertical flashing rays which moved slowly to the right (west). He speaks of the oppor- txmity of observing as not frequent.M March.' of 1st November 1877. Noticing the light to the southward to be particularly bright.) Generally the Aurora was still bright. (3. 1874. 1874.. Maclear'g Aurora AuBtralu.. 21. bar. long. began to clear and the moon shone out. In a letter dated from H. with cumulo-stratus clouds. ther. brilliant streaks to the westward. 9.

Encyc. and between south and west there appeared occa- sionally brilliant small clouds. without fail. barometer commonly falls after Mr. violet. Kirwan observed that the those regions than in more temperate iii. In Proctor's ' Borderland of Science. latitudes. The heavens were was to be seen. Edin. It is. Our ship was ofi" Cape Horn.' article we find quoted a passage from a letter is by Capt. makes the same remark. which a graphic description " given of a Southern Aurora Howes's description of a Southern Aurora. a strong gale from the south or south-west If the Aurora were bright. Maclear Maclear suggests suggests whether a low barometer has any thing to do with the absence of red in the spectrum. light came on within twenty-four hours. normal state of the barometer being an inch lower in Dr. flooding her decks.) 6th. that these Auroras Australes as to Australes extends extend more into the violet than the Aurora Borealis. in a violent gale." the Aurora. Maclear rience. not a star the waves. March 1874. plunging furiously into a heavy sea. in the seventy-third says that in twenty- Barometer falls after volume of the Phil. longer in coming. the gale was less violent. Trans.M.. Spectrum of Aurorae We shall see too. as comits plementary to appearance. in my expe" sequaliter et sine probably the eruptionibus aut radiis fulvi" described by Seneca {ante. and strong gale from followed the appearance of an Aurora. the whether a low barometer has to do with the absence of red. after this the clouds changed to high Capt. It is is. (4. southward. somewhat singular that Carl Bock found almost exclusively " The Antarctic Regions. Pale yellow glow rare in the Aurora Borealis. lines (Here follows a description of the spectnim. and gave one behind a cloud. 1). Howes. 1874. Winn. vol. and three instances.W. by-and-by. but no par- was noticed. the gale .' in Capt. when the brilliant spectacle first appeared. . Capt. theS. and may prospectrum bably belong to more southern climes." ' yellow Auroras in Lapland. The forms changed.) At 8 P. p. March This was a slight Aurora. 6. and the mode in which a delineation by the was obtained. seen to the cirrus. the idea of a bright light ticular order The upper edges seemed hairy. follows.28 THE ATJEOEA AND ITS CHAEACTEES. At about half-past one on the 2nd of last September the rare phetfomenon of the Aurora Australis manifested itself in a most magnificent manner. of the Southern : Cross. rare in the Aurora Borealis. the Aurora. parallel with the horizon. but was of no long continuance if the was faint and dull.. however. and longer in duration. is likely thus to make (in the absence of the red) more into the violet. article "Aurora. The pale yellow-coloured glow referred to by Capt. and sometimes burying her whole bows beneath as black as death. The yellow.orS.

This volume." The foregoing picture presents a singular contrast to the yellow-white Aurorae described as seen in high southern latitudes by Capt. gas lighted by the finger in Canada. Prof. yard-arms. however. Taking as if lighted up by some terrible conflagration. &c. points of flame seen on the ironwork of Teignmouth Bridge. and with meteoric brilliancy. . Maclear. * Some curious instances have been recently (January 1879) given in the ' Times ' of such phenomena. " I cannot describe the awful grandeur of the scene . amongst others. Prof. some well-executed chromo-lithographs of : from sketches made by Prof Smyth. and similar points seen on the alpenstocks and axes of a party making a mountain ascent in Switzerland. but of an electric display. Piazzi volume of the Astronomical Observations made at the Royal Observatory. above all.SPECIFIC DESCRIPTIONS OP AUEOILE. &c. together —the Balls of electric lire howling. three comprising typical Aurorae. changed from murky blackness till they became like vivid reflecting a lurid glowing brilliancy over every thing. with conditions approaching those experienced by travellers who have found themselves in mountainous districts surrounded by storm-clouds charged with electricity*. resting on the awful sublimity of the heavens. spars. the case in question may have been an instance not of a true Aurora. Looking.. Aurora Borealis. and falling to leaward in ruddy showers. the other two plates being of The Aurorae delineated are thus described electric the Aurora spectrum. 2» the heavens gradually fire. —seemed same ruddy hues. ever and anon rushed and all to leeward in crimson torrents. drifting over the vessel. —there was is presented a scene of grandeur surpassing the wildest dreams of fancy. and sleet. during the years 1870-1877. amongst its Smyth's typical Edinburgh. shrieking storm. some valuable information on the subject of the The Aurora plates are five in number. and.' interesting matter. comprising. Piazzi Smyth was kind enough ' lately to send me the fourteenth Prof. yard-arms. the mysterious balls of electric fire resting on our mast-heads. would shoot in spiral streaks. the waves dashing furiously over our side. at the extreme rarity of red Auroras in those latitudes. The ocean appeared like a sea of vermilion lashed into fury by the storm. affords other AurortB. the furious squalls of haU. and interesting as a southern Aurora of a red or ruddy tint." (a it phenomenon not itself that often noticed in connexion with the Aurora). and the description of suggests " mysterious balls of electric fire resting on our mast-heads. through which coruscations of auroral light mast-heads Ac. the noble ship plunging fearlessly beneath the crimson-crested ways. Piazzi Smyth's Typical Aurorce. snow. to partake of the Our whole shipThey were all sails.

1871. multiple arc.) An auroral arc. 1871.) A case of grandest coloured Auroras. active arc. my own ^- experience. the Aurora with arches arranged longiis —^/'N. coloured Aurora. 1871. and form a most interesting set of typical forms of Aurorse. with dark cavernous substratum. 1870.) AND ITS CHAEACTEES. ample of a bright large Plate clouds. All the foregoing drawings are very vivid and striking.6. According to tudinally. nor do I recollect an illustration of one other than Prof. (August 21. 7. I have not met with it myself. the rarest of all the forms. arc strea- and maintaining a bright appearance though in proximity mers and clouds.7. quiescent arc. April 28. 8. (April 28. (September 1871. with streamers and dark to the Sept. thus.1871. Smyth's. 1870. or Aurora superb and almost universal. May 8. 1871. 1871. An example auroral arc. 25.) A multiple-arched arc of Aurora with moon- (October 25. double arc (longitudinal).1871. 1871.) A double-arched auroral arc (the arches are longi- tudinally arranged). . 1871. moon. ATJEORA. Oct. (May 7. 6.) An ex- August 21.30 Aug. of a mild quiescent kind of (August 6. active arc darting out rays. THE Plate 5. Plate light.

same time. Mr. Auroric Lights {Kinahan). but Mr. and transparent. they appear somewhat One morning. and speaks of two distinct kinds of light so classed — one Auroric Lights. prolific in auroric Mr. . watched into daylight. Kinahan's car-driver. considered in Ireland a forerunner of bad weather. rays. they Eed light appear as dirty misty clouds that suddenly form and disappear without the appears as dirty misty clouds in daylight. the latter being White and red. north-west. or spectator being able to say as misty rays proceeding from a point in is the horizon. Henry Kinahan brilliant writes to ' Nature. G. and on only a few occasions from the south. Generally. or as a hazy mist over a portion of the sky. the heavens. under date Mr. but often diffused over a portion of the sky. who thought the sun was going to rise in the north instead of the The second. which they did not appear. as there had been few nights since the 1st October then last (1876) in Season since October 1876 prolific in auroric light. PHENOMENA SIMULATING AUEOE^. Kinahan has frequently seen them break from a point in from a point. 1877. that suddenly appears and disappears. Kinahan then speaks of the season as having been light. but generally from the west. but jumping about within certain limits. Kinahan's January 27th. not stationary. while the other semi-opaque and of a bloody red colour. but but at other times of blue and reddish yellow. of a white yellowish-blue or is yello\vish-red colour.' from Ovoca. appears in clouds floating upwards or diffused. Frequently not stationary. Some- times these lights occur as suddenly flashing clouds of light of a white colour. If this class of lights faint rays of a rising sun. or north. is jumping like about. The first kind generally White pencils light appears as intermittent pencils of light that suddenly appear and disappear. 31 CHAPTER IV. while travelling in West Galway In daylight in like Bun- the twilight. where they come from or where they go to. appears in radiating Usually they proceed or radiate from some point near the north of the horizon . Mr. and quite frightened Mr. they were very brilliant. there a bank of black clouds to the westward. On many occasions they were late in the night. Kinahan has never seen them coming from the If both kinds of light appear at the east. usually occurs in clouds floating in Bed light one direction up into the heavens. or as a mist or misty rays. or bloody red light. east. the second while passing is over the first dims it. If the second class watched into daylight.PHENOMENA SIMULATING AUROKE. when these clouds occur.

and was assumed to differ from the Auroral when first seen was N.^ 32 being very THE AimOEA AND common and brilliant ITS CHAEACTEES. to differ It moved to the southward. p. it . 1814. seldom seen 5 A. the west part of the south of Scotland. would have been most important. Allan Broun Mr. Its du-ection southward. and concludes there must have been some mistake as to the nature of these " auroric lights. the season in question was one of marked infrequency (see English Arctic Expedition marked iafrequency elsewhere. On 77 occa- and that with a bright or on the first Aurora. but the frequent appearance in early morning if and few any Aurorae seem to have been recorded as In appearing elsewhere in Great Britain during the time which Mr. The is in many respects a sufficiently recognizable is one of auroral discharges certainly unusual. was seen in the west of England opposite the Height above horizon 6 to 9 miles. the Forth. Sept. coi-uscations. Kinahan's. 362. Buchan furnished Mr. 1814.m. The greater part were seen in the most northerly stations.M. occasion. 80° W. refers to this graphic account of Mr. a few hours before dawn (about 5 o'clock). which remained during five hours sions seen only twice so early. during the dark days of December. Kinahan refers to as so prolific (see. including the Orkney.m. Dr. Allan Broun questions nature also. especially as made so frequently at the epoch of minimum. Irish Sea. in this Aurora at is In the years 1844 and 1845. 11. J. Broun with a note of Auroras and 16 in the second seen in the stations of the Scottish Meteorological Society during the year 1876. or a It was described body of dense greyish-white Its mass of luminous matter in the shape of an arch. and the weather broke again. Report. average of nearly three hours each night was seen only twice so early. and S. in Makerstown every hour of the brilliant was observed in 77 nights on an but it this country.. iv. ante. and part of the west of as a part of either a Ireland. during which the Aurora was sought for night.' vol. to 6 a. Each time there was a fine day they appeared Mr. ante. first half. 80° E. In the ' Annals of Philosophy. 26 in the half of the year. an^. and from 6 p. also could not say he had ever it and if Mr. Season was of fact. Mr. p. and in having a much . 24). however. and they were 42 in number. It was assumed its from the Aurora Borealis in wanting paler light. Broun seen . 26). light. Shetland. and only 9 south of Luminous Arch. Kinahan. as very rarely seen at 5 a. Parts of the phenomenon seen by Mr. Mr.m. at is of these lights. on the second. there is a minute description of Sunday. Luminous arch. and Faroe Islands. height above It moved the horizontal line was estimated at not more than 9 nor less than 6 miles. AUnatt's. Kinahan's observations could have been confirmed description . Jno. p. of a luminous arch which appeared in the sky on the night September 11th." as the Aurora Borealis country.

or Exper. a body of Aurora rose 1th. testifies to Mr. that they will not move." Mr. Naime mentions that in Northampton. motions) but the uniform testimony of the natives and all the older residents in the country induced him to believe that its motions were March 1 sometimes audible. In he mentions he never heard any sound that could be unequivo- cally considered as originating in the Aurora. 449). ' ii.. he is confident he perceived a hissing or whizzing sound. Encyc. Mr. Phil. when the confirmed by other testimony. This account of noises seems to be They are stated to have been heard at Hudson's Bay and in Sweden and Musschenbroek mentions that the Greenland whale-fishers assured him they had frequently heard the noise of the Aurora Borealis. with such a and rushing noise through the off. " Spolochi chodjat — that is. Gmelin an Arctic Aurora. a similar fact (American Trans. at 10 p. in his its New Hampshire. although he had had an oppor- tunity of observing that was registered attend its at phenomenon for upwards of 200 nights (the Aurora Bear Lake 343 times without any sound being heard to . to add — : is stated. to Musschenbroek. too. Naime northern lights were very bright. ing. p. fire- attended. Belknap.m. it is Noises attending Aurone. The raging host is pass- The hunter's dogs. Cavallo. On the 11th Maixh. as I have heard from the relation of many persons. North America. Cftvallo declares he " has repeatedly heard a crackling sound proceeding from the Aurora Borealis" (Elements of Nat. of which. Belknap of Dover. the natives are " Gmelin affirms tliem. p." them. iii. 33 CHAPTER V. said to use the expression. Sir Sea ' : — " Nor could we distinguish detail.SOME QUALITIES OF THE AUEOBA. SOME QUALITIES OF THE AUEORA. Franklin negatives however. John Franklin mentions. . Noises attending Aurorce. 196). such strong testimony has been given to us that no doubt can remain of the fact. In the Edinb. F . are also described as so much frightened lie when Other testi- the Aurorge overtake the hunters. but obstinately on the ground till the noise has passed." air. hissing. but adds that " no person in Holland had ever experienced this phenomenon. in continuation of his description of " For however fine the illumination may be. cracking. vol. as if the largest works were playing To describe what they then heard. mony them. Journey to the Shores of the Polar Sir John (the Aurora's) rustling noise. vol.

edition ix. referring to the statements of Greenlanders and others on the subject. states that the and Aurora was never accompanied by Lieut. be accompanied with sound. On met with an instance of noise accompanying an the whole the balance of evidence seems quite accompanying Aurora. but Mr." — unbroken Herr Carl Bock negar tives noises silence prevails. since a somewhat similar sound accompanies the brush- discharge of the electric machine. suggests noises as but. As also Weyprecht. who accompanied the Laplanders visiting this country (at the Westminster Aquarium) in 1877-78. through the air. that the capillary stream of blue light was decreased in volume and brightness. Wentzel assured the party the noise was occasioned by severe cold succeeding mild weather. first voyage. brilliant auroral in the case of me he could trace no noise. Auroral noises in It has stated.. and acting upon the surface of the the snow. by the remainder broke away in portions. snow previously melted in the sun's rays." connexion with a telegraph wire during the Aurora Borealis In experimenting with a silicic but no further details are given.' that telephone. same expedition. Article In the article " Aurora Polaris. of the noise. The Laplanders themselves did not associate any special noise with the Aurora. which seemed to proceed Explained to arise from from the Aurora .. was heard. telephone in "has observed the most curious sounds produced from a . Sabine also negatives noise. Professor Peirce Einging sound in vacuum-tube under influence of magnet. . we think. Brit. on the magnet being excited. ITS CHAEACTEES. and after a mass had passed E. which he attributed to the wind. we listen . or slightly metallic ringing sound Adverse conclusion as to noises I certainly have never Aurora and traced to it. when he heard a been recently sort of rustling. In Parry's Island. noise. in an article on the Telephone in ' Nature.N. Payer nega^ tives Payer. the writer admits " Aurora Polaris.. and discredits the alleged accounts discredits of noises in the Shetlands and Siberia. p 14): " Involuntarily such a spectacle must. of the Austrian Polar Expedition (1872-1874). assured sion. N. concludes there is no a ])riori improbability of such sounds being not improbable. except on one occa- Lapland AurorsB. not the least Herr Carl Bock. fluoride vacuum-tube between the poles of an electro-magnet. says {anti. but no sound could be heard." Encyc. and who witnessed many displays in Lapland. and at the same time from within the tube a peculiar whistling was heard. I found.34 Hissing noise heard during Aurora's pas- THE AUEOEA AND . adverse to any proof of noises proper ordinarily accompanying an Aurora. S. occasionally heard. Weyprecht. Encyc. Capt. like that of a bullet passing A hissing sage.Brit. but sound strikes on the ear. which crossed about 40° of the sky with great rapidity." the evidence of scientific Arctic voyagers having listened in vain for such noises . Captain Sabine describes an Aurora seen at Melville vert/ and adds that the Aurora had the appearance of being near the party. A similar noise was heard the next morning.W.

John Franklin considered the colours in the Polar Aurora did not depend on the presence of any luminary. spectrum. and the sky presented a weird and wonderful appearance. He also saw violet in the former. coming Aurora. red rose. and only became pink as they neared the zenith. yellow. comprising the . When the Aurora faded away a true starlight-niglit sky appeared . black alternating matter characteristic of elemental electricity. E. and then only when that motion was rapid and the light brilSir liant. and Other obserA-ers have described all colours of the upper with orange. The red streamers rose. Allnatt at Frant describes virid colours of same extending from light. in a letter to 'Nature.. and attributed this to the mixing up of rays and streamers of blackness out of the long low arch. Allnatt. observed to shift or change. Other observers rays or beams as red. says that when the maximum development was reached all the heavens were more or less covered with pink first by means of a long low arch of blackness.. A dark rugged cloud. tlio Colour* of Aurora. except towards the N. or crimson colour is is Violet seems less frequently mentioned. Sir . have. 35 Colours of the Aurora. and then by the streamers which shot up from this arch. in their various descriptions of Auroras. Dr. he says. 1872. some 8 degrees E. and The colours have frequently been describing Crimson indicates coming Aurora. was a bright insulated spot of vivid appeared almost objects. and damask The Professor pointed out that the spectroscope knew no variety of reds giving one red line only.John The lower extremities. 1872. was illuminated at its upper edge with a pale yellow with green and the and sent up volumes of carmine radii interspersed Aurora. as seen at Edinburgh. 4. S. of the zenith. A dark elliptical cloud Dr. as seen at Edinburgh. was surrounded by electric p2 . for several degrees of their height. so that evidently the dark arch and streamers were as much part of the Aurora as the green and red lights. which were green and grey only Smyth describes co- ascending streamers. at Frant. Piazzi February 4th. Piazzi Smyth. which was dark and grey — lours of Aurora of Feb.' the Aurora of Prof. Violet rare. range of the spectrum. to S. in fact. found in the case of the same Aurora the south-western part of the heavens tinged by a bright crimson band. Almost due and of about 25 degrees elevation. but were generated by the motion of the beams.E. Prof. &c. which intense to cast a faint shadow from intercepting At 7 o'clock the Aurora had passed the zenith. Franklin's views. transparent to large stars. sufiiciently emerald-green. green.SOME QUALITIES OF THE AURORA. varied from orange to rose-pink. quivered with a fiery red colour. first The red frequently the indication of the usually seen on or near the horizon. mentioned the colours of the crimson.

and violet lines of the gas were seen to change in intensity in accordance with the light colour seen in the tube. of the rosy tint peculiar to a nitrogen vacuum-tube. in Lancashire. The . coil. with an ap- parent increase in impetuosity Change from rosy to violet hue. and the time of exposure exactly the same. plate XXV. On excitation of the electro-magnet. The capillary part of this tube. but always with the same result. One plate was taken with the tube in Difference in. the apparatus undis- turbed. We Photographic plates taken. The Auroras seen in Lapland by Herr Carl Bock. Lapland Auroree yellow. and is of a hydrogen Geissler vacuum-tube will be subsequently referred to in the Chapter on the comparison of some tubes with the Aurora coil. . its normal condition. the other while it was under the influence of the magnet. taking care that all things should be as equal as possible. according to the When a spectroscope was nsed. . white. N. blood-red. The behaviour spectrum. the red. eflfect as the violet ray would have more photographic than the rosy. the rays were described as glowing in the . changed from a rosy to a well-marked violet hue. except that the plate of the tube influenced by the magnet was decidedly the These plates eff'ectually brightest. —carmine. dominant colour. almost invariably yeUow he saw only one red one. he informed me. At Blackburn. this tube Of the spectrum of the capillary part of we took photographic plates with quartz prisms and lenses. except at the violet pole. ' and was found to penetrate more into the violet region (the Author's p.' corroborated the change of colour.E. and the magnet excited by four large double-plate bichromate The stream was steady and brilliant. the armatures just being clear of the outside of the tube. green. but in a less degree the bulbs also of the tube. and not only the capillary part. when lighted by a small was found to vary in tint — silver-white.). from silvery white to deepest crimson and at Cambridge the same Aurora was described as of a brilliant carmine tint. and. The spectra were identical. suggestive as to Aurora colours. burn and Cambridge. and crimson being each in sucworking of the break of the cession the coil. the discharge was seen to diminish in volume. influ- a large electro-magnet.86 light of all hues THE AUEOEA AND ITS CHAEACTEES. Hydrogen vacuum-tube suggestive of Aurora colours. bright green. Variation of colour in nitrogen tube A Geissler nitrogen vacuum-tube was of it also so arranged that the capillary part should be vertically between the conical extremities of the armatures of under net. 60. ence of mag- The tube was then of light lighted up by a small cells. Variation of tints in. several times connected and disconnected the magnet with its batteries. and black and the bright spot Descriptious at Black- still existed in the south. were. Photographed Spectra. yellow. blue.

Chapter XII. and 27 from Cumberland House. 7 miles was not visible. it miles from the earth." it is dependent in some degree upon the cloudy : — " The And observations of Dr.) Height of the Aurora. Aurora flashing across the sky ascribed to motion inconsistent with the height of 60 or 70 miles.m. appeared in the form of an arch. '20. 53° 36' earth. menon further is frequently seated within the region of the clouds. On the 7th April the Aurora was again in the zenith before 10 p.. and it 40" N. S. long. quadrants and chronometers having Sir Observations of Lieut. 103° 7' 17". 102° 31' 41". It was estimated that the beam was not more than from the earth..N. and bearing It was therefore 7 miles from the in lat.m. not magnetic] Sir J. forming a confused beam not more than 7 mass of N.m. at Cumberland House. Richardson at Cumberland House. stationary. Franklin says this gists of that period : was opposed Sir John he also noticed he had sometimes seen an attenuated in a single second. '21.SOME QUALITIES OF THE AUEOEA. Kichardson. Eichardson point particularly to the at Aurora being formed no great elevation. '22) says: —"My notes Height of Aurora.. R. Eobert Hood been prepared for the purpose. During this time it was between 6 and 7 miles from the earth. centre always bearing tween 6 and 7 miles from the earth. 58° 22' 48" N. Fifty-five miles and Dr. long. An arch 7 miles from the earth. O** The 9'' altitude of the highest of two concentric arches at 15° 0' 0". N. Richardson in proving that that pheno- John Franklin considers it vrithin the region of the clouds. 0' On the 2nd April the altitude of a brilliant beam was 10° it 0" at 10'' 1™ 0^ at Cumberland House. and that state of the atmosphere. such as the formation of one or other of the various modifications of cirro-stratus. was 9°. by E.W. certain other atmospheric phenomena. about 9° high. at 30" An arch be- was 11° 30'." John Franklin also refers to notes from the Journal of Lieut. on an Aurora: Tho observations were made at Basquian House. Sir upon the appearance of the Aurora coincide with those of Dr. with a quickness of Franklin's remarks. had hitherto been . and that it is dependent upon At no great elevation. its p. and in lat. flashes and beams. by E. On the Gth April A the Aurora was for some hours in the zenith at that place. (A ' similar experiment will be found also detailed in Part III. to the general opinion of meteorolo- [The bearings are true. and at lO*" O"" 0« p. and at the same time by Dr. Robert Hood. the least that it.S. Sir John Frankliii (Narrative of a Journey on the Shores of the Polar Sea in the years 1819. 87 identity of the spectra of the capillary part proved that the change in colour could not have proceeded from an extension of the violet glow.

however. edition ix. Sir W. so that gleams of light Grove's observation at Chester. Aurora at Chester. E.. 130 miles.M. Richardson's conclusions. which projected into the sea. 192) speaks of the height of Auroras . he saw a white ray of the Aurora. has related to me an appearance he was struck with. September 11.. 23).. of Beak Street. Backhouse's instanced as having calculated the height of an Aurora in the north of Eng- land at 100 miles result of . Lardner Museum of Science and Art. at a time when the Aurora was distinctly seen passing between a stratum of cloud and the earth Dr. disturbed. Mr. Dalton is 100 miles. and Backhouse as having made many calculations. that the had a strong impression Kyle bow was near which the earth. cludes that his notes prove. too. and records that he and two companions saw a bright ray of the Aurora shoot down from the general mass of light between him and the (' land. Ladd The author's observation at also informed me that Prof. is quoted for the height of 28 Aurorse (calculated Prof. . 50 to 100 nules. Newton.38 THE AUEOEA AND The needle was most ITS CHARACTERS. fleecy clouds in was involved. or immediately precedes. altitude of then met by a reference to the observed some meteors. Herschel's that electric repulsion (' may carry air or other matter up to a great height. 1821. and it was inferred from this and other appearances that the distance Dr. Skye. and is inclined to infer that the Aurora Borealis constantly accompanied by. pointed out that a height of 62 miles above the difficulty. Dalton's calculation of In the article " Aurora Encyc. and some it Akin. x. Regent Street. Standing in the evening in Margate Harbour. by one observation of altitude and New- amplitude of an arch) as ranging from 33 to 281 miles. continuous with the streamers were to be seen between him and the houses " he seemed to be in the Aurora. Captain Parry observed Auroraj near the Earth's surface. Richardson conis is of the Aurora from the earth varied on different nights. Captain Parry observed Aurorse near the earth's surface . p. which was distant some ') 3000 yards. Mr. independent of all theory. when the flashes appeared close. with a mean of mean 130 mHes.' vol. It is. and to a suggestion of Prof. ton. Brit. R. and examined carefully. that the Aurora occasionally seated in a region of the air below a species of cloud which known is to possess no altitude . the formation of one or other of the forms of cirro-stratus. and thought that the eastern end. I me in the Isle of Skye. In the double-arc Aui'ora seen by p." Mr. with the Prof. which. P. 1874 (described ante." the distant mountains. was clearly placed between his eye and the opposite head of the pier. an average height of 50 to 100 miles. earth's surface would imply a vacuum attainable with This difficulty is even with the Sprengel pump. February 13. Dr. apparently shooting downwards. Ladd. were between myself and the peaks of Polaris. Grove Correlation of Physical Forces saw an Sir W. Balfour assured him that such an appear- ance was not unusual. Ladd's observation at Margate.

The esti- 23rd February. few miles. Thompson assuaies considerable height. from an observation of the luminous arches on a base of 22 miles. Boscovich 825 Mairan supposed the thousands of miles. and even leaving meteors (Phil. 54. though methods are mentioned how miles. p. 153). Dr. from a mean of 30 computations. lowest is. after noticing that the beams of the Aurora were most frequently seen in the direction of open water. Prof. of Miinster. Fournerius. Opusc. with heights in English miles. in his Antarctic voyage. miles. the height of the iv. vol. observed in the years 1621 to 1793. exhibited at the recent Scientific at Loan Collection South Kensington (' Official Catalogue. Dr.SOME QUALITIES OP THE AUKOBA. 430) a table of Aurorae. 1006 miles! The average of the 31 miles. Ixxiv.' vol. No. 23rd October. 1231) an instrument for the determination of the position of the point of convergence . 468 miles. pp. darting about with great velocity. 296. p. Dr. limited their height to about to 100 miles..' 3rd edit. the highest. 'Annals of Philosophy. which he supposed instances were —remarking that Euler several thousand miles. upon record in which northern lights had been seen to join and form luminous balls. makes the height of the phe- Bergman estimates height as nomenon to be 72 Swedish (about 468 English) miles. M'Clintock. of 31 Auroras His table. p. Captain Ross. they might be. a train behind them like common Mr. Average of 31 observations. 1727. and the colder hcattributed to electric action. that of most other meteorological appearances. Dalton 150 miles. 39 Elevation of but considers them atmospheric phenomena it scarcely above the region of the clouds. and gives (p. Bo88 saw Aurone on an icecii£P. p. Father Boscovich calculated the height of an Aurora Borealis observed on the 16th December. however. number of Aurorae to be at least 600 miles Euler assigned them an elevation of several be the region of fireballs Mairan 600 miles. Trans. Dalton. as not certainly ascertained . 1751. Dr. mainly taken from Bergman. Blagden. saw the bright line of the vertical Aurora forming a range of beams along the top of an ice-cliflF. 62 miles. 429 (1814). 1784. Blagden about loO miles. found the altitude of the Aurora to be about 150 miles (Dal ton's 'Meteorological Observations and Essays. 291. Thompson. suggested this was produced by electrical action taking place between the which vaporous mist thrown upwards by the waves against the berg. to have been 825 miles. atmosphere with which the latter was surrounded. says that in some cases patches of light M'Clintock's otjservations. far greater above the surface of the earth. mated observations gives a height of about 500 It is not stated Sou how these observations were obtained. and does not think probable that Aurone cannot exceed a their elevation in any case can exceed a few miles. Heis. Bei^man. assumes that beams above the surface of the earth was much greater than v. London (Cavendish). and Capt.' 1793. could be plainly seen a few feet above a small mass of vapour over an opening in the ice. 227).

d being the distance from the observer centre of curvature of the nearest part of this belt (for England. long. 2a its amplitude on the horizon. its h the apparent altitude of the arch.40 Prof.. are arcs of circles. xxix. a from Professor Newton's. when the instrument was set to the astronopencils of Aurora. to be arrived at are certainly very puzzling. were covered by the rod which passed through the centre of the ball. and for determining the height of the Aurora. vol. 2nd ser. Heis's apparatus before described. W. A. lat. cxlvi. x height. Ann. R the earth's radius. Journ. of which the centre is It assumes that the auroral arches the magnetic axis of the earth. 281 and a of Galle has suggested (Pogg. so that several diverging mining height of AurorsB. of the rays of the Aurora.). p. The to some Aurorae seems is left The height which these phenomena may ascend almost a matter of conjecture. ball resting in a A instrument for deter- pan was to be brought into position. showed the azimuth and altitude of the converging point of the pencils of light. . The point of the rod (which could be moved up and down in the ball).=R-(secc-l) Gave a height from This method with 28 Aurorse gave a height from 33 to 281 miles and a mean of 130 miles. Newton (Sil. 33 to miles. points. when properly viewed. Professor Newton 50° finds that. and probably also to to the the narrow belt or ring surrounding the magnetic and astronomical poles. and further observations are very desirable. H. Newton's method of calculating height. differ materially The results do not The conclusions well established. mical meridian. 286) has proposed a method of calculating the height of Auroras by one observation Professor of altitude and amplitude of an arch. from the foregoing instances and opinions terrestrial character of principle which has been adopted in Prof. of Science. 130 might be calculated from the amount of divergence between the apparent altitude of the auroral corona and that indicated by the dipping-needle. Heis's THE ATJEOEA AND ITS CHAEACTEES. 133) that the height of Aurorae mean miles. and c the distance of the : observer from the ends of the arch sin ^=sin<?cos a cosec((^+A) (1) (2) (3) tan c=z sin A sin ^ sec ^^ a. situated about 75° N. p. This point of convergence does not coincide with the point to which the inclination-needle directs. or at least that they are nearly parallel to the earth's surface. the height of the Professor From the deviation of the two Aurora could be calculated.

which melted away into the darkness of the starry sky.. and says the light was estimated as equal to that of the moon when a Besides the pale light. and that he saw rays. and occasionally shone with a sort of phosphorescence. M'Clintock does not imagine that the Aurora M'Clintock: ever Aisible in a perfectly clear atmosphere. and outside this two fainter coronae. atmospben?. on the 9th Phoapbore»eenoe. . This Aurora was repeatedly seen on the following day. in Skye. After the cloud had sunk below the horizon the glories Storm-cloud surrounded by glories of a phosphorescent whiteness. Silbennann (' PhospboTMcent bands. 1865. Nicholson. a stormy cloud was observed in the Shone with a sort of phosphoreacence. which extended over the sky. and afterwards more abundant rain. and by Dr. at 11 p. in a letter to me.' p. Robinson in Ireland. similar to those of the Aurora. 420). and CoUa. towards the zenith. the Abbe Other obser- Rozier. from their tops. Phosphorescence.m.SOME QUALITIES OF THE AURORA. p. but in much rarer cases they became perfectly rectilinear and surrounded the cloud like a glory. 1869. week but no other colours.m.. M. never visible in a perfectly clear and with a few vertical rays feebly vibrating.W. seems in many instances to form part of the Aurora. Storm- tufts of cirri first. He Island. silvering or rendering He Aurora is has often observed it just luminous the upper edge of low fog or cloud-banks. and resolved (I donds which threw out cirri. and to observations by Beccaria. a slight tinge of red was noticed when the Aurora was most vi\id .N. 41 In the voyage of the ' Hansa ' (' Recent Polar Voyages. cloud itself. and lightning was seen in the dark cumulous mass." but the phantasmagoria quickly vanished. ending in a copious discharge of rain attended with loud thunder and vivid lightning. On the night of 6th September. at 10 p. Sabine"* were Sabine mentions a cloud frequently enveloping Loch Scavaig. Skye. 1120) mentions storm-clouds which threw out into. Verdeil at Lausanne in 1753. 6 . saw a fine day example of this on the Lago di Guarda. fine. shooting " Radiant sheaves and phosphorescent bands mounted towards the south. still visible.) Usually the fibres were sinuous . as being at night perfectly self-luminous. suspects that the Aurora generally formed Procter suspects in a sort of " mist or imperfect vapour . luminous clouds. Sabine also refers to luminous clouds mentioned in Gilbert's Annals.\round this mass extended glories of a phosphorescent whiteness. and to luminous vations of mists as observed by Dr. old. Comptes Rendus. September.. also describes (Parry's First Voyage) an Aurora seen at Melville Aurora at Melville Island. N. " and this mist or imperfect vapour its is Aurora is formed in a mist. and to partake of self-luminous character. Deluc. which resembled the combitstion of phosphorus. is Mr Procter. Aurora gleams appeared in the west.' Ixviii. Round the cloud was a corona. but produced in the luminous cloud at Loch Scavaig.

42
Aurora of
Feb. 4, 1874.
Illuminated
fog-cloud.

THE AUEOEA

AJS^D ITS

CHAEACTEES.
is

An

instance of apparent phosphorescence

supplied by the Aurora of the

4th February, 1874 (ante),

when

a bright cloud of light was seen which gave

the impression of an " illuminated fog-cloud."

Captain

S.

P. Oliver saw at

Capt. Oliver's meteor-

Buncrana, Co. Donegal, on February
cloud,
viz.

4,

1874, what he describes as a meteor-

cloud.

" a broad band of silvery white and luminous cloud."

This

appearance, as described by another correspondent, was evidently an imperplay,

Auroral dis24th Oct., 1870.

fectly

formed (perhaps actually forming) Auroral

arc.

The

great Auroral

display of the 24th of October, 1870, as seen by me, included, according to

Streamers of phosphorescent
cloud.

my

notes

made

at the time, " streamers of

opaque white phosphorescent

cloud, very diiferent from the

more common transparent Auroral diverging
1872, at Frant, Dr. Allnatt says
cirro-stratus
:

streams of light."

Aurora of
Feb. 4, 1872, at Frant.

Describing the Aurora of February

4,

"

At a

later

hour of the night the canopy of

had separated, and

was transformed into luminous masses of radiant cumulus.
Radii of phosphorescent light.

At 10.40 the
" *.

Aurora reappeared in the N., and sent luminous
light

radii of white phosjjJiorescent

from the periphery of a segment of a perfectly circular arch
first

The author's
description
of

Again, February 4th, 1872, as described by me, the

signs of the

same

Aurora were

(in dull daylight) a lurid tinge
fire
;

Aurora.

the reflection of a distant

upon the clouds, which suggested while scattered among these, " torn and broken
"

Masses of
phosphorescent vapour.

masses of white vapour having a phosphorescent appearance
of a similar observation in October 1870.

reminded

me

Day AurcraB
must have a
phosphorescent glow.
o

The day Aurorse, which are elsewhere described, and are not very uncommon, could, we may presume, hardly be seen without the presence of Professor Angstrom, in his Aurora Memoir some phosphorescent glow.
(discussed elsewhere), in discussing the yellow-green line, considers the only

Angstrom
considers yellow-

probable explanation to be that
phorescence.
rays
;

it

owes

its

origin to fluorescence or phosis

green line due to fluorescence or

He

says that

some fluorescence

produced by the ultra-violet
be imagined, which, though

and adds, " an

electric discharge

may

easily

phosphorescence.

in itself of feeble light,

may be

rich in ultra-violet light,

and therefore in a

Oxygen and some of its compounds
phosphoretfcent.

condition to cause a suificiently strong fluorescent light." the fact that oxygen and some of
its

And he

refers to

compounds

are phosphorescent.

In the examination of certain spectra connected with the Aurora, detailed
in Part II., I have

shown that the bright edge of one of the phosphoretted
in close proximity to the yellow-green Auroral line.
I

A phosphoretted hy-

hydrogen bands
have
.also

is

drogen spectrumband is close
to yellow-

referred to the peculiar brightening by reduction of temperature of

one of the bands in the red end of the spectrum of phosphoretted hydrogen,
*

green
auroral line.

On

the occasion of the Aurora of September 24, 1870, Dr. AUnatt says, " the air seemed

literally alive

with the unwonted phosphorescence."

SOME QUALITIES OP THE AURORA.
so that

43
Phospboreacent or fluorescent after-glow of electric discharge.

from almost invisible

it

became

bright,

and to the peculiar brightening
"

of a line in the yellow-green in certain " Aurora
It

and phosphorescent tubes.
seems

has also been observed that the electric discharge has a phosphorescent or

fluorescent after-glove (isolated, I believe,

by Faraday).

It

difficult to

avoid in some

way connecting

all

these circumstances with the yellow-green

line of the Aurora, if not also

with the line in the red.

Mr. Sorby,
absorption
('

in his experiments

on the connexion between fluorescence and
'),

Sorby 's experi ment«

Monthly Microscopical Journal

found in the spectrum of a

on

fluores-

solution in alcohol of a strongly fluorescent substance called bonelleine (the

green colouring-matter found in the Aurelia Bonellia-viridis) two bright
bands, the one red and the other green, with centres respectively at G430

cence and absorption.
Bonelleine,

spectrum

of.

and 5880, and their

limits towards the blue

end at 6320 and 5820.

On
Coloured
layer of fungi.

its place to 6140. The superficial membranous coloured layer of the fungi Russula nitida and vesca in alcohol gave an absorption band with centre at 5640, while the spectrum of fluo-

adding an acid the red band changed

rescence extended

to 4400.

A

solution of Oscillatorice in water gave a
;

Spectrum of
(heiHatorue,

spectrum of absorption with bands at 6200 and 5690
fluorescence

while the spectrum of

showed two bright bands having

their centres at

6470 and 5800,

and their limits towards the blue end at 6320 and 5710.
These instances of course cannot be connected with the Aurora except as
showing the spectrum region and
extending from somewhat below
o

Sea pbosphorescence. a continuous spectrum.

lines of fluorescence.

The

sea phospho-

rescence, according to Professor Piazzi Smyth, has a continuous spectrum

E

to

near

F

(Plate V.

flg. 3).

Angstrom, on the occasion of the starry night when he found traces of the
green line in
all parts

Angstrom
liuas the" sky almost phosphorescent.

of the heavens, speaks of the sky as being " almost

phosphorescent."

The author

of the Aurora article in the Encyc. Brit, suggests that the

phosphorescent or fluorescent light attributed to the Aurora
chemical action.

may be due
it

Author
to

of

He

o

article in

also

questions

Angstrom's assumption that water-

Encyc. Brit.
suggests that the

vapour

is

absent in the higher atmosphere, and thinks that

and other

bodies may, by electric repulsion, be carried above the level they would
attain

by

gravity.

He

phosphorescent or fluorescent light may be due
to chemical
action.

then continues that

if

discharges take place between
cirri (as Silberit is

the small sensible particles of water or ice in the form of

mann

has shown to be likely) surface decomposition would ensue, and

highly probable the nascent gases would combine with emission of light.

He

adds " that

it

has been almost proved that in the case of hydrogen
its

phosphide the very characteristic spectrum (light 1) produced by
bustion
is

combut

due neither

to the elements nor to the products of combustion,

g2

44
to

THE AUEOEA AND
some peculiar action

ITS CHAEACTEES.

at the instant of

combination

;

and

it

is

quite pos-

sible that
Herschel's observation
of phospho-

under such circumstances as above described water might also give
Professor Herschel has referred to the phos-

an entirely new spectrum."
passed,

phorescent light which remains glowing in Geissler tubes after the spark has

rescence in Geissler and " garland "
tubes.

and to the

fact that

one of the globes of a " garland

"

tube which

was heated did not shine

after the spark

had passed, apparently because of

the action of heat on the ozone to which the phosphorescence might be due.
(See experiments on Mr. Browning's bulbed tube, Part III. Chap.

XV.)

Aurora and Ozone.
Aurora and
Ozone.
Smells of sulphur during

Accounts are given by

travellers in

Norway of

their being enveloped in the

Aurora, and perceiving a strong smell of sulphur, which was attributed to the
presence of ozone.
in

M. Paul EoUier,

the aeronaut, descended on a mountain

AuroMB

at-

Norway 1300 metres

high, and saw brilliant rays of the Aurora across a
light.

tributed to

thin mist

which glowed with a remarkable

To
('

his astonishment,

an

incomprehensible muttering caught his ear;

when
him

this ceased

he perceived a
p.

very strong smell of sulphur, almost suffocating
Question whether the oxygen of
the air may be changed into ozone.

Arctic Manual,'

726).

In the case of the Aurora, the question naturally arises whether the

oxygen of the
nitrogen

air

may be changed

into ozone, perhaps also

whether the

may

not be modified in some similar manner.

Ozone destroyed by
heat.

The absorption spectra of oxygen, and of the same gas in its form of ozone, may possibly differ but this can hardly happen in the case of incandescent
;

oxygen, for ozone

is

at once destroyed

by heat

at 300°,

and slowly at 100°,
If

and must be any
Ozone in a
large bell-

partially at least destroyed
to

by the heat of the discharge.

lines

were due

ozone in such a spectrum, we should expect they would

be weakened by heat and brightened by cold. In the case of a continued discharge in a large exhausted
presence of ozone in considerable
quantities
bell-receiver, the

receiver not

was manifested

to us

by

its

manifested in spectrum.

odour when the receiver was removed from the

pump but
;

the spectrum of

the stream of light did not appear to differ from that in Geissler tubes.

In a course of lectures at the Royal Institution in March 1878, on the
Professor Dewar demonstrates that ozone

Chemistry of the Organic World, Prof. Dewar appears to have demonstrated,
by Prof. Andrews' apparatus, that ozone
during the decomposition or re-expansion.
is

really condensed oxygen, and,
is

further, that during this condensation heat

absorbed, which

is

evolved

condensed oxygen.
is

He

also exhibited the oxidizing
its

power of ozone in

its

action on mercury,
in

and commented on

similar action

upon organic matter

forming

nitrates.

SOME QUALITIES OF THE AUEORA.
and on
its

45

remarkable bleaching properties, but added there was as yet no

proof of

its

combining with free nitrogen.

That peroxide of hydrogen

accompanies the formation of ozone by the slow combustion of phosphorus,

and that

this peroxide acts with ozone in

decomposing organic bodies, though

in an inexplicable

manner, the Professor considered to be proved.
strata of the atmosphere,

He

also

Befera to the
silent dis-

referred to the silent discharge probably perpetually going on between the

charge

upper and lower

and also between these and the
for

earth, accounting, as the Professor considered,

some of the chemical

between the atmosplwre and
the earth.

actions

whereby nitrogenous compounds are formed

in the soil.

As

far as I

am

aware, no information as to a possible spectrum of ozone,
its

No

spec-

or a modification of the oxygen or other spectra by

presence, has,

up

trum of
to
ozone obtained.

the present time, been obtained
It has

*.

been suggested by Mr. Procter and myself that the electric discharge
if

Suggestion
to subject
electric dis-

in

an exhausted moist tube,

subjected to a considerable degree of cold,

might produce a modification of the air-spectrum, perhaps even a spectrum
analogous to that of the Aurora.

charge to
influence of
cold.

For some further notes on

this subject see

Appendix

D (Aurora and Ozone).

Polarization of the Aurora Light.

In

'

Nature,' vol.

vii. p.

201,

is

contained an account of observations of the

polarization

of the zodiacal light and of the Aurora, by Mr. A.

Cowper

Polarization of the Aurora light.

Ranyard, who, using both a double-image prism and a Savart on the great

Mr.Ranyard
found none.

Aurora of February 4th, 1872, detected no trace of polarization.

He

also

examined a smaller one of 10th November, 1871, with a
Mr. Fleming (who
refers to these observations)

like result.

remarks that the only other

account he had met with was contained in Prof. Stephen Alexander's Report

on his Expedition to Labrador, given
Report for 1860,
p. 30.

in

Appendix 21 of the U.S. Coast Survey
Prof. Alexander found

Professor Alexander found strong polarization with

a Savart's polariscope, and thought that the dark parts of the Aurora gave
the strongest polarization.

strong polarization in latitude 60°,

This was in latitude about 60°, at the beginning
It is
is

of July, and near midnight.

not stated whether there was twihght or

air-polarization at the time, nor

the plane of polarization given.

The question
are

naturally arises, especially as the darkest parts of the Aurora

usually situated low

down near the

horizon, whether the polarization in

the latter case did not proceed from the atmosphere and not from the Aurora
• See, however, Dr. Schuster's
p.

article

"

On

the Spectra of Lightning," Phil. Mag.

May

1879,

316.

^g
Mr. Shroeder found itself

THE ATJEORA AND
Mr. Shroeder found no

ITS

CHAEACTEES.
the Aurora
of

in traces of polarization

no

February 4th, 1872.

Aurora wxth some dehcate Further examinations of the

polariza-

tion.

Polarization not found in

the zodiacal light ; except faint
traces

by

Mr. Burton.

very desirable. form of polariscope would seem dso '^^ ^'^ht of the Xidenca of polarisation in the h. wn, Eanyard pointing out observa.onBO almost entirelj negative-Mr. Mr. Burton result. of Mr. Lockyer with this of Cantain Tnnman, and when the bands were par^lel .o as to give a black centre n in^a faint trace, of Pol--"°" polarization, believed he detected to the plane of bauds being (as seen in Sicily), the

Xe

^

-f

je™

slrtL

light brightest parts of the zodiacal the cone of coincided with the axis of blaci-Intred when their direction when examining the slight rernain. Burton saw no trace of bands

n he

Ught

"'>'''"' '° Mr. apart from the zodiacal light. and with the same observations on the same evening roufirn. Mr. Barton's

M

iT twilight
instrument.

K-J-^w-

lf„,„ier

of Aunrw.

Number
Aurowe.
Sir

of

John

Franklin's observations.
Periodicity
as to days not established.

1820, Arctic Regions, in the Jears 1819 John Fiunklin saw in the three, in September two Aurora,, in October 1821 1822 -In the month of February seven, ,n in January five, in November three, in December two, in May eleven. March sixteen, in April fifteen, and tain no certain law and though ce as to days seems to have
Sir

P

;

riodicity

are marked days in February and March accidental. thev must be looked on as

displays, as those of fine returning
.
,

Maxima and
minima.

^ ^ October (the to occur in March and Tw" well-marked annual maxima seem January, the greater two minima in June and latter the greater), and same day 1874, are, The 4th of February, 1872, and Brit'.

/.t,

m

Jule (Encyc.

Ksemtz's
table.

recurring remarkable display. however, curious instances of a each month of the number of Auroras in table by Ka^mtz, showing found on as above stated, will be wTth the maxima and minima the ye

r

t

Dr. Hayes's
observations in winter of

'''Dr Ha'yes

tas observed that

in the winter of

1860-61.
Captain Maguire's
observations
at Point

Barrow as to number and time of
appearances

at its eleven years' inequality was and short in duration. recorded and they were feeble reports that the Aurora was Maguire, at Point Barrow (18.52^64), C h rd o 1079 occasions, being nearly one days out of seven, and on seen between 9 a.m. and 5 p.m. not It was seldom seen the hourly observations. and rapdly from and 4 P.M. It increased regularly It il, between 10 A.M. way -'' » *-^then diminished in the same

1860-61 (when the ten or and maximum) only three Aurora were seen

ptl

L

6 P.M. until 1

».M.,

and

The

singularly deficient

the springs of 1878 and 1879 winters of 1877 and 1878 and Guildown. I have seen none at in Aurora.

have been

March. 8ihrs. and he arrived at the result that the Aurora of February 4. Donati undertook to study the Aurora with reference to the mode of its extension. maximum. With respect to Captain Maguire's observations {anti) it may be remarked Auroras that Aurorse may doubtless frequently run on into and through the day may without their being noticed (instances.SOME QUALITIES OF THE ATJROHA. and hence it is difficult to judge of the limit of duration of a for during the day (by the particular Aurora unless indications are sought shapes of clouds. action of the magnet. the places embracing in one latitude the considerable extent of longitude.. known of Aurorae seen run on into the day without being noticed. of stations. 9 124 hrs. in the course of a few minutes. 9|hr8. which do not share in the The Minister of Foreign asking them the necessary forty-two Affairs sent a circular to all Italian Consuls.. hr. results. Middle . 17 13 Western . and in reply received reports from Con- places in our hemisphere and from four in the southern. Musschenbroek Sometimes a fewmiuutet... Mean longitude No. W. 5 hrs. Duration of Aurora. of zone. The Travelling of Auroras. phenomena. Sometimes other times it is it formed and disappears hours or during Duration of Aurora. moment . Eastern . E. 38 mins. or even for two or three days together. was not observed in different regions of the earth in the same physical Donati's investigations.. 11| hrs. questions .. 5 mins. are in daylight) . E. Si hrs. Travelling of AurorsB. 2 hrs. hut everywhere at the same local hour. . Questions sent to Italian suls. as in the case of celestial earth's rotation. 9|hrs. however. Mean hour of Mean hour of end. Probably Auroras seen during successive nights may be parts of a continuous discharge.. At lasts for the whole night. Encyc' before referred to some remarks are made on the duration of the Aurora. and another in 1735 which lasted from the 22nd to the 31st times the whole night or even days. 20 mins. 1872.. 240 degrees of An is epitome of the tables (in which the results are divided into three zones) : as follows Table of Zone.. &c. 47 In the article in the ' Edinb.) as well as during the night. at other observed one in 1734 which he considered to have lasted ten days and nights successively.

as these meridians. assume . and Peter- bution of Auroras. from China the Aurora passed . and crossed the Atlantic It was invisible in Central and Continent as far as California. to the local Third period. they were observed in the east of our hemisphere in China (but not in Japan). decrease. or vice versa atmosphere which of the Aurora could only be observed in those parts of the . Donati concluded that these facts were not reconcilable with the theory of the Aurora depending on meteorological and electro-magnetic phenomena of the globe. Second period. First period of origin. the normal) the Aurora passed over Europe from east to west with regularity and a continuous brightness served in America. too. same position to the current. but a ten-yearly period of the Aurora. . during which it passed on from Bombay to by Donati acquired a sudden increase of intensity in the third period (called South America. For the Aurora to be visible certain meteoro- logical and telluric circumstances must. The acceleminutes for ration on an average of the end of the phenomenon was twenty every hour of longitude. Donati supposed that the cosmic causes of the polar lights were electroE. increase of intensity. Donati's conclusions. Conceive an electric certain phenomena current going from the earth to the sun. American The Aurora passed through four periods.' vol. doubtless work together with the cosmical cause. was obx'^. the light phenomena of this Aurora :—That in began to show themselves in the extreme east of the southern hemisphere Eden and Melbourne shortly after. During these immense extensions it passed through four In the first (called by Donati the period of origin) the light of the periods. . in the Aurora was pretty weak. which coincides with that of sun-spots and terrestrial magnetism. second period. hour in the western stations than in the eastern. we have not a yearly. and the over the whole of Asia and Europe. by reason of the earth's rotation. Fourth period. from which it appears that the northern limit of Aurorse chosen by Professor . Since. continuous brightness. The the fourth period.urora had a tendency to end earlier in reference . light weak. This would explain the mode of propagation of the Aurora of 4th February. however. same Aurora. and have a determinate position or direction with reference to this current diiferent consequently these phenomena would be successively visible on the the meridians. that of decrease. Geograpliical Distri- Professors Fritz and raann's ' Loomis have investigated this subject.48 Extensions of the Aurora. and spread from Shanghai to Bombay it Taganrog.vplanation of mode of propagation of magnetic currents between the sun and the earth. Geographical Distribution of Aurorce {Fritz and Loomis). THE AUROEA AND Donati summed up the facts ITS CHARACTERS. contains a paper by the former. Mittheilungen. (1874). xx.

and by the Great Bear Lake to Hudson's Bay. on the northern coast of another zone of greatest America. Frite'i in England. Loomis'a line of fre- and St. and from the Northern Lights are seen in directions which are pretty much Assumed connexion between Aurora and iceformation. and also that they bear some relation to the limit of perpetual ice — tending most southward where. the their distribution. Professor Fritz has remarked that the curves of greater frequency tend towards the region of atmospheric pressure. Within this is another zone of greatest frequency and intensity. on by the northern ice-sea to frequency and in- tensity. as in ice limit comes further south. Stettin. which Within this passes just south of Point Barrow. past Krakau. chester. 72° N. while northwards of this line the Polar all stations Light is seen in' the direction towards the Equator . then on to Nain. Petersburg. in America and the Atlantic.SOME QUALITIES OF THE AURORA. and on just to the north of the Siberian coast to the south of Kellett Land. 49 Prof. thence through Northern California to the the same number of Aurorse are seen. Drontheim. to the northern end of Lake Baikal. These being most frequently seen over open water in the Arctic regions. parallel to the previous line to Ochotsk. on to the Sea of Ochotsk and to the Southern Aleutes. Wologda. quency.. to Edinburgh. has been referred to as noticed by Franklin and others. &c. ManProfessor Loomis places it and Prof. near to the North Cape. and coming down below 60° N. the frequency is represented by 100. He also endeavours to show a connexion betAveen the periods of maximum of Aurorae and those of ice-formation. with a line of frequency in This Ime nearly passes through Toronto. Loomis nearly coincided. Nova-Zembla and Cape Tschejuskin. The line for five Aurora annually went from Brest through Belgium. and including the most northern points of Siberia. where it reaches a latitude of 60°. between Tobolsk and Beresow. and just north of the Hebrides. thence returning to Point Barrow. on the coast of Labrador. through Switzerland. in lat. as far north as On a lino across Behring's Straits. then bending sharper to the northward. and considers ice to be an important local cause influencing North America. Almost exactly with the line of greatest frequency coincides the line forming the boundary of the direction of visibility of the Northern Light towards the Pole or towards the Equator . except Professor Fritz's paper. and to the south of Cape Farewell . The line for which annually nearly went from Bordeaux. it passes between Iceland and the Faroe Islands. and on to Brest. mouth of the Mississippi and to Bordeaux. normal to that curve and the entire system of isochasms. south of Moscow and Tobolsk. More or less parallel with this line are the lines on which annually nearly one Aurora annually Lines on the same number of Aurorse are seen. .

indeed certain parts of the same.Moberg's Finland observations by M. or that the causes producing the of a very local character . of 2878 days on which. while in phenomena must often be another portion of the phenomena the extent. M. observations has lately reviewed in Nature' (March 1878) and the result arrived at "After ten years. numbering 1100. and in the second 397 out of 715. in his paper in the Wochenschrift fiir Astronomie. of the whole number seen in Finland. Moberg's Finland 8. phenomena at the time of America on the same day increases Europe One third of With the increase of frequency of the maximum. Prof. and 1868 to 1872. for which hitherto corresponding observais Finland only small. The Table shows that of 2035 days of the mouths August to April on The Finland ' observations. in accordance with the known law that with the frequency the intensity and extent also increase. the first In the years 1846 to 1855. Eritz with those in other regions. and on 212 days in Fin. there appears no necessity to change Herr Fritz's system of curves in any essential detail at first only based . Aurorse seen in America and Europe simultaneously. On 958 days Northern Lights were visible in Europe and America in Finland. and for Finland. while those observed in Finland and only. the Northern Lights were seen. there were in period 657 Northern-Light days common to America and Europe out of 1691. Moberg in his Polarlichter Katalogue of Northern Lights in the years 1846-55. the number observed in Finland and . Extent and principal Zone of the Aurora.' with the auroral phenomena of the same period in all other regions. or 19 per cent. The comparison by been that. which were on probability and supposition (the part of the principal zone between the north of Norway and Nishen Kolynisk as an instance). which Northern Lights were seen. have been compared by Prof. land only. Between 1826 and 1855. 1107 days were those of Northern Lights On 794 they were visible simultaneously in America. or the regions of simultaneous appearance are very considerable. or in Finland only. published ' ' (1846-55) compared by Prof. which were not visible All these numbers refer only to the months August to April.50 THE AURORA AND ITS CHARACTERS. as in the remaining months the brightness of the night in Finland makes such observations impossible. mostly also in Europe on 101 days in Europe only. very small —212. we . in spite of the vastly accumulated material of careful observations. The conclusion is arrived at that a large portion of Aurorse have no very great extension. from other lands are wanting. decreased. there were 1065 on which they were also visible in Europe so that at least every third . Fritz. in America. day of Aurora? was common to both these portions of the globe. Extent and principal zone of Aurora. Fritz of ' M. Number limited to The number tions limited to Finland.

These displays were seen in England and America n2 . ^T** ""'«»' *^ not in favour The winter of 1870 was remarkable for brilliant displays and the displays of October 24th and 25th. were remarkably brilliant in England and in America also. nature. 1870. the local occurrence of Aurora.SOME QUALITIES OF THE AUKOKa. Madras. with streamers stretching upward from them. ^Im*^"^. now know with perfect certainty to be correct." is 61 l^ati oc- It has been remarked that not in accordance with the hypothesis of the phenomenon being one of a cosmical nature. and the Aurora Australis was seen on the same days at . in the daytime as patches or coronas of white light.

" for the purpose of showing the moderate distance he found it to be above the earth and his inference is " Aurora Borealis is constantly accompanied by or there mentioned. Apparent polarity of made to cross the magnetic meridian nearly at right should be thereafter proved that its Dr. the Aurora appeared in small detached masses for some time before it assumed that con- . made many recorded observations on the connexion of clouds with the Aurora Borealis in the Polar regions. THE AUEOEA IN CONNEXION WITH OTHEE PHENOMENA.) Dr.Eiehardson's obser- vations. perhaps connected with a motion of the electric Dr. CHAPTER VI. 1. that the . while the emission of light might be produced by another —a change in their internal constitution fluid. there were or only a few attenuated shoots of cirro-stratus floating in the so rare that its existence when that cloud was was only known by the production of a halo round streaks of cirro-stratus in connexion the moon. so long ago as the years 1819-1822. might perhaps be ascribed to the clouds themselves which emit the light or. 1820. were angles. by which their long diameters." On the 13th November and 18th December. Richardson further suggests that if it Aurora might perhaps be ascribed to the clouds themselves. the clouds might assume their peculiar arrangement through the operation of one cause (magnetism. Auroras and clouds. apparent polarity .52 THE ALTIOEA AlUB ITS CHAEACTEES. Dr. the concirro- cedes the nexion of an Aurora with a cloud intermediate between cirrus and stratus is formation of cirrostratus. cerned in cirro-stratus clouds. Aurora constantly ac- companied by or immediately pre- immediately precedes the formation of one or other of the various kinds of cirro-stratus. It is. the Aurora depends upon the existence of certain clouds. in other words. a sketch of which Polarity dis- reproduced on Plate VI. section " Height of the Aurora.. fig. on some occasions. for instance). however. Richardson further remarks that. mentioned. discerned a polarity in the masses of clouds belonging to a certain kind of cirro-stratus (approaching cirrus). Some of these are alluded to in Chapter V. Aurorce and Clouds. Richardson goes on to express his opinion that he. having all the same direction. generally speaking. also mentioned that the most vivid observed coruscations of the Aurora were when air. (An instance of attenuated is with an auroral arc will be found in the Aurora seen at Guildown on the 4th February 1874. Eichardson (' Sir John Franklin's Narrative '). Dr.

dark. with their point of divergence in the north. p. sent up volumes of coloured light of all hues. Brit. appeared and disappeared . At 4 A. Allnatt Later. Payer thinks the transition of Aurora during the day light clouds with its characteristic movement) had been rather imagined than actually observed. rugged cloud some 8° E. in his ' Austrian Arctic Voyages. Dr. and let fall Between 1 and a little fine frozen rain. Dr. 1869. and presenting a flaky aspect. Dr.' thinks that the occurrence of the (i. 121) considers he witnessed a complete display of Dr. 1869. The cirrus never appeared to replace itself for it but to substitute like the changes of a dioramic view. Low*». the clouds had passed the zenith. 53 vergency towards the opposite parts of the horizon which produced the arched form. In the Encyc. SUbermann's observations. but seemed as if the columns were and it soon became obvious that fan-like cirrus clouds. and passed into a to obscure the stars.E. Silbermann ll*" (' Comptes Rendus. commenced by the S. and stormy. and that the transition of white clouds into auroral forms at night has never been satisfactorily proved. and S. At a later hour of the night the canopy of cirro-stratus had separated and was .' iv. A dark elliptical radii. He. 1051) is quoted in detail for observed connexion between the Aurora and cirrus cloud." after referring to the evidence of Franklin. At 7 the Aurora had passed the zenith.m. the cirrus of the false Aurora was still visible. had taken the place of the Aurora. and in a short time the whole visible hemisphere was lighted up. 4th February. Payer. broken. at it 16"°. 1872.' Ixviii. Allnatt observed the splendid Aurora of 4th February. and a Aurora passed into cirrostratus. auroral motions in cirrus cloud.W.THE AUKORA IN CONNEXION WITH OTHEE PHENOMENA. when the lines converge towards when at right angles to it wet and M. p. cloud extending from S. the Aurora At 6 p. and noticed the weird and wonderful appearance of the phenomena. as Dr. transformed into luminous masses of radiant cumulus so that. he states that the magnetic pole fine weather follows. Low ('Nature. an Aurora still visible. but deformed towards the top. 15th April.M. at Frant. and Low.45. to S. M. in the daytime disposed in streams and arches such as the Aurora assumes.40 the Aurora began to wane. Richardson. 15th April. mentions the mist-like appearance of the Aurora. Aurora into clouds not proved.W. of zenith was surrounded by electric At 7. however. and considers all clouds subject to magnetic or diamagnetic polarization . Sir Sir Johu John Franklin says in his Polar expeditions he often perceived the clouds Franklin's obaenrationa. portion of the heavens being tinged with a bright carmine hue. e. article " Aurora Polaris. at Frant. the Aurora either from right or left. 1872. cirrostratus was . Cirrus clouds took the place of the Aurora.Allnatt's observations. disappearing homogeneous cirro-stratus of sufficient density at 7.M. edition 9. 2 A.

its change into cloud forms 1869. and reformation from Aurora to cloud and from cloud to Aurora was. Dr." p. instead of bursting in thunder. at Paris. on the disappearance of an Aurora and "Aurorae and Clouds. on 15th April. had mann's theory. February 42-5 35-0 27-5 4-8 0-0 0-5 March April 15-4 37-4 May June July 48-0 55-2 August September October 38-4 22-4 20-8 12-6 36-6 49-4 November December 15-0 15-0 32-4 28-8 20-1 Mean Silber- of whole year . modifications during the progress of the phenomena. been drawn into the upper parts of the atmosphere. His table January . mann'B observations 15th April. Lightning. and concludes that the Auroras of 1859 and 1869 assumed the character of thunder-storms which. Aurora and thunderstorms. He also observed a rain of little sparkling ice- 30th April. conclusive of the theory before advanced of the electric origin of the recurrent rayed cloud-modifications in the place of the magnetic meridian. observed a of rain (tiny crystals of ice) (see section. Prof. transformation. 1865. there were called in requisition almost all the most prominent cloud- nous cumulus. 24-0 fall Silbermann. Piazzi Professor Piazzi Smyth has observed that the monthly frequency of Auroras Smyth on monthly frequency of AuroraB and storms. varies inversely with that of thunder-storms.54 transformed into lumi- THE AUEOEA AND ITS CHAEACTEES. is as follows : Month. over which so cast. and their vapour being crystallized in tiny prisms by the intense cold. observes. . 24-0 14'4 7-0 29-7 of observations. 1869.. The succession of formation. 53).. much mystery had been Aurora and Thunder-storms. the electricity became luminous in flowing over these icy particles. the city being then enveloped in a cirrus of vertical fibres similar to that which frequently accompanies the Aurora. Silber- Silbermann asserts that Aurorse are produced by the same general phenomena as thunder-storms. AUnatt concluded. 1865.. His Table of comparisons Aurorae.. prisms on 30th April..

prolongation of beams. is a sign of a great storm of rain and wind in the forenoon of the second day afterwards. Its motion was not vibratory It by Mr. that the great Aurora after first Professor Christison'B obsen'utiong. rain immediately succeeding the formation of the corona. effect of these phenomena upon the needle was this its return to its not visible immediately obtained its but in about half an hour or an hour the needle had was neither sudden nor vibratory. seldom regaining before the following morning. maximum of deviation. of the . in his Narrative (before referred to). by Cumberland House (before mentioned). ' John Franklin.' p. however. In a paper read before the Eoyal Society of Edinburgh in 18G8. unless netic needle in the gradual. was simultaneous with the formation of arches. the credit of being "the first who satisfactorily proved. L. remarks that displays of Aurora. Prince. a certain unusual state of electricity in the atmosphere. moved slowly W. after an from 10 to 14 days. the important fact of the Aurora upon the compass-needle. in his interval of ' Climate of Uckfield. and fre- of needle to its former position very was expedited by another arch of the Aurora operating in a direction different from the former one. as a fact of importance to agriculturists.THE AUEOEA IN CONNEXION WITH OTHER PHENOMENA. falling of rain as an immediate sequence of an Aurora seems. or at least that it induces his observations at Aurora and the magnetic needle. A falling John Franklin and others and in some cases (notably one referred to) storms and floods have accompanied this. R. in Sicily before barometer observed to follow Aurorse." and also " to have of the action proved the Aurora to be an electrical phenomenon. Sometimes it Motiom-ommunicatad to the needle Aurora. Dalton). 4th February. From it it former position Betum was very gradual. The magquently not until the afternoon. C." Sir John Franklin Sir John then mentions that the motion communicated to the needle was neither sudden Franklin's observations.N. Aurora and Sir ' the Magnetic Needle. Mr. Christison mentioned. autumn is well advanced. or of the more quiescent white. character of the Aurora itself into cloud —whether be of the crimson passing and accompanied with much electric disturbance. open air was disturbed by the Aurora whenever it approached (as observed the zenith. 1872. gives Lieutenant Robert Hood. Prof. are almost invariably followed by very stormy weather.. be rather the exception than the rule but possibly this it may vary with the class. or certain other changes of form or of activity of the nor vibratory. . A falling barometer following a display of Aurorse has been noticed by Sir . But generally the . and following a period of fine weather. 218. 55 On The to the occasion of the Aurora seen by fell me at Guildown. or I owing to the weight of the card. perhaps to the E.

The it arches of the Aurora were remarked right angles to the magnetic meridian commonly . and when north. at a time moved towards the west. original direction in less than magnetic meridian. When the disturbance was considerable. and deviations of the needle were occasionally remarked at such times. in a hazy atmosphere. on the following day. seldom regained its usual position before 3 or 4 p.m. when the quick motion and vivid light were observed to take place Eeturn of needle more speedy after formation of a second arch. On one occasion only the needle had a quick vibratory motion (between . of course opposite extremity approached nearer to the magnetic In one case only a complete arch was formed in the magnetic meridian. needle deviated though no Aurora was ^dsible . its The greatest extent of its aberration was rare. In a few instances the needle commenced at the instant a beam started from the horizon upwards . the motion of the needle was towards the W. The motion of its the needle was towards the east the same end of an arch originated to the southward of the magnetic west. was considerable. while at other times a considerable alteration took though the beams or arches did not come near the zenith. 45'. effect was frequently seen without producing a perceptible such times it The Aurora on the needle. light with little or The disturbance on not always proportionate to the agitation of the Aurora. the return of the needle was more speedy. and Slow when disturbance it generally went beyond the it point from which it first started. was uncertain whether there might not have been a concealed Aurora at the time. but was always greater needle. The needle was most when an Aurora was distinctly Sometimes the Clouds were but it seen passing between a stratum of clouds and the earth. to traverse the sky nearly at but deviation was not and was considered that the different positions of the Aurora had considerable influence Different positions of on the direction of the needle. Needle disturbed when Aurora not visible. If an arch formed immediately afterwards. Quiescent yellow . or about 36° to the west of the magnetic north. A westerly motion also took place the extremity of an arch was in the true north. An Aurora sometimes approached the zenith without producing any change of position of the needle place. and seldom recovered eight or nine hours.56 THE AUEOEA AND ITS CHAEACTEES. and its return was according to its circumstances. when when This had considerable influence on the direction of the needle. these cases In both the needle disturbed on February 13. At of the needle was Aurora produced no perceptible effect was generally an arch or a horizontal stream of dense yellowish no internal motion. having extremities placed on opposite sides of the magnetic north and south to the former one. 1821. motion was greater when the extremity of the arch approached from the west towards the magnetic north. When an arch was nearly at right angles to the Aurora the magnetic meridian. sometimes observed during the day to assume the form of the Aurora. In another the beam shot up from the magnetic north to the zenith.

exercised mostly no influence on the needle. p. but the presence of which produced upon vol. Deeliiiation- and the horizontal intensity decreased while the inclination increased. On the contrary. fitful and they were greater as Greater as the rays the motion of the rays was more rapid and and the prismatic colours were rapid. "besides the magnetic needle " (Lardner's many which a cloudy sky ' concealed. the needle is yellow colour and without often unafiected by its appearance. disturbances were of extraordinary magnitude and frequency. Sir needle. an Auroral display has been given in Chapter observed in the North Sea. 327. 189). a dipping-needle.THE AUEORA IN CONNEXION WITH OTHEB PHENOMENA. delicately suspended) in no instance by the Aurorse . X. by motion of needle to the west. 343° 50' and 344° 40'). Captain Maguire found at Point Barrow (1852-54) that the appearance of I . in his ' New Lands within the Arctic Circle ' (vol. viz. but he seems to have principally met with the quiescent form of that phenomenon. Quiefloent more Quiescent and regular arches. Payer. pp.' Grand It has been remarked by some observers that grand displays of the Aurora dis- are frequently preceded or accompanied by an extraordinary motion of the plays acconip>anied needle to the westward. the French savant (whose description of II. his information as much effects on. (3) In all the disturbances the declination-needle arches exer- moved towards the to the needle to east. (2) Disturbonoes great. and three variation instruments. The following were the principal results of 'TegetchofF' in the years 1872-74. The extraordinary disturbances of the needle rendered the determination of exact mean values for the magnetic constants impossible. when the air is clear and the Aurora presents a steady dense light of a motion. 150 Aurorae. between September 1838 and April 1839. closely connected with the Aurora. was indicated by the disturbances they Museum of Science and Art. Magnetic obsenatioiiM gives the result of the magnetic observations on board the Austrian ship on board tht^ made by means of a magnetic theodolite. while the sun was below the horizon. the same tion that brilliant and active coruscations cause a deflecif almost invariably they appear through a hazy atmosphere and if the prismatic colours are exhibited in the beams or arches. During this period 64 were visible.' The magnetic They were intense. without changing rays or streamers. 328). i.). ciaed no influence. Lottin. these observations (1) : 'Tegetchoff. M. Parry (Third Voyage) found his variation-needle (extremely light and affected Parry's experience. 57 The disturbance produced by the Aurora was so great that no accurate deductions as to diurnal variation could be made. John Franklin sums up eifect.

On the 18th a brilliant Aurora lasted time till to 10 o'clock at night. p. Aurora was visible. at Stonyhurst varied During the Aurora of 15th April. Proctor counted 102 spots on the solar disk . On the evenings when the Aurora appeared the magneto- meters were disturbed throughout Italy. 1874. it is. and a Cipoletti. and the greatest oscillation amounted to 0-04 of the total zontal force varied only 0"014 of its mean The hori- mean value. 1869. nickel. with declinometer deflected towards the and 63 sun-spots bances. and Sun-spots. From this the 23rd the Aurora appeared constantly. A brilliant display at Moncalieri on June 18 was accompanied by very violent magnetic disturbance. magnetic distur- one was seen. of Florence. Aurorse. On the 10th a remarkable east. Sun-spots were observed at Eome. Thompson concludes that cylinders of an authenticated fact 431 (1814). The only bodies capable of assuming magnetic properties are iron. and at midday 97 sun-spots were counted. the declination 2° 23' 14" in nine minutes. needle was frequently observed to become unsteady. and Moncalieri. the declination 1° 25'. mentions that during the prevalence of the Aurora the magnetic iv. 432) concludes three Aurora cannot be doubted to be magnets. and 4th February. and ended by a violent agitation during the whole of the 24th. (p. as Dr. Magnetic Disturbances. Vienna and Munich during the Aurorse of 4th February. Palermo. the fine and Aurora. giving a reddish tinge in the north and north-west. not altogether extravagant to conjecture that bodies similar in their nature to some of the solid bodies which constitute our globe may exist in some unknown state in the atmosphere. and . while the vertical force experienced at Greenwich varied value. remarks on the strong magnetic disturbances at observation.' vol. and sun-spots in Italy. September 25. and that cylinders of Aurora cannot be doubted to be magnets. but the greater number on the days of the Aurorse. Cipoletti's Greenwich magnets were much disturbed. When meteors are considered. and cobalt. During the Aurora of 13th May. A brilliant display took place on the evening of the 23rd. 1870. were counted. AurorsB were frequent in Italy in April 1871. the Aurora in the south was connected with the motion of the magnet to the east of the magnetic north.58 THE ATJEOEA AND ITS CHAEACTERS. 1872. Mr. 1869. Aurorce. Dr. four successive maxima. Thompson. On an occasion in 1859 great solar disturbances were observed. Solar disturbances and if in the north to the west of the same. On the morning of the 10th the deflection continued. in his 'Annals of Philosophy.

.

1820 LOOM 1B30 J84. Cart. O. K b r I*- L_L M iLL^ llll II K li jliU •I lii lt CH iti< I »i iN fl ^ -W^^ _kk* -te« rc Ll il llllh _L_J II Jl\ iJl AV « § JL S.0 I 1850 . CHART Fig:2.\urora by Barkor Jn 1873. Hyd. (Air) Walla. N.C. Oxygen v. v.P. . Oxygen . Solar Spectrum.Fig:l.Carb. IJroii Waili*. B7. CaiwUe I'Capron) O. CH.tulie A.Hya tlajnp Proct<»r. C. THREE AURORA SPECTRA AND 1> EIGHT OTHERS FOR COMPARISON.titLe Watts. CI. Nitrogen fAir) Jll B73 w Walte.'3. Aurora (type) AViAurora Vo^ei.

establishes a con- nexion between these phenomena. and Germany. France. which influence from the sun. This will be foimd detailed in the ' Monthly Notices of the Royal Astronomical is Society. The curves are in close correspondence. times of maximum and minimum little later remarkable. Carrington. distinctly marked. Professor Loomis contends " that the black spot is a result of a distur- Prof. An fig. is accompanied by an emanation of some felt Loomis considers a sun-spot which is almost instantly upon the earth in an unusual disturbance of the earth's magnetism. that their are repeated at inteiTals less of and sun-spots.' vol. 11 1843 to a maximum in 1848. 13 and 15. September 1859. maximum generally occurs a than the magnetic maximum and the con- nexion between the auroral and magnetic curves appears somewhat more intimate than between the auroral and sun-spot curves. of periodicity." a solar disturbance affecting the earth's This connexion between the sun's spots and the earth's magnetism has mag- netbm. and indicates that auroral displays least in the (at between magnetic declination. 59 Proctor'B on the night of the 24th and morning of the 25th an Aurora of unwonted magnificence was visible at various stations in England. the frequency of magnetic storms. With in respect to sun-spots and the magnet. bance of the sun's surface. xx. been considered as proved . considers that a comparison between the declination mean daily range of the magnetic year. and found penod. gradually increased from a minimum Sun-spoU and the magnet. i2 . Mr. the times of maxima corresponding quite remarkably with the maxima niustrative table of co- of solar spots. April 1873) Prof. The auroral . and that there are also other fluctuations. deve- loping the auroral light in the upper regions of the earth's atmosphere. and so interesting in its character that 1. Loomis considers and the number of Auroras observed in each and also with connexion established the extent of the black spots on the surface of the sun. Hchwabe's sun-spot period. 2. which succeed each other at an average interval of about 10 or 11 years. C. R. they had a regular years maximum and minimum every five 1843 and 1848 were minimum and maximum years ('American Journal of Science. giving a variation of something near 11 for jem' years altogether. and the coincidence at the is incidences. Professor Loomis vol. and that the coinciding with the magnetic variation at those periods.' years. Schwabe observed the sun-spots 24 years. and one instance at least of an intense disturbance and outbreak of the sun's surface having been observed simultaneously with the occurrence of a terrestrial magnetic storm is a matter of record. causing oscillation of the needle. and a flow of electricity. v. about 60 years. middle latitudes of Europe and America) are subject to a law grandest displays auroral displays. it may be briefly referred to here. sun-spot* and Aurorm. illustration of the result of these observations is given on Plate IX. pp.THE AUEORA IN CONNEXION WITH OTHEE PHENOJIENA.

accompanied by magnetic disturbance at was on the witness it. most dazzling to the protected eye. and vanished as two rapidly fading His Kew." Mr. Seeing the outbreak to call on the sun.000 miles. The brilliancy was fully equal to that of direct sunlight.60 Carrington ll*" THE AUEOEA AND ITS CHAEACTER8. and the wires had to give up work. increase. a flame of followed the pen of Baine's electric telegraph. on its the night of September 2nd. At the very moment of this solar disturbance the instruments at Kew indi- cated a magnetic storm. Mr. was observed. page 206. the of the equator. in his volume on the Sun. R. while observing and drawing a group of solar spots. would appear that the sim's . Cuba. John Allan Broun's magnetic oscillation- at Boston. if confirmed by other observations. At a station in Norway the transmitting apparatus was set fire fire to and Mr. 18". in North America. saw suddenly and Hodgson's observations of bright. 1878). swept along the telegraphic wires. The spots travelled from their position. all magnetic communication was at the same time Strong currents. Mr. 35. and dots of white light. saw a very brilliant star of light. In an interesting communication to " ' Nature ' (January 3rd. illuminating the upper edges of the adjacent spots and directions. At Washington and Phila- delphia the signal-clerks received severe shocks. Aurora ever seen there made too. that appearance. showing that the by which. It broke out at ll"* 18°. Hodgson independently on the same day. John Allan Broun observa- has contributed tions some magnetic oscillation-curves. Carrington left the telescope. streaks. and vanished at close 23°. Carrington found no change in the group impression was that the phenomena took place at an elevation considerably above the general surface of the sun. some five minutes. entitled The Sun's Magnetic Action at the Present Time. but in latitudes and places where they are seldom witnessed. and above and over the great group of spots on which 11"* it was seen projected. Mr. it some one to On his return within sixty seconds first was nearly concluded. and the West Indies. it . are thus referred to for displays. followed by wide-spread Aurorae. and even South America and Australia. upon the same much brighter than the sun's surface. deduced from curves made in the Trevandrum Obsei-vatory (nearly on the magnetic equator). spots two patches of intense bright light break out in the middle of the group. The rays extended in all and the centre might be compared It lasted for to a Lyrse when seen in a large telescope. and at time. tropics within 18° Rome. the greatest It At Melbourne. over the earth. details how this magnetic storm was accompanied by very widely-spread disturbance in indications of electrical many parts of the globe. Vivid Aurorae were seen not only in both hemispheres. In five minutes the two spots traversed a space of about itself. and Proctor. continually changing their disturbed direction.

as far could be discovered. no. In this curve the change of range in diurnal oscillation April 1. 1874. commenting on declination-magnet. netir action has lately no. Broun never found an Aurora without a correspwndiug irregularity in the declinationneedle. 3 the lowest point that for December 1. rejoins that if we could accept Dr. . " were traces the result of his slight which he could never have remarked had he not been warned by very magnetic irregularities to examine the sky with at the the greatest attention. being 11*111 years. three in number. Prof. Faye. and there to little difference in the rapidity with which the curve descends and ascends from the means tember descent slower. according to Prof. to In diagram. magnetic action has lately become gradually more constant. In curve no. 1875 but even now. 1 for the years 1855-58. that several " Aurorse observed by him were of the very faintest kind. Broun. is quite insignificant from five November 1. 1 is but the ascent is very The much . . Broun the curves show themselves gradually flattening. 3 for the years 1874-77. and the magnetic cycle 10*5 years according to Mr. 1877. 1856. difficult to say whether this is the minimum or not.THE AUEORA IN CONNEXION WITH OTHEB PHENOMENA. curves graduallj flatten. 1877. as and Mr. 2 for the years 1865-68. Smyth comments on variance in the cycles. and the accompanying statement insig- nificant nature of the Auroras seen in the Arctic Expedition in the winter of thalt. nearly as rapid as in curve no. 2 curve the epoch of minimum is by no well marked it occurs between the points for April 1 and Sep. with points a year and a half later. 61 «un M The is curves are mog- —no.' for the remark. marked by two points corresponding is and May 1. In the diagram given by Mr. Piazzi sun-spot cycle and the terrestrial magnetic oscillation cycle can be considered as agreeing. Broun remarks upon the report of Six George Nares as to the 1875-76. M. ces deux phenomenes n'ont aucun rapport entre eux. the point for January 1. no. Again. minimum. Wolf n'etant pas egale a celle des variations magnetiques (10 ans '45). "La periode des taches portee a 11 ans '1 par M. the sun-spot cycle. Wolfs . in 'La Meteorologie Cosmique. Faye's remarks to a similar effect. the There is also a considerable difference in the rapidity of variation in is descending and ascending branches of the curve. being only 0'02 (two hundredths of a minute of arc) higher. In no. 3 being almost a straight line. in a further letter. 18C6. an interval of three years and months. Another coiTespondent writes and quotes M. they were totally unconnected with any magnetic or electric disturbance states. Broun. it is so 1. Mr. In n6. 1 curve the to April 1 minimum very clearly become more conatant. in no case had he seen the faintest trace of an Aurora without finding same time a corresponding irregularity in the movement of the force or Smyth." Mr. Wolf. of the own experience in the south of Scotland. makes the inquiry how the Prof. Piazzi this article.

Aurora and Aurora and electricity. 11-9 years. p. 1787 would be 11-94 years. B. In exactly the same manner he finds that the mean period seven of sun-spots is 11-9 years. of Aurorse during the years 1876-78. Broun then repeats his conviction that the sun-spot maxima and minima are really synchronous with those of the magnetic diurnal observations. very strong or regular. 10-43 years for the mean duration. Wolf is in error (as Mr. Jupiter's The to auroral displays also have the same period. I may be added to the evidence on the have seen no account of important Auroi-ae during the years 1876-78. Electricity. Mr. 10). xvi. Broun considers can evidently have no weight given to it. the mean of the seven corresponding maximum periods being 11-8 years.' refers Prof. He does not decide . and draws attention to the peiiod of 11-9 years as being Jupiter's anomalistic year. Sir John Franklin failed to get indications of electricity connected with the . or the time which elapses between two perihelion passages. while the sun-spot results for eight cycles determined by Dr. Wolf during eighty years before 1787 give 10*23 or. Jenkins's expla- Mr. as having stated their belief that Jupiter is the chief cause in the production of sun-spots. nation of Prof. Loomis's chart of magnetic oscillations given in Prof. Mr. Infre- The infrequency subject. a mean which Mr. G. On the other hand. It is by mixing these two very different means that the Zurich philosopher finds 11-1 years. Stewart. if we take nine cycles. Wolf.62 Mr. Jenkins. Broun believes he is) as to the existence of a after maximum in 1797. Broun's rejoinder THE AUEOEA AND we should find that the ITS CHAEACTEES. in a in letter to ' Nature. for the purpose of showing that there are exactly Loomis's chart. the mean of which is twelve years. then. if Dr. and day after day has recently (1878) passed with a perfectly clean sun-disk. the mean of these. viz. The true magnetic declination-period is. view since mean duration of a cycle for loth phenomena and explanation. Jenkins also refers suspected connexion with sunspots. Mr. mentioned. De La Kue. though not with electrometer. minimum periods from 1787 to 1871. and Loewy. Smyth to Prof. the mean durations for the eighty years and for the eighty years before 1787 agree as nearly as the accuracy of the determinations for the beginning of the eighteenth century will permit. indications of repulsion between the needle of the instrument and the conductor when Aurorae were seen. Aurora with a pith-ball electrometer specially constructed for the purpose but with another form of electrometer Sir John Franklin's experience he seems to have got some. and a corresponding queney of Aurora) and absence of sun-spots in comparative absence of sun-spots. Balfour Stewart's paper ' Nature' (vol.

at Frant.AUnatt's ei|)erionoe. 115 feet above sea-level. AUnatt. at Fort Bowen. and interrupted the working of both sections of the in the case of the Mr. found effect. Parry's experience. states that the Aurora visible in London was also visible at Bombay. and Gibraltar and the Guadiana. 28) by Mr. Dec. 1872.) mentions where wires have been currents in telegraphic wires during ignited. The electrical disturbances on the cables in the Mediterranean and on those between Lisbon and Gibraltar. whether the Aurora. electricity 63 was received from or summoned into action by ' the no Parry. George Draper. and Aden and Bombay For some days previously the signals on the British Indian cables had been murh interfered with by electrical and atmospheric disturbances. we may note phenomena Aurora Australis described {ante.THE AFEORA IN CONNEXION WITH OTUEB PHENOMENA. Walker found two periods of minimum electrical disturbance about 9 p. too. the account of electric Here. Kennedy. Proctor. during the display of 4th February. found the earth's electricity so powerful that the gold leaves of the electrometer divergent for a considerable time. Joum. and com- Aurors. M'Clintock observes that on electroscope six occasions of Aurora in Baffin's Bay the was strongly affected. were also very great. Walker called him to see the electroscope. 4. p. 1872 (and writing to the 'Times' under date February 5th). and that sparks came from the cable. of the British-Indian Submarine Telegraph Company speaking of the Aurora of February 4. first The electricity was always positive. and on three occasions of Aurora at Port M'Clintock found electroscope affected in Baffin's Bay and Fort Kennedy. and the Aurora was very large and brilliant there. brilliant flashes produced. and Malta. bustible materials kindled by their discharge. Auroras. Suez. so that it was necessary to join the cable to earth for some hours. George Draper's report as to disturbed condition of the Indian Submarine and other cables during and Aden. remained February 1872. signals. with a gold leaf electroscope connected with a chain attached by glass rods to the skysail mast-head. Electric currents have been reported as produced in telegraph wires during Though Electric transient they are said to be often very powerful. At Malta there was a severe storm on the morning of the 4th. but afterwards strong enough to keep the leaves diverged. Mr. Dr.m. 1872. The signals on the land line between London and the Land's End . xxxii. and that the Company's electrician at Suez reported that the earth-currents there were equal to 170 cells (Daniell's battery). The electrical disturbances lasted until midnight. The charge was weak.— Dr. vol. at and noon. mterrupt the ordinary cases and to Loomis (Sillim. British Indian Cable between Suez Aurora of February 4. Dr. 18. Dr.

64 THE AUEOEA AND ITS CHAEACTEES. but clouds of " uncondensed " (meteoric) matter probably enter our atmosphere. vol. Groneman. Eversmann of hailstones containing crystals of a compound of iron and by Pictet of hailstones containing nuclei which proved be iron. and the fact that when does occur the columns must be parallel to the earth's surface. this Groneman meets by supposing that in the first case the velocity may be too great to allow of arrangement by the earth's magnetic force. and are in a state of extremely fine division. A difficulty has been suggested that while meteors are more frequent in the morning. producing the polar Aurorse. the particles oxidized. atmosphere. would appear that they may contain a considerable Let such a cloud approach portion of the magnetic minerals iron and nickel. which have not been would by their oxidation generate light and heat. regarded as a great magnet. Similar effects accompanied the displays of Oct. according to which the light of the Aurora is M. Ferruginous particles have been found in the dust of the Polar regions according to Professor Nordenskiold. and by . p. and that their influence might produce the observed magnetic disturbances. the reverse prevails in the case of Aurorae. Zeyfuss and by of Groningen. Groneman shows that these might be arranged along the earth's mag- by the action of the magnetic force during their descent. as regards Polar Aurorae. and. Aurora and meteoric dust. If from our knowledge of the meteoric stones which fall to the earth's surface we may draw any it conclusion respecting the chemical constitution of these clouds of matter. 24 and 25. it Baumhauer suggests would be interesting in support of this theory to detect in the soil of polar areas the presence of nickel. that not only solid masses large and small. our earth. A theory has been propounded independently by Dr. Rend. iron spectrum shows correspondence with Ferruginous dust in the Polar Eegions. Ixxiv. Baumhauer's proposition. or on the face of the earth which is directed forward on its orbit. masses in considerable quantities frequent and cases are to also on record by sulphur. were interrupted for several hours on the night of the 4th by atmospheric currents. Baumhauer (Compt. some of the lines of the Aurora. Groneman. The arches might be accounted for by the effects of perspective and the . but whether derived from stellar space or from volcanic eruption is uncertain. Zeyfuss caused by clouds of ferruginous meteoric dust ignited by friction with the and M". the proposition. The presence is of iron and nickel in meteoric . 678) advances. 1870. it would be attracted towards the Pole. netic curves Theories of Dr. for the infrequency of the earth's He accounts Aurora in equatorial regions it by the weakness of the magnetic force. Aurora and Meteoric Dust. penetrating our atmosphere.

The idea strongly suggested itself to Mr. 20°. Mr. Lefroy. as viewed from the middle chord. horizon.W. with a width of r to 8°. or an Intra-lunar convergence of Streams of Dienon iwcTibed by him to Htreams of cosuiic dust. The brightness and the convergence of the streams were both more marked towards the western horizon than the eastern.N. and that one or more of them surface of the swept the moon and sensibly obscured its light. and crossing the meridian at about 20° north of the zenith. N. Mr. and consisted of one grand central feather. extending from the W.THE AUEOEA IN CONNEXION WITH OTHER PHENOMENA. the larger ones of which were attracted by the magnet. that section subtended an angle of about 40°. Lefpey'» deflcriptioti of a pbeiiu- A Lunar Rainbow. " J. Lefroy and other observers concurred lateral streams in the impression that the minor on the N. K . Their apparent figure was that of a nearly circular (slightly flattened) arc of an amplitude of 15° or 20°. which he designates slightly Mr.. where transverse section was a maximum. in phenomenon seen by him at the month of May. and found to contain iron and nickel. which the whole system subtended an azimuth of about its Near the zenith. In about twenty minutes the streams of light had attained their maximum point of its brightness. West Australia. side of the main one intervened between the earth in their slow vibrations and the moon. On selves either side of this was a system of seven or eight minor beams of chord light. to the E. Suggestion as to collect- question that the It phenomenon observed was may be a question whether iron and nickel particles of meteoric origin do not ordinarily exist in the atmosphere in a greater degree than we suspect. 65 Cozari of hailstones containing nuclei of an ashy-grey colour. Lefroy of converging streams of infinitely minute particles of matter passing its aerial through space at a distance from still the earth at which its it envelope may have through a density suflScient by resistance to give cosmic dust passing it that illumination which possessed. in fact There can be hardly any an Aurora. described in the ' This same phenomenon was as a beautiful lunar rainbow South-Australian Register ' visible in the western heavens. and quite free from metallic veins. of very bright white cloud. Nickel was found by Reichenbach in parts of Austria on hills consisting of beds of sandstone and limestone. W. subtending a common to them- and to the main stream. illuminated Cosmic Dust 1 It lasted about three quarters of an hour. and converging towards the it axis of the central stream so as to intersect at at a point about 30° or 40° below the western horizon. springing oiit of the horizon at W. in ' Nature.' describes a Fremantlc.

The Aurora and the Planets Venus and Jupiter. in his ' Celestial Objects that. greatest to some friends with one of during an Aurora. ' (1859). Browning I . of a deep yellow Her apparent mag- nitude seemed increased. and one would be glad of Geo. mentions "January 23rd. stars as seen Remarks are frequent of the brightness of through Aurorse. As observed me on the night of November 2. at 9 p. The Rev. Dr. February 8. Miles. THE AUEOEA AND if special ITS CHAEACTEES. distinctly Venus in full lustre. time the belts of Jupiter were observed to be highly coloured. for some reason of which I official am not aware. plates of glass covered with glycerine. About this 1870. probably electric. rising power 200. 250). during Aurorse. and displayed a very peculiar appearance. 1870.' p. I suggested observations . Dr. and saw her much more upon any and occasion. His friends were of the same opinion. with an 8^in.. Aurora of Oct. (as one of a deeper red had done before). p. Webb. 1870. at Venus Tooting. 1749-50. The Aurora and planets Venus and Jupiter. about 8 o'clock. quoting from the Philosophical Transactions.M. W. when a small red cloud of the Aurora up from the S. of the Austrian Expedition. might perhaps have arisen from the Aurora acting as and removing the glare with which so bright an object .m. was not included in the Brightness of stars instructions issued. 24. Lefroy's theory. The planet Venus's halo during Aurora.W. and Jupiter.66 ing iron and nickel particles from the atmosphere. mist or cloud.." as a is I think this effect screen. Venus was about 8° above the horizon. appeared. 43. MLles's observation of T. They all saw her spots plain (resembling those in the moon). Her rays passed through a thin tint. it seemed to surround as much as ever. Larger gatherings than usual of iron and nickel particles during the presence of Aurorse would be in support of Mr. remarks that falling stars passed through the Aurora without producing any perceptible effect or undergoing any change. were adopted for the purpose of collecting and examining the cosmic dust. and a halo was formed round her as sometimes appears round the moon in moist weather . on this head during Nares's Arctic Expedition but the suggestion. he viewed her again with the telescope without than ever he had done altering the focus. had been showing Jupiter and Venus Short's reflectors. &c. and might be detected means. but the stars that were in that part of the heavens shone with their accustomed brilliancy. A girand display by of the Aurora took place 24th October. During a brilliant Aurora seen at Sunderland. Payer. such as magnets. this while the cloud which he had never seen before. The Eev. Venus Sir always accompanied further experience. 1817 ('Annals of Philosophy. there was a splendid Aurora Borealis about 6 P. but the case is a singular one. line with the planets which proceeded in a appearing still and soon surrounded both.

Respighi's observations corro- borating Angstrom's in 1867. but near towards the blue. at 7 p. ness in tint of Jupiter's belts. be mono- The Aurora and the Zodiacal Light. deepening to red-brown as lower (N. Dr. and 450. Aooordinff Mr. Infrequency of infrequency of Aurora? and Jupiter's equatorial zone and tints. reflector. but everywhere as bright as in the Zodiacal Light. have been distinguished by the .THE ATJEOEA IN CONNEXION WITH OTIIEE PHENOMENA. The equatorial belt was. approached the Two thin belts above were slate-purple. 1877. and 1878. with the 8|-inch Browning mottled. then slightly tinted only. Dr. Miles's observation (p. and others have reported Jupiter's belts to exhibit the brightest colours at the period of Aurone. February 1872. Respighi's at and on Cam- pidoglio. The Aurora and the Zodiacal Light. reflector. Pringle. when. October 3. consisting of a single line in the green. perceived in the Zodiacal Light not only this green line. a band or zone of apparently continuous spectrum. o chromatic. Browning gives a drawing of toLMselT and others. 1871. to which he assigned approximately the position 1259 on Kirchhoff''s the same that he had determined for the green line of the Aurora Borealis and Respighi. di Legge. I saw the whole surface of the planet (by glimpses) cloudIn the brightest colours at period of AurorsB. in a letter to 'Nature' from South Canara. however. . on spectrum.) edge. on the evening of the 11th and the morning of the 12th January it. with the belts brightly coloured. on the Angstroms observation Red Sea. and a darker belt below was of a deep purple colour. and to establish the identity of their origin. Proctor. Respighi. The three past years. LasscU. 1872. 1876. 66) he does not seem to have noticed the colouring of Jupiter's belts.. At the Observatory of the Royal University of Campidoglio. belts have been Aurora light- and mainly reported of light The subject apparently deserves more attention than it has hitherto received. 67 achromatic eyepieces 144. he found that this spectrum showed of the heavens from the horizon to the zenith. the equatorial zone was of it a distinctly dark ochre colour. 1870 (a year noted for Aurorse). was able to discern the same spectrum directing the spectroscope to other points itself in all parts . The finest view of Jupiter I ever had was on the 8th February. to Angstrom in 1867 found the spectrum of the Zodiacal Light scale. 5th. appeared to him to demonstrate the identity of the Zodiacal Light with the Aurora. Jupiter's beltK exhibit Jupiter as seen on January 31. 1872 (a fine Aurora was on the 4th). k2 .m. The Observatory Assistant. likewise observed this spectrum distinctly in various parts of the heavens. more or less defined in diflferent parts. 305.

A faint diffuse spectrum about as intense as that of a bright portion of the Milky all Way was he had obtained. and with an instrument specially designed for Smyth confirms this. pointing out the peculiarity in Respighi's observation that the green line was seen everywhere as bright it as in the Zodiacal Light. showing faint spectra. Prof." He when notices he has never found from the sun. line of the visible. white on a black ground). occasion I saw the whole cone of a crimson Eev. but rather resembling the light of the Milky Way. and does not think the evidence then hitherto adduced against the theory at all conclusive. He says : — " Assume the auroral light by reflected light. each of its which would have Phosphorescence of sky own small magnetic system swayed like our own by the monster magnet the sun. but nothing of the kind nor could any thing be traced beyond a slight increase of general . states He he had examined the Zodiacal Light with a Browning 5-prism spectro- scope (I presume a Pringle failed to find bright lines or bands in the Zodiacal Light. Mr. Aurora—" it was it certainly redder or yellower than the galaxy. scopically and on June 23.. found no lines or bands. On another hue without any mixture of yellow. but brighter. to consist of solid particles of matter. and suggesting that o was due to a concealed Aurora further present at the time of Angstrom's and Respighi's observations.he writes again. by many allied to the Zodiacal alludes to the as being considered Aurora may be considered as allied to the Light. and. Professor Piazzi Smyth. it to have a decided outline. 1872. that a display seen at Hardwick Vicarage. in these latitudes. showed a ruddy tinge not unlike the commencement of a critnson February 1862. Webb's observation. Mr. of a golden yellow or pale lemon tinge. 3. Webb thought 2. is graphically shown. Piazzi compound direct-vision form is meant) since the last December. of the sky was everywhere visible. a "phosphorescence has been seen bright. that the Zodiacal Light is It may here be mentioned one occasion. 1862. nor traced also refers to others it when Zodiacal Light ea«t or west to 180° He having noticed that " the Zodiacal Light has been seen unusually bright. imagine the Aurora playing amongst these tiny worlds." He examined was with a pocket spectroscope which would show distinctly the green He found no green line of the Aurora. brilliant as the phenomenon had frequently been. He does not seem at that time to have examined the matter spectro. in which the continuous usually described spectrum Colour of the Zodiacal Light.68 Pringle thiaks the THE AUEOEA AND Aurora ITS CHAEACTEES. On it has been described as not having this tinge. however. as. shining difficult to and it is not Zodiacal Light. Aurora (probably Browning's miniature). The Eev. fig. but only a faint continuous spectrum extending from about midway between in the solar spectrum to nearly D and E F (see Plate V. failed to detect the slightest appearance of bright lines or bands. February 2nd. planet dust. in the clear sky of Italy.

on closing the slit. were taken about the observations. The Polarization of the Zodiacal Light has been already referred to under it Polari/jition the head of "Polarization of the Aurora. and is sensibly the same (2) as that of faint sunlight or twilight. the telescope and collimator having a clear aperture of 2'4 centimetres. Mr. the weight of evidence in the spectroscopic observations. the theory of a con- nexion between the Aurora and the Zodiacal Light must. obwrvationB magnifying-power of telescope 9 diameters. No bright line or band can be recognized as belonging to this spectrum. Burton's observation of polarization of the light there mentioned has been confirmed by Wright and Tacchini. as the matter stands. Burton 'h tibservation <-<»ii In this respect it diff"ers from the Aurora. Wright examined the Zodiacal Light with a Duboscq single-prism Special precautions : W. finned by Wright trace of polarization has hitherto been detected and looking at this. light. be given up. . and the conclusions arrived at were (1) The spectrum of the Zodiacal Light is continuous. in which no ." but may be here noted that of ZiKliat-al Light. W. was extinguished long before the auroral band A. A. 69 which. and the presence of reflected sunlight established. is (3) There no evidence of any connexion between the Zodiacal Light and the Polar Am'ora. and (-uuclti- sioDi. and at and Tacchini.THE AUBORA IN CONNEXION WITH OTHER PHENOMENA. would have become imperceptible. Wrighfi spectroscope.

no doubt. and which I also once distinctly remarked (of course in a weaker degree) in the zodiacal light" {ante. Formerly it was thought that the moon possessed an inherent light. or occasionally glowing red colour. Guildown. R. amongst others. by a singularly clear sky Sky clear. 1877. to the Colour-tints described. for the moon. we were favoured In 23-24. CHAPTER VII. 27. deeper effect. owing. however.UEOEA-LIKE PATCHES ON THE PARTIALLY-ECLIPSED MOON. Author's notes of the eclipse. was nated by auroral light. several articles appeared in the leading journals of the day describing. . the following remarks "The tints of colour also during partial eclipse. moon's considerable altitude. but eclipsed moon misty the early part of the evening. dull copper. which lasted up to ration. from some cause (possibly its and indis- tinct until total obscu- an unexpectedly misty and indistinct appearance. shown by the moon Formerly it was thought the moon illumi- when she is fully and even deeply immersed in the shadow of the earth. and the same tint clearer and brighter were A crimsonscarlet tint ranged side by side with a lovely jewel crimson-scarlet tint. Feb.70 THE ATJEOEA AND ITS CHARACTERS. A. 1877. is a phenomenon whose explanation is not without interest. in which the following passage dull. dusky copper-red. Golden yellow. 1877. and less mixed with yellow than the copper of a crimson glow This last tint reminded me much common to the Aurora. atmospheric vapour). Herschel fell into the mistake of supposing this the only available explanation. p.1877. yellow copper. which only became discernible at the time of total eclipse. A. reminded author of an auroral glow. Aurora-like patches on the partiallyeclipsed In anticipation of the total eclipse of the Moon on the 27th February. 68). and including total obscuration. and dull red were successively the principal colours observed at different times and at various portions of the moon's surface. My : notes on the occasion comprised. Silver-grey. were singularly bright and well contrasted. Proctor. me by a friend after the eclipse had I and I had sent him some notes of what then saw.Aug. ruddy copper. Indeed even Sir W. Eclip8e. seemed to have. in common with many other places. having miscalculated the eflBciency of the true cause. as the earth's shadow advanced on disk. On at the occasion of the eclipse of August 23-24. the appearances which might be expected during the occur- rence of the phenomenon. during the progress of the moon's obscuration and subsequent clearing. or perhaps was illuminated hy auroral light. We noticed also at times a colour. occurs — " That : Among these was one by Mr. public benefit. the moon. Succession of colours." This passage was only pointed out to actually taken place.

and the bright sharp crescent of the indistinctlUummated portion of the moon to appear. my notes then ran on As shadow thus :-« As the shadow began to pass passed off off. The patches were quite well seen (but not so bnghtly as with the eye) with a double achromatic field-glass. These were eye observations. "extraordinarily illuminated and of a very bright red. ." whUe other and different features probably Dec. 2 and 3)." Some extend this colour to red but . The certain amount of indistinctness way to a sharpness of noticeable during approach and continuance of totality. They gradually deepened in tint. of a decidedly crimson- red. sketch was taken shortly after end of total phase. the moon. the second about ten minutes later. the other two patches of crimson light. and we considered them to have disappeared in a like gradual manner. the general aspect of the moon's ness gave disk seemed to me to greatly change.3. The spots or patches were . 1703. almost black. . so that it seemed to form a bead of light just on the centre of the upper edge of the moon. The patches did not last long. in contrast to the ordinary copper-red of the disk. but were lost as the first My Two sketches taken. my and were noticed by friend as well as by myself. I have reproduced the original sketches in preference to any drawing prepared from them (Plate IV. the Most observers have described the deeper colour of the shadowed moon by word " copper. spots and patches. a much larger and • m scribed. December 3. quite a small one. one. the patches seem to have gradually deepened in tint. I have looked for other accounts of these patches." Then follows a description of these and the notes continue :-« Two features here struck me-the one a continuation of the upper limb of the illuminated crescent. %s. At Avignon. similar to those I described as having been seen Two patches the last total eclipse. but cannot find any. the moon appeared.the moon's siderable sharpness of the moon's features features as as seen through the shadow The seen through shadowed part glowed with a richer copper tint. With a Scinch Cooke refractor and low power. One of these. on which were seen dark shadow. they seemed lost in the general moon tint but they were then diminishing in brightness. were seen at Montpelier. was just under of crimsou the light deelongated bead before described the other. gave way to a con. totality. From a comparison of my two sketches. shadow swept off approach of or pendmg nor until a small crescent of the moon began to appear behind the I saw nothing of the sort during the shadow. lost in small refractor. pending eclipse.170£| moon's colour described.AUEOEA-LIKE PATCHES OX THE PARTIALLY-ECLIPSED MOON. After referring to some spectroscopic appearances. about midway between it and the centre. there is much in the state of the atmosphere affecting this." Patches well seen in fieldglass . 71 more diffused was seen towards the south-west limb of the moon.

while the ease with which other details of the surface were if seen at the time would. during totality. were quite local. and approach I can find to the patches the patches. 1877. had been to the at a similar distance of time before totality. the moon's disk as " intensely bright coppery red. They could The moon. Henry Keye." Dr." and apparently redder than M. article in one of the public papers described the moon's disk. . Pritchard's. not a satisfactory explanation. Mons. Prof Pritchard and Mons. Keye's observation." Observations as to The observations of ." Mr. These patches do not seem to me easy of explanation. Ireland. probably have enabled the circumstance to be detected. Pritchard. says : : " At totality the moon's disk presented a most extraordinary appearance the western limb was comparatively transparent. . resem- striking phenomenon not previously noticed was that the reddish bling that of a fine sunset. as the patches were conspicuous for a bright and decided colour. and this is what might have been expected under the circumstances. an Mr. Prof. The Mare Serenitatis is certainly of a slight green tinge and to the Palus Somni and certain other districts is attributed a pale red or pink but these . and with the purest air. AUnatt. Allnatt's at Frant. says that at 12'' 10" (about the time my it sketches were taken) there was a good deal of light on the moon's following limb. on the other hand. but in other respects fairly uniform. tints could hardly have sufiiced to produce the effect seen. so that the whole disk seems to partake of the tint same and its graduations . The positions. Faye point more immethis is the nearest diately to redness I noticed. moreover. not well be colours or details due to the actual surface of the moon itself. Eefraction of sun's rays is. we are aware.72 THE AUEOEA AND ITS CHAEACTEES. a circumDr. and the colour was " more red than copper." Prof." On the occasion of August 23-24. writing from Frant. The refraction of the sun's rays by passage through the earth's atmosphere not a too. through which the lunar features were dimly visible. at a height of 4500 feet above sea-level. This. did not correspond . writing from the Oxford University Observatory. before mentioned. gives a disk of shadow deeper in tone in the centre and lightening towards the edges. 1848. The patches. stance which he could not explain. in the Engadine. has only a certain portion of the visible disk slightly tinted. Faye reported French Academy of Sciences that " a tinge. observers in England. as of a " dull copper colour. the tints had arisen from the surface itself. Faye's. was deepest at the margin of the disk. saw the partially covered moon (before totality) as a " dull copper colour. the covered moon immediately before and at totality. but the main body appeared as though enveloped in a semi-opaque clot of coagulated blood. and Belgium described On March 19. as judged by the appearance of satis- factory explanation.

near Boroughbridge. satellite seems a may not possess an atmosphere. xxviii. but perhaps too readily. On April 17th scarcely a trace of the nebulous matter remained but so long after as June 10th annexed "a little blackness" remained about the spot. indicating some sort of cloud. an atmosphere of a very rarefied condition would sufiice+.AUEOEA-LIKE PATCHES ON THE PAETIALLT-ECLIP8ED MOON. and the interior of Tycho. it fig. with an excellent Newtonian reflector of 6 inches aperture. while observing the part of the moon called Pal us Mccotis by Nevelius. pos- but yet sufficiently dense to permit of the formation of cloud or vapour. no. there must have been a disturbance of the moon's surface. possesses no atmo- * The proof from occulted stars merely goes to the fact that the sphere appreciable in that ivay." moon's surface. xii. Emmett in a communication to the 'Annals of Philosophy' (New It is Series. December 1878. with powers 70 and 130. "a very conspicuous spot wholly enveloped in if carried black nebulous matter. in which certain lunar objects and regions have been suspected of mist or vapour. Aurorse. On the 12 th April S"". is now become 4. vol. larger than the true h . perfectly distinct 45°". which. 4" I observed Klein's crater as a dull dark spot. 10 (black patch on moon).or vapour-supporting atmosphere and probably. Birt (' English Mechanic. and sharply defined. Instance of patch of vapour or cloud on dated "Great Ousebum. of the kind. . in which a patch of vapour or cloud was supposed to be surface. lying low It moon may still be a question whether there does not exist something and close to the surface. Mr. as there reasonable doubt whether our sibly rarefied. 725) mentions two —the cloud-like appearance of the white ill- patch west of Picard. as forward by a current of little S** air." suggested to the paper is given on Plate X." the observation being made with " the greatest care with a very fine telescope. received (mainly upon the evidence still of the spectroscopic observations of occulted stars *). and the spot from which it seemed to issue had become more 8'' distinctly visible. inclining a towards the south. and possibly of a rarefied character. 1826. Emmett " A copy of the drawing smoke of a volcano or cloudy matter. he saw.' vol. is reported detected on the moon's by the Rev. B. July 5. which he minutely describes. 81). very generally. at a particular part of the Palus. p. Cloud-vapour might form in an atmosphere of inconsiderable density. for the purposes of . which would scarcely make itself visible by its effects in occultations. If this observation was (as certainly appears to be) critical and exact. The theory of the 73 moon's possessing no atmosphere whatever is now Question of lunar atmosphere. J." April 13th to 9\ the cloudy ap- pearance was reduced both in extent and intensity. which at one time always misty and defined. rather beyond the margin of Mceotis. t This observation is not without a certain amount of confirmation by more recent ones. Mr. A curious case. extended itself in an easterly direction.

solution may ultimately be. a thin remnant of ancient for by supposing an atmosphere accompanies the earth and gives rise to nebulosity. red- and scarlet-tinted patches are frequently noticed. of Turin. In Mars this is character of the surface of the planet generally attributed to the geological Mars's surface during the recent opposition a itself. New York Tribune. Jupiter the appearances seem almost always nearer to the planet's surface.ive a sensible observations were chiefly object object." Is it not. whose nized. It was most apparent in those chromosphere. ascribed a flickering eclipse of February 1877 to the action of disk of the moon during the Lunar refraction of the sun's rays within the a Lunar Aurora." light seen on the reddened Professor Dorna. . possible that Auroree in action within the region the appearance might have arisen from the passage of the sun's rays through of the earth's own atmosphere during The whole subject is difficult of explanation. " the floor of Hem s was good and other objects were weU loolc as rfvaj^our (especially). 1877). The ruddy band of light is much though good as far as they would apply. but I have observed on and indefinite character and in the case of local rosy tint of a more diffused connected with the clouds' belts.' Spectroscopic observations March 3. as distinguished from the regions lying . and shown to be inadequate. present history of the Aurora. . comparable to that which the moon at such times the appearance of the Aurora Borealis.) were eclipsed surface.' vol. too broad to be the sun's It would best be accounted earth. Professor Alexander " brought mdicate some envelope like an atmosphere a variety of evidence tending to during The evidence was principally drawn from observations for the moon. Alexander's evi- THE AUEOEA AND According to the ' ITS CHAEACTEKS. xxviii. 727). forward of Sciences.74 Prof.. It Mars and Jupiter. holding that the an adequate explanation (' L'Opinione cone of the earth's shadow was not Nazionale. Dorna's " Lunar Aurora. and my spectrum of a portion of the moon's . (' and whUe definition is hardly to be accounted for by the angle of iUiunination. whatever its atmospheres are sufficiently recogIn the case of Mars and Jupiter. and also Agrippa of different mystery The no. bearing on the subject. around explanations usually offered for the bright band seen the American Academy eclipses. ^ it at the time of the eclipse on the occasion of the next and should be one of the points for attention seemed to me appropriate for introduction into the total Lunar eclipse.' at a recent semi-annual meeting of dence in favour of a lunar atmosphere. Prof. instances where the moon was nearest the to the moon. information on the question The spectroscope might have afforded some not of sufficient aperture to but my own telescopes (8i and SJ in. Mechanic. aU had an ocMr. The was fully considered. however.rsty the oval spot near. : made on the entire disk with hand-spectroscopes Jre English Klein's object on the same night seeing not observers seeing and in or about tkem" defined.

limb has darkened and brightened three times during last two minutes. Pratt'a notes of Luuar Eclipse. 42".' With a small Browning stai--spectroscope Mr. S. without a slit. some of these atmospheric lines. except margin bluish and S.E. Greenwich. 12" 40". A selection of them is here given :—9^ 13-" 50% first Mr. S. 9" SO". E. south pole decidedly hnghtest. 10" 51". Christie. first appearance of red. limb brightening again. 11" 3"".44"'. separated from N. The red end of the spectrum was cut oflF by a dark band commencing about halfway from D to C. on N. pole has darkened. The bands observed were which has passed through a thick stratum of air. 75 Mr. pole paler red. N. S. and in many instances only a few minutes. N. 12" 24". It does not appear that Mr. N. a bright patch l2 .15™. lO". Mr. In the description of the spectrum of the Aurora in Part II. in which a black line was suspected. 11" 24" 30". 1877. N. W. 12" 3" 50'. 11" 21".E.N. 50% red over disk. or very close to. and my second about ten minutes S. limb much darker. The absorption band became narrowed aa the end of the total phase approached. contact of shadow. limb (my first sketch was made 1 shortly after this. pole. Heniy Pratt has also kindly handed me for use his notes of the Lunar eclipse of August 23.AURORA-LIKE PATCHES ON THE PARTIALLY-ECLIPSED MOON. and the red and blue ends of the spectrum were completely cut off. at the Royal Observatory.W. limb brightening.E. KE. 11" 20"". pole darker red. August 23. apart. and then reddened and shaded again. The yellow and green were comparatively bright. was seen in the yellow. 12" 1". limb especially bright for a few seconds.. while the orange was greatly reduced in intensity. 11" 35". and seemed to constitute the whole visible spectrum. 11" 49". 11" 35" 30'. it will be seen that the conspicuous red and green lines of the Aurora are either coincident with. S. later). Christie examined the crimson patches specifically. or even seconds.W.E. limb reddest 11 paH . vntionN at During totality a strong absorption band Greenwich. 9" 40-. pole has brightened. Pratt saw the red and blue 2" 21". whole disk much darker. pole red . characteristic of the spectrum of light nor that he saw bright lines on any part of the moon's eclipsed disk. shadow very dark 9" no all details of disk easily seen. first appearance of E. a mddm bnghtening of whole disk. redness of shadow fading out. region is reddest pari of eclipse. limb much brighter. in strong contrast to two minutes previously. 10" 48". are 58 in number. lO*. S. same dark and red. part green 10" 2". They were made as the phenomenon progressed. and during partial phase was reduced to a mere line. tint. made a during totality. pole reddened. 11" 1". N. tif'ii with a single-prism spectroscope. pole bright. 1877. N. 10'' 35". and also during subsequent partial phase. Chriv obwr- set of observations Mr. N. as seen at Brighton on a splendid night.

of "local obscuration of the floor of Plato. Its outline was generally circular. contains an account. Among these it is noticed that on 21st October." Mr. Pratt points worthy of remark." dition that nothing could be defined upon 1873. 1 was very . Conspicuous bright lunar objects could be seen through but it quite obliterated the view of about half the moon's terminator. Pratt has also sent me his notes of some observations by condensed. &c. 73. 375. The H. p. ' Observatory." The local red patches seen by me seem also to have been observed by Mr. as was proved by using under examination. ends of the spectrum cut but nothing Mr. with at times a limited field containing only the red portion In reference to the curious brightening and darkening of the disk. the edges. While in other parts of the floor spots and streaks were well the N. 1878. note on p. for had they been as bright within the last two years as on out. No change in the position of the shade could be detected after three hours' ' . when looking at the moon. and that " the whole matter was at the tfme astonishing to me. Eussell. but none the less real. C. by Mr. 9 A.' March 1. ITS CHAEACTERS. Pratt's As an addition to the instances of Tycho. near craterlet 3. 1873. as well as the apparently sudden existence of Observation by Mr. that some months previous to nor streaks on the floor of Plato racteristic brightness. and the change from time to time of local colour. he says that much experience he has seen nothing of the same marked character on other occasions. W. Mr. neither craterlets " had maintained their previous chato be considered toge- —a fact which he thinks ought ther with the outbreak of brilliancy of both orders on that day. and fainter near it . This this was curious occasion I . called the Sector..W." noticeable and also " a simUar obliteration of the N." they are as follows : As somewhat — 1872. S. quite as dark as the shadow of the earth during an eclipse of the moon.. Mr. Hirst found that a large part of was covered with a dark shade. as compared with the craterlets " an obliteration or invisi." November 1st. " : 16. July visible. N. as must have noticed them. 1879.M. else. Picard. Hirst of a dark shade on the new ones. mentioned in the observation on the floor of Plato. including 3 new." 18 light streaks seen. of some Astronomical Experiments made on the Blue Mountains. near Sydney. 1. Mr. portion was in such a hazy conit. Nov. January 1. Pratt. at it moon.76 THE ATJKOEA AND oflf. Pratt adds that the red colour was not an effect of contrast or an optical delusion in any way. him. bility of all the light streaks in the neighbourhood of craterlet no. 27 light the brightness of the streaks was in excess of their streaks seen (7 new) usual character. while those parts of the terminator not in the shadow were distinctly seen. end of the streak 1874. " some of which outshone other longer known ones.

AURORA-LIKE PATCHES ON THE PARTIALLY-ECLIPSED MOON. is made. Some doubt has been cast on this observation. . " One could hardly it resist the con- viction that it was a shadow yet could not be the shadow of any it known body. appears in the scientific journal in which was published. watching. * seen. on the ground that nothing unusual was its it and that the appearances were only those ordinarily presented by the moon at I simply give the account as it then phase. density. doubtless comets. If produced must be one of more than ordinary although dark bodies have been seen crossing the sun which were by a comet." the The diameter of the shadow from the part of it seen on moon was estimated at about three quarters that of the moon *. 77 The observation .

" " Affirmed coincidence of spectrum with that of the corona. Mr." Evidence of Page 243. coinciding in period and epoch with the variation in frequency and magnitude of the solar spots as observed by with solar corona. Aurora and the solar corona. After referring to Gen. 256. Page 256 is ^n ejjtract from a communication by Prof. AUEOEA AND THE SOLAE COEONA. this line fact. the author proceeds to us reason to conclude that there " state. first and was.' a work of 666 : space to the Aurora." Extracts Page 82. pp." adds. in the iron line which made its appearance in the part of is the spectrum he generally studied.' nexion with sun-spots. some forty in was among those which he had most frequently recorded.78 THE AIJEOEA AND ITS CHAEACTEES. Lockyer's conclu- Hence he thought he should always solar corona. Norman Locktee. that amongst the lines he Mr.' . and on this ground alone should hesitate to regard the question as settled. "What. and that one not all) of these lines is coincident with a line (or lines) noticed in the spectrum of the Aurora Borealis by Professor Winlock. 244. Lockyer then number. 82-102. and these again by auroral displays." Page 102. Schwabe. little in his ' Solar Physics. when the see iron vapour thrown into the chromosphere.gnetic state of the earth. the last degree. is " and the same philosopher has given a similar coincidence between the outburst of solar spots and of the Aurora Borealis. Young to ' Nature. had observed up to that time. it if the Aurora were a permanent sion adverse to the ques- and gave out this as its brightest line. con- " Aurora Mr. and that these disturbances have a periodical variation. is the evidence furnished by the American ] American observers on observers on the nature of the corona (solar) It is bizarre and puzzling to is nature of the corona considered. CHAPTER VIII. gives but Borealis. The index comprises — pages. We have also shown that sun-spots or solar disturbances appear to be accompanied by disturbances of the earth's magnetism. The most less definite statement on the subject ! that it is nothing more nor than a 'permanent Solar Aurora the announcement being founded on the fact that three bright lines remained visible after the image of a prominence had been moved away from the (if slit. Sabine as having shown that there are from as to Aurora's connexion with sunspots and occasional disturbances in the ma. pp. Norman Lockyer's ' Solar Physics. Me. tion being settled. then.

' treats the matter more in detail. and the sky in the neighbourhood of the sun. the positions of the lines the Aurora. Harkness. But Coincidence of these lines with three bright lines what invested these three lines observed lines with a peculiar interest was the circumstance first that they appeared to coincide exactly with the three of the five bright Borealis. which appeared necessity of to He it does not other elements of probability. though he by no means sure of to He had Nature. . that this line coincides with the at He also thinks it communication to ' Aurora is line reported by Prof. the pro- minences. immense electrical disturbances in the solar atmosphere as the well as . in his Spectrum Analysis. while Mr. as ments the curious responsiveness of our terrestrial magnets to solar storms did not feel in a position to urge it yet he probability. and seemed probable that the other two from the fact that they also to the light of the corona. 1870. exhibited a spectrum obtained at once from the corona. refers to the bright line 79 1474 as probable Prof. but rather awaited developto ments. Young. and then not long enough its complete a measure- ment. were both wanting in the spectrum of the prominences when observed without an eclipse.' only himself seen thrice. He further says " The small instruments employed by Pickering and Harkness. the abandon hia hjrpotheaia. by Professor Winlock in the spectrum of the Aurora These lines of the Aurora were determined by Winlock according to Huggins's scale . having of result of the powerful vertical currents known to other ele- exist there. Dr. Referring to the eclipse of 1869 as confirming the previous observations that Dr. Winlock it. the coronal spectrum was free from dark lines.AUEOEA AND March 24. Huggins's it scale. in the general appearance of the corona. and others were agreed that with the extinction of the last rays of the sun all the Fraunhofer lines disappeared at once from the spectrum. with a spectroscope of prisms. Schellen. brightest of these lines was thought it and not to that belonged of the prominences. Young. It had been already explained why the to belong to the corona lines and Young observed three bright lines in the spectrum of the corona. Youiif^'d which the Professor being always visible with proper management. strongly. These instruments lines. and 1474. in TilE SOLAK COEONA. Father still Secchi was disposed it think the line hydrogen. with a large : field of view. he points out that Pickering. deduced the following positions according to KirchhoflF's scale: —1250 + last 1350 + 20. and 20. He was only sure that position lay between 1460 and 1490 of have Kirchhoff. Lockyer believed ' to be iron. observed by Winlock in and if these be reduced to Kirchhoff's scale. 1550 of Dr. For this reason he did not abandon the hypothesis. Schellen reviews the subject in eclipse of 1869. showed during totality a faint continuous spectrum free from dark but five crossed by two or three bright lines. observed the three bright lines in the spectrum of the corona.

ascribed by Kirchhoff and Corona self- Angstrom to the vapour of iron. ever. 123 and seems that the auroral observations before referred to were made on 15th April. polar light in the sun to the influence of electricity. atmosphere round the sun Corona supposed to be a permanent polar light existing in and then adds. Schellen then details Professor Pickering's observations with the polariscope. Schellen here adds : analogous to that of our earth. and were of reduced to Earchhoff's scale by Young. with " an ordinary chemical spectroscope. and 1473. 1869. The lines were 1280. spectrum have been absent.80 THE AUEOEA AND ITS CHAEACTEES. indicating a change or variance in the gaseous part of at those periods. it is well knovra. lines observed would be 1247." and were reported by Winlock. it with the collimator pointed directly to the heavens. which ought to be the case if the corona were a permanent polar light in the sun. be borne in mind Dr. . These lines have had all sorts * The question of a connexion between the waxing and waning of the solar corona and the prevalence of sun-spots is now being mooted." (Professor Young's answer to this. and that from the bright lines seen in its luminous." — " Lockyer. 1351. and the disturbance of the electric current in the telegraph wires. while the 1350." that by Young were 1250. which is due to the vapour of iron. The brightest of the lines. justly urges against this theory the fact that although the brightest of these three lines. and It it may have an important bearing on the subject of the constitution of the corona. xlviii. and forms a widely diffused . Dr. pp.) " A yet bolder theory is the ascription of such a attributed to electricity. howspectrum of the sun. to play an important part in Dr. would seem that when the corona has been examined about has proved fainter though more extended. Polar light in the sun has been already given. while the bright it the time of lines of the minimum of sun-spots. which has been proved. and 1474. the coincidence between the bright lines of the corona and those of the Aurora Avould be found very remarkable. and 1550 of Huggins's scale. by the relation of the magnetic needle. " It has been supposed. on the ground of line 1474 being always visible. spectrum it is probably of a gaseous nature. the prominences. is very often present among the great number it is of bright lines occasionally seen in the by no means constantly visible. 1400. corona still a problem. S." and Dr. was the reversal of a strongly marked o Fraunhofer line. On 404. showing that the corona must be self-luminous. Pierce. Schellen then points out that if it Young found the positions of the two fainter lines more by estimation than by measurement. Schellen thinks nature of the the phenomenon of the Aurora Borealis reference to the ' . by C. Schellen then concludes with still an opinion that the nature of the corona was a problem *.' vol. 1474. American Journal of Science. from the coincidence of the three bright lines of the corona with those of the Aurora Borealis. and probably of a gaseous nature. that the corona is a permanent polar light existing in the sun Dr.

could not be used for accurate comparison. are generally rather wide and nebulous.. Barker. aamgned to theflfl line<<. I have assigned two. the lines were positioned. the suspicion first naturally arises that the measurements did not extend beyond the places of the figures. and. Backhouse. of course. In my 'Aurora Spectrum. 4640. to 5320 (Alvan Clarke) and 5020 (Barker). Uoubts raised as to (1) the accuracy of the observations themselves. and 4310. 5170. seem to have far too much of the i element to make them sufficiently accurate. placMof Wave-length coronal line). if so. The third might perhaps be placed at 4640 (Backhouse and Winlock). 5570. as stated. with a ?. As they all end with a cypher. The upon coincidences relied on in the foregoing observations depend. M .AUBOBA AND THE SOLAK COKONA. 5320.' Plate XII. and (2) the subsequent reduction of the lines for comparison. 5020. 5320 (assumed to be 6316. Assuming the correctness of the latter. 5200 . 5400. Pierce's auroral observation does not state how three comparison. what have we as to the former 1 Two of Professor Young's positions of closeness of the observationH for the piirj)09e of coronal lines. Pickering and Alvan Clarke. places of wave-length assigned to 81 Proctor gives Varioiw them by different writers. too. and not easy of comparison with sharper ones. 5200. The auroral lines.

Kirwan (Irish Trans. Franklin gave a different form to the electric theory of the Aurora. Franklin's it changes to blue. in vacuo resembles Aurora. Dr. ascribed the Aurora to the impulse of the zodiacal light Luminous particles of upon the atmosphere of the earth. in 1721.' date 1830. at first electricity forces itself . an appearance resembling the Aurora. Euler combated this theory. Mr. the Aurora might be occasioned by the circulation of the magnetic effluvia of the earth from one pole to another. the Aurora was described to be sulphurous vapours issuing from the Aurora. Canton contrived an imitation of the Aurora by means of that such a tube electricity trans- mitted through the Torricellian vacuum in a long glass tube. in a treatise. de Mairan. and at length to an intense white. SUPPOSED CAUSES OF THE AUEOEA. 43). experiment bears a close resemblance to Prof. or in highly rarefied atmosphere. and showed would continue to display strong flashes of light for 24 hours and longer without fresh excitation. and sometimes ascending to the height of several thousand miles. Angstrom's exhausted referred to later in treating of the spectrum of the Aurora. in is mentioned an experiment which an electrical machine and air-pump are so disposed that strong sparks pass from the machine to the receiver of the air-pump. M. Zodiacal light. immense atmosphere between the tropics (Exper. Hawksbee very early showed that the electric fluid assumes. in some respects resembling the Aurora. Halley originally proposed a similar theory. Electric fluid in vacuo atmosphere driven beyond its limits by the light of the sun. and Observ. with which [It will o the whole receiver becomes completely filled. Experiment with electrical machine and ex- In the 'Edinburgh Encyclopaedia. hausted re- As the exhaustion proceeds the in a visible stream. Supposed causes of the At first .] Dr.82 THE AUEOEA AND ITS CHAEACTERS. CHAPTER IX." be noticed that this flask theory. and ascribed the Aurora to the luminous particles of our our atmosphere. Mr. 1769. earth and Musschenbroek pointed out that certain chemical mixtures sent forth a phosphorescent vapour. Sulphurous vapours. supposing that the electricity which into the Polar regions from the is concerned in the phenomenon passes quantities of vapour raised into the p. but ultimately concluded that Magnetic effluvia. 1788) supposed that the light of the Aurora . through the receiver of a deep purple colour " but as the exhaustion advances Dr. Mr.

ou Dictionnaire de Physique. by the aid of a Ruhmkoi-ff coil. a very similar effect produced. supported on a base with a brass ball electrode at the lower end. Dalton.Libes'. pp. He observed that the lumi- nous arches were always perpendicular to the magnetic meridian (Dalton's Meteorological Observations and Essays. Tubes described. acted upon by the solar rays. wan 'Btheorj'. Borealis and Australis 83 air was occasioned by the combustion of inflammable Mr. Dalton's. nitrous through a Mons. June 1790. Monge'i. produced in tubes nearly exhausted by means of an usually of the form shown on Plate X. Cavendish and Mr. Dalton considered the Aurora a magnetic phenomenon whose beams were governed by the magnetism of the earth. which. passing acid. air-pump. would exhibit those red and volatile vapours which form the Aurora Borealis (Traite de Physique. and that in reality to each other it consisted of a great number of an optical straight cylinders parallel deception. concluded there was no doubt that son concluded the archen to be the arched appearance of the Aurora was merely an optical deception. ascribed the Aurora Borealis to a phosphorico-electric Aurorse). upon connexion with the source is supply of the electric current. Kir- kindled by electricity. Royal Polytechnic in Regent Street or in some effects in these cases are The AurorjB produced in exhausted tubes. and a pointed wire at the upper. Dr. iv. 54. mixture of azote and oxygen. 1793.Bertholon's. p. vol. art. Ahhi. In one instance the tube is fig. the current passing usually excited by a frictional through it by means of the platinum-wire electrodes introduced into each end of the tube. m2 . 1805. has had intensity. and vol. February 1791. In another case the tube it is of the form shown on same After exhaustion is permanently closed. xxxviii. plate The first form of tube is machine . Thomp- tions of Mr. from the observa- Dr. fig. Libes propounded a theory that the gas. Rozier's Journal.SUPPOSED CAUSES OF THE AUROEA. devised by electricians and having their locus at the scientific lecture-room. 8. The Abbe Bertholon light (Encyc. 191). Plate. Mons. and then illuminated by some form of electric or galvanic current. produced nitric acid or nitrous and that these substances. p. 153). Artificial With many have been of us (at least was so in my own case) our first viewed Aurorae artificial ones. 429). and to the dipping-needle at the place it where they were seen. Mens. its character changed from quantity to In each instance. Monge proposed the theory that the Aurorse were merely clouds illuminated by the sun's light falling upon them after numerous reflections from other clouds placed at different distances in the heavens (Lemons de Physique par Prejoulz. 237). Mr. electric fluid. 9. Monn. Mr. the second by a galvanic current from a Grove or bichromate battery. p. par Libes. Method. Thompson (Annals of Philosophy.

when the then a faint representation of what happens with a single wire detailed in current entirely passes (but see experiments is III. possible no such direct communication in certain other forms of tube having effect. 6. of mercury. panied by a mimic representation of the at will in tubes having These appearances may.84 Efiects described. 7). flashes of light playing in the . and other Spectra with the section " On the comparison of some tube II. but it is. before-described tubes are also referred to. the wires from the In the case of an exhausted tube having and placed at each end of the tube. column of striae. inner tube. as well as to the inner surface mercury runs up or being reversed end for end or shaken. and without friction with the dry hand or a piece of slightly warmed and then excited by the most brilliant handkerchief. between the electrodes. though with less electrodes. be produced to produce them. The in the and their spectra described. some- pass Brilliant streams of rose-coloured light sometimes in divided vibrating sprays times as a single luminous misty band. 'Tube excited bv friction. moreover. The outer and glow of light is produced by the friction smaller tube of uranium glass with tube is strong. THE AUEOEA AND ITS CHAEACTEES. the Upon down the tube the tube whitish and causes a very considerable display of light. and contains within it a The tubes are exhausted and a small balls blown upon it (Plate X. One electrode only may be connected with the coil or electrical machine. is soon filled with flannel. fig. and coil may be made into a little helix themselves in flashes and streams of the induced cui-rents within will show of according to the gaseous or other contents light. plying the current of electricity may be electrodes. with the external electric machine. ^ . The appearance Part Tube without electrodes. or streams. varying in colour and tint the tube. Aurora" (Part The aura or brush from the electrical machine has been considered as . and when once thoroughly charged needs but Geissler's little further excitation to keep up the effect. Plate X.). galvanic or electrical machine for supIn some cases the ordinary forms of A long straight tube dispensed with. before the spectroscope took its explanation of the Aurora accomcontent to accept as a very fair and probable phenomenon.). of course. fig. in Geissler has introduced a form of tube flashes which electricity in its form of mercury tube. silk interior. or the like. no electrodes. has access to both surfaces of the quantity of mercury is introduced which of the outer tube. and sometimes in a flaky part in the investigation. being exhausted and closed at each end. we were All this.

. 1751.SUPPOSED CAUSES OF THE AURORA. Fig. The instrument was exhibited at the recent Scientific Loan Collection at South Kensington. while the hissing and crackling accompanying it has been supposed to corroborate the reports of similar noises having been heard during an auroral display. so that B is quite insulated as the earth a' a! a' a' a' a' is in space. Lemstrum's in- Htrument to demonatrnte the nature of Aurorae. 386. third edition of the Official Catalogue. together with an essay by Prof Lemstrom. and a full description of it. B is surrounded by the atmosphere. " On the Theory of the Polar Light." will be found in the The apparatus is intended to show that an electric current passing from an insulated body does not produce light in air of normal pressure but as it rises to the rarefied air in the Geissler tubes a phenomenon very like the real Polar Light is produced. are a series of Geissler tubes with copper ends above and below. has devised an instrument for the purpose of demonstrating that Aurorae are produced by electrical currents passing through the atmosphere. 1). of the University of Helsingfors. ' Prof. p. is A s an electrical s' is of ebonite as well as RR (Z. the negative pole being connected with a copper sphere and the positive with the earth. no. An illustration of this instrument (for which I am indebted to the Editor of Nature ') is introduced (fig. 1. machine. All the upper ends are . 85 resembling the Aurora. Lemstrom. Prof.

which almost invariably drift slowly southward.86 THE AUEOEA AND ITS CHAEACTEES. On now exciting the magnet with a battery of 10 were drawn out from the positive pole. efiulgent strata Grove cells and exhausted receiver electro-magnet of the Royal Institution. de la De la Eive's apparatus at p. 760 millims. The experiment differs from the apparatus of M. from the positive pole and then retreated. electric discharge axis. simulating the higher regions of the Polar atmosphere. A large sphere of wood represented the terrestrial and iron cylinders the two extremities of the These penetrated into two globes filled magnetic axis. Marsh considered this bore a very considerable resemblance to the conduct of the auroral arches. which rotated steadily round the Gassiot's Gassiot describes an experiment with his great Grove's battery of 400 in cells. and did not air.. On making the circuit of the magnet and breaking it immediately. No. The Geissler tubes represent the upper part of the atmosphere is becomes luminous when the Aurora Borealis hemisphere. connected with a wire which goes to the earth in the direction of the arrows through the air. cloud if lowing cloud with a deliberate motion. experiment with 400 which an exhausted " receiver was placed between the poles of the large cells. a stream of was electricity which illuminates a will be M. also exhibited at the same time. a diff'erent when the two cylinders were charged by means of a horseshoe electro-magnet. 1749. "• between poles of magnet. and appearing as the positive electrode. de la Kive. . which had before filled the egg was concentrated into a defined band of light. found described 385 of the Catalogue. set in action the discharge As soon as the magnet in an electric egg- magnet was magnet. and passed along the under or upper surface of the receiver according to the direction of the current. observed in the northern The phenomena produced by the Lemstrom apparatus considered consistent with the theory advocated by Swedish observers that electrical currents emanating from the earth and penetrating into the upper regions produce Auroras in both hemispheres. consequently a current runs and the Geissler tubes become which are luminous when the electrical machine is set into operation. . earth. who placed his current in vacuo. and Eive's apparatus described. in The turned around a point situate in the prolongation of the direction at either pole." swallowed up by Mr. in accordance with observations on the rotation of the rays of the Aurora. De la Eive's De la Rive placed an electro-magnet in an electric egg. allowing to pass unobserved. in show the property of ordinary atmospheric at the pressure of rarefied atmosphere. the fol- luminous strata rushed. with rarefied air.

which takes place sparks. It has also been shown that in electrical discharges in air at ordinary pressure. An electric current arising from the discharge itself. Most of the foregoing interesting rewilts and experiments will be found repeated and verified in Part III. That the experiments of M. that the mag- netism of the earth caused these currents and electrified matter composing the arch to revolve round the magnetic pole of the earth. Varley showed that when a glow-discharge in a vacuum tube brought Varley 'g observation within the field of a powerful magnet. each spark slowly. and. is taking place. Prof Lemstrom thinks that essentially in a direct action terrestrial magnetism plays only a comparatively secondary part in the phenomena of the Polar Light. upon the rays. (2) Eays of light consisting of an infinite number of giving rise to two induction currents going in opposite directions. 87 Mr. (3) A galvanic current going in an opposite direction to that of the discharge. magnetic poles of the earth. and be separated from the spark by blowing upon it.SUPPOSED CAUSES OF THE AUEOEA. the magnetic curves are illuminated beyond the electrodes between which the discharge as in the path of the current. into the magnetic curve. as deflected a balanced plate of talc on which it was caused to infringe. Prof. an electric which floated southward. it was surrounded by a luminous cloud or aura which was driven which might also Spark surrounded by an aura which could be separated. and then bending southward and downward until they reached corresponding points in the southern magnetic hemisphere. bright streams of electricity suddenly shooting forth discharge between the in magnetic curves corresponding to the points from which they originated. and forming pathways by which the electric currents passed to their destination . . Lemstrom's theory. further. giving them is their observed motion from east to west or from west to east. this part consisting Prof. That the Polar Light considered lowing results (1) : as an electrical discharge gives the fol- Character of the Polar Light. while the spark itself was unaffected by the magnet. leaving the immediate vicinity of the north magnetic pole in the form of clouds of electrified matter. and also thought that it was caused by moving particles of matter. Marsh considered the Aurora He considered it probable that the Aurora was essentially an electric discharge between the magnetic poles of the earth. de la Rive do not all furnish the proof that the rays of the light are really united under this influence. Lemstrom's Theory. as well this illumination on a glowdischarge in vacuo.

Edlund . instead of suddenly producing lightning as in equatorial regions Polar Light and mean latitudes. as the earth and rarefied air of the upper regions are immense reservoirs of electricity producing the same effect as if the circuit were closed. He sums j-egions up. and having origin in the electromotive force discovered by M. M. even to the earth's atmosphere and the earth always diminishing in intensity because of the bad conducting-power of the successive layers of air and of the earth's crust. proved by the observation of Aurorse at heights of 100 and 200 kilometres. That permanent moisture in the air. M. positive electricity which spreads itself. . light the existence of which • terrestrial mag- netism. That would then only be negative.88 THE AUEOEA AND its ITS CHARACTERS. where some gaseous matter must exist. the atmosphere becoming charged by the aqueous vapour rising in tropical seas. diffusion of matter. varying with the state of the sun's surface. or rather in the induction currents. Theories of Theories of querel MM. with Becquerel's theory is that solar spots are cavities by which hydrogen and and other substances escape from the sun's protosphere. into planetary space. This Prof. Lemstrom maintains contrary to those terrestrial who believe they see in is magnetism. which contributes only to give to the Polar Light a certain direction. in the electric spark. diffusion of electricity it as being less positive than the air. and in some cases to give it motion. That these currents require a closed circuit but this is not necessary in the case of the Aurora. what capable of developing the origin of the Polar Light. The through planetary space would be limited by the cannot spread in a vacuum. a good conductor of electricity. as shown by coincidences in the periods of Aurora and sun-spots. but considers the earth is charged with negative electricity and the source of the positive atmo- spheric electricity. de la Rive agrees with M. that the electric discharges which take place in the Polar electricity of the due to elec- between the positive atmosphere and the negative independent of charges electricity of the earth are the essential and unique cause of the formation of is "^ ^" the Polar Light. Becquerel and Be la Bive. since That gaseous matter is extends further than the limits usually assigned to the earth's atmosphere. Becquerel is as to the electric origin of the Aurora. is the cause of a slow and continuous discharge assuming the form of an Aurora. it That the hydrogen takes De la Rive. The action of the sun he considers is an indirect one.

M. the deviation increasing with the development of the arch. 3). adopts Mr. in particular. Effects pro- and other effects were observed which were considered to have a strong resemblance to those of Aurorse. 90). p. plays the part of the negative electrode in his experiments. The Aurorse were produced by producing nothing similar. in these experiments. Plante advocates the theory that the imperfect vacuum of the upper regions. the electric current. If the positive electrode of the secondary battery sides of a vessel of salt water. 1878. 2. under the head of " Polar Aurorse . made." and it is experiments producing that. mag- netic perturbations were produced by bringing a needle near the circuit. March 1.' and reprois duced on p. luminous M. vapour. 89 M. No mention of any spectroscopic observations 389). after supporting the theory of a connexion between the waxing and waning of the solar corona and sunspots. positive electricity. 4). an arc. is In an article in 'Nature. a further account M. or to those of drapery The rustling noise accompanying the experiment was analogous to that sometimes said to accompany Aurorse. Pratt's hypothesis " that the Aurora is simply light filmy rarefied cirrus cloud.ri- menU. Mr.' Obser- Mr.' March 14. according to the distance of the film (electrode X) from the liquid. to the undulations of a serpent. By inserting the positive electrode after the negative in a vessel of salt water. towards the north or south. through the mists and ice-clouds which given of stated above the Poles.SUPPOSED CAUSES OF THE AURORA. As in Aurorse. and illuminated by the free electricity escaping in the condensation through the very rarefied medium above. Plantes Electric Experiments. This undu- movement. P. Plante's ex|K. A. M. Planto's M. 1879. The . either a corona formed of luminous particles arranged in a circle round the electrode (fig. 90. acting like a large conductor. Holden's views. or a sinuous line which rapidly folded and refolded on latory itself (fig. yielded a series of results altogether analogous to the various phases of Polar Aurorse. the negative electrode Illustrations of these miniature Aurorse are given in ' Nature. an arc bordered with a fringe of brilliant rays (fig. formed a complete analogy with what had been compared in Auroras agitated by the wind. and was caused by the luminous electric discharge penetrating the moisture. Holden. Plante's experiments. there was brought into contact with the wa observed. first deposited at the base of a vast upper body of highly vapour. spaces. or a sinuous line. while the positive electricity flows towards the planetary duced resembling Aurora. p. F. float and not towards the ground. in presence of aqueous a corona. Plante has performed some experiments with a very considerable series of secondary batteries. (' In a communication to the Metropolitan Scientific Association vatory.

Fig. Holden's opinion. resulting from a violent condensation of vapour which causes a flow of The Aurora would thus. 4." Fig. The corona. Aurora would. according to this theory. The arc and rays. 3.90 THE AUROEA AND ITS CHARACTERS. . in electricity from the pole to restore equilibrium. The sinuous line. 2. Fig. " depend on storm phenomena of an intense character and the frequency of Aurorse at the sun-spot maxima would indicate the con- nexion of the latter with the weather." Mr. have its origin in a vast electrical storm.

.

SPECTROSCOPE. DIAPHRAGM MICROMETER././/MmM. Fig : 9. . w iuuii. .j '' j Fig lO.//„. TUBES. EXHAUSTED TUBE. • Pig: G. BLACK PATCH ON MOON... AURORA TUBE. GEISSLER MERCURY TUBE. Wirtom &1 .Plate X. MICROMETER. Fig 8. 7. P 'm'M///. 6. SLIT PLATE. TUBE. Fif! .. A. 7^ .!! '1' 1' 1 nil nil III! nil nil/ i Pig:3.. AURORA.Ir.. •Pxg:l. MICROMETER ENLARGED.„ A... DOUBLE Fig.^-^. FOR AURORA. MA ?ig MICROMETER CARD. : '2. : T - . SPECTROSCOPE.V.M„/.

1. gi-eat A photograph of the sun's spectrum. Browning's instru- found very convenient for observations by hand of the Aurora-lines. is A representation carries a large ment described. for tube and chemical investigations. Most be of of the spectrum of the Aurora direct-vision spectroscope is to but. With one prism and a field is D and the of view extends at one glance from inserted and used in combina- near C to near G. Ant form of spectroscope of moderate dispersion will suffice for observations . ascribed by Prof. and the instrument may be used for solar work. An arrange- so that a second prism can at will be slipped into the tube fine slit the (shown in outline in the drawing). lines are widely separated. be preferred. John Browning arranged for me a form of instrument which I have also. A brass tube compound (5) ment is made direct-vision prism (shown dark in the drawing). 8PECTE0SC0PE ADAPTED EOE THE AIJEOEA. mode of measuring line-positions. taken with of the dark solar lines and one prism only. Mr. Mr. and when fixed on a stand. the nickel line can be seen between the two D lines. fig. Draper to oxygen and nitrogen. for sake of convenience. a it is hand or moderate dispersion. and desirable also to have lines while the witn ready some quick and ready mode of measuring the position of the Aurora lasts. CHAPTER X.PART IL THE SPECTEUM OF THE AURORA. . of this instrument given on Plate X. shows a number many of the o bright ones. When the second prism tion.

so in with black. piece. fig. In this the spaces thus prepared a reduced negative photograph and the upper half of the circle and lower half of the circle were opaque. Dr. divisions between. spider's-web wires are replaced by a (see Appendix E) in which the usual Illuminated wires faint spectrum. above the scale without any interthe scale so that the upper half shows the scale and renders the ruption at all . with a thin In use. 3. with black a scale was drawn of moderately wide The upper as to read off easily by eye. but I was led ultimately to employ. 4). needle-point. for speedy. curcle described Mode of the of use white spaces. method. glass cover. the spectrum may be observed.92 THE SPECTRUM OF THE AIJEORA. and as the photograph One Advantage of the tude in the divisions was of no moment. The the field so that the extremities of by a set of observations of the dispersion of the instrument was ascertained made with an excellent filar microprincipal solar and some metallic lines. of the faint ruled lines between each division of in turn represented a certain portion of the scale. short and long. size and printed The photographed scale was next enlarged to a considerable upon faintly ruled paper and the enlargement was so . For the Auroral observations. as being phragm micrometer observations. It was made in and within a this manner :— A card was first on this. This (Plate X. adapted which the spectrum itself illuminates. of all prepared (Plate X. that all the lines seen could be and without the risk of slight recorded at one time and with aU in view. One great advantage of this method was. yet fairly accurate. as being easily seen upon a in preference. . fig. while the lower half illuminates showing the spectrum-lines falling either upon them or the divisions visible. respectively 6 inches in length. Vogel has described an instrument meter. the spectrum is brought upon focus of the eyepiece. a diamay also be used. It was photograph was about the size of a shilling (fig. and then mounted carefully in Canada balsam. any want of exactiit . Each of these faint lines so that the scales as confilar micrometer the spectrum as read off with the and with the photographed micrometer structed with the filar micrometer included in the field of the eyecorresponded for all parts of the spectrum arranged as to comprise five . The Diaphragm micrometer described. 2). the observed Imes were was an exact copy of the scale. laid on the table under the of the photographed enlargements being marked off with ease and accuracy upon spectroscope. and the lines between the spaces were transparent same Plate). collimator and observing telescope are The telescope traverses and carry achromatic lenses of one inch aperture. spaces between. and from the card as half of the circle was then entirely filled was made. placed in the micrometer.

Eapid dry plates would be of endurance. shift 93 in the instrument. I found this plan most effective for the rapid and correct recording of a faint and evanescent spectrum. especially useful for such a purpose. I see no reason. want of Aurorae) had no oppor- but I doubt not well adapted for such a purpose. would doubtless compensate by their period Mr. and a bright line selected as an index. which frequently happens when lines are read off seriatim. constructed for me by Mr. scale is engraved by loosening the small screws by which the jaw-plates are on the fixed lower half of the plate for an approximate measurement. From experiments made with a special prism of the Eutherfurd form. The upper slit is half traverses the lower by the aid of a micrometer-screw. scopes. fig. I have (for it is with a bright line as an index. X. Photographed Spectra ' have pointed out that we shall probably obtain no spectrum of the Aurora to be absolutely depended parison with other spectra until upon for comPhotographed spectrum suggested. Browning subsequently constructed (Plate me a double-slit plate (lately in Double-slit plate ar- the Scientific Loan Collection at South Kensington) for the same instrument rangement. The lower half of the plate is fixed. In ' Other instruments on a similar principle have been I duced. tunity of trying it. too. o2 . and some Aurorae. A it. while the division of the micrometer-screw-head completes In use. in which considerable dispersion of light. This instrument has a simple and rapid micrometer arrangement. and with lines sufficiently well marked to be compared with other spectra. Hilger's half-prism spectroscope. and it gave close results when compared with traversing-micromcter measured spectra. Mr. ' This form of micrometer was suggested by Mr. Procter (in years ago as a substitute for a Nature ') many more complicated apparatus lately intro- by ZoUner. The distances between the lower half of the spectrum are read off by means of the bright line above. if wanting in brilliancy. The for records. but for Aurora purposes I prefer a fixed scale. Adam Hilger has also made for me is one of his " half-prism " spectroobtained with but very little loss Mr. The widened or closed at pleasure attached. Browning visit. should an unusually bright Aurora favour us with a why its spectrum may not be recorded in a permanent form. one half of the spectrum in the upper spectrum lines of the is slides along the other. admitted of sub- sequent examination at leisure. (with which many gas-spectra have been already photographed).SPECTEOSCOPE ADAPTED FOB THE AUEOBA. we succeed in a photographed one. 5).

These in two lines are generally described as with similar characteristics. The author nica. for the purpose of identification and comparison) Table from Encyc. ± ± 8-1 6297 5569 2-9 4 6 5342 5214 5161 ±16 5390 5233 5189 4. of line. : No. Lines or bands and continuous spectrum." in the simultaneously. Number of observations. and he saw in addition. is from " a " (between " " red to h (hydrogen) in the violet. but I believe not more than seven have ever been seen of the article " Aurora Polaris. but with more or tinuous spectrum towards the centre. and it is a question whether any thing lines.' classes ' Encyclopaedia Britan- the lines as nine. 3. 1. in the yellow-green. Zollnei' is credited with the first observation of the line in the red. 6. 9.L. and gives a table with the following results (to these I have added Herr Vogel's lines. traces of three very feeble bands situated near to F. C and D) in the The lines have been classified and arranged by Lemstrom and others as nine in number. by slit. errors are large. 4 6 ± ± ± ± ± 5-4 9-7 4984 4823 4667 4299 ±11 9-3 9-8 5004 4 8 8 8. as observed The extreme range of the spectrum. 4663 9-3 The probable Angstrom's line." and his (probably the adopted. first) generally called at "Angstrom's. Vogel's lines. 5. by and have never been . widening the ZoUner's line in the red. and all observers. measurement of its position 5567 This was in the winter of 1867-68. Lines nine in number. is is gained by thus endeavouring to average the The o principal and brightest line. The spectrum of the Aurora consists of a set of lines or bands upon a dark less of faint con- ground at each extremity of the spectrum. Brit. up to the present time. 5 10 2.94 THE SPECTEUM OF THE AUEOEA. 7. 6303 5569 Probable error. Mean W. about the same respective positions. Spectrum of the Aurora described.

and are not unfrequently observed to have their places supplied by bands. Borgen stating he had never seen a trace of the Second Ctemiim expedition observationa. lines of hair's breadth. remarked to spread into bands. which \yere observed so distinctly with the same spectroscope on 25th October. which commenced the north and became very brilliant. 95 Other of the The other lines in the spectrum are difficult Udm to position. The spectroscope showed : in 01 Spectrum Aurora 1. Lemstrtim's thinks the Aurora could be referred to three distinct types. 1870. The spectroscope was used in the second German expedition. after the return of the expedition. From a comparison of the figures they must have been in the red. A yellow line at 74*9. 2. but only the one brightest line seen —Dr. owing to the many discordant observations of them. Wij- 1872-73. Lieutenant Weyprecht used a small spectroscope during the AustroHungarian Expedition. with Dr. R. 3. They seem in the Bpectrum. blue at 65*90. Parent. Vogel's lines added for the : sake of comparison . one at 125 and the other about 105. used a direct-vision spectroscope. 1868. of as " shaded rays. which he considers to agree with lines belonging to the air-gases. C] They are subsequently spoken — M. Swedish expedition. also variable in intensity as well as in number (sometimes even same Aurora). weak lines in the blue and red. At Tronsa an Aurora was seen October 21st. under Professor Nordenskiold. [I presume the striae were really vertical. with very pronounced (horizontal ?) strije on the side of the yellow. He also 1868. obsenations. and are the only instance recorded of two auroral lines in that region. Lemstrom mentions that in the Aurora spectrum there are nine lines (he does not say he saw them simultaneously). Austrollungarian. Auguste Wijkander and Lieut. with a micrometer-screw movement of the prisms.SPBCTEUM OP THE AUBOBA DESCKIBED. after- wards reduced to wave-lengths upon Angstrom's line-values. 1868. and saw only the well-known yellow-green line. In the Swedish Expedition. The following Table gives the results. depending on the character of the discharge. and that the explanation intended to convey that these lines shaded off towards the yellow. A very clear line in the Two seen at Tronsa. of the Swedish Expedition in MIVI. the reading being O kander and Parent's obsenratiuns." J.

like : B. situate about the middle of the spectrum. Thomas G.'s observations.96 THE SPECTEUM OF THE ATJEOEA. T. 4873 4708 4872 (6) 8 1 ±2 ±3 . one strong pale yellow line near D. in London. Probable error. one paler one beyond. F. lines of the lithium was very conspicuous and the was intermediate in position and colour to the red line The C and calcium spectra. Number. The red line was not seen.L. of October 24th. Wijkander. only two bright Gibbs's observation. 5 and 7 were only seen once. one strong red line near C. writing from Torquay. on the 24th and 25th. and the Elger's observation. Elger. .vision spec- troscope. Number. both. 5567.' T. Plainly there were two spectra superposed. saw (1) a broad and well-defined red band near C o (2) a bright white band near D (same as Angstrom's W. one a greenish grey. was intentionally not included in Nos. Mean Lines. The Aurora came when spectroscopes of 24th. F.L. Observations. W. Probable error. the greenish portions showed only one line W. — estimated to be near F . at Bedford. a direct-vision form were being introduced. W. A correspondent. for while the red portions of the Aurora showed the four lines with a faint continuous spectrum. W.. of Vogel. and a number of obsers'ations were communicated at the time to ' Nature. 5567). (4) a very faint line about halfway between 2 and 3. 1870. at a time in the same Aurora. with paler near F. Gibbs saw. 10 ± 5 4701 4366 4663 (7) (8) 4 3 4286 + 16 4284 The and not Spectrum of Aurora of October brightest line in all Aurorse. Observations. with a faint continuous spectrum from about D to beyond F. B. D on a faint ground. saw.L. 6297 5569 (1) 5 6 6 5359 5289 5239 (2) (3) ±3 ±5 ±4 ±9 5359 3 5390 5280 ± 1 5286 5231 2 5207 ±11 5233 5189 (4) (5) 5 1 4996 4871 4692 4366 4280 4996 1 5004. Parent. near lines. other a red line very much C (hydrogen). on 25th visible in every part of the sky (3) a faint and rather nebulous line. It brightest of the whole. the Tables. 1870. roughly . and a still a direct.

but rather duskier : fig. In the white Aurora were four lines George F. 4850). the other in the red (like the lithium line. 68. Capron's obeenation. could.] (U. 97 The red band was absent from the spectrum of but the other lines the white rays of the Aurora.) Between „ „ C and D. and was probably a mistake for 63. 5690 5320 5570 Common Aurora-line. Alvan Clarke. Four Auroral lines were seen and 98. at Boston. S. 61 Wavelengths. Mr. the nebulae. points of his scale numbered 61. ob- graphed scale illuminated with a lamp. 6230 (ZoUner's 6270). These were reduced : at to servations. Browning's obfler- the evening of the 24th October. The wave-lengths of the Aurora-lines were run out as follows (1. by Duboscq. wave-lengths by Professor Pickering. hydrogen. 68 80 5316 4860 Corona + - 1 4850 4350 F. 1. F. the green was well seen in parts of the sky. on November and white Aurora. with one prism and a photo- Alvan Clarke's.) (3. jun.SPECTETJM OF THE AURORA DESCRIBED. J. in the red : Aurora five. F and G. Barker. line in wherever the rose all tint of the Aurora extended.. Reading on scale. hydrogen. (the red one being absent) . but was specially bright in the Auroral patches of white light. which he examined with a single glassprism spectroscope.). 5170 (Winlock's 5200). used a vation. observing at New Haven G. line.. but found comparison difficnlt.H. I found no lines. of Paris. + [61 is evidently wrong. but more intense. With a small Browning direct-vision spectroscope on the 24th. 5020. On Mr. Mr. it The The latter was only well seen when the display was at be faintly traced its height . were seen. (Alvan Qarke's.) „ „ and F. 3. and E. 98 4340 G. continuous spectrum. 3 6 4. D E b and b. Comments. Assumed line. 4820 . (4. 5620 (Angstrom's 5570). A.) (2. a crimson vations. 80.) (5. and considerably flickering). Probable error. saw. chemical spectroscope of the ordinary form. The line positions were obtained by an illuminated millimetre scale.. jun. but two bright one in the green (like that from Plate V. with the following results Line. however. Barker's obser- 9th. -20 2. jun. 6). Browning also saw the red line.

The Aurora of at February 4th. found the red line even more strongly marked observations. vision spectroscope (the observing telescope removed). and beyond an extent of greenish or bluish light. Perry observed at Stonyhurst four lines. J. 5. I catalogued the lines O observed up to that date as follows His catalogue of lines 1. and 4900 nearly. W. W.' dated November : 9th. 1872. to 9 P. 1872. than the green. W. some of the time spectroscopic notes.L. 6370. In a letter to ' Nature. are separately described further on in this Chapter. and the red Aurora-line between lithium a and sodium a. The Bev. W.L. when examined with fig. Smyth refers to is it as 5579. Procter's Aurora-lines will be found noticed in connexion with the spectrum of oxygen and Lord Lindsay's lines. and Backhouse. Barker. With he saw a crimson band in the brighter patches of that hue. 7).L. with a comparison scale . in all parts of the Aurora. E. S.. D and E. T. A faint line or band in at or near b. . . Mr. 3. Prof. A faint line in the green. with a very fine slit. Webb.40. * There seems to be some confusion as to the "W.L. 5579. A line E (corona line 1). with a Hoff"man's saw the green directline. between b and F. Alvan Clarke. too. 5170. 5320. drawing.. and saw Angstrom's green Aurora-line per* citron petually over acetylene at W. here given Angstrom's line. say at W. Angstrom. well's ob- servations. a crimson line near C. A line in the red between C and D.. and. referred to lines lying not exactly over the citron-line of acetylene. attended with a peculiar flickering movement. Eev. 6279. up to 9.L. The Rev. 3. Perry's violet. 1872. near between Nov. W. but nearer to the latter. jun. Smyth minutely describes the O " display as seen in Edinburgh. 2. Barker. Professor Piazzi whom communicated 1872.L. The position. and faint traces of structure in the blue and The Eev. in the green. Fris- R. J. which he suspected to be composed of contiguous bands. 4. had many observers. Ca- • With a Browning 7-prism direct-vision spectroscope I saw the green line I pron's observations. 5100. storm was observed to be at its height from 4 J. W.M. W. Angstrom. Spectrum of Aurora of Feb. on examining one of the curved streamers.L. 5020 (chromospheric ?)." Extremely faint greenish and bluish lines also appeared at W. a spectroscope of greater dispersion. K. A line (the principal one of the Aurora) in the yellow-green. 5567 is usually accepted as while Prof.. did not see the other lines.98 THE SPECTEUM OF THE AUEOEA. 5300. 4. saw the green Auroral line even a wider slit Webb's observations.L. T. S. coming up the Channel at 9.L. Piazzi Smyth's observations. 5567.. J. in the light reflected from white paper. of the A magnetic same day. both the above violet somewhat more towards the end of the spectrum (see Plate V.. the green. Friswell.

five in the green. D and E. Bemarks. W. This line was very bright when the red line appeared at the same time. Potsdam.. fainter lines stretching towards the blue end of the spectrum on a dimly-lighted ground. 4850. of one line in the red. C. and April 14th reading. The spectrum : consisted Spectrum described. at or near F.. Vogel's April 9th gave 5569.L. . or band in the blue. February 12th gave 5576 as Dr.SPECTRUM OF 6. . 6297 14 2 Very bright stripe. H. formerly of the Bothkarap Observatory. Dr.L. A translation of Dr. 5569. became noticeably fainter at appearance of the red line. TIIE ATJEORA DESCEIBED. he found several other lines. and since of the Astrophysical Observatory. October 25th. unreliable observa- 5233 5189 4 9 Moderately bright. and a somewhat indistinct broad line The lines are thus described Table of Dr. Vogel's interesting paper will be found printed in ex- tenso in Appendix E. 99 jun. Aurora. The continuous spectrum from about D to beyond F.L. Brightest line of the spectrum. Lohse's. Dr. Alvan Clarke.. April 9th. 7. made Vogel's ob- several observations nervationii of the Auroral lines. green and red portions of the Aurora respectively on Plate VI. Vogel. Probable error. 1871. of the Angstrom line. so that micrometer measurements of the lines were taken. line in the indigo. and his lithographed drawings of the spectrum in the figs. observed the same set of the February 11th. Besides the bright line between of Auroral lines. 1871. and 5569 as Dr. jun. 4694] 4663 1 4629 J Broad band of the middle . The Aurora of April 9th. at or near G.L. he six readings and an average of gave 5572 as W. Alvan Clarke. somewhat less brilliant in 3 [ vefy faint in those parts of the Aurora in which the red line appeared. W. was exceedingly brilliant. 1870. 1871. near Kiel. light. "^ O a faintly grouni 5569 5390 Extremely faint line tion. H. 2 and 3. A A line in the green-blue. 4350. Vogel's lines. Table of W.C. lines.. 8. 5004 3 Very bright r line. otherwise equal in brilliancy with the preceding one.

100

THE SPECTEUM OF THE AtTROEA.

The

probably, up to the present observations of April 9th by Dr. Vogel are I have therefore in most cases time, the most exact of any one Aurora, and

used them for comparison.
Mr. Backhouse's catalogue of
lines.

'

Mr. Backhouse, in a
of lines,

letter to

'

Nature,'

commenting upon

my

catalogue

gave

from his the following as the latest determinations
No.
1.

own

observations:
2.
3.
4. 6.

Wave-length 6060 5660

5165 5015

4625
4305

7.

5560.-J. R. C.) Mr. Back(6060 must be a mistake for 6260, and 5660 for continuous spectrum to house never saw a line at 5320 again. He found the
reach from No. 2 to No.
7,

being brightest from a

little

beyond No. 2

to

No.

This part of the spectrum did not give him so much " bright bands too close to be a true " continuous spectrum as of a series of
6.

the idea of

distinguished.
Subsequent
full cata-

logue of

Au-

roral lines.

added a full catahave subsequently, in another section of this Chapter, foregoing and other logue of the Auroral lines, prepared by myself from the Plate [Plate XII.], in sources and observations and I also append to it a names of observers which these lines are positioned and the wave-lengths and in The numbers of the lines on the Plate correspond with those
I
;

are given.

the catalogue.

spectrum and the spectrum of the blue base of a [The telluric bands in candle-flame are added for purposes of comparison. distinctly than they actually appear, and the solar spectrum are shown more

The

solar

do not profess to give

details.]

Flickering of the Green Line.
Flickering of the green
line.

Herscbel's observation.

J.

E. Ca-

pron's observation.

of the single line observed on circumstance connected with the appearance frequent changes with which it rose and this occasion was the flickering and even more rapidly than the swiftly travelhng fell in brightness; apparently passed over the streamers, near waves, or pulsations of light, that repeatedly In the spectroscope was directed." the northern horizon, towards which the I saw and noted the green spectrum of the Aurora of 20th October, 1870, " considerably flickering; " and in the Aurora of 4th February, 1872, line as

A.

S.

Herschel noticed

this,

April 9th (1871

?).

He

says

:-« A remarkable

GBAPmCAL SPECTRA OF THE AUEOEA.
I again

101
in 1870.
I

saw and noted " the peculiar flickering

" I

had remarked

have not seen the peculiarity noted by other observers.

Mr.

BackTiouse's graphical Spectra

offour Aurorce.

Mr. Backhouse has been good enough
four several Aurorse seen by

to supply

me

with some details of

Mr. Backhouse's

him at Sunderland, accompanied by drawings, showing in a graphical way the spectrum of each display as seen with a spectroscope with rather a wide slit and as drawn by eye. I have reduced the four
drawings to the same
scale,

graphical
njiectra of

AurortB.

and in

this

way they
on the

are extremely interesting for

comparison (Plate

"V. fig. 4).

The
and

line

left in

each spectrum

is

Ang-

strom's bright Auroral line,

is

supposed to be considerably prolonged.

The height of the

lines denotes intensity.
April 18, 1873.

April 18th, 1873, was a bright Aurora. No. 3 is a faint band, which Mr. Backhouse had not perceived before. No. 5 had not been visible lately, and Mr. Backhouse thought it must belong to Aurorse of a different type

from those which had appeared
February 4th, 1874.
seven lines,
all

latterly.

In the spectrum of

this

Aurora Mr. Backhouse saw
not shown in the diagram,

that he had ever seen.

(The red

line,

Feb. 4, 1874.

makes the seventh.)

The spectrum

is

represented as seen between 6.50 and 7.5 P.M.
4,

Mr. Backbetween

house had only once before seen No.
line

and

it

became quite

invisible

7.45 and 7.55, though the other lines were as bright as before and the red

had appeared.
This spectrum was examined, and diagram made beFive lines only are indicated.
Oct. 3, 1874.

October 3rd, 1874.

tween 10 and 10.25
It is

p.m.

mainly distinguished from the two preceding spectra by the brightness of the continuous spectrum on which the lines 2, 3, and 4 lie, and by the weakness of No. 5.

October 4th, 1874.
like the last,
line (No. 3),

Taken between 11.10 and 11.20 p.m.; distinguished, by a considerable amount of continuous spectrum and by a faint not seen in the last spectrum, while No. 3 in the last is missing
to

Oct. 4, 1874.

in this spectrum.

Mr. Backhouse, as
others. at

both these

last spectra,

remarks that the lines were

Mr. Backhouse's remarks as to
.

very variable in intensity, and sometimes some were visible and sometimes

They varied also in relative brightness in different parts of the sky the same time. Mr. Backhouse, in a communication to Nature,' referring
'

to a statement of

Mr.

Procter's, that the

bands of the Auroral spectrum are

comparative frequency of some of the Auroral
lines.

p2

102
seldom
visible,

THE SPECTEUM OF THE AUEOEA.
except the bright line at 5570, says that he always found two

bands, " doubtless Winlock's 4640 and 4310," to be invariably visible

when

the Aurora was bright enough to show them.

Of

thirty-four Auroras ex-

amined by Mr. Backhouse, fourteen showed the
strom only once saw this
line.)

lines

4640 and 4310, and
O

three others at least one of these, while eight showed the red line.

(Ang-

In

five Auroras, all

more or

less red,

he saw
never

a faint band, the wave-length of which he placed at 5000 or 5100.

He

saw the

line

5320

(also

Winlock's coronal

line), unless it

were once, probably

from want of instrumental power.

With regard

to these observations, 1

may

say that with a Browning's miniature spectroscope I saw only two lines (the

red and the green) in the grand display of the 24th October, 1870

;

and with

an instrument of larger aperture the green line only on the 4th February,

1872

;

while I saw the green line and three others towards the violet with
(See descripfig.

the same instrument during the Aurora of 4th February, 1874.

tion of this Aurora, ante p. 21, and drawing of spectrum, Plate VI.

1 a.)

Lord Lindsays Aurora-Spectrum, list
say's

October, 1870.

Lord LindAurora

Lord Lindsay observed a

fine

Aurora
It

at the Observatory at

Dun Echt

on

of 21st Oct.,

the night of the 21st October, 1870.

commenced about
five

9.30, reached its

1870.

maximum

about 11, and faded away suddenly about 11.30 p.m.
obtained in the north-west gave
bright lines with a Brownfaint.

Spectrum
described.

A spectrum

ing's direct-vision spectroscope

—two

strong, one

medium, two very

A

tallow candle was used to obtain a comparison spectrum of sodium and car-

buretted hydrogen.

A drawing of
is

the spectrum obtained

is

given on Plate
slit.

XL

fig. 2.

No. 1

a sharp well-formed line visible with a narrow

No.
is

2,

a line very slightly more refrangible than F.
it is

The

side towards

D

sharp and well defined, while on the other side

nebulous.

No.
No.

8, slightly less refrangible
slit.

than G,

is

a broad

ill-defined band, seen only

with a wide
4,

a line near E, woolly at the edges, but rather sharp in the centre.

This, says

Lord Lindsay, should be

at or near the position of the line

1474 of

the solar corona.

No.
of
it.

5,

a faint band, coincident with

b,

extending equally on both sides

The' lines are numbered in order of intensity.

It is questionable,

from

ob servations with instruments carrying a
exact
;

scale,
is

whether the
valuable.

line-positions are

but the description of their characters

Pla,t.e XI.

Aurora Spectra.

Candle Spectrum

COMPARISON

OF AURORA

AND

VIOLET POLE.

J

P

AURORA

^^^H
I

VOOCl.

H
I'

VIOLET

POLE.

I

.

1

^

OAPRON

Pig:

2.

LORD LINDSAY.

D

E

14

1

CANDLC

F

1 1
a

G
AURORA

III
1

1
2

4

Fix.

'i

AURORA AUSTRALIS.
A

CAP"?

MACLEAR.

A

A
1

A
OXYGEN

PROCTER.
T)

h
Car.

F
Car.

R
AURORA
|C*LT-

I
Ifai

A

AAA?
I

HYDROGEN

Wtt

iS
H^
Ilv

tt

Fig: 4.

AURORA BOREALIS. VOCEL.
"
I

Ml
9
00

I

05

~
CO

^

~

CANDLE

F

i

d

:

5.

»

£

SPECTRUM

100

CARBON

WATTS.

lufa.

m

and the carbon by Car. 5. and the carbon lines in a spirit-lamp. Two plates were taken. 1874 {ant^. he could trace four lines. needle-point in the eyepiece marked the and a cor- Instrument used. Dr. found three prominent lines in the yellowgreen. but the line in the green (considerably out of place in the lower Australis spectrum) has always. the solar lines by the usual designating letters. lines mode of r^listering lines. during observation. on Plate XI. 27). refer to my Spectrum of the Aurora Australia. carried on a frame by a screw movement in concord with the point of the eyepiece. and the solar the solar Unes were verified in sunlight. scratched the lines on a plate of blackened glass.' the auroral lines being marked A. Watts's corresponding As a candle blue-base spectrum "P^^'"- carbon-spectrum is margin. They must have been exceedingly bright to show so plainly in full- moon light. In the Aurora of March 3rd. Captain Maclear could not account for the different positions of the auroral lines in the two plates. the same position. with the spectroscope. lines The next morning Copies of the two spectra obtained. To these spectra I have added for comparison Dr. a suspicion that Aurorse are not always identical in position of some of the lines . 103 Candle- is at times a ready and handy mode of reference in Auroral observations (as was found in this instance). but not the red line. position of the lines . 9th. green. was not moved during the observations. and the position of the solar lines is adverse to such an explanation. on examining the streamer seen by him Feb. 27). A compathe same rison of the two spectra gives the impression that the lower one Remarks on the spectra. On the first were scratched the auroral lines as seen in the moonlight. for the prism. . on the second plate were scratched the auroral Unes. As the solar lines are mdicated in the same place in both specti-a. I subjoin fig. Vogel's spectrum of the Aurora Borealis. three bright and one rather faint. see how the dispersion could have so varied in a single-prism instrument. Captain Maclear. the case would seem one of actual change of position of the auroral (Plate XI. I have. 3) copies of the two spectra as printed in ' Nature. Discrepancy in the spectra. within small limits. The spectroscope used was a Grubb A single-prism with long collimator. The numbers on the upper margin added on the lower scale. however.SPECTRUM OF THE AUEORA AUSTEALIS. the Solar lines from the moon. fig. is There . except that the dispersion is greater. 1874 (p. One does not. and responding needle-point. the lines remaining relatively in position. Captaiu Maclear'g spectra of Aurora Australis. given a representation of it as seen with my Auroral spectre scope. is as the upper. as far as he was aware. and blue or purple. p.

Herschel. The which nearest approaches to Captain Maclear's lines (of the upper spectrum) I can find are Line : Corresponding o line. thallium. 5567. in vations. the latter having no lines faint line (No. first noticed by ZoUner. According to same. 1870-77. (See Plate XII. . of the ' Edinburgh Astronomical Obser- Smyth's chemical and auroral spectra. and in this two Australis spectra agree. Intensity. and a .) 1. Character of Ime sharp and well defined bright crimson. The absence of the four lines of the Aurora Borealis is in the green part of the spectrum of the Australis respect. lithium. Further observations of the Australis spectrum are very desirable. But the comparisons are not by any means close.L. 2. Prof. line. and indium being also introduced for comparison. Vogel. 4350.' volume xiv. is and will prove most useful in cases where an Aurora not bright enough to admit of the lines being measured by micrometer. varies in colour from dusky red to to 4 or 8. Piazzi Smyth. Alvan Clarke. 4694-4629. position coincident with atmospheric absorption-group " a" in solar spectrum (between C and D). (The I find faint line. no approximately corresponding 4. W. I confirm this position according to my scale of solar lines. Vogel's band. The spectra are drawn as seen under small dispersion. 2) much beyond F. be noticed how much further the Australis spectrum runs into the violet than Vogel's Borealis. sodium. Comparison of the lines. Seen it. 6297. Very bright stripe. without other lines near . Angstrom. Author's Catalogue of the Auroral Lines. Prof. has compared simultaneously the Aurora-spectrum with the sets of bright lines seen in the blue base of flame —the lines of potassium. the peculiar . The mentioned by Captain Maclear possibly corresponds with Dr. 3.104 It will THE SPECTRUM OF THE AUROEA. and the eye and comparison spectrum are obliged to be resorted to. Piazzi Smyth's Aurora-Spectra. 1. too. Piazzi Prof. only in red Auroras stands out on a dark ground.) Vogel's band.

an Coronal^)) V C ^SZ33. 8. Lin. Zuu AUan CUtrke. I . Lina BacMiMLst. -tSZO.yHnUxk. WW' I-in. Lint Vogtl.BaeUmu.yKnlock. ^SOIS.t. J^intBauMuniM. Lint Bajckhoust.\ J m O •n t62S. > 3) o I- ^in>t Barkmr. 31 4650. L{iv.ina Bca*uir. Vogtl. 5OZ0. e29. \ O 47«>. Lint 5320. ia Band Vogtl. Lutt Roj-htff Coronal fn LineBackhoujK. D m o • 0) H C > Z D > z o rm O) •a. to Band. WCnUck. \ 5200. VoffU. 48Z0. 500*. c *?/<7 itn.KsUnUMltd } C o > (0 •V 3 S390. l. Zins BacJUuumQ. Baz^k*^.]' Lui4 Vo^L. 31 Oarlu Lint Ab. 5.. I-<nt Bauckham.

.

sharpness. drawn too dark) is given on Plate XIII. 5) If is 2) becomes noticeably fainter. Herschel. (No. Its isolation seem to separate from the air-spectrum and gas-spectra in general. Line in green-blue. Lme V). fainter at Found by me band to correspond in position with a faint atmospheric absorption- (see Plate According to Angstrom and Herschel. the absorption-lines fig. Line in green-blue. W. from a phosphorescent and fluorescent the action of electrical discharge.L. 5004. Win- be the same. Line in the yellow-green. and in Plate XII.' that a low state of It temperature is favourable for the production of brilliant coruscations.L. Intensity 25. but and want of adjacent lines identity is it doubtful. Herschel. (Herschel and Capron). 5567. emitted when air is subjected to Line in green near last. Herschel. W. in blue. to 6. Aurora. — Sir John Franklin says. but Its character as to width. 2). arising light. An extremely faint and imreliable observation (Vogel). sometimes flickering and changing in brightness Seen in it all Aurorse usually sharp and bright. W. . Seen only by him. Barker gives a band extending from 5330 to 5200. 5020. who con- with a constant strong line in the spark-discharge. 2 or ? . much agitated. siders it coincident 6. 5233. to assign to this line. Coincides with line of nitrogen . a phosphorescent (in we propose origin. 5189 bright also (Vogel). Herschel says this line its coincides with a red band in the negative glow-discharge. Vogel. was seldom witnessed that the Aurorse were tints 2. 3. 5189. Winlock. might indicate height and structure of appearance of red line (Vogel). 1 Very bright line. Becomes noticeably XIII. W. Herschel. it would be strongly confirmatory of such a theory it connexion with the phosphoretted-hydrogen spectrum) to find Note. as well as to 5569. 5. when the temperature was above zero. Frequently observed. Brightest of o all lines in the Aurora-spectrum. unless Alvan Clarke's 5320 (coronal X) 5200. 3. brighten at low temperatures. and intensity. Not so frequently observed as No. At the appearance of this line. lock. When this line is bright. This line is very bright when the red line appears at the same time otherwise equal in brilliancy with No. 4. 2. W. 3 (Vogel).L. Coincides with line in the negative glow according to same.. in his ' Polar Expeditions. 5569. Vogel. fig.L.L. 5390. Angstrom. moderately bright (Vogel) Intensity. Intensity of 5189. 106 which. or that the prismatic were very apparent.CATALOGUE OF AUROHAL drawing of the coincidence are (in LINES. 5200. if carefully observed. Barker (coronal Intensity 2 or to 8. To me more pale green than yellow. 5569 (No. Procter has once recorded nebulous. to 8.

situate within the same.L. which in agree with lines which belong to the gases of the air. Barker gives a band extending from 4930 8. correspond with side of G. April 9th. 1871. which depend on the character of the discharge. 4663. or between G and H. by Vogel. G. W. position with the principal band in the negative glow-spectrum Barker gives a band extetiding from 4740 to 4670. April 9th. solar spectrum. and would probably except in instruments specially adapted for examination of the violet end of the spectrum. Barker gives a band extending from 5050 in the nebulae according to same. A double baud. G in the solar spectrum. 4694. and situate somewhere near at 4350. Backhouse and give a line at 4640. to 4850. somevphat in less bright in the middle very faint in those parts of the Intensity 3-6 (Herschel). producing light-phe(2) nomena that do not arise in the denser layers of the air. Alvan Clarke places it on the less refrangible side of G . electric current passing Lemstrom (1) : —That the Polar light is caused by an from the upper rarefied layers of the air to the earth. more frequently noted than the second in Auroral spectra. Line in the blue not found by Vogel in Aurora. Aurora which the red line appears lines. consisting of two the first rather agrees well in (same). at a strong band in the violet in the negative glow-spectrum. Broad band of light. 1871). That there are all nine rays (lines or bands) in the Aurora-spectrum. Backhouse and Barker it at or very near to G . Theories in relation to the Aurora and Tjerastrom's. as mentioned once by Lemline. Herschel also refers to an apparently additional line near the hydrogenline. . There seems a good deal of confusion about a 0-6.106 THE SPECTRUM OF THE AUEOEA. (Vogel). Herschel. 4 to be seen only in Auroral streamers of low elevation. 4850. of 4820-4870. to 4990. for which a quartz spectroscope might be useful. I am not aware of any other observation of this at or near which must be considerably beyond that be difficult to detect. 4629. probability (3) That the Aurora- spectrum can be referred to three distinct types. Backhouse and Barker. in the . its Spectrum. fairly bright line (intensity Winlock 9. are much wanted. Herschel) seen in most Aurorse (not. to 4 1 Herschel suspects this and No. Intensity. . 7. however. Herschel makes this line. . while Lemstrom and others position on the more refrangible 4285. strom at Helsingfors. Alvan Clarke 4820. Accurate observations.

THEORIES IN RELATION TO THE AURORA. o Angstrom these. though a spectrum of our atmosphere. Vogel's variability of gas-spectra according and temperature. between the lines of the exists to circumstances of pressure (4) That an agreement Aurora (except the red and green before mentioned) and the lines or bands of the violet light which proceed from the negative pole in dry air. involving the question of alteration of the spectrum by conditions of temperature and pressure. : (1) seems to adopt the hypothesis that the Aurora has its final Angatroin'i cause in electrical discharges in the upper strata of the atmosphere. Zcillner's ZoUner has pointed out that the temperature of the incandescent gas of the Aurora must be exceedingly low. tram. and one which we cannot produce artificially. (2) That the Aurora has two That the green is different spectra. and sometimes near the surface of the earth. it is one of another order. Dr. and concludes that the spectrum does not correspond with any known spectrum of the atmospheric gases remark as to temperature of Aurora and character of spec- —only because. . (3) line is due and that there no need to resort to Dr. comparatively. That the Aurora-spectrum a modifica- tion of the air-spectrum. to fluorescence or phosphorescence. — — (1) That the Aurorse are (2) electric discharges in rarefied-air strata is of very considerable thickness. take place sometimes on the outer boundary of the atmosphere. Vogel : 107 Vogel'i. and that whether disruptional or continuous.

2. the most accurately se- lected for mapped. so far as I am aware. was found sufficient to illuminate the tubes steadily. but also for general semblance to an Aurora-spectrum. in the winter of 1874. it trum being. some re- tube and other spectra. referred to in the Angstrom Aurora theory. at one observation. Hydrogentube. not only for line-positions. comparison. Battery and spectroscope described. of any Auroral specan average Aurora by at various times difficulty. specifically for Auroral purposes. Central part only of spec- number and In most cases the central part of the spectrum only (corresponding to the central lines of the Aurora) trum mapped. see Plate XIII. having a . On illumi- nation the wide ends were easily lighted with a silver-grey glow. seemed an unsafe plan diff'erent to attempt to obtain comparison of observations made by diff'erent ob- servers with all sorts of instruments —the being increased by position the suspicion that the spectrum itself at times varies in as well as intensity of its lines. A ^-inch-spark coil. [In part from an Article in the ' Philosophical Magazine' for April 1875. an approximate place only) in order to complete the its scales For drawing of Dr. too. and figured in Plate The micrometer was the diaphragm figs. CHAPTER XL THE COMPAEISON OF SOME TUBE AND OTHEE SPECTEA WITH THE SPECTEUM OF THE AUEOEA. The spectroscope used was one made for me by Mr.] Testing o In order to s test Professor Angstrom's theory of the Aurora. p. also before described and figured on same Plate. was mapped. 3. but I have added set of lines. 1. in an experimental way. Vogel's spectrum does not comprise the line near this (in G . being the same instrument as is described ante. with regard trum.108 THE SPECTEUM OF THE AUEOEA. Vogel's spectrum. Vogel's spectrum for comparison. fig. (See Plate XIII. Vogel's spec- and 4. Dr. 1.) comparison almost valueless. with attached. It did not seem desirable to use powerful currents. last Chapter. I selected Dr. Hydrogen-tube. and the Auroral line near solar G being so indefinitely fixed as to render fig. worked by a quart bichromate-cell. the red line in the Aurora not being found to correspond with any prominent line in the gas-spectra examined. This tube was one of Geissler's and of rather small calibre. It to wave-length. Browning X. I examined. 91. and of the direct-vision form. one.

„. F^ d --=^ »>9VV (0 »0'..y . a 1* fg/^g^^^ 1 n.(i.< a o c 3 < < o i 1 - ^<yjT.iy >Ois >oss ioo« z o u o o e K Z < o * . i _ V UHtV a irEn.n « OC o 3 > OC bl o < c o 3 > * ' * .-9 lOGB 'aoNva QNv o I iO«S uvnos av3N 3Nn VMOunv -a QNW 3 N33MX3a S3Nn vuounv ova — n •5 .i SU-f't' 1 1 1 1 i 1 1 1 1 n o»r» ~i^^?^T" "'''"•IIIOA - PI tOL* *00T 1 ^ - 1 1 1 1 1 1 01 A o z )ooy « raois '- t4)OB —= = "^ • • ^ f-f ^1 .^ < Z -I o -' iij '« kl < oo» >o[g •or.

.

The spectrum was and fainter lines bright lines Spectrum described. as under U6941 Aurora 5569 . viz. 5233. as I think. white running into green and bright green were the main features of the thread of light. or are this Purity of subsidiary lines ques- some tube impurity. are repeated in the hydrocarbon-tube spectra. H/3 line. . Coincidence of lines with Auroraspectrum. and in accordance with the colour of the light as seen by the eye — and y varied in intensity fact. however. two falling within the band 4694 to 4629. Vogel's wave-lengths for the : H lines) to were. when Comparison of the lines. consisting of the three bably due to irradiation). and all about the width of the lines. were found coincident in position with lines of the air-spectrum. Vogel assigns an identical wave-length. Ha. and Hy were found to vary in intensity with the Lines a. and one subsidiary line only. Vogel as "very bright" tube. at on the more rapidly. glow varied with intensity of current. 5390. lines The current.COMPAEISON OF SOME TUBE AND OTHER 8PECTEA. the capillary thread became of an intense the same time apparently increasing in diameter (an effect provery brilliant. No principal line. compared. with a bright continuous ground to the whole. shows 17 A photograph I have taken of spectrum between tube-spectrum lines in the part of the F and Ha. 4629 Hydrogen 5555 5422 5189 4632 I remarked that a line (5596) described in his H spectrum does not appear in my by Dr. considerable 109 brilliantly Colour of amount of stratification. actually coincide Aurora-spectrum. 5390 5233 5189 5004 5008 band. and 5004. some of which with the tioned. ing tints of which are so well known. this last being that to which Dr. The capillary part glowed with silver-white. the vary- with colour as seen by eye. It is a question whether these subsidiary lines are hydrogen. Other of the subsidiary lines. fall some- what near the Aurora-lines 5569. With the commutator slowly working. not without bearing on the question of the Aurora. I did not trace any marked degrading on either side of the so sharp as though the edges were not uniformly lines Ha and H/3. /3. The fainter lines or bands were mostly stripes of pretty equal intensity throughout. faint lines also The lines (adopting Dr. and H-y. H/3. good opportunity for testing the I thought this tube afforded a q2 . usually distinguished as Ha. though in most other respects effect of our H spectra agree. and crimson light. Some of the due to Fainter lines or bands described. 5189. current passing crimson. according to the intensity of the current. bright green. H/3. and a number of shaded bands spectrum as a back- between these.

Procter (to whom I am indebted carbon-tubes and in those marked " my friend many profitable hints and suggestions in Auroral work) was disposed to regard the spectra found in the O" as identical. considerably stratified. with the ordinary non-intensified discharge. The C. or lines showed well and distinctly their respective place-colours. and an OHj tube. suggesting that pure O. gives only a continuous spectrum and that the O tubes are in fact generally lighted up by a carbon-spectrum.A. spectrum The question of effect of distance upon the spectroscopic appearance of a It glowing light. At 12 inches from the slit a and y were alone seen.. lines only partially coincided These last bands or when the two tubes were compared. brilliantly and steadily lighted by the current. upon the spectrum. together. " C. 1. also from Geissler. as the result of impurity from accidental causes. I also noticed that the red and yellow parts of the /3. e.. y. because for The following tube-observations were taken Mr. For drawing of the hydrogen-tube spectrum see Plate XIV. green. . in the bulbs. Carbon.A. but were faint. and with even finer stratification in the bulbs. At 6 inches tance on the spectrum. distance from lines the line a in the blue-green (F solar) was very bright. and this appeared to account for disappearing while y survived. / Carbon.110 Effect of dis- THE SPECTEUM OP THE AUEOEA. tube glowed with (two of. still more brilliant than the C. and with a grey glow. may possibly account for the generally faint aspect of the lines in the more refrangible part of the Auroral spectrum. a peculiar silvery -grey green light in the capillary part. The and I also survived. marked spectrum first lost their light on the tube being withdrawn from the /3 slit. and at 24 inches a stood by itself upon a dark ground. in both cases with fainter intervening bands or lines. —A coal-gas tube. B. as tested for this and other tubes.and oxygentubes. seems an important one. with a certain amount and the three principal bands of continuous spectrum between the lines The spectra in both cases were rich ." three O tubes I believe.A. all shading off towards the violet. London make.and Oxygen-tules. it distance The slit was made rather fine. and glowing. The spectra of both tubes were conspicuous for the same and and three well-known principal bright lines or bands in the yellow. a tube marked Carbontubes lighted up. and the third from The carbon-tubes were both Geissler). Henry R. The coal-gas tube illumination was whiter and Spectra of the carbontubes described. blue (with one fainter in the violet). : The tubes examined for the purpose of comparison were as follows Tubes described.

i i o (/) 00 > Ql .

I .

very little from the carbon-spectra. the four principal lines being very bright and even pre- serving their distinctive colours. Grey in the bulbs and a faint but decidedly pinkish white in the capillary part were the distindiffer- guishing light colours . were Otabei) lighted up. three principal bright lines or bands in the yellow. Coal-gas /3 a y /3 Oxygen Between the line. and the three lines y. the continuous spectrum still and fainter lines disappeared. subsequently succeeded in getting the . a. At 24 inches the same lines were still visible. The H line. more so than any of some distance from the its and thus depriving the spectrum of very much of line (solar brightness. all when treated by the same current as the carbon-tubes. The O tubes. to me to run in the Blue. at 18 inches from Tabes tMtod fordiaUnoe. with a fainter one in the violet. and blue.COMPAEISON OF SOME TUBE AND OTHER SPECTBA. found to be three identical in general features.tubM lighted up. Tubes tested for distance. and reminding one of the " golden rays These O spectra presented. the carbon- tubes. The discharge lighted up each of the tubes feebly and somewhat intermittently. green. while nothing could be more marked than the ence in brilliancy between these and the preceding carbon-tubes. had a faint and washed-out look. but the discharge OH. In the case of the coal-gas tube. . The intensity of the three principal lines : seemed Yellow. blue. slit At 12 the inches distance from the the O spectrum /3. lost nearly all its light H line. same look to the C. showed but very trace of local colour. certainly. At 24 inches no spectrum at all was to be seen. bands. a being decidedly the brightest. at 24 inches the whole spectrum was quite brilliant. the slit Ill —In the case of the C. spectrum slit. by a management. though somewhat faintly.) The hydrogen the O lines. following order Green. occasionally varied from a pinkish white to a yellow colour. near the line or band in the was also plainly seen. and alone faintly remaining. .A. that in the green being the strongest. y a lines which I shall y and a in the Geissler O tube I found a rather bright have occasion to refer to hereafter. while the four principal lines shone out. in common with violet. but it was only by removing the tube to F) was bright. all little shading off towards the The tubes spectra deC) however.A. and the different whole spectrum (I scribed. somewhat like " brown-pink. tube. The OH3 tube presented very much the same character that which artists call in certain Aurorae.

spectra 6 & 7. spectra 2. the learned Doctor's tube must have been however. Note. 1 found the before-mentioned rather bright line between 7 and line I This found no equivalent for in either of the carbon-tubes. one point to which I desire to draw attention. There this. Vogel's (positive eyepiece). For spectra of coal-gas and oxygen-tubes. O by means of : O the photographed micrometer before described slit . Vogel's O spectrum reduced and compared. band of the carbon-tubes will yellow candle-lines or bands.and not correspond. For comparison of the carbon-tube and flame . see Plate Tube. & 4. From my O tubes. am bound to say. a piece of very fine brass foil cut as a pointer and fixed in the focus of a positive eyepiece. The sharper edge of the yellow line or be found about midway between the two bright The first of the very beautiful group of lines candle-flame falls considerably behind the or bands in the green in the sharper edge of the green line or band in the tube. I judge that if my own. see Plate XVI. I Dr. which subject to a similar infirmity. The lines or bands in both tubes were found to be slightly nebulous towards the less-refrangible end (where they were measured). me The spectra did not. to measure the components of the citron band of the carbo-hydrogen spectrum . as the tubes all agreed in main features. 2nd. the bon do not correspond. is that common to both the Doctor's and my own Geissler spectrum a. all.and flame-spectra of car- XIV. alone of the the candle-flame. spectrum of coal-gas or CO2 in tube. —Prof. spectrum of O. for In comparing the spectra.112 Comparison of spectra of coal-gas and tubes. Compare. Subject to these remarks. flame-spectra of carbon do it should be remembered that the tube. corresponds with a very faint band in A line or band in the violet in the tube-spectrum flnds no equivalent in the candle-spectrum. then occurred to to reduce Dr. given in his memoir. 3. look alike. two spectra I carefully compared together the three principal lines of the of coal-gas and 1st. and I then compared the result with the comparison. while the third bright band in the tube. THE SPECTEUM OF THE AUEOEA. This my own spectrum one and as mapped out. the three principal lines in both tubes were found to cor- my instrument. and the well-known lines or bands in the blue base of a candle-flame. Piazzi Smyth has been good enough. it- Puzzled by these observations. at my instance. showed a carbon-spectrum.spectra (the principal lines of the tube being alone shown). instance. and the O tube was not bright under a moderately high power respond in position within the limits of however. a comparison-prism on the plate 3rd. to the same scale with I did independently. three. is.

COMPAEISON OF SOME TUBE AND OTUEE SPECTBA.

113
Prof. Piazzi

(near Angstrom's Aurora-line), as seen in a coal-gas blowpipe-flame ui^ed

with

common air. The spectroscope used had

Smyth'* measiuw-

prisms giving 22° of dispersion between

A and H,
a table

mentfl of

and the observing telescope magnified 10 times. The following of the results communicated to me by the Professor
:

is

the component« of the citronband in a
coal-gas
flame.

T Intensity,
.

4.

Reading of

Reference „

line,

lithium

/3

4

j^^^^^^^^ 16 '55
18-45 18-51

sodium, a 1

...
.

.

10 10

a2

.

.

.

Citron band.

Carbo-hydrogen.
6

Line

1,

exquisitely clear

21-28
21-88

2,
3,

5 3 2

4,

„ faint but clear

22-44
22-95 23-38

5, faint 6, faint 7,

1

and hazy
thallium a

1
?

23*70
23-92

doubtful
line,
'

Reference

....
'

10

25-08
Comparison of Dr.
Vogel's
lines

From Dr.

Watts's

Index of Spectra
;

I

have extracted the three principal

carbon-tube bands or lines

and they compare with Dr. Vogel's oxygenYellow.

O

tube as under

:

and

Green.

Blue.

Dr. Watts's
carbonlines.

Dr. Vogel's oxygen-lines

.....

5603
5602

5189 5195

4829

Dr. Watts's carbon-tube bands or lines

4834
a pre-

Now

these wave-length differences are so small that they raise

sumption of the possibility of the spectra being identical.
assuming the spectra are not
viz.

On the other
tells

hand,

identical, the

comparison

the other way,

that the differences are so minute as to escape detection in instruments

of moderate dispersion.

With my own instrument

I

found the

O

spectrum

too faint to increase the dispersive

power with advantage.
line

Considering the
all

extremely different character of the two discharges, the identity of

the

O O
is

found between y and a in the spectrum, I think the two spectra are independent, though I admit there
tubes,

and the presence of the

room
Note.

for doubt.

—Since

this examination I

have photographed both spectra
text, pp.

side

by

O and CO,
spectra photographed.

side

(see

'Photographed

Spectra,' plate xxxi.,

69, 70).

The

114

THE SPECTEFM OF THE AIJEOEA.
and
violet parts of the

pictures include, of course, only the blue

spectrum

but they are widely different in aspect, and show that, photographically at
least,

in this part

of the spectrum there

is

a complete want of identity.

Subsequent investigations, however, by Schuster and others (detailed later in
this Chapter),

go to establish that the principal lines shown in mine and

Dr. Vogel's tubes were due to (probably hydrocarbon) impurity.
tion
is

The excepCompare

the single line

common
XIV.
15).

to

mine and Dr. Vogel's tubes, but absent

from the coal-gas spectrum.
oxygen-tube spectra (Plate

This line proves to be oxygen.

spectra 3 and 4) with Schuster's oxygen-tube

spectrum (Plate XVIII.
the three tubes.

fig.

The

line in question is

found identical in

The tube OHg was found
combined on a

to give the principal lines of the

O

and

H spectra

faint continuous spectrum.

Geissler Mercury-tube (Plate

X.

fig.

7)

and Barometer

Mercurial vacuum.
Mercuryaud barometer-tubes examined.

I next

examined two vacuum-tubes of an entirely
Geissler

different character.

The

one was a tube from

of stout glass, some fifteen inches long,

without electrodes, and an inch across.

Within

this tube

was a second of

Mercurytube described.

uranium
of fluid

glass,

with bulbs blown in

it.

In contact with both tubes a quantity
fig. 7).

mercury ran loose (Plate X.

Upon

shaking this tube with
lightning, flashed

the hand brilliant flashes of blue-white light, like
out.

summer

These were discernible (though

faintly)

even in daylight.

terminal wires of the coil being wrapped round each end of this

The fine tube, when
that of a

the current passed, a bright and white induced discharge, with a considerable
Barometertube.

amount of

stratification,

was seen in the tube.

The other tube was

mercurial siphon-barometer.

This being placed in a stand, one terminal

wire was placed in the mercury in the short leg of the siphon, while the other terminal was

made

into a little coil

and placed on the upper closed extremity

of the barometer-tube.

On

passing the current, the entire short space above

the mercury was filled with a grey- white light, not stratified, but showing a

conspicuous bright ring just above the level of the mercury.
Spectrum
of both

Both these

tubes,

when examined with the

spectroscope,

showed four

these tubes
described.

bright rather uniform bands (the central one being the brightest), which I
assigned to the carbon-spectra (see Plate

XIV.

spectra 5 and 6).

The

Geissler tube

was probably

filled

designedly with coal-gas.
to

In the

case of the barometer-tube the spectrum

must be assumed

be the result of

some carbon impurity.

>

X

U
ci
lli

I-

<
a z <

<
a:

o
al

<

COMPABISON OF SOME TUBE AND OTHEE SPECTRA.

116

examine the light of the Geissler mercury-tube as excited by motion only, but the spectrum could not be kept in the field
effort

No An

lines of

mercury could be detected in either
to

case.

was made

the four lines were, however, seen to flash out as the light passed before the
slit.

Air-tubes.

The

first

tube I examined was an ordinary Geissler tube charged with

Air-tube
iiruminated.

rarefied air.

The

bulbs, on passing the discharge, were filled with the well-

known

rose-tinged light like to the Aurora-streams.

This in the capillary

part was condensed into a brighter and whiter thread, while the platinum

wire of the negative pole was surrounded by
violet glow.

its

characteristic

mauve

or

The spectrum, even with
some of the intermediate

a

weak

current,

was quite bright, and consisted

Spectrum
described.

mainly of the nitrogen-lines and bands, with the lines Ha, H/3, and Hy, and
lines of the

H tube.
in the
/3,

The double
S,

line a

was undoubtedly the brightest

spectrum when

taken in the capillary part of the tube.

After this followed

and then y (H),

and

e.

I was, however, uncertain as to the relative brightness of the last
intensities with hesitation.

three,

and marked their

I tested

them

several

times independently with difiering results, and suspected them of variability

with the current.

The

rest of the lines

were very

much

of the same intensity.

(For drawing
1.)

of spectrum of air-tube in capillary part see Plate
Violet [negative^ Pole,
I

XV.
tube.

spectrum

same

next turned

my

attention to the violet or negative-pole glow

;

and here a

remarkable change took place in the spectrum, not only in the position of
[the principal bands or lines, but in their relative intensity (see Plate

Violet (negative) pole spec:

XV.

trum described.

[spectrum

2).

The double

line a in the capillary part
(3,

was replaced

in the violet

glow by

a shaded band of second intensity

the sharp edge of which was extended

towards the red, and formed (except for some faint indications) the limit of
the

spectrum

in that direction.

The somewhat

faint line
;

next a in the
but the next two

capillary tube

had

its faint

representative in the violet pole

were represented by the bright band y in the violet pole lying in a position between them. Next y in the violet pole came three
lines (capillary)
faint lines, representing
/3,

y,

and

S in the capillary

spectrum

;

and then the

was filled with a white powder (probably one of the Becquerel compounds).) Aurora {airytube. the tube- . the tube glowed with a brilliant green light. with some few lines or bands absent. It was rather short (6J and about the size of the Phosphoresceut tube described. appeared as a fainter representation of the capillary air-spectrum. The marked .116 bright band a. lines in the centre of the spectrum generally retained their prominence brightness. XV. Aurora^ tube discharge : XV. Next to the Geissler 1^^ air-tube examined an " aurora "-tube. and (as will be seen after) was also a representation of a diffused air-spectrum (see Plate XV. THE SPECTEUM OF THE AUEOEA. representing two rather bright ones the a. [positive] pole was next examined. spectrum 3). of equal calibre. On passing the current between the electrodes. the discharge presented a faint banded air-spectrum similar to that of the spectrum 4) but the relative intensity of the lines was somewhat altered. Following this It last tube I examined one purchased as " phosphorescent. bulb of a Geissler tube." inches). at 24 inches from the but after a I slit. and of the same fig. faint After this was a . current. with platinum terminals. a bright rose-coloured stream appeared Discharge described. and were. The red features. spectrum 4. while a very bright line in the green (seen also in . capillary j3. When examined in full glow. about 15 inches long and inch across. described. but presented no peculiar fair tive) pole It spectrum described. Bed Eed (posi- [positive] Pole. 8). I believe. and wherever this was in contact with the powder. and repre- sented a medium-intensity band in the capillary spectrum. which was the brightest of the violet-pole group. The discharge was of a from pole to pole rosy-red and the long flickering stream certainly much Spectrum described. . and in this respect distinguished it from the ordinary air-spectrum. the tube next described) was characteristic of the spectrum. the whole capillary air-spectrum showed faintly. correctly marked. the tube still On stopping the continued to shine.in band near a. On examining the faint violet pole at (3 12 inches from the the whole spectrum was and the bands o and (Plate I were alone distinctly seen. spectrum. but with a fainter green glow. Examined for comparative intensity. judged e next in slit. positive pole (see Plate Spectroscopically examined. this last being succeeded by other bands in the violet. colour. Phosphorescent tube. in the violet pole were and y examined carefully for relative brightness. which gave only a continuous spectrum. reminded one optically of an auroral streamer. diameter throughout (Plate X.

.

(O < o (t < .I u o z o til H Ul tc O X 'I Ql O Q.

all slit r2 . hnes the blue and violet portions of the spectrum while in the red yellow. The air-spectrum probably pole (Plate arose from impurity. To complete Spark over water spectrum described. In this case the air-spectrum was plainly. found It coincident with the ridge or centre of the wedge-like bright-green broad band which is so conspicuous in the air-tube spectrum. [Five out of six of the lines in the blue and violet will be also found in Schuster's oxygen-tube. I next took a |-inch spark in air between platinum terminals (see Plate from the principal lines in this spectrum were the line a (by far the brightest). green. 15). band was very striking in its emerald-green colour. has actually a line coincident with the Une I refer to . and then other lines of less intensity.COMPARISON OF SOME TUBE AND OTHER SPECTRA. and green a faint but distinct air-spectrum was seen and with this was also found the same bright line inthe green which distinguished the "aurora "-tube. violet m . s ark in "^tr^""' ^^'''^^ This line also appeared in the spark-spectrum. a hne in the green prominent for its brightness. In the "aurora" and "phosphorescent" tubeswas found. and green-blue respectively (see Plate XVI. spectrum Phosphoretted- hydrogen flame. but there only I examined it carefully for position in the respective tubes. as before mentioned. indeed in the "aurora "-tube the only one which survived when it was moved away 6). yellow. the set of air-experiments. and on comparing them by means of a pointer in the eyepiece. and.] XVIII. • hg. a line in the yellow. The flame was of a bright yeUow colour. and blue being filled with a continuous spectrum. I examined the same spark taken from the surface of a small meniscus of water. not appearing in the tube-spectrum. seen at the violet end of the spectrum-the red. 117 Spectrum '^*^'*^- spectrum was also in the main continuous and of a green tinge but upon it were bright. next was /3. green. I think this edge-like centre of an average brightness. but not brightly. slit. The spectrum was found to consist mainly of three bright bands in the yellow. Spark over Water. its intensity little exceeds that of the band itself. two or three minute pieces of phosphorus being placed with the zinc. Phosphoretted-Hydrogen Flame. This was obtained from a hydrogen-bottle fitted with glass tubing. spectrum 7). Spectrum described. with a cone of vivid green light in its centre. Sjpark in Air. whUe the bands were remarkable as being very broad in proportion central to the The 3). through which some of the air-lines faintly showed (see Plate XV. spectrum The XV. but if so. placed in a glass cup upon the lower platinum wire. corresponding to y in the violet pole .

Lecoq de Boisbaudran's re- spectrum was mapped bright . p. fine). Ironspectrum. How obtained. A comparison of this spectrum suggested itself. . in his has described Lumineux' increased (texte. and partly from a consideration others in favour of the Aurora of the views expressed by M. A difficulty in comparing the iron-spectrum with that of the Aurora fine lines from the large number of found in the former spectrum. about the green region. out at ordinary temperature. 188).L. distinct.Lecoq de Boisbaudran's XVI. Salet. (which. Lecoq de Boisbaudran's same spectra (reduced to my scale). partly from the suspected relations between the Aurora and solar corona.118 THE SPECTETJM OF THE ATJEOEA. and clear. The spectrum was obtained from a spark taken over a solution of perchloride of iron in a small glass cup. and next to these a group of three others more towards the violet end of the spectrum (see Plate Mons. and was remarkable for its brightness in and Spectrum described. of these observations as connected with the variable character of the red Jine in the Aurora-spectrum seems to me in the highest degree Iron-Spectrum. about 154 lines are easily counted in the blue and violet parts of the spectrum. and with figures of wave-lengths for com- spectra also given. Lecoq de Boisbaudran. Mons. Spectres is My Mons. By the side of my phosphoretted-hydrogen and iron spectra I have placed the principal lines of Mons. spectra 1 and 2). was not The yeUow band had a rich glow of colour. Boisbaudran intensities of the makes the important remark that the : bands are in such case altered. In a pho- tograph (taken with the same prism as before described) of a small piece of meteoric iron fused in an electric arc by the aid of 40 Grove cells. parison with the Aurora-spectrum (see Plate XVI. adding — " La plus importante relative de ces modifications consiste en un renforcement tres-considerable de la bande rouge S 97'03 (W. at least Double this number would be seen with a spectroscope of moderate dispersion in the region comprising the entire set of auroral lines. de Boisbaudran. The bearing noteworthy. The by a idea of cooling the flame was due to M. arises Comparison of iron. a fine slit The lines varied considerably in intensity. spectrum 4). who effected it either jet of water or by an air-blast. and with the principal ones were sharp. however. also cooled.and Auroraspectrum. and I found the bands ' sufficiently but Mons. A group of three lines (a) stood out boldly in the green as the most marked. Gronemann and having its origin in the fall of an incandescent meteoric powder. 5994) qui devient vive de presque invisible quelle etait en I'absence du refroidissement artificiel de la flamme. when flame the is The less refrangible bands seem the most susceptible to increase of brilliancy." Full details of the changes are given by M. how the brilliancy of these bands marks on the spectrum increasing in brilliancy when the flame is artificially cooled (refroidie).

spark id 2 lines. includes f S I Air. Table showing comparative position of Aurora-lines with the principal lines in the examined spectra. Table of 00iocideaces. Band Air. includes 1 line. Air. C. the green.COMPARISON OF SOME TUBE AND OTHEE SPECTRA. capillary . near. means coincident within the limits of my instrument and scale. spectrum The following Table was compiled for the purpose of comparing the foregoing results with tlie Aurora-spectrum. principal Aurora-line. Phosphoretted hydrogen N. Band includes Band includes 1 line. and Aurora-lines VN. Band Coal-gas tube N. which is The yellow is and steady but very bright. Tiolet-pole.. Aurora-tube and phosphorescent tube J See Air. S. same W. apt to flicker as the spark moves on the 5).. N. capillary 5- Band includes Band includes I a 2 lines. VN. 2 lines. 5189 50O4 4694 to 4629 4350? 6297 5oG9 5390 5233 •{ /3. includes Air. Faint band. 1 Air. Continuous spectrum and faint air-lines. includes 2 lines. N. spark over water . capillary. Band includes N. See Air. Band includes Iron VN. Band N. C. the metal . N.L. This spectrum is 119 given as useful for comparison with the bright and It is Mercuryspectrum. S s- r Band N. . Hydrogen-tube. Oxygen-tube o 3 DD TS. red-pole. being used as one electrode. very near. surface of the metal (see Plate XVI. How obtained. VN. TS. and note bright line. easy to obtain with a small lines are distinct coil. Spectrum of Mercury.

xlviii. Mag. As an addendum Table I to the foregoing. S. (5) phosphoretted hydrogen. The air-tube spectrum might perhaps stand higher in the scale but for its broad bands. (6) carbon and oxygen.C. Iron: Watts. 1 will be found a compared spectra. Watts. : C. Solar spectrum. vol. fig.P. Nitrogen (air) : : Watts. we arrange the spectra in the following order : — (1) iron.120 THE SPECTErM OF THE AUEORA. Oxygen (air) Watts. Lines of oxygen possibly escape detection in the Aurora from the faint character of its spectrum. 546). which make comparison doubtful. have prepared. Oxygen vacuum-tube 1. 0. The phosphorus and iron spectra are especially interesting in connexion with Professor Nordenskiold's " metallic and magnetic cosmic dust in the Polar regions " (see Phil. f^ . O. on Plate IX. N. p.H. Carburetted-hydrogen vacuum-tube C. (2) air-spark. divisions The the and vertical lines will guide the eye in making comparison of s])ectra. Blue base of candle-flame Capron. 4. Carburetted-hydrogen flame : : Watts. C. : Barker's AurorsB are compared with eight other spectra. (4) air-tube. Additional Table of ser. : Procter. Tested by coincidence. (3) hydrogen. in which a type Aurora and also Vogel's and viz.I. or close proximity of lines to those of the Aurora.

but they are now. That the Aurora has two spectra. nil. with HC. wave-lengths 4707 5227 . region. [The substance of these appeared in the tion with the " ' Philosophical Magazine' for April 1875." The comparison of Flask-spec- the spectrum of this violet glow with that of the Aurora gives. the whole flask will be were. That the bright line falls within a group of hydrocarbon lines.NOTES ON PEOFESSOE ANGSTEOM'S THEOEY.. the platinum wires : — are introduced. with a discharge analogous to the glow of the negative pole of a riment aescribed. made a separate article. Vogel's finding this line to coincide with a not well-marked band in the air-spectrum must be regarded as a case of accidental coincidence. is pumped out as it to a tension of only a few milli- If the inductive current of a Ruhmkoi-ff coil be sent through the filled. the Professor is in ' Nature of ' Angstrom's propositions. and the air metres. o Professor Angstrom then details the examination of an exhausted dry airflask filled Angstroms flask-expe- . and that coincide Dr. according to O trum compared with Auroraspectrum.] o In a contribution by the late Professor Angstrom to a solution of the pro- ProfeasOT blem of the Aurora-spectrum (an abstract of which appeared July 16. and the other the remaining fainter lines. the bottom of which is covered with a layer of phosphoric anhydride. but That bright line does not does not actually coincide with any prominent line of such group. The experiment is described as follows " Into a flask. in conjunc- Comparison of the Tube and other Spectra " (Chapter XI. Angstrom. amongst other things. the following results : Aurora-lines. 1874). wave-lengths 4286 4272 4703 5226 Violet light. flask. That moisture in the region of the Aurora must be regarded as That moisture is nil and that oxygen and hydrogen must alone there act as conductors of o in Aurora electricity. with a violet light. and from both electrodes a spectrum is obtained composed chiefly of shaded violet bands. stated. 2ndly. vacuum air-tube. ]21 CHAPTER XII. for the sake of convenience. SOME NOTES ON PEOFESSOE ANGSTEOM'S THEOEY OF THE AUE0EA-8PECTEUM. : to have laid down 1st. Srdly.). certain propositions in substance as follows That the Aurora has two different spectra — the one comprising the one bright line in the yellow-green only. which other- wise only proceeds from the negative pole.

and therefore in a condition to cause a sufficiently strong fluorescence." and again.122 THE SPECTETJM OF THE AUEOEA." He notes also that oxygen and some of need of Dr. but also for general resemblance to an Aurora-spectrum. last These experiments are detailed in the represented in black for white. Professor Angstrom does not admit such variability. just behind the second line in the hydrocarbon yellow group (see Plate V. Professor o In order to I examined Angstroms conclusions tested. this point that " an electric discharge may easily be imagined which. no wellit marked 3rd. are also compared with other fessor then concludes lines in the violet light 4654 and 4601 . and XVI. in which the spectra obtained are o Result of examination of the Professor's propositions. fig. viz. : This may be nil. light bands. and the results are comprised in Plates XIV. Vogel's theory). though in itself of feeble light.. Vogel at 4663 and 4629. 2nd.. line is. and the Pro- that it may be in general assumed that the feeble bands of the Aurora-spectrum belong to the spectrum of the negative pole. or prominent line in the air-spectrum with which accords. No 5thly. result of the examination of Professor Angstrom's principal propositions seems to be this: lines Two Auroral spectra. Procter's) " the vapour-density of OH3 is only 9 against 14 for N and 16 for O.. some tube and other spectra not only for line-positions. A. test some of the Professor's conclusions in an experimental way. Bright line is 4thly. Vogel's theory of variability. falls. 7). The proposition that " moisture in the region of the Aurora must be regarded as Moisture probably not nil in the Here I see reason to difier. XV. That there no need. I agree also that the bright yellow-green line Ang- strom describes. that it due to fluorescence owes its The Professor remarks on or phosphorescence. Aurora gion." . That the only probable explanation of the bright origin to fluorescence or phosphorescence. may be rich in ultra-violet light. and does not admit that the way a gas may be brought to glow or burn can alter the nature of the spectrum. but question whether the fainter as Professor than one spectrum. its is compounds are fluorescent. I agree may not possibly comprise more in this. The 1st. Chapter. in common with the Professor. to have recourse to the "very great variability of gas-spectra according to the varying circumstances of pressure and temperature " (Dr. since (to quote a letter of Mr. possibly changed more or less by additions from the banded or the line air- spectrum. And I find. found Two weak by Dr." conveniently divided into two parts. re- " electrical or heat-repulsion may carry water-dust up to enormous heights. in order to account for the spectrum of the Aurora.

so well-marked a general as weU. p. B. or portions of them. 71). I think. . when once seen. telluric Coincidence of the green line also) are coincident with. The question of the violet-pole spectrum. make the assumption The first of these is and of moisture being nil in the Auroral regions untenable. the fact that the white arc. There are.) we may also claim the continuous spectrum in the Aurora in 7). circumstances 123 itself connected with the Aurora which Beaaonsfor this given. streamers. In Professor Herschel's letter (Phil. note the peculiarities of the red line. that in comparing other spectra with that of the Aurora. more local the spectroscope than the glow generally seen between the lines or bands in gas-spectra. this point. Aurora. This illustration here introduced. too. in comparison with the Aurorais and those of olefiant gas. spectrum The continuous and dense in spectrum of the Aurora is also. I think fig. ser. o two lines out of many. Of principal lines coincide but. without other features. or very close bands or (See Auromi lines with telluric BoJAr lines. is Mr. they are recognized afterwards with the greatest ease and without measurements. are frequently near to the earth's Instances of this are given in the section on the Height of the Frequently near to earth's surface. Aurora surface. whereas we know by experience that most spectra have that. Professor Angstroms compared spectra. in (ir frequently struck.. as special character Most spectra have a general as well as special character. notably the experiences of Sir W> Grove and Mr. 4. course no two given spectra can be considered identical unless their . the coincidence of one or Coincidence of one or two lines not sufRcient to establish identity. Ladd. Continuous spectrum. on the other hand. much the practice to trust to the coincidence (more or less perfect) of one or perhaps two lines out of many . and floating patches of light. for An experience and proof of this is found in a set " " which the Autotype Company have reproduced Spectra Photographed of me. 2. which (and. too Molet-pole spectrum discussed. Mag. to my observation. vol. I think.NOTES ON PEOFESSOE AnQSTEOM'S THEOBY. Here I make the remark it is. Plate XIII. too." The second. Angstrom's representation of the " spectrum of the glow discharge round the negative pole of air-vacuum tubes " lines is given. carinot be satisfactorily or conclusively held to establish identity. found in some Aurora. further proof of water-vapour (see Plate XV. Procter and others have also remarked that the generally formed in a sort of " mist or imperfect vapour. that Aurorse. as I to. On find. xlix. groups of lines in the solar spectrum usually attributed to moisture. W. have frequently the peculiarly dense solid look of vapour-clouds —a circumstance with which I have been Aurora vapour mist.

Oct. 4930 to 4740 to 6300 5560 5690 to ) 4310 4350 5200 J A. it certainly seems to me that. 4694] Vogel. Angstrom's drawing discussed. Indigo. Feb. Nov. 9.o I tk it (2) i I (3) 67 I 65 I 63 I 61 I 59 SB I 57 I 55 I 53 I 61 4< 49 Wave-lengtbs. 1873 6060 4. such as Vogel. examining Angstrom's diagram the showing of the drawing itself. 1871 . 1871 . Spectra of (1) oleflant gas. 6297 5569 5390 5233 5189 5004 5020 5050 to to \ J 4629 Barker. 1870 4990 4850 4670 5320 5165 4850 5015 4980 4830 4625 4640 Backhouse. D (1) E F G II. Blue. 6230 5620 5170 4820 53301 Barker.. Professor Herschel speaks of Angstrom s drawing as representing a normal spectrum.124 THE SPECTEIJM OF THE AUEOEA. but beyond this we are not any thing like a general at certain as to its origin. junr. (3) negative pole in air. Procter. In illustration of the difficulty of constructing typical Aurora-spectrum I append a Table of eight Auroral spectra taken Auroral lines and bands.H. 1870 * Mr. Green.A A. Barker. Bed. On. hK A. E. but must be roughly calculated from the scale. 1873 . 5660 4305 Backhouse. and others. Yellow. Clarke. Observers. 1870 Lord Lindsay. (2) Aurora. Violet. April 9. It is unfortunate that in this illustration and in Professor Herschel's paper o the wave-lengths of the Aurora-lines are not given in figures. and as derived from authentic sources. in hundred-thousandths of a millimetre. Oct. 14. less refrangible three of the violet-pole bands appear to be than the Aurora- . 24. upon All the coincidences are not very exact. of the Spectrum of the glow discharge round the negative pole of Air- Angstrom a representation vacuum tubes. 1874 » 5570 5180 4320 H. and its comparison with the Spectrum of the Aurora. hazard : Table of compared Aurora. Procter's and Lord Lindsay's o lines had no wave-lengths.

The lower spectrum shown. brightest line of spectrum. I J broad." Plate XV. quite faint line. broad. I prepared the diagram shown on Plate XI. 5004. Vogel's memoir : • Violet-pole lines. while the lines or bands of the Aurora in no way possess that character*. . Vogels violet-pole wx. spectrum 2. 4417. As it seemed desirable to adopt a specific Aurora-spectrum for comparison. It should. 5459. -i 4704. that of " Air. I am not aware of any Aurora-Une or band which is degrading towards the violet. moderately bright. very faint line. in giving this character to the two Aurora-bands which are said to correspond with violet-pole bands about 47 and 43. I think.NOTES ON PBOFESSOB InGSTROM'8 THEOBT. very bright line. • 1 i i_. moderately bright. and calculated to mislead by described as distinguished by giving the Aurora-bands a feature corresponding to the violet-pole bands which they do not possess. very bright line. 5189. very bright line 5147. 4663. 5289. > J band less brilliant in the middle. line. 1 4569. \ 1 ^ line. very bright stripe. moderately bright 4275. very intense line 4646. very faint line. 4486. 4808. 1. too. 4629.L. violet pole. r -I 5233. Dr. 6694. moderately bright. 4346. 1 lines. bright line 4912. is incorrect. moderately bnght stnpe J J . i- 5224. lines so. * Angstrom's drawing. . moderately bright. fig. t x 5390. The upper spectrum is Vogel's. faint Hue 5004. f 5945. To assist in the foregoing violet-pole comparison I add the following Table derived from Dr. of and to show such comparison on a somewhat larger scale than Angstrom's drawing. extremely faint . is a great difierence in the character of the compared drawing or mine towards the —the bands whether as shown in Angstrom's of the violet-pole spectrum mostly degrading violet. fainter than last. 6100. graphically I can only find one absolute coincidence in the two compared spectra in this diagram. moderately bright stripe . 82 . 5569. W. is Aurora and violet-polo spectrum. 125 with which they are compared —the middle one so. (at 47) considerably the one near E (at about 52-30) appreciably and the third (at 43) slightly so. already described and figured on Plate XIII. and Aurora6297. . be borne in mind that there spectra. > Aurora-lines.

too. low-green line. of this effect will be found in the section in October 1870.) Day Aurorse. if the violetfails. External features of touches I do not notice that the Professor Aurora in respect of this question. torn and broken fire.. Conclusions arrived at adverse to the doletpole theory. The first signs were (in dull daylight) » a lurid tinge upon the clouds. It is true that the line j in one the red. scattered among these. degrades towards for ? accounted the brighter bands a and (3 of the Aurora-lines but how are alone survive when the tube is placed at These as I have before pointed out. reminded me of a similar appearance having a phosphorescent appearance. 1870. phosphorescent glow.—A fine display." the more common February 4. by the way. to reduction of temperature (a phenomenon the green in the "Aurora " and " phosthe peculiar brightening of one line in probably containmg O). It is true conspicuous still remains. it must be under pole glow-spectrum is to represent vacuum-tubes those by which it obtains in dry-air . any special or distinguished place in spectrum nearly absolute monopoly of the tainly not for assigning to it the spectrum 2). examination of these figures it On will be seen that 5224 and 5233 are fairly close. which suggested the reflection of a distant masses of white vapour. I feel more in accord with Professor Angstrom's memoir upon the fluorescence of the bright yellow-green subject of the phosphorescence or Aurora-line. I cannot but Aurora^spectrum. for their absence in the At all events. As the general result of my toreobservations and a comparison of the p . Other confirmatory circumstances. r conditions diiferent from gr flasks at ordinary temperature. upon the external features ot the AuroriE confirmatory of this. glow reason for giving to the violet-pole going spectra and tables. and that 5004 is coincident. inOctober 20. display of that evening. to the probably connected with ozone). conclude that Professor Angstrom's theory the Aurora-spectrum. Beyond these there -_ is little to identify the spectra. while.J26 THE SPECTEUM OF THE AUEORA. 1872. is in close coincidence with which. and phorescent" tubes (the phosphorescent tubes . hues they are thus reduced to shaded-off a distance from the slit. the violet-pole glow (Plate XV. that they are in lieu of bands.—I noted the grand Auroral " streamers of opaque-white phosphorescent cloud very different from cluding transparent Auroral diverging streams of light. hardly be seen without the presence of some phosphoretted-hydrogen band Having regard to the near proximity of the circumstance of this band brightening by to the bright Aurora-line. I see no cerand a comparison with the Aurora." (Other instances we might suppose could Aurora and Phosphorescence. Phosphorescence or fluorescence of the yel- 4th. but the difficulty On the whole.

there is. of this 1. that lines vary with temperatui-e. no one spectrum that can comparison with the Aurora-spectrum. I reply. I Co„du. so far as I am aware. Philosophical Magazine. ' senes. (Chautard's We Eesearches. 77. 127 feel there is strong evidence in favour of such an origin to the principal Aurora-line. that if the i-rotessor lays down this proposition in its strictest sense (I can ot the invariability of gas-spectra. Invamhi"'>''^K«- do not now attempt S"ned. brilliancy to the Professor's words. vol. Suffice it to say. if not to the red line as well.NOTES ON PEOFESSOB AnGSTEOM'S THEOET. I believe. pose he so meant at all claim hardly sup. it). now add magnetism as capable ot effecting a change in certain spectra. Professor Angstrom opens a wide door and I to discussion in his proposition to follow in detail this interesting part of the present subject. and in breadth with pressure Kirchhoff-. too. work ) I .i„„ 11 *''*' ^T'"" "^ ''"^O- 6th. in speaking of vapour-films as increasing the intensity of lines states » It may happen that the spectrum appears to be totally changed when the mass of vapour is altered. in Giving greater latitude number and upon competent authority. but even as to position of lines. not only as to briUiancy. p. to the observed circumstance that the electric discharge has a phosphorescent or fluorescent afterglow (isolated. too.' 4th III." may. by Faraday). and experiments detailed in Chap.

CHAPTER XIII. How ob- tained. ter's Profr- subse- bisulphide tube (with a spectroscope of a 60° a bri-ht line or band in the the The third and fifth lines prism%nd magnifying-power about six). except that my drawing is in black mentioned. to be the spectrum described tubes. in part at as a new spectrum of oxygen. R. spectrum as shown by 4 gives a representation of this for white. June 1869) oxygen with a He had obtained it very vividly in pure electrolyzed of perplexing observations made him doubtful feeble discharge. was Plate XI. was shaded towards the Aurora-line. it wa^'s less so than the case with the Aurora-line. photographically. first band of citron acetylene though more refrangible than the too. but some its origin. not see how it could be in the I have shown that although the From a comparison of the tube-spectra. and Aurora the lower one the Imes of Na found by Mr. Aurora seemed also to correspond with enough to be compared with the same accuracy as says they were not bright the positions could not be far wrong. sometimes exhibited discharge by least. The tube-band.' of the Auroral lines with those of apparent coincidence in position of several from air at low pressure with a feeble a spectrum occasionally obtained in lumiere (phosphorescent!) It is. As to these Mr. the yellow-green line. Yellowgreen line traced to On some form of hydro- carbon. H.128 THE SPECTRUM OP THE ATJEORA. Mr. carbon and oxygen tubes are proved spectra of the . AND (PROCTER Procters oxygenspectrum. Procter coincident with line. Mr Procter. Compared spectra described. fig. to be. in January 1870. Procter tube-lines. ArEOEA THE OXTGEN-SPECTEUM IN RELATION TO THE SCHUSTER). "Aurora ) Mr Procter subsequently ('Edinburgh tube-line to some form of hydrocarbon. H yellow-green Mr. Procter has pointed out an IN a communication to 'Nature. he says. greater dispersion. considered he traced the yellow-green m quent views. as disposed of With the case of the electrolyzed oxygen-spectrum. examination with instruments of (candle-flame). which was not and oxygen I did not then consider The question as between hydrocarbon but I did lumiere tubes the question might be open.' art. but that Encyclopeedia. the centre one that of the The upper spectrum is that above The Auroral for comparison. the violet. Wiillner (Philosophical Magazine. it was found that. and he believed it.

and I have confirmed. He also alludes to the fact that when one of the globes of a "Garland" tube was heated. it did not shine after the spark had passed. fig. and when we remember the association of oxygen and ozone. after the spark has passed. Garland tube. however. it may be cited that. they have.0 tube. makes 5189 of the Aurora coincident with an O line. and the way in which the latter is affected by heat. it will be remembered. it may well be that temperature plays an important part the matter. apparently because of the destruction of the ozone by heat [Some experiments with a tube of this description wUl be found detailed K«sidual phosphorescence in Greissler tubes. 15 represents as the upper spectrum Vogel's Aurora. The other two tubes had aluminium electrodes. is probably associated with oxygen. as to position of some of the principal lines in the central part of the spectrum. distinct. the other was fairly bright. They were similar in shape to ordinary Geissler tubes. a very close resemblance That oxygen may in some form play a part probable in the lines of in the case of Geissler vacuum-tubes (representing much more rarefied atmosphere) the lines spectroscopically detected seems a : different question Angstrom and Herschel suggest its presence in the Aurora in connexion with phosphorescence or fluorescence. somewhat reddish Plate tint. N and O is found • whUe Difference N a glowHlischarge in a between airspark and tubt"- spectrum. must. it was filled with ] examination and comparison of the O and CO. in the case of a H. lUummated by the larger coil one of these tubes (which had a slight crack in the manganese bulb) lighted up famtly. XVIII. as to temperature at least. a mixed spectrum of bright how Aurora seems highly far it is Probability that () may |)lay a (wrt in thf Aurorasfxjctruin. and the glow had a in i-art III. the gas Subsequently to my ter's Dr. It appear mainly to usurp the '^ spectra. sho>ving an oxygen-spectrum One. misty. Arthur Schuster was good enough to send me three vacuum-tubes of his own preparation. Vogel. was unfortunately broken in transit. with large disk-shaped brass electrodes. Dr.OXYGEN-SPECTEUM IN EELATION TO THE AUBORA. but had attached to each a supplemental bulb containing dry oxide of manganese. be borne in mind that a Geissler tube. Oxygen was not. . Schuster informed me it showed the carbonic-oxide spectrum as well as that of oxygen. In proof of this conduct of oxygen. and lU-defined. 129 as a whole. the lines come out sharp and brilliant in the spectrum whde what is seen of the O lines is comparatively weak. m H HO tube referred to. that the residual phosphorescence in Geissler tubes. With a spark-discharge in air at ordinary pressure. in no way represents the conditions of the Aurora. Professor Herschel has pointed out. spectra before det-ed D. . I think.Schustubes described.

It is evident that . but that the CO band bright towards is one edge and fades gradually thence.130 with W. as also had the two bright lines in the green. The tube-spectra were mapped out with the aid of the diaphragm micro- meter before described. each including within limits one of the Aurora-lines. The Violet-pole. Other fainter violet. two in the green. Schuster finds the wave-lengths of the : O bands to be as follows 5205-0) - „ . which is too much towards the the red to compare with the Aurora-line. was fairly bright and sharp. He notices that more refrangible of the O bands corresponds with a line sometimes seen in the Aurora (Vogel's 5233). Schuster's THE SPECTRUM OE THE AUEORA.. not due to the oxygen. the line can only be said to coincide in a loose and indefinite way. He comes also gives as weak bands 5840-5900 and 5969-6010. under considerable dispersion and with good series of lines. Schuster remarks that one of these O bright bands closely coincident is marks on the spectra. and three fairly bright ones towards the is Dr. place of the less refrangible of the two bright bands in the violet- pole spectrum Avas occupied in the capillary spectrum by a faint glow only. while the fourth was found to be hydrogen F. and misty and band-like. definition. part 5255. but considerably more refrangible than the yellow-green Aurora-line. appeared in the blue. ^^^^ 5552-8 5629-6 Brightest part 5586. numbers. will. The other lines in the spectrum were considerably fainter. The The lines violet-pole spectrum was recognized by two very bright broad bands its of light in the green. Spectra described. though not brilliant. violet-pole Dr. however. apply to this last as to the other coincidence. The red line. Schuster's re- Dr.L. oxygen-bands can be broken up into a is when the brightest part found to lie at 5586. and as the lower spectrum the negative (violet) pole of the O same tube. Aurora Dr. bright red line in the capillary had a faint representative in the violet- pole spectrum. . The same remark viz. > ^ Brightest . as the middle spectrum the capillary part of Dr. Schuster is to the conclusion that the green line of the as. Capillary. The lines capillary spectrum was mainly distinguished by four bright sharp —one in the red. while the O band of pretty uniform strength throughout. between the red Aurora-line and D. tube. with a band in the CO off spectrum. that a broad band can hardly represent a line —at least.

Nos. as having been found by me in a tube showing phosphorescence fig. are (' due the bands. of carbon impurities in these. These last-men- tioned lines I have already referred to. 15. Photoin graphed Spectra. he thinks. The spectrum of the negative pole." To this. we found it O tube. 15. 0/3. 6. my aluminium-arc spectrum lines 3. (Compare Plate XVIII. lines fig. obtained when the jar and a break are interposed.. B. with Plate XV. under good exhaustion. Schuster was kind enough to examine the spectra I mapped out.). O7 are those ' he has referred to under that designation in his Spectni of Dr. 4.OXYGEN-SPECTEFM IN EELATION TO THE AUEOEA.) are due to some foreign matter.. In some experiments which we made (after receiving Dr. Schuster's tubes) iiient« Experiwith with an open Geissler tube. he thinks. O violet pole. so arranged as to connect with an air-pump and gas-receiver. Schuster often finds that a spectrum due to the aluminium electrodes is seen in tubes under great exhaustion . : and which are shown in Plate XVIII. Dr. and do not well compare with the Aurora-spectrum. communications to Nature. and that Mr. after the spark has passed.. . as they are not in all his tubes. . He B finds divided into two parts by a dark space. Schuster's tubes were free from what must in those 181 iliH tubes now be considered an impurity examined by me and by Dr. and possibly 8 and 9. III. and C are the bands characteristic of the negative pole. are due to the spark-spectrum of oxygen. spectrum 5. Dr.. 5. A drawing of this spectrum first found in Watts's Index of Spectra. an open (leissler and thus from time to time to wash out the tube and vary the same impure spectrum as in the case of the sealed its contents. A similar thing happens with nitrogen.' and undoubtedly belong to oxygen. and 7 the mapped-out spectra are due to to It would thus appear that the lines due O are few in number. 1 and 2. tubes . and the ordinary oxygen-tubes. Procter's suspicions free from impurity. and seems to require a very large amount of precaution to avoid these impurities. " Aluminium Spectrum. Dr.' plate also iii. hence appears in I. with the following results —The A Oa. Schuster's O tube examined. are thereby quite confirmed.' plate and he believes it. he thinks. stretches into the capillary part the capillary as a faint band. II. or sets of lines in ii. the brighter lines of the line-spectrum being always present at the negative pole. and this he considers is is the spectrum ' of aluminium oxide. Vogel. The bands A.

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in connexion with the Aurora. known as that of Dr. and on the glow obtained from one wire only. so that could be put rapidly in or out of action battery used to excite the without disturbing the wires. was mainly con- Object of experi- ducted for the purpose of testing. some observations on the glow from the violet pole with and Desfription of appanitus without the magnet. to XIX. The employed. MAGNETO-ELECTRIC EXPERIMENTS IN CONNEXION WITH THE AURORA INTRODUCTION.PART III. the form The magnet was of Battery. The latter form of arrangement was employed by In most of the experi- ments conical armatures were employed of the poles to bear for the purpose of bringing the action upon the subjects examined. and containing two carbon and one zinc plate. A winch and pulley enabled the whole set of plates to be lowered into the liquid and withdrawn at pleasure. so that they could be used either in one length or as independent coils excited at the us. posed of two sets of stout copper wire wound together. The set of experiments detailed in Chapters XIV. Huggins. com- magnet. and the large quantity of solution gave the battery a considerable amount of constancy. each pole being surrounded by a movable helix. Electro- apparatus employed was a Ladd's electro-magnet. It also includes ments. each holding seven pints of bichromate solution. the action of a magnet upon the electric glow in vacuo and on the spark at ordinary pressure. each 13^ by 6 inches. with poles 10:j inches high by 2 inches across. same time. it A contact-maker was added to the magnet. We found it could be used t2 . and consisted of four vulcanite cells in ^ frame.

are this and drawings of the literally effects at the time and these in reproduced Part. tions kept in view. and both simple and compound pression of spectra were found to be much varied by the exaltation or sup- &c. filings and then obtained permanent prints from the Magnetic curves obtained. and worked by two l^-gallon double-plate bichromates. Mag. Phil. A ^ portion of our researches filling was directed to the subject of Angstrom's experiment of a dry flask entirely with a violet glow. intensity of the lines its number. of the experiments.to three-inch spark. and probably the spectrum It is easy to conceive that the variation in of that phenomenon. 4th series. almost in the text and Plates comprised To ascertain the direction and extent of the magnetic curves. some parts of the spectrum. magnet on the stream was mainly in colour and intensity still but in the bulbs the effects were more marked and striking. we covered filings . (on the action of magnets on rarefied gases in J. 1. assuming the Aurora experiments. placed over the with iron excited the magnet so as to obtain the curves. showing magnet-poles and curves on a Chautard's investiga- ^^^ In the vacuum-tube experiments we held Mons. giving a ^-inch spark. Chautard's investigations capillary 1. was employed. For the glow in the larger tubes and the spark in air a larger coil. luminous by the induced current. tubes rendered p. For obtaining the glow in the Geissler and other small tubes. result of the experiments The general to was to prove. analogous to that from the negative pole. When. same result while two wires and an uninterrupted attached a negative wire only were employed. 77) in view. different in . however. the great influence the magnetic forces may also exercise on the colours. giving a two. we (the other wire being left free) to an exhausted globular receiver.134 fbr Small coils. poles. Evidence obtained of We obtained in our experiments plenty of evidence of a change of colour and in the discharge change in colour. Plate XVII. be an electric discharge. was used. The magnetic scale). MAGNETO-ELECTEIC EXPEEIMENTS. and. form. though Angstrom's flask-ex- we carefully looked for O ' it. excited by one plate of a ^-gallon bichromate (bottle form). large sheets of cardboard. failed in obtaining the circuit "We periment tried. by spraying the cardboard with tannin to solution. Angstrom's memoir. o we obtained an General results of effect very similar to that referred to in Prof. motions. form under the magnetic influence . two evenings' work. without any material dropping in power. a Euhmkorff Larger coil. of Aurora. in a greater or less degree. The influence of the . and which has been remarked in Auroral spectra may have capillary origin in such a cause. so that apparently new lines sprang up . effects were thus found extend to a radius of at least ten inches (see diagram. fig. vol. Notes were taken . of four hours each. but we failed to trace actual change of position or wave-length in any given line. form. coil.

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conjointly with the changes in the spectrum. the case of each gas which we exarhined. might possibly form a new and valuable mode of analysis of compound gases. careful and extended study of these effects. "fhis is well Illustrated the case of the iodine and sulphur tubes A m which we examined . I35 Bulb efbcto uotiued aa a nude of analysis of gaaea.INTRODUCTION.

When the violet-pole glow was : examined. were the main features. and red not being well seen. showed in the capillary stream. one line only (in the green) standing out very bright. This tube was larger in bulk and bore than No. Violet-pole glow. the violet. 2. the spectrum was composed of a set of bright bands and lines in the green. with dark lines at intervals. A compound-prism spectroscope. (2) off. showed a very 1) was lighted up by the small coil. a bright narrower one in the blue. . No absolutely bright line could be traced in the red. The yellow and red part of the spectrum was also changed. Positive bulb. but stream slightly contracted in volume. uniform intensity. Glow throughout quiescent. The positive bulb gave a fainter spectrum of the same character. having a dark band in the centre. from yellow to red. In the yellow and red no bright line stood out alone. taking in the whole of the spec- trum. Nitrogen-tubes. and two bright lines in the green. a second nitrogen1. and there was much that gas stratification in both. Nitrogentube No. and six bright columns. and cut Nitrogentube No. the violet-pole glow being confined to the extent of Positive bulb of the the electrode. a fairly bright wedge. capillary stream To compare the and the violet-glow. 2) was used. slightly rosy-tinted stream. Spectrum described. Negative bulb was Discharge described. same rosy-purple colour. 1 (1) A SMALL Geissler tube (No. extending to the capillary bore. as the three principal lines of Difference of spectra of capillary came out very brightly in the spectrum. tube (No. Capillary stream. On the more refrangible side of the yellow. the general character of the spectrum was quite changed liant a bril- broad band in the violet. Glow de- The glow in the bulbs was considerably fainter and more salmon-coloured scribed.136 MAGNETO-ELECTEIC EXPERIMENTS. EXAMINATION OF GEISSLEE TUBES UNDER ACTION OF THE MAGNET. CHAPTER XIV. mainly confined to the centre. shading off on either side. and purple. (This stratification was considered due to H. and after that the red. blue. yellow. The capil- lary part filled bright. but rather obscure . with rosy-purple light. The yellow was fairly and evenly distinct up to the dark band then came a somewhat brighter orange band.) The difference of the spectra of the capillary stream and of the violet-pole glow was extremely well stream and violet-pole marked —the former consisting of a set of bright lines and bands of fairly glow. and no stratification in the tube. with intermediate fainter lines throughout. while the latter was split up into a few bright bands with .

and was not found at the positive-bulb end. . A bright violet-coloured arc. N pole of the magnet. as if overflowing. acting as reflectors. when stream. but those towards the violet end of the spectrum were conspicuously brightened.EXAMINATION OF MAGNETIZED GEISSLEE TUBES. as in the case of the large Pliicker tubes and at the tween poltw of the magnet. With the magnet not as the magnet. poured from a lipped jug (see Plate XVII. As soon magnet was excited the stream. weak as compared with the same region of the No bright line appeared in the red. 1). to fade out. fig. This was repeated each time the magnet was excited. and to change from a rosy tint to a distinctly blue'Violet. and with an effect resembling the " tailing-over " of a gas-flame. The capillary part of tube No. The Spectrum examined. as also (in a less degree) that in the bulbs. (4) The extremity of the negative bulb was now placed between . showed this change of tint in a most marked manner each Change of colour in capillary time the magnet was excited. and capil- lary stream. (3) and then. the poles of the magnet. fig. . the magnet was excited. the negative bulb from the capillary towards the violet-pole. was bright and of a slightly rosy-yellow tinge. the capillary stream It varied Tube No. and reminding one in shape of the which water forms on being the magnet. a little in apparent capillary diameter with the current. flickering in character. were seen to contract. lighting action of up. The Positive was next placed within the action of the magnet spiral and immeit bulb within diately a brilliant spiral of flickering light appeared in the bulb. flashes of light were discharged " Tailingover " of capillary Occasionally. same time a straight stream of not very bright positive bulb light ran along the bulb. the Junction ot junction of the violet-pole glow and the capillary red-glow was easily observed. 1 Ladd's electro-magnet. and inclined to the side formed. gradually getting and more pointed. following the magnetic curve. properly adjusted for the purpose. 137 The yellow and The tube being red of the violet-glow were very capillary spectrum. spectrum was then carefuUy examined. fainter lines between. At the same time the capillary stream was stream. 1 was arranged between the poles of excited. This effect took place each time the magnet was in excited. Negative bulb be- was at once formed. The bright bands of the violet-pole were seen to run into the finer the violetpole glow capillary line-spectrum. tube which was in contact with the The spiral. the conical ends of the armatures almost touching the between the poles of the tube (Plate XVII. though of the Spiral was permanent in form. seen to run into the negative bulb. position of any of the lines or bands No change was seen in the actual when the tube was influenced by the magnet. 9). The polished armatures.

bulbs were mainly of a slightly Violet-glow small very slight tinge of red. entirely from impurity. and several line among them ^me -pon be seen before. the and confined to the electrode. and tube (No. and the was more apparent in the positive than This effect was very marked. H O tube No. Upon into and the glow in both bulbs contracted stream became intensely brighter. 2) was then i. Their bulb-effects (Compare figs. with a capillary the magnet being excited. A coil small H Geissler tube The capillary was a The bulbs were both of a at times lighted up by the small (No. The bright -d violet which could not brighter in hydrogen-line C. Plate XVII. however. spectrum 3. and a tendency to redden bright white-pink stream." • could be detected. with coarse . No actual change in Teen. Oxygen-tuhes. It thus seemed measurement. • 2. stream quite pale white. 10). position of the spectrum-lmes not. tube No. lines being present. with the magnet off. to form a spiral was A set of fluted bands with a bnght throughout. 1 . spectrum described. The A Effect of magnet on spectrum. running along the line. H tube. and showed Capillary blue-grey tint. second tube (No. angles to the magnetic poles. tube. A lighted up. 1) was selected. No trace whatever of curving at each end (Plate very conThe spectrum with the magnet on was seen. fig. but not Tube-glow described. mag- no prominently bright region was indistinct. 1) was lighted up and with a on Plate XIV. and both bulbs. The spectrum was a bngh . with a steady glow.138 MAGNETO-ELECTRIC EXPERIMENTS.)] . the ortlon than the F line. right at curved towards the sides of the bulbs a single bright stream. glow described. proved to be the latter was weU although. but found to give the spectrum shown A described. spicuously brightened up lines or bands appeared appeared in the red. 10 and 11. by me in tubes employed were those used nt is to be noticed that the O to hyd-cai^the bright lines now attributed former experiments. and condensed into one tendency XVII. No. with lenticular faint blue-grey tint. and had of the GO^ those differed. point armatures. Hydrogen-tubes. Upon either faint stratification was seen in negative pole. the glow left the electrode bulb being placed between the side of the tube and bright stream. 'Thtred Efiect upon glow when magnet excited. while the C was Hhe . examined with the spectroscope.. Bulbs be- tween poles of the net. similar to the foregoing. strong set of H lines in addition. the principal one. 1 spectrum . which changed from side to side with the current.

glow was pale and white as compared with When The the magnet was excited. 1 was placed between the poles of the magnet. stratification. A H No. No change of place in the lines could longer tube (No. 139 The violet-pole that of N. and the stratification became finer. in moderate condensed stream of tube changed. The capillary brightened up. except that the diminution in brightness was not so conspicuous. looking as if negative bulb. the tube not lighting-up brightly. With the magnet on. as in the case it were squeezed out of the capillary bore. The capillary-. The same effect took place with the positive bulb.EXAMINATION OF MAGNETIZED GEISSLEB TUBES. was excited. purple glow was seen in each bulb. 2) was then tried. the O lines and spectrum generally brightened up. lighting-up described. grey stream of brighter light With the magnet on. The bulbs lost some of their light. the principal lines showed brightly in the spectrum. and the line in the the magnet Effect when magnet waa excited. effects described. Water-Gas (Hp) tube. u . and changed to a deep amber-yellow. and their coarse stratification being. The spectrum was a This tube was Ammoniatube. and the red and blue lines. and gradually diminishing as the distance increased from these. the whole character of the tube changed capillary stream diminished in brightness and in apparent volume. The sodium-line was H also seen. with the intermediate bands and finer lines. the O lines being misty and indistinct. the spectrum grew much fainter— the continuous glow in the red and blue. with a tendency to the spiral form. The stream in the positive bulb had a tendency to the spiral form. Hardly any light was seen in the bulbs. The unexcited Unexcited spectrum described. When the negative bulb of the tube No. each time the magnet was excited. dS/r «'^"^- H Ammonia-tube. be noticed. When green alone shining out conspicuously. Ihe capillary showed a slightly rosy-tinted. whole character of which a fine stratification only was seen. and assumed a yellow tint—this effect being principally confined to that portion which was between the conical ends of the armatures. Without the magnet. a stream of light was formed. spectrum was found to consist of the usual principal lines of on a continuous glow. nearly disappearing. A faint Water-gas (H. In the capiUary part a fairiy bright stream of purple-white light appeared. difficult to light up. which are usually suspected to be due to impurity. except a very faint purple glow at the electrodes. in lieu. 2H tube. the glow in the bulbs was condensed into a single bright stream. « tailed over " into the light. of N. When the maf^et was excited. with similar effects. filled with a vertical .0)tube.

Both bulbs were completely . somewhat similar to the (see Plate Effects effects in XVII. and the glow became more condensed. under influence of the magnet. but with marked action on the bulbs. MAGNETO-ELECTEIC EXPEEIMENTS. but greatly increased in brightness. On a subsequent examination the tube and spectrum both brightened up under the influence of the magnet. except to condense the faint glow into a slightly bright stream running along the side of the tube. light- bluish white bulbs grey-blue. of a pale green tint. 1) was lighted-up with the small-coil. fig. and the stream through both bulbs curved towards the pattering noise was heard in the tube. one yellow-green. Tube marked A Geissler tube . one green. A second chlorine-tube (No. • The spectrum also brightened. and changing in volume as the coil-break was touched glow round the violet-pole considerstratification strong in able. With magnet excited. the Pliicker tube after described were seen. and the light was found condensed into four prominent shaded bands. Faint bands in the red came out bright. and one blue. Capillary stream a brilliant . 1 lighted-up. sides. Chlorine-tubes. the capillary stream diminished in volume. the faint lines becoming stronger. diff"use. one red. It " tailed over " into the negative bulb. fectly formed. as also did some in the The violet-glow was examined (without the magnet). were faint without red and yellow influence distinctly —the N. The effect of the magnet was to reduce the little brightness of the glow in the capillary. A chlorine-tube (No. but markedly white in tint. parts of the spectrum specially showing The H lines also brightened up.140 Spectrum described. and Action of not very distinct. A slight In the positive bulb bright. but the general character was preserved. with fainter bands seen between. in positive bulb stream not quite . imperwith a tendency to spiral formation. and ran to the sides of the tube. marked C A was examined. shown one of faintly N and H. but hardly so much in proportion as the Carbonic-Acid tube. when magnet was excited. 11). became much brightened violet. which this efl'ect. whole spectrum. the magnet. saddle-shaped rings of light. C A . shone out under its The N lines. rather than violet . Under action of the magnet this tube brightened up magnet upon the tube and spectrum. with a slight tint of green . spectrum pale. Capillary stream Bulbs with very little glow in them . throughout. The up. filling the bulbs. Chlorinetube No. capillary. 2) was then tried. slight stratification ing-up described.

EXAMINATION OF MAGNETIZED GEISSLEB TUBES. and the bright lines all . after described (p. Effect of The capillary stream was of a pale lemon-yellow. On lighting with it up. No. through a mist. than on the capillary. both bulbs were filled with a violet-grey diffused light. tive pole. Lightiug-up described. marked degree. This tube (No. effects were produced Effect of the similar to those in the case of the tube. the Changes in spectrum when magnet was excited. u2 . When The misty appearance was upon a lines altogether lost. and capil- Chlorinetubfl laiy the same. the marked character of the absorption spaces was lost. . but in a less marked magnet. it The iodine-tube was subsequently again tested. as if seen somewhat faintly. On exciting the magnet. 2 oil lighted-up. and last lighted-up better in Tube again tested. showing nearly the same tint effects bulbs and former having somewhat of a rosy and the latter an amber. shone up perfectly dark background. magnet was put on. while those in the blue only slightly brightened. but made its reappearwhen one conducting-wire was touched with a finger. both bulbs were at once with Effect flickering bright streams of light. Iodine-tubes. the other parts of the spectrum not being similarly influenced. 1. trace change of position or actually new faint in the yellow-green lines. A very slight violet tinge was seen at the negafilled No. much coarse well-marked lenticular stratification. a faint thin stream of condensed light running through the centre of the tube alone remaining. glow when magnet woh put on. It seemed as which had been and green region suddenly increased in intensity. The capillary stream at the same time changed from white all to an intense bright green. On placing the bulbs between the magnet-poles. according to the direction of the current. filled 141 with a dense white (very slightly rosy-tinted) opaque light. with a strikingly metallic look we could if not. the occasion. running towards the side of the tube. When the magnet was put on. and Si Fig). however. The spectrum without the magnet consisted of sets of lines. The sets of lines in the yellow-green and green started up intensely bright. the light in the whole tube was nearly extinguished. the capillary part of the tube changed from amber Magnet effects. with two well-marked absorption-spaces between. 1) had been used for photographic purposes. This stratification was mainly ance still lost on changing the direction of the current. On putting on the magnet touching one wire with the finger. They quite flashed up when sudden contact was made with the magnet commutator. This effect was more marked when one finger of each hand was applied to the wire. 144. and the bulbs Iodine-tube were partly obscured by a white deposit. but brighter.

of many sharp lines. and the increase in intensity of the lines in the other part. 1 strongly tinged in the red and yellow. When all magnet was excited. The changes in the spectrum were no and less decided. 2. 2 was much whiter in tint. effect in which the absorption-spaces totally diff"erent were lost. decided green colour. mined detail. the tubes differed much in appear- No.142 The spectrum described. gave one very to a decided light green. ance. red and yellow portions of the spectrum. 2) in glow and spectrum. 2. in The two tubes were then examined separately in detail. The was very strongly marked. by means of a comparison-prism on of the spectroscope. No. were faintly seen. and the positive electrode was surrounded by a yellow glow. new one (No. bright line. and upon a dark background. A few bright The two tubes exa- mainly in the yellow-green and green. with lines showing faintly through. was misty and continuous. the spectrum was found to be a bright continuous one of set of principal H (with a full and intermediate lines) N — the N spectrum being rather . The capillary changed to a mittent. little The spectrum lines. 2. That of tube No. 2. excited by The glow was rendered weak and interthe magnet. the spectrum entirely changed. This tube differing somewhat from a second one we examined (No. Without the magnet. crossed by tion-spaces. in the blue-green. 1 and No. Change when magnet was excited. The rest of the spectrum. and showed a bright continuous spectrum. No. and also their spectra. and several less bright ones near. which showed neither movement nor Comparison of the spectra. tubes No. and the rosy tint almost disappeared. showed very of the red and yellow. and gave a character to the appearance of the spectrum. showed curious effects. The light. Comparison of iodine- We the slit therefore compared these two tubes. MAGNETO-ELECTRIC EXPEEIMENTS. in line- position. and the misty continuous stood out alone while a set of sharp lines on the yellow-green and green flashed up bright and clear. To the eye. the old one (No. 1) and the 2). The was spectra were also found diff'erent in general look. with consider. No change The tint of principal lines could not be traced to change in actual position. with the exception of the absorption-spaces. quite disappeared. giving rise to some of the brighter parts of the spectrum which were extinguished under the action of the magnet. and the absorption-spaces were very dark. with little trace of absorpNo. viz. 1 had a distinct transparent rosy tint throughout. able coarse flickering stratification and this contrasted strongly with the dense whitish light of tube No. stratification. without the magnet. it suggested itself to iis that there might be a partial mixture of N or H (or both) with the iodine vapour. The change seemed to arise from the suppression of one part of the spectrum. The red and yellow the portions of the spectrum were quite bright. The spectrum.

the same effect as the positive. lighted-up easily both bulbs were with a purple stream of light ± capillary stream bright grey. The negative pole showed The capillary stream expanded lilac. traces of the iodine-spectrum. somewhat condensed in the bulbs. The spectrum without considered it increased in brightness under the influence . with the addition of slight traces of the H spectrum. Excited by the small light. faint 143 and misty. This tube (No. pretty much at the open- ing into the positive bulb. and the iodine lines. 2 was that. working as but if the current passed. When the magnet was excited the stream of light was . if any. The same effect happened magnet. the spectrum changed as spectra disappeared (except hydrogen F. showing arrangement in the bulb. marked. and flew to the side of the tube while the capillary stream at the same time brightened. which still by magic . No. On excitation of the magnet. the tube lighted-up for a second. coil. 1. altogether suppressed. showed last occasion. of the continuous spectrum under the action of the magnet it in No. mostly in the yellow-green and green. slight iodine-spectrum The effects in the case of both tubes were strongly The impression as to tube No. the whole tube was filled with a faint flickering The positive bulb contained a faint purple glow. 1) had been previously worked for photographic purposes. with a yellow-green Lighting-up described.EXAMINATION OF MAGNETIZED GEISSLER TUBES. In colour it was of a rather bright Upon putting the magnet Effect of the- on. without the magnet. and the bright lines shone up sharply upon the dark Effects background as before. the coil still . the discussed. but ran in a condensed stream into the negative bulb. 2) filled Brominetube No. a curious flickering stream of light flashing from the electrode to the side of the tube. The glass of the tube was strongly fluorescent Effect of and of a yellow tinge. was overpowered and masked by the N and H spectra while under the influence of the magnet the N and H spectra were almost intensified. shone out wonderfully sharp and bright on quite a dark ground. the H and N faintly remained). the iodine-spectrum being at the same time The disappearance same way. Brominetube No. with very slight. We tried another bromine-tube (No. the magnet was fairly bright . tinge at the electrode. repeatedly spiral it now and then . if On the magnet being excited. 1. upon examination. magnet. the misty continuous part of the spectrum nearly disappeared. between the magnet-poles only the same changes as on The spectrum seemed to be one of iodine. the light-glow in the tube was at once and permanently extinguished. and additional lines appeared but we them to be . of the magnet. 1 (with the supposition was mainly H) would be accounted for in the Bromine-tubes.

Efiect of The stream was of a bright violet tint. the spectrum of the tube between the poles was not bright. In the positive bulb the stream broke up into a number of vibrating streamlets.144 MAGNETO-ELECTRIC EXPERIMENTS. As the spectroscope and second tube were necessarily removed some distance from the magnet. (2) We compared two tubes effect. tube in general and in its spectrum. the intensity of the light throughout the whole tube. The effect of the magnet was to decrease magnet. Si F^. 1 . which flew towards There was an the side of the tube at right angles to the magnetic poles. in fact. only faint existing ones brightened up. Sulphuric. Both bulbs were filled with a brown-pink diffused light. resembled Si F4. and nearly filled the space round the electrode. fairly bright The spectrum trum. The FL tubes. tint. in the bulbs flew to the side of the in tube in flickering streams of Changes the spec- capillary at the same time changing to a distinctly green tint.Acid (SO3) tubes. 1) lighted-up brightly. while a spiral of fainter (positive ^) light was formed in the part of the bulb. (1) Excited by the small coil. principal lines No change in the position of the was traced. At the upper Si Fig negative pole the violet glow formed an arc in the direction of the magnetic curves. tube. We could not trace the The tube between was brightened up when the magnet was in action*. it Lighting-up described. a change of position in any of the principal poles lines. the Effect of the but was whiter and brighter. Silicic-Fluoride tubes. with little bright threads of light intermixed. Si n. bably. both bulbs of this tube (No. a yellow glow appearing at the negative pole. (1) A tube marked Si Fig had been worked for photographic purposes . SO3 tube No. The capillary stream partook of the same blue glow light. pro- . (Si F4 and the one marked Si Fig). We not compared the one tube under the influence of the magnet with the other so. inclined to condense into a stream in the positive bulb. Si Fl^ is * The tubes generally seem marked Si Fl instead of the ordinary notation Si F. inclination to spiral arrangement in the streamlets. with a misty light-blue tinted stream of oqaque light. This stream changed from side to side of the tube coincidently with change in the magnetic poles. without the magnet consisted of four bands of light iu the yellow. lighting-up described. Under the magnet's influence. lighted-up easily. Comparison of Si Fj and Si A slight ringing sound was heard in the tube. by means of a comparison-prism on the slit. when lighted-up. the magnet. The violet glow was capillary very bright.

and the O spectrum alone We also tried another SO3 tube (No. became of . which were dull before . When the magnet was taken remained. had small spark-like threads of light running among them. but when the magnet was excited. (2) oflf. and was suspected of a carbon impurity. be strongest just between the conical points of the armatures and. SulphuT'tube. Sulphurtube. when placed gas-flame. in it. the spectrum brightened. and the capillary changed from a blue-green to a distinct rosy tint. and a set of lines appeared upon it (a line or in the dis- trum. When took the magnet was excited. (2) One of the bulbs of the tube was then gradually heated with a small Effects The single stream in the heated bulb became somewhat deflected and broken up into a number of smaller streams and these. Gianges in the spec- magnet on. the spectrum was very like that of the Without SO3 tube No. in accord- ance with this. With band the magnet. The action on the capillary was noticed . tried it several times. as the tube tint. this stream was deflected in the bulbs. and no bright metallic- looking lines appeared. blue-green light running straightly through With the magnet on. and the sulphur rose changed somewhat in and. the central part of the spectrum-band in the red and yellow showed an increased brightness. the smaller and without being heated. the spectrum consisted of four bright bands. The capillary. tube . green. (1) A small bent vacuum-tube containing some solid sulphur. the spectrum only brightened. 2) which had been worked first for photographic purposes. when one of the bulbs of the tube was heated. under the magnetic influence. connected by a faint misty continuous spectrum possibly the hydro-carbon spectrum found in 140 (O or O tubes by way of impurity). yellow especially showing) which were not seen before. to make sure of the complete change. and the coil-power were all weaker. and we time. This effect was produced whenever the magnet was excited. under the magnetic influence. especially in the yellow and red. .EXAMINATION OF MAGNETIZED OEISSLEH TUBES. excited by coil. with a 1. 2 examined. was heated. we obtained a compound of both spectra. After a when the magnet. battery. Without the magnet. with the magnet on. and violet. the bright lines being seen upon the continuous spectrum in which the bands appeared. The lines were to but not very bright. gave a narrow stream of bright it. . the bright lines disappeared. tinct. the magnet. this spectrum entirely disappeared and a set of bright metallic-looking lines upon a dark background (line-spectrum of S) its place. resembling that of SO3 tube No. Lightiug-up (without heating) described. blue. Effect of continuous spectrum between.

. ^^g constantly repeated upon the magnet being off. MAGNETO-ELECTEIC EXPEEIMENTS.146 yellow-rose hue. As the heat was field applied to the bulb the bands of sulphur gradually appeared in the of the spectroscope. The magnet being excited. until at last the band- spectrum of sulphur entirely took the place of the spectrum seen in the cool Changes in the specinfluence of tube. g^gg|. a set of bright sharp lines (line-spectrum of S) appearing of the band-spectrum. the spectrum changed at once. excited. rpj^-^ upon a faint and dull image niagne . The magnet being taken the band-spectrum alone was to be seen.

5 millims. A piece of heavy yellow-tinted glass was selected. oval in shape. in the cleaned. XVII. EFFECT OF MAGNET ON A CAPILLAET GLASS TUBE. Action of Magnet on a bar of heavy glass. taper and spirit-lamp flames. 1 . room conveying The flame was small and steadily. (2) no efiect at all was produced flame. The capillary portion of a Geissler tube was cut away from the bulbs. with a Nicol prism at one end. by 4 millims. A spirit-lamp flame was tried with a similar result. curve. wide. conical ends The flame was 20 millims. be seen on the flame. 8 millims. No effect on magnet. and 8 millimetres square. being a bar 10 centi- Heavy glass metres in length. slightly drawn towards one pole with an piece of quill glass tubing inclination to form the magnetic Flame between poles of magnet. still no efiect was pro- duced on the flame. high. A small taper-flame was placed between the poles of the magnet " : no Effect oji was produced. across. in diameter and off" Quill gla&s 1 millim. no effect could No effect on . except that the flame gave a slight " jump each time the magnet was excited. (6) eff"ect the flame.) capillary tube The was placed between the poles of the excited . and connected by a small vulcanite tube with the gas-pipe coal-gas at ordinary pressure. (5) A was selected. thick. and burnt quite Capillary portion of a Geissler tube tested ia three (Plate ways. On being placed (1) between the and (2) between the flat ends of the armatures.' The tube was placed so that the straight sides of the armatures compressed it between them still no effect took place on the flame. (1) fig. high.EFFECT OF MAGNET ON A CAPILLARY GLASS TUBE. and somewhat lambent. almost. and 5 millims. but not quite. 147 CHAPTER XV. touching them on the flame. The tube was placed so that the conical ends of the armatures were it allowed to compress the centre of between them . This was mounted in a frame ^o„^i^ described. and the tubing connected as before. and drawn out to a point. It was (4) The flame itself was placed between the poles of the magnet (3) . the end of which was snapped tubing tested. and a double-image prism (next the eye) at the other. 13.

effect (if any) was slight. It (4 a) Experiment No.) Placed along the poles of the magnet and the magnet excited. On exciting the magnet the faint image at once conspicuously brightened. (i. (5) The apparatus was now changed for one .148 Placed along poles of MAGNETO-ELECTEIC EXPEEIMENTS. Effect on (2) Using a tourmaline as analyzer in lieu of the double-image prism. Eff'ect with the double-image prism. The glass bar (1) and mounting were placed upon and along the poles of magnetic curves). a biquartz was intro- with the halves horizontal tint of another Nicol prism. 4). it seemed necessary have good pressure-contact between the battery-wires and the binding- screws. which occupied the centre of (3) when the flame was obscured. at the same time assuming a slightly green tinge. flat The bar and prism being placed in the same position between the efi'ect ends of the armatures. XVII. and the was thought that on excitation . a change not so marked as Change halves. flat ends of the armatures (as in experiment No. to To get full effect of brightening. fig. 2. 4 was repeated. : conical ends of the armatures. by rotation of the prism. duced when a hiquartz 1.) Placed across seen. the using a tourmaline as analyzer. in of tint was seen in both halves of the biquartz. of the following arrangement: the glass bar. candle-flame was seen alternately brightened and darkened. excitation of the magnet caused the field Bar placed at right to brighten strongly. as nearly as possible extinguished (Plate magnet on candleimages. the slightly purple-reddish tint of the colour of the upper half passing into a full purple. (4) upon magnet no at all eff'ect at all was produced. The neutral-passage duced. 4. This effect was accompanied by the apparent removal of a dusky red patch or spot. instead of along. of the magnet the secondary image slightly brightened but there was a doubt about Effects pro- it. as the tounnaline was rotated . 3. but at right angles to. a rotating Nicol prism next the eye. OD second experiment. Effect of the magnet (in the direction of the prism and Nicol were so adjusted that two images of a candle were seen the one below bright and normal. the one above. the biquartz was found to be rather green (from mixture with the yellow of the glass). 4) no eff'ect was . the poles. and the double-image magnet. (ii. The bar of glass and double-image prism being placed between excitation of the the augles to the poles no effect produced. and when the image was obscured by it rotation. no Slight effect was produced.

and. The result gave a complete spiral of stratified condensed light within the tube. were presumed to contain rarefied air in contact with the salts. (1) tube described. or S. filled with bright. of the same bore throughout. as fig. In the interval between these the stream was driven upwards.] light. The tube was which. steady. rosy light. tion in small tubes and showing phosphorescent series . effects. it flickered. This stratification was effect very close and fine. seemed to incline to a continuous spiral (Plate X. fig. with very slight indications of (2) armatures. containing of strontium and calcium. but at either end sideways. of equal calibre. On excitation of the magnet (the tube having been placed vertically between the conical armatures). the stratification showing itself more distinctly glow of light became less dense (Plate XVIII. to the poles. These tubes were arranged in single arranged in series. [With the small coil this tube showed only a flickering stream of stratification. wide air.EFFECT OF MAGNET ON WIDE AIE (AUEOEA)-TUBE. 4). 149 CHAPTER A XVI. five The current from the large coil was sent through a set of salts small French Stratifica- vacuum-tubes. LAKGE.tube was tried. and extended nearly throughout the tube. 3). EFFECT OF MAGNET ON WIDE AIE (AUEOEA) TUBE. The stream of was driven away at right angles and changed from side to side of the tube with the direction of the current. it This line or stream ex- between conical ar- panded into an elongated funnel-shape as as the light retreated from this centre towards matures. x2 I . and with straight platinum electrodes. (Plate XVIII. the glow was condensed into a bright solid line or stream of light at the point Magnet when tube placed verti»lly which lay directly between the poles. was N. and beautiful stratification. The tube was placed horizontally between the conical ends of the The condensed stratified stream of light flew upwards and down- Effect when tube placed horizontally wards (according to direction of current) instead of to the respective sides of the tube. it was 14^ inches long by 1 inch in dia- Wide air- meter. from the colour of the glow-discharge. 8). the extremities of the tube. Tube placed along the poles of the magnet. The tube was placed along the poles of the magnet. Note on Stratification. To excite it the larger coil was used. (3) between the armatures. right or left according to whether the pole fig.

spreading up to the ring. 2 and 4 also showed stratification. light from the positive an instantaneous change took place. which stretched between the poles of the magnet. Pliicker njr-tube. on glow de- while the straight wire gave forth a faint salmon-coloured stream of light. difi'used stream of light. 3) tube. Effect on became very brilliant (the sides of the tube being left proportionately free from light). was moved upwards. Moving the tube a short distance from the pole had the effect of rendering the arc more Direction of the current diffuse. contrariwise could be selected. Effect of On excitation of the magnet. and These effects are off. brilliant narrow arc. Effect of Magnet on Plucker {Air-) Tube. was simultaneously gathered into a across fig. with- changed. The steady. and crossing it were a set of bands. The whole of the negative violet glow also The stream negative violet glow. pole contracted itself. 1. showed no stratification at all. 1. 1 while the outcurrent was and 5. Lighting-up described. . or striae. tubular. the tube glowed with a perfectly steady and quiescent light. the straight electrode for the negative. A Tubes Nos. curved towards the zenith. The stream of it magnet ou the positivepole stream. and. (2) The direction of the current in the tube was then changed . strong coarse stratification was seen in the central (No. Nos. but in a less degree side tubes. so that it became of a long funnel-shape (the ring tapered almost to a point where forming the mouth of the funnel). shown on Plate V. which met the glow as it approached the negative pole. coil. The edges of the arc were remarkably sharp and well defined. salmon-coloured. having a waving or vibratory motion. while the ring let fall a faint. while it met the violet glow. in which the edges of the arc were nearly parallel. if downwards. and these efiects did not fluctuate. out the -magnet. the arc . (1) A Plucker air-tube was selected of the form shown on Plate V. Effects scribed. light followed the magnetic curves. and was excited by the small The ring was used for the positive pole. extending itself and being gradually violet from the wire. the armatures being almost in contact with the sides of the tube around the negative pole.150 MAGNETO-ELECTRIC EXPEKIMENTS. The tube was then placed vertically between the poles of the electro-magnet. The negative electrode was sur- rounded by the usual bright lost at a short distance violet glow. fig. When lighted up. with no surrounding aura or shading Arc of light By moving the tube between the armatures If the tube it was seen that the arc of and a middle position followed the magnetic curves. the ring electrode was surrounded by a diffused violet glow. but not of otherwise altering its character. .

as in the other experiments. which increased in size as they pole. but an illustration from a sketch made of fig. 151 Magnet efEecto de- by the magnet (the positive pole being now placed between the armatures). but never actually came in contact this brilliant stream of rings pole described. the Effects on rings ran back in succession to the positive pole and disappeared. which appeared and expanded under its Shape of rings described. which terminated the positive pole duced. the magnetic influence. the violet glow was Negative pole placed vertically contracted into a small upright brush or column of bright light. On excitation. the violet glow. The stream from was very considerably brightened. given on Plate XVII. along one side of the tube. the violet glow of the negative pole contracted into a compact mass round the ring electrode. From at the the negative (straight electrode) pole sprang a dense and compact Effects pro- arc of violet light. in the direction of the magnetic curves. They were accompanied by a waving or vibratory motion. would have followed the curves to the opposite pole. in a A single bright ray was also seen running from somewhat transverse course. On negative sprang a set of bright saddle-shaped rings. each pole. the respective electrodes being above across poles of magnet. All this the tube (3) is to describe . and by rings of making and breaking contact they were caused to advance and retire at will. but were removal. were apparently flat if to say. The same Pliicker tube was laid horizontally across the poles of the Tube laid horizontally electro-magnet (without armatures). so that was not excited. but did not . but like a figure of 8 when viewed is difficult sideways. but which. UingH from pOKitivtj the negative pole. if prolonged. At the same time from the positive pole excitation On scribed. striae making and breaking contact or bands mentioned as seen when bril- with magnet. it When wire-contact with the magnet ceased. The general appearance was that of a hollow cone of light (the base towards the negative pole). closely approached with. and spreading upwards with a rapid but smooth motion towards to. and were evidently of the same character as the smaller the ring formed the positive pole. the positive wire. upper circumference of the tube. composed of liant rings with dark spaces between. The negative pole (straight electrode) was then placed vertically on one of the poles of the electro-magnet. slightly lighted. advanced . they looked at from above. 2. with a slight inclination to curvature. The positive end of the tube was otherwise but and the sudden appearance of of light was very striking. The shaped. and contracted and disappeared on rings did not appear to be flat disks. the peak of the saddle forming a kind of brilliant point or apex.EFFECT OF MAGNET ON PLUCKER (A1B-) TUBE. (4) on the magnet. that is somewhat curved or saddleThey reminded one much of the diatom Campylodiscus spiralis.

) In the central partition. Plate XVII. communicating with the central portion by a narrow neck or constric- Lighting-up described. Effect of Magnet on Pliicker Tube (Tin Chloride). with very slight traces of the yellow and red. Without the magnet a faint continuous spectrum. assumed that of a bright steady continuous glow. left this and ran along one side of the whole length of the wire. but distinct and well-marked. Spectrum) described. 3. In the positive bulb the stream. at the same time a peculiar ring with a pattering. much changed. 3. as of a miniature hail-storm within the tube. which shone out Peculiar noise within the tube. mainly of the blue and green. 2 seems in result very like that of Gassiot's with his grand those obtained by Gassiot. fig. Effects like One might. side of the tube .) shown by dotted light Effects of At the two necks or constrictions the stream of was perceptibly brightened. but number of In the central partition of the tube in the negative bulb. fig. 3. battery and the Eoyal Institution magnet. instead of joining the point of the electrode.) (See effect. same time glowing with an aura of amber(See Plate XVII. where the narrow stream of light is lines. It appear in the form of rings or waves. bulbs where the stream was bright. at each tube (tin chloride). and changed from side to side of the tube as the direction of the current from the coil was varied. The spectroscope was applied to the neck of one of the Without magnet. which had a bulb attached coil. fig. conjecture the spiral-shaped glow to be a ring of light extended Experiment No. the stream in the positive bulb was not only slightly bent. from point to point of the electrodes. On connexion with the small a narrow stream of pale diffused cobalt-blue light ran along the whole tube. end. indeed. Pliicker A large Pliicker tube tion. < among them made was it as the whole vibrated against the slightly metallic tinkle. When and magnet upon the stream. and at the same time bent or forced against the (See Plate sides of the tube. was seen. the magnet was connected. five or six faint but sharp and metallic-looking .152 MAGNETO-ELECTEIC EXPEEIMENTS. This form of discharge seems connected 2. the effects (though of course upon a smaller scale) being similar to those obtained by him. the blue streamlets were accompanied by a number of spark-like threads of golden light. was examined. which formed round the tube a not perfectly continuous. the stream of light was broken and split into a smaller streams. Upon this. The direction of the bending or deflection of the stream at right angles to the axis of the poles of the magnet. with the peculiar contour of the rings mentioned in experiment or drawn out towards the negative pole. the positive wire at the yellow light. spiral. XVII.

and metallic-looking faint misty one. lose a great deal of its conducting-power. purchased of Mr. fig 12. at the junction of the negative bulb There was an amber glow part. colour. brightening only best. CI4. scribed. strong. Brown- This lighted up like the former tube. with threads of light ran through the bulbs. when made still to work its While in this condition. When first excited by the small around the spark passed freely. We subsequently ing.) After a short time the tube seemed to bulb. the spectrum was a continuous bright lines of tin occasionally flashing up. the continuous spectrum was clearer. but in the of a purple Spiral permanent and steady cloud-like spiral. the magnet (which had been previously dis- connected) was excited. to brighten up the tube as at first. might have happened to the conducting-coil wires but repeated trials satisfied us that the effect was due to the magnetic influence alone. which adjoined the capillary tube tried. made. (See Plate XVII. These lines were measured with a mi- crometer . On each excitation of the magnet the same brightening of the lines took place. tried another tin-chloride tube. On the magnet being excited. blue being especially conspicuous. the tube distinctly and permanently brightened up throughout. . The glow in the bulbs was of a Geissler tube. marked Sn coil. Glow described. . made its appearance. and lasted while the tube was under the magnetic formed positive in influence. the effect change in being very marked. Effect of the magnet. at once Spectrum described. 8n Cl„ examined. the tin lines shone out bright. not changed but the sharp lines shone out brighter and one in the magnet excited. so that we had no Another tinchloride opportunity to renew the experiments. The negative bulb was not much changed positive bulb a curious in appearance . . and clear upon a black background. Efforts were and battery. We then examined a Geissler tube. At the same time a percep- tible pattering ringing noise was heard in the tube." they were easily recognized to be those of tin. and their places being compared with Lecoq de Boisbaudran's " Spectres lumineux. employed. tube extinguished. light purple tint it. shining in Glow in At first it was thought some accident . but brighter. by looking to the but they quite failed conducting qualities.EFFECT OF MAGNET ON TIN-CHLOBIDE TUBE. the positive electrode had a bright yellow glow Glow de- The capillary stream was of a sharp green-yellow. With the magnet. This was lost on putting on the magnet. lines 153 With the were seen. Effect of Magnet on Tin-Chloride Geissler Tube. and to light up in a feeble and the coil was intermittent manner. . Without the magnet. and it was evident some change had taken place in its coil This tube was accidentally broken. diffused. at times When the magnet was first brightening up to a metallic-looking green. and at once what moderate glow was the tube was totally extinguished.

Efiects in bulbs on lighting-up the tube (1) We We compared the large tube with a SO3 Geissler tube. bulb still remained transparent. The spectrum of the bulb-glow flash- was a Glow when discharge stopped. with a bright.154 MAGNETO-ELECTRIC EXPEEIMENTS. said to be filled with anhydrous sulphurous-acid gas (SOj). and so dying out.glow restored by passing of current. This glow gradually faded out. grey-green light. however. (See coil. lighted up the Browning tube with the filled large coil. eff"ect. The negative-pole bulb all. The current was then sent through reversed. When the discharge was stopped. was only restored after a certain amount of continuance of the positive stream. the tube glowed with a moderately bright. Spectrum described. John Beowning kindly lent Plate me a large phosphorescent tube with five bulbs. On once more reversing the current. while the bulbs glowed with a more opaque blue-tinted The spectrum of the tubular part was found to agree exactly with the principal bright band seen in a SO3 Geissler tube. Large phosphorescent bulbed tube. Mr. by the passing of the current for a few seconds only^through the tube. so as to throw the negative glow for a few seconds into the positivfe bulb. on suddenly stopping the current. Comparison with SO3 Geissler tube. tive described. by means of a slit. Effects of reversal of When the current was reversed. negative bulb was always the least with the blue opaque vapour. bulb by bulb. at times was. although the positive opaque glow had (presumably) been thrown into When the after-glow had quite disappeared in the bulbs. (3) Effect ot reversal of one). with bright bands or lines faintly still ing up at times. 1. described. always commencing with the bulb forming the negative or violet pole. so that the negative and posithe negative glow changed places.) This tube lighted up beautifully with the large of it were filled The connecting tubular parts rosy light . and the other bulbs increased in vapour-density in the order they approached towards the positive bulb. it pole glow. After. hardly lighted at the other bulbs being luminous. XVIII. The The Geissler showed no after-glow. CHAPTER XVII. fig. the current. (2) with the result before detailed. beaded. and the four bulbs (other than the negative upon stopping the current. glowed strongly. it. comparison-prism on the tube. . towards the positive pole. it was again strongly restored. Ligbting-up described. EFFECT OF MAGNET ON BTJLBED PHOSPHORESCENT TUBE. opaque. transparent. The tube was well excited. current on positive- The after-glow in the positive bulb was at once extinguished. faint green-blue continuous oiie.

Plate XV PHOSPHORESCENT TUBE. SCHUSTERS OXYGEN TUBE. rrr f\ v/i^M CY r^rst r .

.

This was done. when the current was stopped. fig.on of the cun-ent several times and then stopping it. and earlier than in ordinary cases (nearly as soon as No. and excited the magnet. (a) when the current was passing. The negative glow contracted itself into a condensed violet-tmted crescent.EFFECT OF MAGNET ON BULBED PH0SPH0EE8CENT TUBE. which flew to either (see Plate XVIII. The tube was arranged with one of the bulbs between the poles of the . snbdumg the stratification. and in the second case the after-glow disappeared in a proportionately shorter time the heated bulb than in the others.'-T' the bulb influenced by the magnet. either when the current was passing or in the case of the after-glow. and also glowed. and (b) when it was stopped and the glow only was in the bulb. The action of the magnet seemed 2). 4 Effect of m magnet on glow in bulb No. and also of ether and water-spray mixed. (6) a. negative glow was thrown into the positive bulb "' '' ^'^^ ^'^'^^ ''^^*^^ -Pi'^ly ^^banging the d ct.?. We placed the negative-pole bulb between the conical points of the armatures. In the first case the bulb A moderate heat Effect of heat on the bulbs. c. the three central bulbs alone had an after-glow. to be exercised (stratified) character. 165 E£fectof change of current on the three central bullm. The bulbs were cooled until a marked cold effect to the touch was produced. did not notice any difference in the behaviour of the bulbs so treated as compared with the others. and the bulb was found to get more transparent. Other bulbs tested in similar manner. 2). from a spirit-lamp was applied to the centre bulb fa) (b) when this was stopped. ^""^ ''^'' ^"^^' ""'''' '''^'^ ^^ ^ '^'^^' "^«^°er. Effects on negative and positive glow. Bulb No. in condensed into a bright stream of light. in accord with the magnetic curves The positive glow of the same bulb lost its beaded (5) We Negativepole bulb I condensing the glow into a bright stream of over" at each extremity of the tubular joints into the bulbs-this effect extending even so far as the second bulb. In all cases *. and was between the armatures of magnet. being b both " "' equally transparent. . To test the while the current was on.V. stream. Effect of cooling by ether-spray. and the current was passed and then stopped The glow that bulb faded away out of its order. was found perceptibly fainter in after-glow. 4. the two extreme ones havbg none. and forcing the latter to "tail side of the bulb. 1) was placed between the poles of the excited magnet. The time during which the Ir "7T (4) m result of cooling the bulbs the negative-pole bulb and also the central one were each subjected to the' action of ether-spray. When the positive bulb was placed between the poles of the magnet the glow was simply condensed into a bright stratified light. which latter protruded from the small inner ube and formed a spreading spiral set of cloud-rings within the bulb (see Plate XVIII. fig.

it slightly green-white glow . Effect of Magnet on small Phosphorescent {powder) Tubes. Tubes containing phosphorescent We examined six vacuum-tubes containing phosphorescent powders. jaune. When the current was . Mr. We tried it this several times. The first-mentioned tube latter suball shone with a white and bright stance. Any colours beyond these in the tubes seemed to depend on the powders enclosed in them. They were of thin glass. and had no label were 7J inches long and | inch in diameter. and the after-glow excited. Mr. ments on action of Thompson. S. of Bristol. ting cause had ceased. or after passing of the electric current over them. in which. described. light. they lighted up with a brilliant. Calcium orange. obtained.156 unexcited magnet Efieet of . mena observed. magnet upon the after-glow itself. MAGNETO-ELECTEIC EXPEEIMENTS. under its and the bulb became transparent. Note. the after-glow in the bulb. upon exposure to sunlight and removal to the dark. perceptibly sooner than under ordinary circumstances. Lighting-up of the tubes The powders in tubes of this description are said to contain either sulphide of strontium. faded out . however. continued to glow in the tubes after the exci- powders described. the current was passed and stopped. or calcium. may be mentioned that Mr. and probably contained the The Under a general efieet of the current on the tubes was similar in sufficiently strong current. „ vert-bleuatre. with the same result in each case. violet. Ladd has suggested to pole me that some of the phenomena produced indi- cate a driving of the gas in the direction from the negative to the positive —a theory which is supported by the action of the magnet on the bulbs. or sulphate of quinine. if this be considered a repulsive one as regards the gas influenced. and of equal calibre throughout. is reported to have studied the action of magnetism upon rings of coloured liquid projected through water. and were labelled inches long Strontium „ vert. was possible to detect a delicate rosy tint. The magnet being then quickly influence. which. P. Ladd's explanation of some of the pheno- Mr. Thompson's experi- —In relation to these experiments. by looking sideways. and to have observed their retardation magnets upon liquid and partial destruction in passing through a powerful mag- netic field. cases. One was the other respectively : 6|^ five and f inch in diameter.

so. Strontium jaune and calcium orange were not alike. Magnet effect the upper side of the tube while the glow in the tube generally became very on glow. In all cases. the spectrum. Spectrum without magnet. considered to be N. Calcium orange and calcium the two strontium tubes hardly violet. end of a glass rod. With the magnet excited. without the magnet. the rarefied gas or air in the tubes not giving any after-glow. were common to all the tubes. were only seen faintly upon the continuous In order not to shift the powders. in company with the usual bright t2 . the tubes were laid horizontally. as the f-diameter tube was to entirely suppress Effect of in the case of the sulphurous-acid tube. as to character.EFFECT OF MAGNET ON PHOSPHORESCENT TUBES. which we were also Tubes examined and compared for spectra. compared for spectra. were identical but with strontium vert a bright continuous spectrum mainly hid the calcium violet differed. the powders alone glowed in accordance with the colours mentioned on the labels. continuous glow became much fainter. considered alike . The spectrum also was much changed. the glow was very circuit. except at the electrodes. The vacuum-tubes employed were examined in the usual way. was bright and continuous. the larger either coil. not so constant. The (1) large coil was used. decidedly fainter. the effect of the magnet was ma^et on |-dianieter and extinguish the glow. When this and the other tubes were worked with extending through tube. . and the spectrum. One wire only connected with an elec- trode. — With both wires. and many sharp and fairly bright lines were seen upon it. faint as compared with that of the closed Ether Vapour. The bright Same on spectrum. Hydrogen (F) was. strontium vert and Calcium orange and calcium vert-bleuatre were but the comparison was not easy. without the magnet. Some lines remarked as being. When excited by the small coil. however. but one wire The other wire was attached to the only was connected with an electrode. lines or else very faint traces of them. with the one wire. and. as the calcium vert lines was bright. a bright line of pink light was condensed against . lines. which stiU preserved a certain amount of brilliancy. and circuit was from time to time completed while the tube was before the spectroscope. These lines were. plainly distinguished and other lines. lAghting-up Tubes with One Wire only [Marquis of Salisbury's Observations). and two spectra simultaneously examined across the tubes. 167 stopped. showing no the whole range of colours was brightest in and about the green. not easy to recognize.

H lines. were portion. — Only N a marked reduction in brilliancy the whole spectrum. the Water-gas. Hydrogen. (4) much fainter with one wire. —An impure tube. H lines were left With the one wire only. but the H lines more of Hydrogen. though originally stronger than the but we thought we could of carbon bands. (2) Coal-gas. bands of the carbon spectrum. quite disappeared from the spectrum. the carbon bands were with both sides nebulous alike. (7) Turpentine Vapour. . ard H. With one wire the O lines still remained fairly bright. MAGNETO-ELECTEIC EXPEEIMENTS. and with no shading-off towards the violet. and H being only faintly seen. shading-ofF towards the violet. the very sharp and faintly shining. H (also seen in the so in pro- tube). —The same —The N effects were produced . and H spectra Water-gas. Oxygen.158 Ether vapour. Coal-gas. effect. lines hydrocarbon V). brilliant. N. showing O (some of the simultaneously. —Same effect as ether. but the H lines could be faintly seen. (We were not quite sure whether this was not the effect of the reduction of the light.) The H lines. detect very faint traces of the Nitrogen. (6) —Same Turpentine vapour. lines. N (5) Oxygen. as well as those (3) Nitrogen.

a thin rosy-tinted half-disk of aura-like flame. on the other electrode. of the aura was changed when the current was to reversed. This extended aura ran considerably along each electrode. so was very short indeed. The aura was somewhat In the first case. close that the spark Even when the electrodes were approached still. A spark from the coil was passed between two platinum wire electrodes. Reversing the thin and disk- The aura was uniformly in shape (see Plate and the curved edge remarkably true lateral direction XVII. The magnet was coil 1. uniform. When the electrodes were approached. which Spark and aura described. bright thread of the spark did not change but instead of the inconsiderable maguet upon the aura. 159 CHAPTER XVIII. Aura not proportionate to length of spark. struck 5). it Upon working the coil-break. under the magnetic influence. still though the spark proper other. across from the extreme points of the electrodes 2. fig. like. the action in both cases being strong. The 3. ACTION OF THE MAGNET ON THE ELECTEIC SPARK. The spark always (see Plate XVII. The aura was found not still proportionate the length of the spark. the aura sprang out to a distance and extent quite out of proportion to the length of the spark. diffuse. about three centimetres apart. in proportion as the a very considerable aura 4. accompanied the spark in all its movements. illuminated points. there now struck out. fig. around which was seen a narrow. EfEect of On being placed between the conical poles of the excited magnet the . tint.ACTION OF THE MAGNET ON THE ELECTfilC SPAKK. at right angles to the magnet-poles. larger in extent it upon one electrode than on the sprang from a considerable number of minute Rxtended aura described. yellow-tinted aura. struck from the points. It consisted centrally of a thin stream of bluish-white light. vividly bright. made its appearance. and the larger with the other two plates. these illuminated points were fewer in number. yellow-tinted aura which accompanied the unmagnetized spark. was found that contact screw was drawn apart from the break. Apparatus employed. so as to very much shorten the spark. so the aura gradually . excited with two plates of the large battery. and the flame was more purple in current these effects were reversed. 6).

Magnet had no effect upon condensed spark. also slightly curved The spark was fig. diminished in extent. The aura. causing a sharp brilliant blue-white spark. until at by continuing to increase the distance working coilbreak upon the aura. appearance. 7). assumed the shape of a flickering tongued curtain of flame. the inequality at the poles. the convex edge of the aura perfect. with the same 6. 5. . A condenser of four coated plates was introduced into the circuit. Upon the screw being worked its thicker sparks passed. a point was reached when thin bright sparks. away from the electrodes (see Plate XVII. passed. could be blown away it at right angles to the away from the spark. so as to carry the spark at right angles to the poles. open air. apparently divided into streams and with no aura. As the spark was central position between the less withdrawing spark from central position between poles of the magnet. When strongly urged. Aura could be blown 7. last. passed along the poles (in the same direction as the heavy glass was laid in the Faraday experiment). and again returning to original shape as the impulse was removed. The spark was taken in a glass bulb. fig. the tube in effect as in the which it was blown being open at both ends. Effect of 8. No The points were then moved round. 9. between the screw and the break. Spark taken in glass bulb. times amounting almost to jets or flickering sprays of light.160 Effect of MAGNETO-ELECTEIC EXPEEIMENTS. As the aura diminished in size gradually changed in tint from yellowish rose- pink to purple. A plate of glass was laid on the poles of the magnet. it was found. and the spark was aura was formed. without any aura. The magnet had no efiect whatever upon this form of spark.8)- The spark proper was not withdrawn from its influenced (see Plate XVII. and the aura was formed as before. became gradually and assumed a ragged and broken-up appearance. spark. flying away in the contrary direction to that from its which the current of air proceeded. and the aura again made it up closer.

but weaker and more diffused. VESSELS. A Tate's air-pump was used. a number of bright. From the negative terminal sprang a larger . XVIII. receiver was used. the stream as rapidly retreated to the centre of the plate again — this effect being from time to time repeated while the current was passing. Where each stream touched the plate a brilliant point of light appeared. First striking the central part of the plate. the stream then glided towards one of the lateral terminals. 161 CHAPTER XIX. sharp. in a slight misty aura. THE DISCHARGE IN VACUO IN LARGER AND MAGNETIC EFFECTS THEREON. 9). XVIII. striking in zigzags across the receiver. also at the top. the effect was much the same as in the last case. number of bluer and more Both sets diflfuse streams of light. in lieu of Bell-shaped receiver electrodes forming a direct these. ceeded long. and a strong pattering noise was heard in the receiver. from the positive electrode pro- Discharge described. without electrodes. G). having brass caps for exhaustion. This had no but. rosy sparks. from the larger coil. and platinum wires passing through the opposite sides for electrodes (see Plate described. like spiders' webs and these were enveloped. with a tendency to fly off from where they struck. After partly discharging itself by contact with the terminal. played round the sides of the glass as well as across. and so to the edge of the receiver. for a short I distance from the terminal. Discbarge described. (2) A bell-shaped receiver. streams of light had the appearance of shooting from the upper electrode. in a similar manner to the single stream before described. two wafers of thin sheet brass were cemented. communication with the interior . (3) Another bell-shaped receiver of similar shape was used. When the side terminals were employed. The current being reversed. and the spark far. With partial exhaustion. fig. When the top terminal was used for one wire (the other wire being connected with the pump-plate) a single stream of bright rosy light ran from the upper terminal to the plate.THE DISCHARGE IN VACUO IN LARGER VESSELS. and of striking plate upon the below . The Globular receiver exhaustion could not be carried very (1) A globular fig. one inside and one out- . with was next used terminals inserted at the sides and one (see Plate Bell-shaped receiver described. bright.

The effects were similar in most respects to those produced in the globular and bell receivers. first (d) When exhaustion was commenced. Globular receiver (6) The globular receiver first described was again used (the Tate easier). the spark struck across in a single. but fainter in quality. sation of the streams of light towards the sides of the glass. to distinguish the poles apart. having been cleaned and working (a) When exhaustion was as good as could be got. fig. light spread A set of faint whity-blue all from the electrode over the receiver. (l) Positive The positive wire only was attached one electrode. effect The spaces between these were dark. The electrodes had but little glow round them. an aura or glow of similar from the electrode over no doubt have Effect of light. and there was no aura —the being similar. MAGKETO-ELECTEIC EXPEEIMENTS. (both wires being connected) threw out spider-web-like streams. The main effect was a straight nebulous stream of violet light. having a tendency to curve Phosphorescent afterglow succeeding the spark. but the streams of light assumed a distinctly Spiral form spiral form in their passage (see Plate XVIII. When the flow of the stream was interrupted by breaking contact with one terminal. fig. the negative cobweb-looking streams of wire only attached. at the same time. those in the cases where direct communication with the interior of the receiver was made. we thought we to detected a faint blue phosphorescent after-glow succeeding each spark. point electrodes respectively. opposite to On connexion being made with the to. filled a small flask (see Plate XVIII. 5). being unconnected. while the rosy flickering ones diminished in quantity and extent until ultimately a . and the current passed through it. as when both wires Avere attached (see Plate Negative wire only attached. or only shot out very occasionally. between the poles of the magnet showed no effect. side the glass. was exhausted. Long large (4) A large tube. out in a fan-shape towards the lower brass cap of the receiver . stream of rosy light. the effects produced by induction were similar and very nearly as strong as. which commenced at the electrode and spread (c) The negative wire only was attached. slightly expanded. fig. with ball and tube exhausted and illuminated. This tube Svhen placed except a slight conden- of discharge. outside wafer. XVIII. As the exhaustion progressed the pale-blue streams disappeared. it pump again used. 24 inches long and 2 inches in diameter. 6). spread This aura would at least one half of the receiver. but not quite so bright and pronounced."'pale blue from the one pole and somewhat rosy from the other. one another. 8). both electrodes of the receiver gradual exhaustion on the discharge. having a vibratory motion. fig.162 Induction discharge described. upwards (see Plate XVIII. as in Experi- ment l. The cobweb streams were absent. 7). while. only just enough so that sparks passed in succession.

at the connected electrode. Discharge in watervapour described. to split it up into several but this appearance must have been due to vibra- Magnet effect. without the magnet. with similar results. and the negative wire only was connected with the straight electrode. The anhydride having been washed out. The . first with plain and afterwards with distilled water. and the whole stream became (/") Single wires steadier. tion only. and another.THE DISCIIAEGE IN VACUO IN LAEGEB VESSELS. When the current was reversed. but rather fainter. On exhaustion a vapour-cloud was formed. The cobweb streamers and violet glow each receiver appeared according to which wire was connected. The globular it and had some phosphoric anhydride shaken into was then exhausted. effect of the magnet on the stream was apparently magnet. Experiment 5 Upon single admitting the air. the intermediate space being filled with a salmon-coloured light. A pale violet glow was seen round this electrode. these effects took place in an inverse order —the stream being gradually broken up. glow of a similar description at the ring electrode. treated with phosphoric anhydride. The connecting salmon-coloured Globular receiver glow was (8 a) it . faint. was somewhat flickering and vibrating. the violet Reversing the glow still remained at each electrode. a violet glow appeared tube substituted. the negative electrode was on the left hand. current. and the spider-webs taking ifi) its place. and the discharge passed this. with very Geissler much the same result. Whichever wire was attached. between the receiver with the anhydride and without except that in the former case the streamers and glow were reduced in extent and strength. single rosy stream of light crossed the receiver as in 163 a. these.tube (Plate XVII. Single wires attached. and a fainter one of the same character at the other. the stream which. with the stream at right angles to them. and the cobweb streamers and glow before described obtained. Pliicker tube placed between poles of magnet with negative wire only attached. and the placed on poles of the positive on the right. Globular receiver The exhausted globular receiver was placed upon the poles of the Looking across the excited magnet. This violet glow was condensed into an arc by the action of the magnet. S. and the magnet influenced both. The Pliicker air. (both terminals being connected with the coil) through The rosy stream . were successively attached to the negative and positive poles. to The magnet was found (6) have no decided effect on either of fig. An air Geissler tube was substituted for the Pliicker tube. difference There was no marked . and that between still the poles of the magnet was (7) influenced into an arc. pole of the magnet. some drops of the latter were allowed to remain in the receiver. slightly straightened at the positive pole. as a revolving mirror showed the stream as single. 2) was placed between the poles of the magnet. and were comparatively (ft) faint.

was next . but as The stream was not steady and had a tendency to positive. poles. attaching an electrode within. 11x8 inches. Keceiver exhausted and stream of light formed. stream ran in a rotate. receiver and described. These were. and S. armature removed. and in the centre ground only round the edge (in order to take two disks of soft iron. As the of light was formed as usual. curve towards the to the right. a violet glow space then mtervenmg. the rosy strea«i bright and sharp as the receiver. A in contact. but in a rather strong the movement was N. the glow and streamers from It was used. When one wire only was conan inch broad. with a smaU undischarge became a rosy slightly-diffused negative pole. Vibrating stream. in others the magnetic poles. the stream was violently side according to the direction of the with a vibrating movement to either When the wire was positive the movement was towards the left. where the usual violet illuminated space between it and the 11). nected. the receiver). and a binding-screw for small brass plate carrying a tap The receiver and closed the receiver at top. magnet-poles. corresponding in of this brass plate were inserted . disks alone were used as the With the apparatus arranged as shown (a) Effect on same when magnet excited. A small uniUuminated which latter was curve between the wire and the armature. Large plate bell- and nebulous but were faint and broad while some diffused from pole to pole. the which was negative. and the cobweb streams exhaustion was lessened. this was better observed with the disks only. running (slightly bent) them. it is described further on. In some were placed within the receiver. When this plate glow appeared round the wire. The vibrating motion was very distinct. experiments This stream of light was used for the cases the conical armatures after detailed. projected at right angles to the was excited.3^64 MAGNETO-ELECTEIC EXPERIMENTS. pole. fig. the poles and disks were became N. When the wire was negative pole. Experiments with the conical The conical armature within the aUowed to connect with the centre of (b) receiver was removed. Ladd electro-magnet (see Plate XVIII. the top. and the stream When the magnet the pump-plate. and the disks and exhaust-tube. was placed on the magnet. and from i to f of streams of light. and appeared round the end of the wire the magnet excited. however. but was disappeared. current. and gave the appearance . also carrying a ground edge. bell-shaped receiver. the former was exhausted until the plate being placed on the stream of hght. more flickering and unsteady. with a ehght inclination towards the N. 10. not so began to fill in a dry receiver. usual and had a small opening at open at the bottom. were intermixed with the electrode were very faint. (9) A large the position and size with the poles of fig. which was ground as A solid brass plate was prepared. poles within the receiver. on Plate XVIII.

pole. and at right angles direction. With the wire positive and the pole negative. With the wire negative and the pole positive. but not very strongly. " show no analogy to the magnetic curves. . and afterwards in the opposite In neither case was there any marked change Stream thrown across the receiver the magnet was excited. fig. whUst another stream and some cobwebs ran from each electrode to its nearest pole The streams and cobwebs flickered a good deal. (c) pole. Borealis and concludes it Flames seen by " sensitive persons. with a disposition to spiral twist in the stream (see Plate XVIII. 13). his observations as tending to would seem that the Baron considered an explanation of the Aurora Borealis. that there appeared a great probability of Aurora being visible magnetic lights. Aurorae considered to be atmosphere. above the (/) The conical armatures were placed with the pointed ends upon the disks in the receiver. too. and the stream thrown above and along them. pole. in the original work. must be similar in its nature to the flames of light seen streaming from the magnet-poles by Mdlle. Some of Baron BeichenbacKs Magnetic Researches In 1846 Dr. The drawings given of them. when the disks. There was no marked change when the magnet was excited. With the wire positive and the pole negative. pole. rotation was strongly left to right. Reichel and other sensitive patients of the Baron's.' From a paragraph smce it Gregory published an abstract of Baron Eeichenbach's Researches on Magnetism and on certain allied subjects. including a supposed W. along them. tested. The wire was next placed over the centre of the With the wire negative and the pole positive. The Baron. rotation was right to left (see 6 \ ^ Plate XVIII. ' new Imponderable. z2 . from right to left from the centre of the plate (as the hands of a watch). magnetpoles. Baron Eeichenbach's researches. across the receiver from the lateral bindingto. disk forming the S. fig. rotation of the stream was decidedly. fully describes the Aurora magnetic lights. e. (e) Same over N. It is unfortunate that these flames were only seen by certain « sensitive " persons. of six or seven streams running off at regular intervals (see Plate fig. (d) The wire was placed over the disk forming the N. and. was generally admitted that these phenomena occur within our it in this work. The stream was thrown i. 165 XVIII Botating wire over 8. 12).THE DISCHAEGE IN VACUO IN LAEGER VESSELS. screws above. 14). It diverged— one part running straight across between the electrodes. rotation of the stream was left to right.

magnet on a sensitive photographic plate. how it has been demonstrated that " bottled up " as an actinic source for a considerable period of light may it be time. seem to corroborate (to a certain extent) the statements made by the Baron in regard to the influence of the a sensi- tive photo- graphic plate. and detailed in a paper read by him before the South Loudon Photographic Society. in that used during our Having the opportunity of a powerful magnet tube-experiments. The observers were five . in a perfectly dark room. we made an attempt silently connect to detect the Baron's magnetic flames. Arrange- on or around the poles of our magnet. and disconnect the battery with the The experi- were to be Mr. ments were made to magnet. two gentlemen and three ladies. without the knowledge of any one except the operator. or discharges of light of any kind in number. MAGNETO-ELECTEIC EXPEEIMENTS. Remembering. however. seems a question whether the images obtained were not due to some such source rather than to any magnetic aura.166 Magnet tested for such flames. .Brooks's experiments ment proved a complete failure no flames seen." on action of the magnet oil Some experiments made by Mr. W. but not one of the party proved " sensitive. Brooks.

Angstrom's flask experiment tested . Marquis of Salisbury's experiments (lighting-up with one wire only) tested. • Action of magnet on glow and spectrum of Geissler gas Summary of vacuum-tubes demonstrated. Chapter RESULTS. 107 SUMMARY OF THE FOREGOING EXPERIMENTS AND THEIR Chapter XIV. Baron Reichenbach's magnetic flames tested without . formed) and positive pole (Gassiot's rings produced) demonstrated. and rotation round. menta'**'"" XV. result. Action of magnet on glow in wide air-tube demonstrated. rescent tube demonstrated rescent magnet upon glow tubes examined. and confirmatory results arrived at. (powder) magnet upon after-glow Effect of in a bulbed phosphoin small phospho. Experiments demonstrating the action vibration between. Faraday's experiment with heavy-glass bar repeated. same results not obtained unless one wire only was connected. Efi"ects of magnet on discharges in vacuo in larger vessels Chapter demonstrated. Action of magnet on glass capillary tube negatived. Chapter XVII. poles. viz.SUMMABT OF THE EXPERIMENTS. Chapter XIX. of a magnet on an electric stream. tin-chloride vacuum-tubes Effects of magnet upon glow and spectrum of Effect of demonstrated. action of magnet on negative pole Note on (arc stratification. XVII I. Chapter XVI. In Pliicker tube. Action of magnet on aura of electric spark demonstrated.

and the questions involved may perhaps be and fuller sub judice. to add an opinion to these might seem to savour of presumption better treated as still . show and character in electric how the when the discharge is interrupted and incomplete. and to examine the general to results arrived at. The contents of our volume comprise a short history of the Aurora. and as requiring further evidence before arriving at a verdict. traced between the discharge and The experiments detailed in Part II. line M. and the streamers formed when the aura is blown away from the spark (Plate XVII. the partially with- which replace the even edge of the arc when drawn from the magnetic influence. Apart from the spectroscopic questions involved. come into this respect its and a connexion. are certainly highly suggestive of frequent forms of Auroral discharge . figs. in concluding a work on a special subject. to sum up its it is contents. the oldest and most received theory of the Aurora —that of its being electric discharge in the more rarefied regions of the atmosphere. might lead one to expect results from a comparison of the air-spectrum with that of the Aurora. This. The following observations must therefore be taken rather as further notes and memoranda. SOME CONCLUDING EEMAEKS. and 8). involved in the discharge. as is probable. — seems rescence to hold its is own : and if. Lecoq de Boisbaudran's on the brightening of the red play under the influence of and the falling of the yellow-green line within a . than some form of as conclusions. . CHAPTEE XX. but for trial line and failure. In the present state of our knowledge of the subject. its qualities and spectrum . flickering jets The well-defined arc formed by the aura of the spark. though slight and imperfect. and a statement has been as to given of the several conclusions at its which various observers have arrived character and causes. as well as effect of the magnet on the on the spark in air at ordinary pressure. not easy do in the present case. and.168 CONCLUDING EEMAEKS. 6. band of phosphoretted hydrogen. 7. It is usual. tension may also considerably vary the character of the The experiments with a wire attached glow may be affected and varied in colour Diff'erences discharge. as showing the very marked rarefied glow. however. some form of phosphoobservations cold. seem to have an important bearing. may be in spectrum. to one electrode only.

effects of brightening or depressing of the spectrum are probably pro- duced in the Aurora. the bright lines more slowly than the fainter . and Kirchhoff^s observation must be remembered and —" That and thickness of if thick- ness of a film of vapour be increased." Were it possible to test with the spectroscope a cloud or film of gaseous vapour corresponding in some degree in density and thickness with an Auroral discharge. and difference in number. the same poles. The influence of the 169 magnet in exciting and brightening the glow and spectrum of one gas. and this again on resistance. as in the vacuum-tubes placed between the magnetIn the Marquis of Salisbury's observations. be borne in mind that the conditions under which we to obtain." The oxygen-spectrum. and it appearing that resistance is influenced by the magnetic action. are such as can may con- sider the Aurora be only very imperfectly imitated differ in density : in the laboratory. we might perhaps in our get nearer the truth.CONCLUDING EEMAEKS. paraffin-vapour gave lines C and H an when connected with both . of the Aurora-lines. and it is diffi- how these bands can be aptly compared with the definite. wliile it depresses trum of another gas in the and extinguishes the glow and specsame tube. too. arises from the presence in the latter of broad bands cult to understand . pole glow are not entirely corroborated by our experiments and it seems doubtful Avhether his results in the exhausted flask were not obtained from the negative pole only. and completely mask the spectra of any other gases present. the lines are increased in intensity. One great difficulty in the comparison of the Aurora- spectrum with the violet pole of air-tubes and some other spectra (including oxygen). It must. Aurorse also no doubt layer . seemed at to afford a . Vogel and others in the Aurora-spectrum. lines observed by Dr. it may happen that the specis trum appears to be totally changed when the mass of the vapour altered. Procter also small traces appropriate to themselves the whole of electrical discharges at low pressures. Intensity of lines depending on temperature. but C lines only when connected with one pole and in that case the lines were equally sharp on both sides. though faint. : remarks (as we proved magnet experiments) — " That frequently very Mr. with its possible variation by the conversion of that first gas into the allotropic condition termed ozone. su^ests an explanation of the ob- served variation in intensity. These observations (repeated in our experiments) may afford explanation why the hydrogen-lines are not seen in the Aurora-spectrum o although there can be hardly any doubt that the phenomenon usually takes place in air more or less moist. Professor Angstrom's researches on the violet. poles of the battery.

vii.170 prospect of close CONCLrDING EEMAEKS. Tubes with iron I minals are said to evolve a compound gas of opportunity to verify this. is have not had an * Dr. however. Absorption may also play an important part in the nature of the Aurora- spectrum (ZoUner's theory that the lines are really spaces between absorption bands). The red line in the Aurora has sometimes been found brighter than the green. however. is. H and Fe. it is as a rule. If nitrogen could be modified in some such it way as oxygen is converted into ozone. attributable to N. vol. dis- appeared on closer examination. proved though it The iron-spectrum. closely agree Aurora-lines. sharper and finer the Auroral though possible that these characteristics might vary ter- the spectrum were obtained in a rarefied medium. might perhaps afford another oppor- tunity for investigation but we have no evidence at present of such a change. may be connected with the lighting-up of particular different gases and do not necessarily indicate that and spectra are excited.-Schuster has found that while the line-spectrum of lightning also a band-spectrum. it If Aurorse were composed of incandescent glowing meteors. contains so as a may be many lines with the than that some may. except as varied from band to line by intensity of the discharge. not liable to alteration *. which he considers due to and a slight trace of COj Mag. a metal constituting so prominently the composition of meteorites. . (Phil. is The question of cosmic dust warrant at present its inviting. The if iron-lines are. . Most gases will give a continuous spectrum under certain circumbut the facts collated hardly stances. 5th 321). relation to the Aurora-spectrum . may be remarked. Colours of lines are functions of wave-length. which. as remarked elsewhere. to the observation that in a weak spectrum the colours lose their intensity. would be reasonable to expect to find in the spectrum the lines of iron. connexion between the iron and the Aurora-spectra suspected. subject. No . it has ser. it lines. however. is The spectrum of nitrogen usually found singularly distinct and persistent and. demonstrate that the varying colours of the Aurora parts of the spectrum. mere accidental circumstance. even at a low pressure. p. probable connexion with the Aurora. It has been suggested that the red and green may be independent spectra but the variations of tint observed in the capillary of hydrogen and other tubes according to resistance of the current.

some time readers be sky-fires. and possibly aided by observers. The singular absence of Aurorae has. been recorded. for in that direction. No observations in this direction have. if these are due be dependent on pressure. we seem to have quite failed in finding any spectrum which. It 171 may be added that the comparative faintness of the more refrangible lines of the rent. as some terized as still consider.CONCLUDING REMARKS. while their brightness or otherwise might some idea as to its density. but with sufficient means of measurement of line positions. present to posi- As the general result of spectrum work on the Aurora up to the time. a scientific mystery — The whole subject may be characwhich. we may hope some future armed with spectroscopes of large aperture and low dispersion. we may say we do not find any spectrum so nearly allied to portions even of the Aurora-spectrum. and a low temperature inconsistent with a meteoric theory Expansion of a line is recognized to and this is not contradicted by the brightness of the red and green to a phosphorescent origin. and general character of lines. and consequently the breadth of the green or red lines might indicate the height of the also give Aurora . as to lead us to conclude that we have it to discovered the true nature of one spectrum of the Aurora (supposing comprise. given no opportunity May some of my more fortunate assist to in obtaining opportunities of viewing the glorious and unravel so interesting a paradox 2a . as tion. as far as I am aware. photography. past. two or more). however. lines. Indeed. Aurora-spectrum suggests a feeble resistance to the exciting cur. intensity. may help to solve. well coincides with that of the Aurora.

.

de I'Aurore Boreale. 221.101 241 2a2 . 228 32. c.') ' Musschenbroeck. 245. 1104. e Nat. Paris. 332 1726. 1770. 1774. 1107 1719 1720. 1727.291 1781.843 319. Dell' Elettricismo Artif.346. 132.' ' vol. (Most of these are cited in the ' Edinburgh EncyclopaBdia' and the EncyclopsBdia Britannica. 126 584.307 1729.' p. p. Smith's ' Optics.APPENDICES. 150 85 474. 1734. 1754. 1101. 1731.586 1099. 1724. Phys.' par ' M. ' D'Alembert's ' Opuscules Mathematiques. 499 39. 186 1752. 334. 279 53-55 243. 41. 1764. 1750 1751. Phys. 21 180. Pages 1716 1717 406 1740 1741 368 744.' p. Beccaria. as under : Pages Vol.345. 1762. 301 108 453 137 1769. 169 300 175 128. 1723. APPENDIX A. vi. ' Instit.839. 532 128 1730. Trai. 1728. 1767. 86. Philosophical Transactions Vol. de Mairan. 69. REFERENCES TO SOME WORKS AND ESSAYS ON THE AURORA. 1736.840.47. 1721. 1753. et Hist. 1790. 479 326.

'Mem. 1747. Rozier. Americ. 1120. Trans. Prof. Miscell. 112.' 1780. 716.' No. iv. 209.' vol. 345. 'Edinburgh Astronomical Observations. 1731 . vol. xv. 404. 687. i. . 1164. p. xxxiii. cxlix.' Wiedeburg. 153. vol. Adelman. 461 (January 23. Loomis. ' ' Physikalische Theorie.' 1710. 1874. ' Opusc' vol. and No. series. cxlvi.' 4to. Marsh. 1784. 497. 423 . Fritz. Berl. ' Schwed. iv. Zehfuss. cxlvi. Mus. Phil. Von den neuesten Erklarungen des Wilke. p.' ' 1870-1877. pp. p.174 ' APPENDIX i. 206 . Pogg. i. ' Comment. 6. V.' 1710. 462. 245 B. Nature. vol. Young's ' ' Gilbert's ' Journal. 133 284. pp. cum Notis Boscovisch.' tom. 1747. viii. pp. " Geog. 1140. 153. 351. pp. ii. vol. Ital. 1874). ihid. 3rd ' Journal.. v. and ii. Silbermann. p. 121.' 1752. Observ. xv. p. Dalton's ' Meteor. p. Nocetus. Ann. p. 34. 409 vol. ' Abhandlungen." Petermann's Mitth. Oct. and vol. .' 2nd . 476. ' ' Ueber ' Jena. 117. Wismar.' Hague. 211 (Angstrom). ' 1747. tom. T. Soc. Bergman. 445-447 pp.. p. p. p. . . X. 348. ' Acta Petrop. p. Schwed. 54. English Mechanic. Acad. De Aurora Boreale. pp. xxxi. vii. die Nordlichter. Petrop. 475. Weidler. p. 85.' vol. p. 251. pp. 1049. 488. Mem. vol. 131. Berolinens. v. Sill. et Phys. 1. 1764. 28. The same. 363. p.' Cologne. Nat. 1751. p. p. de Mathemat. 1783. 324 . series.' torn. pp. ' Mem. xxxiv.' Chiminello. Mem. ' 169 1753. p. Nordlichts. . 311. (particularly) Dr. 213. . Recueil de Memoires. 1778. ' Comptes Rendus. 104. 131 . Hiipsch. A.' pp. 7. Oettingen and Vogel.' vol. Distrib.' Ixviii. p. 569. Frankfort. 272. De Iride et Aurora Boreale. 128 vol.' iii. i. xxxii. 200. Untersuchung des Nordlichts. iv. xiii. 510. 505 . pp.' vol. p. Galle and Sirks. p.' 1793.' vol. p. 126. Paris. 1771. 153. xiv. 180.' Van Swinden. ' ' Rome. Franklin's Works. p. Acad. 346. 3rd series. p. i.

is it from right to left or or sometimes one and sometimes the other. short.APPENDIX B. according to the is quarter of the heavens in which the streamer seen. Stokes. has been stated. 1875. the observer ought to note the circumstances most carefully. or partly the one and partly the other ? Do streamers. that they have sometimes been seen curved. and repeatedly. as if they sprang from them 1 Can stars be seen immediately under the base of streamers 1 Do . Sec. straight streamers start from bases so arranged that the luminosity as a whole presents the form of a curved Have the streamers any left to right. appear to have any uniform relation to clouds. EXTRACTS FROM THE MANUAL AND INSTRUCTIONS FOR THE (ENGLISH) ARCTIC EXPEDITION. Should any thing of this kind be noticed. is it that the individual streamers move sideways. however. have opportunities of confronting it with observation. and arises from the circumstance that a number of band. as is inferred from the observation that they It form arcs of great circles passing through the magnetic zenith. or other circumstances 1 Again. or whether the curvature is it is one and the same streamer that apparent only. Note on Auroral Observations. if there be lateral motion. or does some portion of a system of streamers. lateral motion ? and if so. or that fresh streamers arise to one side of the former. The frequency of the Aurora in Arctic regions affords peculiar facilities for the study of the general features of the phenomenon. He is should notice particularly whether curved.S. By Prof. the streamers are parallel to the dipping-needle. as in case the observer thinks he has perceived any law he will probably soon. : — It is well known that. B. The following points are worthy of attention Streamers. at least as a rule.

or fixed patches which become luminous. the character of it Auroral Arches. his whiskers. in rapid succession 1 and if patches. When dian 1 streamers form a corona. or to have an independent existence What relations. its character. do they grow laterally 1 and if so. foreshortened pulsations 1 ("?). brushing off spicules of ice from the neighbourhood of the person. the observer should endeavour. If sound be suspected. and 1 towards which side Do they always move from north (magnetic) to south and or if so. streamers appear to have any definite relation to mountains "i Are they ever seen betvreen the observer and a mountain. It is desirable that Observations with Sir William Thomson's electrometer would be very interesting in connexion with the Aurora. should be most carefully noted. to what kind of clouds are they related —Do pulsations travel in any invariable direction I What time do they take to get from one part of the heavens to another 1 Are they run- ning sheets of continuous light. by reference to known 'i stars) may be the breadth of the arch in different positions in its progress Do arches appear to be nothing but congeries of 'i streamers. in what manner. to observe and regard any other features which may drawings should be made of appear to be of interest. . then the circumstance of occurrence. except in such cases as definite answers can be given and the observer should keep his attention alive remarkable displays. by changing his position.176 APPENDIX B. These questions are prepared merely to lead the observer attention to various features of the to direct his phenomenon. and after a passage of the Aurora across the zenith. If ears. or by new streamers springing up to the south of the old ones? What (by estimation. Answers are not demanded. &c. or more luminous. if any. described. the observer's attention should be directed to this question when an Aurora is seen during a calm. its relation (if any) to bursts of light. is it by a southerly motion of the individual streamers. .. ] and if related. during. —Are ] arches always perpendicular to the magnetic meri- If incomplete. do these appear to be in successive streamers'? Are the same patches luminous Sotmds —As some have suspected the Aurora to be accompanied by sound. so as to appear to be projected on it ? This or any other indication of a low origin ought to be most carefully should be described. to ascertain whether it can be referred to the action of such it wind as there is it is on some part of his dress or should clearly appear that its not referable to the wind. have 1 they to clouds Pulsations. especially a comparison of the readings before.

though well known. Should any thing of the kind be observed. and an auroral arch was seen to the south. The observer may thus be led be on the look-out for a display which otherwise might have been missed. as . the whole of the circumstances ought to be carefully noted. By Prof. origin. U. diffuse . sharply defined or shaded-off) Sometimes a faint gleam of light is seen at night in the sky. the determination of the positions of which is more difficult and there are also one or more lines in the red.light from a bank of haze illuminated by the auroral arch to one side (say north) of moon. such. that the auroral light does not in all cases exhibit bright lines. though seen in the same direction. as in the former case the auroral detected by the chief bright line. There are also other bright lines of greater refrangibility. e. Sec. Advantage should be taken of an unusually bright display to determine the positions of the fainter lines. however. on account of their faintness. The spectrum of the Aurora contains a well-known conspicuous bright line in the yellowish green. Stokks. which has been accurately observed. but there was a general diffuse seen. That of the brightest lines. or narrow bands. at least in the eastern and western arch of the Aurora. light. racter of the lines (i. the ship was again in darkness. so that a man at the mast-head could be Later still. This statement should be confronted with observation. 177 Spectroscopic Observations. A spectroscope of may in such cases be usefully employed to deter- mine whether the origin to is light is auroral or not.S. the origin of is which (supposed from the presence of clouds) the roughest description doubtful. showing images of the apparent breadth of the should also be stated. for is of a different example. special care being taken that the auroral light be not con- founded with light which. It has been said. G. Sir Edward Sabine once observed an the ship. G. which was in darkness. The cha- whether they are slit. shows a continuous spectrum. and the spectroscope applied to the light. but sometimes. Presently the arch could no longer be seen.INSTEUCTIONS FOE THE AECTIC EXPEDITION. should be measured at the same time to control the observations. strictly lines. Spectrum of the Aurora. in red auroras.

test. LL. the is plane of polarization. in general. The direction of " the plane of polarization " will be determined by that of the Nicol at either polarization of the light transmitted . of these critical positions. the other (1) is simultaneously at a minimum. and when in observing polarized light the is instrument is turned so that one image at a maximum. by observing the light through : it by turning the prism round on in its axis. The observation with a biquartz differs from (1) only by holding a bi- quartz (a right-handed and a left-handed quartz cemented side by side) at a . The plane of by a Nicol. By W. accordingly. the polariscope should be directed to an adjacent portion of clear sky. the horizon. and by examining whether the light appears brightest some positions and least bright in others. but illuminated similar. is parallel to the longer diagonal of the face and. if the light of the Aurora is suspected to be polarized.able to (3) appreciate differences of intensity than differences of colour. as name implies. M. It has APPENDIX B. Spottiswoodb. R.A. Having reference the striae of the electric discharge in vacuum-tubes present no such feature. is. the probability of the suggestion to put the question to may be doubted. of the observed light to the longer diameter of the Nicol intensity. inasmuch as presents a structural to the fact that character. must not at once be concluded that not too far below the light of the Aurora is . for the Aurora may be seen on the backif ground of a sky illuminated by the moon.S. it But it will still be worth while an experimental polarized If traces of polarization be detected.. gives the images which would be seen through the Nicol in two rectangular positions. or to the shorter (2) parallel when the transmitted light is at its greatest when its it is at its least. both at once. If such be the case. and similarly situated to the former portion first and the observer must then judge whether the polarization mination of the sky. by^ the moon or sun as nearly as possible . and is (2). Both these methods of observation. may afford traces of polarization.D. is The observation with a double-image prism similar to that with a Nicol. Treas. .178 Polarization of Light. are especially suitable for faint light because in such a case the eye better . observed be merely due to the illu- The presence of polarization is to be determined (1) With a Nicol's prism. or by the sun. This instrument. or partial polarization. the posi- tions will be found to be at right angles to one another. and the light from either of these sources less polarized . free from Aurora. more or therefore. it been suggested that the Aurora.. so that they can be directly compared .

together with forms for recording positions. In case the auroral spectrum meter-scale is invisible. Spectroscopic Work. de passage. field. Scales prepared on Mr. as taken from a If the slit slit. carefully insert the principal solar lines in their places on the forms. one half verging towards red. Also with gas and other spectra. &c. Instructions in the use of the Spectroscopes supplied to the Arctic Expedition. close the slit (after first wide opening it) as much as light will permit. these bands are most two positions midway between the former the bands In the instruments here furnished.S.mSTRUCTIONS FOE THE ABCTIC EXPEDITION. (4) This obviously applicable to a change in the plane. or at the same parts at different We may use a Savart's polariscope. /3. and then with pen or pencil record the lines as seen upon the micrometer-scale on the corresponding part of the form. with a perfectly straight smooth edge running along the diameter of the in perfect focus. A. and parallel to the lines of the spectra. The reading-screw being set to 10. convenient distance beyond the Nicol. F. and keep copies of scale in this scale for use.R. the plane of polarization of the observed light will be parallel to the bands pendicular to them when is the central one is light. and note as to each line the probable limits of instrumental error. observation parts of the times. which shows a series of coloured of view. the other towards blue. per- when the central band dark. Reduce at leisure line-places on scale to wave-lengths. Norman Lockyeb. the bending-screw should then be adjusted so that the green 2b . teint give the same colour (choose the neutral yellow). If the Nicol be so turned that the two parts of the biquartz tint. . and note at once relative intensities with Greek letters. lines opens 07ily on one note on which direction the vpiden out. Capron's plan. (or numbers). also accompany the instrument. By J. a. either at different at the phenomenon same time. and by observing whether colour is 179 is or not produced. In using these. rather than the we can is detect a change in the position of the plane of polarization by a change in colour. as taken at leisure scale. bands in the field For two positions at right angles to one another corresponding to the two strongly developed vanish. B. whether towards red or violet. fine side. for critical positions of a Nicol. is so faint that the needle-point or micro- half of the field of view may be covered with tinfoil. up some of these forms with the same instrument and fill When observing.

simple. the Author was responsible for the verbatim paragraphs comprised between the letters reprinted. two wires should be screwed into the insulators. Notice as to a is pecu. just eclipsed behind the blackened edge of the tinfoil. for phosphorescence of Aurora and adjacent clouds. A similar eclipse of other lines will give their positions. this sketch the Examine line in red specially in reference to its assumed connexion with telluric lines (little a group). The streamers and corona. some suggestions made by Mr. Note whether the Aurorse can by their spectra be classed into distinct types or forms. In point of fact. take its position and apparent height. If corona forms. B. The tubes provided for the reference-spectra may be either fastened to the terminals or arranged in some other manner. Capron have been incorporated. Any phosphorescent or other patches of light.180 line of the APPENDIX Aurora is B. width. and note as to its brightening in sympathy with any of the other lines.nd patches of light. /3.r j^ickering in this sometimes seen . To get this. note also whether this line brighter (or the reverse) with a fall of temperature. [This was Mr. In this instrument the reference-prism slipping piece to is brought into action by turning the Care should be taken that it which is fixed the two terminals. colour. prior to or pending Sketch principal features of the display. Note appearance. and indicate on parts spectroscopically examined. reported sounds. corona. Get compass positions of principal features.] A and B.a. C. their ends being at such is a distance apart and in such a position that the spectrum well seen. and sharpness (or nebulosity) at the edges.lia. Note ozone papers at the time of Aurora. * In these observations D. Listen for Look out the Aurora. Note any peculiarity of cloud scenery.&c. Examine line line in yellow-green (Angstrom's) as to brightness. and note any change of magnetic intensity. or light cloud in or near the Aurorae. The auroral glow. and C and D. in the instructions as now . Lockyer's note. pure and The white arc. of arc. as may be shaken out of position on the voyage. the prism itself is adjusted before commencing observations. and examine for different spectra as under : a. streamers. y. The air-spectrum may also be used as a reference-spectrum. General Observations regarding the Spectrum of the Aurora *.

for instance. See whether indications of great auroral activity are associated with the widening or increased brilliancy of any of the auroral lines. and the line of observations suggested by Angstrom's later work To do this. observed from both. to be determined. Remember that if auroral displays are due to gaseous particles thrown into vibration of electric disturbance. not only record the positions of any features you if so may observe in the spectrum. increased electric tension sociate those particles and thus give . if any. collected together in the ' Manual O ' should be carefully consulted. by observing the narrow and then the wider parts of the tube. those previously ships observed becoming dimmer or (2) throw the particles into more intense vibration without dissociation. Try to determine whether the difference between red and green Auroras this. 2b2 . the two spectra first of nitrogen in the Geissler tube supplied. and thus give rise to observed becoming brighter. tant that those the heights of carefully It will be very impor- which are determined by such means should be observed by the spectroscope. Careful records of auroral phenomena from both may enable the height of some. 181 The information followed out. and which. Compare. the one previously a new lines.INSTRUCTIONS FOR THE ARCTIC EXPEDITION. in order to observe whether certain spectrum can be associated with the height of the characteristics of the Aurora. It will be seen that the difference in colour and spectrum results simply from an addition to the spectrum in the shape of a series of channelled spaces in the more refrangible end in the case of the spectrum of the narrow portion. may arise from such a cause as and which class has the simpler spectrum. rise to may either (1) disnew spectrum. but endeavour to determine. of the features vary together.

to appear at first it But the more as it common form was an arch . away and become the more luminous . and lit colour that of up by the rays of the full moon. Paer. C. and once or twice there was a slight suspicion of red but never was the whole sky illuminated by streams running in coronae. and usually to the eastward. R. EXTRACTS FROM PARLIAMENTARY BLUE BOOK. on arriving near the white fleecy clouds point. the actual appearances of the Aurora itself were few. with its ends extending nearly to the horizon. its it would be about the breadth of three or four rainbows. 1878. the auroral glow was often present. when the moon was absent. while these colours varied every all directions.N. low down in some part of the sky and narrow. and reaching to within a few . the northern horizon origin was in the north. and then gradually fade extinct. passing nearly overhead. and the nimbus worthy of any particular remark extremely small. From would stretch out towards the zenith." (Eyre and Spottiswoode. and forming moment. Sometimes a very pale green would show itself in patches. as little white gaps would suddenly rend the arch asunder. the portions thus detached seemed to roll together and concentrate all their brightness in the smaller space. On reaching this course was nearly run. and served in some degree to lighten the darkness of the sky during the long winter. CONTAINING THE "RESULTS DERIVED FROM THE ARCTIC EXPEDITION 1876-76. for after appearing to remain stationary. at Floehery Beach and Discovery Bay. it When its instead of the arch rising up from the horizon a streamer appeared.APPENDIX C. By Though Lieutenant A. Those which were stationary assumed the form of low arches. its zenith. but till where the glow was brightest rose gradually in the heavens was very faint it would increase both in size and intensity.) Auroras observed 1875-1876. with streamers flashing up to them from the for horizon. however.

was a beautifully clear night. and to rise 2° almost immediately after- was never seen illuminating the edges of clouds. made their appearance. and remained stationary 5°. centre bearing E.E. p. could be simultaneously observed at both stations.m. however.i AimOEAS OBSEEVED DIIEING THE AECTIC EXPEDITION. and seemed quite unconnected with the temperature. for the arch would be reformed. They had lateral motion either but there was no flashing to brighten them. then send flashes to the upper up and fade away before. and they gradually faded away. it was certainly only under exceptional conditions that they if. brighten up. the lower one was the brighter. commencing at 11 to the horizon. course of three quarters of an hour but the flashes from the horizon never extended beyond the lower arch. it. These arches maintained their altitude. new life. one. with the spectroscope. the last display being on February 19th. It night. but no other lines were On makes by six or seven occasions ' Auroras were . far the larger But as number of those recorded in the one ship were not visible at the other. with a breadth of about twice that of a first. and never But was there the slightest suspicion of sound being produced by it . the arches. During this display the citron-line was obtained very clearly visible. the upper one at about the same intensity. indeed. The time at which Auroras usually occurred was between 9 and midP. or merely two distinct ones which happened to occur at the same time. (true). as we saw it on the passage home. but that of the lower one varied considerably. it had quite disappeared. nor playing about the outline of the land. would come up to it from the horizon which seemed to endue it with It . and on one from east to west. degrees of the land to the south. but sometimes a second would grow out of the occasion three were visible at the same time. ' visible at the same time on board both the it Alert ' and ' Discovery but the absence of characteristic features impossible to determine whether they were the same display. 183 In appearance they would be the same as first. without mist or haze of any description. then break flashes would gradually lighten up. formance would be again repeated. with either a high or low barometer. and those from the lower never went beyond the upper. and having an altitude of about rainbow. being of a pale green colour. and the same perThis occurred three or four times in the . or west to east. although on an occasion the thermometer was observed to wards.M.S. Auroras seemed to appear it indiff'erently both when there was wind and when was calm. The second arch was concentric with the and about 7° above but rather broader and fainter. fall 3° it during the display. and small stars visible close arches down At its the above-named hour two . they ever were.

The opportunities for observing the spectrum of the Aurora in this position have been most unsatisfactory.m. Floeherg Beach. Discovery Bay. a faint Aurora passing across the heavens from S. Then follows a descriptive list of the Aurorse seen. but only occasionally was more than one if a time. January 2nd. and then only for such a short time that a satisfactory measure could not be obtained. A spectroscope. fainter. and they lasted for such a short time. The dis- play lasted upwards of 30 minutes. though no signs of any other it were ever seen but on only two occasions was bright enough to get the line with Nury's spectroscope. but grait near the zenith. —9 p. Sometimes they had they would visible at rise up as streamers. 1876. and February 19th. and the right assumed the shape of the folds of a curtain doubled over. would have been very difficult to make satisfactory obser- Very few showed any signs of Nearly all colour. — 9 p. February 14th. Clouds Eight meteors were observed during the time the Aurora was Register. to S. The form they generally assumed veas to rise like an arch from a portion first of the horizon where there was a luminous glow. one of Browning's 8-in. and those only the slightest tinge.W. like an arch of .E. February 14th. as the displays were small in number and deficient in brilliancy. was directed towards the Aurora. that even it been bright vations. visible. No wind. 1876. The arch grew . Discovery Bay. less distinctness. at dually increasing in brilliancy stationary for a short time till very faint. Aurora. The temperature was —39°. Barometer 29*56 inches. of light in the form of an arch whose centre was on the true meridian and It shortly afterwards 15° from the zenith. their direction being a little to the eastward of the zenith. Parr. Lieut. and shifted to the eastward of the meridian four points the left extremity of the arch faded away. — At 2 a. Streams of Stars shining brightly. Register. January 2nd. viz. that were observed gave the citron-line with the small pocket spectroscope with lines more or . stratus 2. direct-vision.184 APPENDIX C. but the light was not sufficient to give any spectrum. where Avould remain and then break up and disappear.m. The weather was clear and calm.m. was obseiTed. from which I have selected three of the finest. Observed an Aurora like a pale band broke up into feathered edges.

where terminated close down to the horizon in a crook turned to the eastward.M. Tem- — 47°. — 11. 4. was faint.m. stationary. Weather Barometer 30*44 inches.E. the reflected light of the Aurora. appeared very much as if it was caused by The Aurora was bright for a few seconds. The second-named arch gradually faded (still away till within a few degrees of the S. but did not to each other.m. p.15 visible. An Aurora like a fluted arch. Temperature Clouds cumu- — 51°. Lieut. p. but not very distinctly.m. Temperature —47°. The centre of the arch bore S.m. Lieut. or clouds. but scarcely any colours were to be seen. This the most intense and variegated Aurora we have experienced. lus 1. the whole body gradually turning round until Stars were visible through is disappeared about due south.. Cumulus-stratus clouds Aurora towards the Temperature —46°. An Aurora was It observed to the southward. It lasted altogether about 30 minutes. the first The streamers were visible for a very short remaining longest.W. — 9. Both arches were of a pale light colour.50 A mo- Aurora extended from due N.AUEOEAS OBSERVED DURING THE ARCTIC EXPEDITION. . spreading out likie a fan in separate ways. A it lateral motion it now began.W.W. having The secondary arch was about 15° above the an altitude of about 30°.45 p. Discovery Bay. 8 P. Above the arch a It pale band of colour appeared. time. Meteorological Report. going on to what was to the eastward left of the stump of the third arc. was observed spanning the light hills from the south to the east. Discovery Bay.S. a pale colour. A third streamer shot up a minute extend more than 80° upwards. Aldrich.W. at its brightest.S. Faint flashes of Aurora in the E. The direction of the lines of from all parts of the arch was towards the zenith. A few cirro-stratus clouds It lasted were apparently between the observer and the Aurora. and being a con- tinuation of the crook) bent round to the eastward. stationary. Floeberg calm. No Clouds cirro-stratus February 19th. Beach. Preceded and followed by calm weather. horizon. former. Barometer 30'43 inches. Barometer 30*51 inches. Aldrich and Lieut.3. S. to about S. and then gradually died away. In a few moments a streamer flashed from the end of the crook parallel to the first and right across the heavens. derately bright arch of it Floeberg Beach. wind. the upper one very faint. and S. with rays flashing towards the Pole. its edges being quite sharp and parallel afterwards. and then gradually faded away. and was very indistinct.. —2 No wind a. like a secondary arch above the other. Meteorological — 9. A faint . and towards the horizon. Register. Calm weather. Pai-r. about 40 minutes. perature It lasted only 185 a short time.

in the Smithsonian Contributions.E. for it was a splendidly clear night. but none of them extended beyond it. meteors. These phenomena were not observed either in the 'Alert' or the 'Discovery.S." Again. Floeherg Beach. 1858. rising rapidly. It was slightly green in colour when brightest. On all occasions they were observed are described to be faint. 76. and by the Austro- Hungarian Expedition at Franz-Josef Land. in . steady. and north of the parallel of 73° north. x. then break into light patches. with a second broader and fainter arch about 7° above the These arches maintained their intensity. fflti- consisting of bright arch. Schott. No clouds. we have reason to believe that on no occasion were the needles in the slightest degree affected by Aurora. with none of those brilliant manifestations Avhich officers as by our own seen at Point Barrow. Neither did the streamers from the lower arch extend beyond the upper one. but no others were visible. At times streamers would come up from the horizon to the lower arch. in the discussion of their magnetical observations at Port Bowen far. the shortly after 11 p. Capt. 46°.. The Table on page 187 ' ' ' gives the dates and hours when Auroras were visible. Misty. and gradually fade away. and the citron-line was well defined.. Part IV. up This happened three or four times during the 40 minutes that the display lasted.m. Barometer 29-87 inches. vol. and seemed to brighten it up. Mr. and had an tude of about first. upper one at about the It same but that of the lower one varied considerably. Trans. or any other perceptible atmospheric phenomenon. Lieut.186 APPENDIX C. Temperature —34°. as our own observations extended. Weather calm. The appearances ' of Auroras and the synchronous movements of the declino- meter-magnet were subjects of special observation during the stay of the Alert and Discovery at their winter-quarters. Temperature — 4. whose centre bore about E. 1826. '•As p. Barometer 29'95 inches.. Cumulus clouds Misty. Auroras and Magnetic Disturbances. PaiT. This is quite in accordance with the remarks of previous observers within the region comprehended between the meridians of 60° and 90° west. Foster : remark. Weather calm. then send streamers up to the second. however.' especially no connexion between magnetical disturbances and the appearances of Auroras could be traced. 5°. For example : In the Phil. would gradually brighten up. A. where the magnetical instruments were so sensibly disturbed. —An Aurora appeared altitudes. Parry and Lieut.

Same.M. Very clear sky. and 7.M. Faint Aurora.M.30 A. 1875. faint.30 pj£. Ditto. Faint. Slight. Slight flash.5 p.M.. Slight flash. but well marited.M.M. 4. 11 11 11 11 ^^ ^y 11 11 11 11 11 11 11 \ 11 „ 11 February 11 11 11 20 23 24 24 27 27 28 30 31 3 11 7.M. Very bright sky.M. 2 a.M.S.m.m. 10 P.M.M. Arch.15 to 10 P. „ ?f ' December *i »1 5 p. H. 1875-76*. Sky obscured. 2 A. Cloudy.30 A. 9. 8 P.M.M. Ditto.S.M. and 11 p.m. and 11 P. Described and figured. 1 a.25 A.M.45 P.M. 5 P. Bright streak. 2.m. Faint glow. Character not recorded.M. A 10 few clouds. 2. 1 A.m.M.M.M. A. Evening. A 11 11 11 11 11 11 19 Very bright sky.M.M.M. Very 8. to the above Table the character of the Aoiora in eaoh instance as taken from the foliar 2 c . Slight.m.M.M. 1876.45 P. Ditto. figured. 3 P. yj 11 11 19 9. Very bright sky. 11 11 11 11 11 11 IJ 20 22 24 26 2 A. 2 21 22 25 2C 26 27 28 29 30 30 2 3 3 IG 19 „ jj November »» ?) 1) »» )> Faint. red. . bright afterwards. Very faint.m. Very clear sky. Cloudy.m. and 8 p.M. Ditto. 25 26 1 Discovery.15 P.m. P. Slight.M. 8. 11 11 13 14 Up. 9. Slight.30 A.25 clear sky. 10 P. INIidnight. Character not recorded. 9 P.M. few clouds. Clear sky..30 A.45 P.' Discovery Bay. 6 P. and 11. 0. Table of 187 Dates when Atooeas were observed by the Abctio Expeditiok. Flashes. brighter at 11 a. and 7 to 9 P. 5 P.M.45 P.M.M.m. Ditto. Flashes. • Date.M. H. 2 A. few clouds. J Midnight. 9 a.30 A. to 10 P. 8.15 p. and 2 p..m. Bright streamer.M.M. Slight showed citron-line.M. Very faint. 10 P. October 55 1) 1» ft 11. and 10 to 11 P. and 10 p.M. Faint.30 P.AURORAS OBSERVED DURING THE ARCTIC EXPEDITION. 2 A.55 A.ir.M. to 9 P. and 11. Slight. 2. to -3.M. faint and 9 to 10 moderately bright arc. 9 to 10 P. Faint Aurora.. U 11 u '1 1) 11 11 ' 1 11 11 11 11 11 11 11 11 11 22 23 24 26 29 31 1 Bright sky. Very faint. .20 7.M. 10 P.M. P.M.M.M. 4 P. Clear sky. Bright sky.M. B..M. Faint. Ditto. Very faint streamers. 9.45 A.m. to 5 P. Very faint. 18 9. Described and 2 A. to 4 A.. Flashes.15 P.M. p. Faint. Clear sky. * I have added descriptions given.30 7. 6. a few stars visible.M. Clear sky. Stream of light.m. Faint double arch. Bright sky. 10 P. Floeberg Beach. 9.m. 10 P. 8 P.30 A. Very 30 Sky obscured. Ditto.45 P. 11 P.M. Ditto. 11 P.M. Ditto. Very faint. Very faint.50 p. Slight. Misty.m. 11p. 6 P.40 PJ£. 10.m. 'Alert. Sky obscured. Faint flashes. Faint. —J. Sky obscured. and 10. Very clear sky. 1 Cloudy to 10 p. January 11 11 2 5 P.M.50 8. P.M.M. A few clouds.30 p.M. 5. 6 P. Streak.M..M. Character not recorded. 9. 2 A.M.M. 10 A.m. 9 P. Faint flashes. »i 11 11 11 17 Very bright slcy. Ditto. Streamers. Arches and streamers. 11. A i» )i )i »» »» ?9 n »> »1 »> 1> 1» H " »» »l 2 P.M.M.M.M. 1 A.

1854.M. C] . in their abstract of : observations at Floeberg Beach "Between 10 and 11 p. bearing S. stretching through the zenith. : — " The processes have no apparent connexion with the magnetic unifilar indicate disturbance. and ter- minating in an irregular curve about 25° above the south horizon. worth while to accept these conditions." diagrams of Aurorae referred to in the Arctic " Eesults Treasury refused of this. given by Commander Markham and Lieut. 1875. similar to that figured on n. but the Lords Commissioners of H. remarks — "In conformity with the supposed as observations at Van Eensselaer Harbour.188 his discussion of APPENDIX Dr Kane's C. which the most simple forms of appearances is have been referred. this is a " curtain " Only one of the drawings has any special interest Plate and Aurora.W. —I applied for a loan of the lithographic stones to enable me to give copies of the three .—J. they to may all be class.S. I did not think . no brilliant and complete Auroras have been seen placed in his fourth with an exception of very few. of this work. Olmstead." The following statement given in the same page and in no case did the needle of our is The following description of the Aurora observed on 21st November. in periodicity of this pheno- menon recognized by Professor . Giffard. during During the Aurora's greatest five brilliancy the magnet was observed minutes to be undisturbed. E.m. bright broad streamers of the Aurora appeared 10° or 15° above the north horizon." as a footnote dip. except on the terms of it my pajring one third of the original cost of production such diagrams." [Note.

In reference to the first point. 2.APPENDIX D. and there was no tangible period of to In the month of April of the same year. throughout the month. in his Summary for the Year.N. Allnatt's notes. but this was accounted for by the wind being generally E. eight days consecutively (19tb 26th) were marked for ozone 10. Aurorae. Dr. Ozone was scanty.W. ozone. Aurorae. Allnatt's scale. While Part I. 2c2 . and atmospheric electricity was intense. that particular years and months are notable at once for Aurone and for ozone in abundance. formerly ' of Frant. as the result of an examination of Dr. was specially recorded by Dr. Dr..' remarkable for sun-spots. Allnatt. wind. but ozone was. Allnatt's notes and ronclusions years the well-known meteorological contributor to The Times newspaper. it is found. was in the press. Particulars of some of the monthly records.E. Atmospheric electricity . and for ' many Aurora and ozone. In May of the same year there were magnificent Aurorae. S. 1870 was one of these ' years. was feeble. and as Year 1S70 remarkable for sunspots. the maximum of Dr. my disposal his large series of notes. kindly placed at of these 1. THE AURORA AND OZONE. The month brilliant of February in that year was marked by intense cold and and ozone. and a moist state of the atmosphere. aurora*. ozone being mostly developed with a or W. : Upon an examination we came to the following conclusions That Auroral periods are also periods of comparative abundance of That instances are by no means wanting in deduced therefrom. which an abnormal de- velopment of ozone appears to be coincident with the manifestation of an Aurora. Allnatt. and ozone. well developed antozone.

10 The display of the 24th was accompanied by the formation of a corona. . Asia. 51 )» J» )» 10 8 1> H Aurora. In August 1870 the unusually large number of 22 days were recorded for a maximum of ozone. the maximum. maximum. and Australia. 1870. 23rd. Aurora. October 14th 5» . Aurora. Aurora. 8 J? 20th. and that of the 2oth was splenT didly seen in Edinburgh. morning of the 24th. and. 10. and the several in that solar spots October 1870 had 20 days of fine maximum ozone. The Aurora of 24th September. 8 of the scale (the scale Ozone reached. 20th. and 25th. In November had nearly every month year was referred to by Dr. and fact.190 APPENDIX D. Ozone. In October 1870 there were grand displays on the 14th. was recorded that there were splendid Aurorse during were very large. America. at its fine or less of the same character. Africa. and ozone was correspondingly abundant. with 19 days of this maximum. on the morning of the 25th. 21st . and ozone was registered as maximum during 22 days. for the purpose of showing a connexion between a specific Aurora and an ozone maximum. 24th. 22nd. 25th . 1870. as is seen by the following Table : Date. Allnatt for displays of Aurora (of both Arctic and Antarctic forms) and for a development of ozone very considerably above the average. The year 1871 had more October of that year. Aurorse and maxima of ozone noted. 24th. Tear 1871. Aurora. 5 10 8 »» 5» 22nd. was splendid and universal. less September 1870 was hardly It remarkable. None seen. the following (among other) instances may be quoted. month. would result connexion (probably an intimate one) between the two phe- nomena. Instances showing a connexion between a specific Aurora and an ozone With reference to the second point. None seen. being seen in Europe. Aurora. on the running from 1 to 10). if There seems reason to conclude th&t or other periods of in disclosing a a systematic comparison of annual it Aurora and ozone development were made. In the month of Auroras were prevalent.

as will be seen by the Date. S. when the Aurora appeared.] the ozone has not reached rise its We will now take instances where ment towards and from the Aurora maximum Other instances but even in these cases a certain amount of is and fall of the ozone develop- traceable. . .E. The following seems. 1869.. 5 Aurora. 8 29th 2 It is curious. 1871. 1869. E. seen. E. S. Date. maximum of 10. 2 10 26th 27th N. that the Aurora of the night of the given date. a case more strongly in point. „ „ 6th. 10 10 5 „ „ „ 8th . January 25th „ None seen. which lasted till [It should is be borne in mind. Ozone.W. in examining these Tables. in examining the above Table.W.S. None seen.E. 7th. and S.S.. Aurora at night in N.8J:. when a broad belt of is Aurora was in the north.. Wind. S. None None seen. while the ozone-papers are taken in the and recorded morning of the date quoted. Aurora. S. from on the 25th.S. to note how the ozone rose.. The case of the Aurora of 6th of October. might and how it again descended to 2 on the 29th.S. following data : also an illustrative one. horizons. Ozone. 9th. S. notwithstanding an east wind. to 10 it on the 27th. Wind.N. October 5th. when have lingered . and 2 on the 26th. 1 Aurora. however.THE AUEOEA AND OZONE. S. and 8 on the 28th. „ 28th E.E.W. The rises 191 foregoing figures somewhat point to the conclusion that ozone quantity falls and coincidently with the Aurora still displays. The Aurora of the night of the 6th was here represented by the ozonepaper of the morning of the 7th with a the 8th.E.

S.S. „ February N. Wind.. 1874. possible that such instances may be accounted for. 4th This instance would seem strongly opposed to the theory of a connexion between Am"ora and ozone but for the fact that on the 2nd. 6 8 There was an Aurora on the night of the 2nd represented by the ozonepaper (4 only) on the morning of the 3rd.E. „ s.W.. February „ „ „ 5 3rd 4th 4 5 8 Aurora on night of the 4th represented by ozone-paper of morning of the 5th.W. however. found. and unfavourable to ozone. or positively : during the Aurora. Ozone.N. S.W. Aurora.. but wind E. Date.N. Aurora on the 18th represented by test-paper of the 19 th with only two degrees of discoloration. January 31st 1st Wind. when the Aurora . N. 8.W. 6 6 Aurora. 1871. 5 8 5 5 8 9th 10th 1871. S.w.W. for instance. 1874.N. or by some accidental antagonistic circumstance affecting the tests. 2 4 8 3rd N.N.192 APPENDIX D.W. Ozone. „ „ 5th 6th s. 2nd „ „ N. 5 Other cases this are.w.S. in fell which ozone was either not as. W. on all three N.. March 16th. April Wind. 18th.w. s.E. remarkable for quantity.E. nth 1872.s. 19th.W. 5 2 It is. we are bound to say. S.S. The following is a case well illustrating this Date. Aurora nights. Aurora on 9th.W. 8th S. N. November 9th 10th N. w. Date. Aurora. Ozone.W. E. „ „ „ 17th.E. either by some reaction on the test-papers after they have been coloured.

sufficient to base a requisition for further inquiry upon. but there seems. and blanched the ozone-papers. it is easy to understand that some antozonic influence may. July 18th. pp. in the 198 was seen at night. was not observed at Frant. too. It may not be considered that the foregoing instances are enough to esta- blish a case of ozone=Aurora. however deep their coloration might have previously been. Allnatt has recorded a strong wave of antozone to have swept over the whole of England. Indeed.:THE AURORA AND OZONE. . 22 and 23). and the ozonoscopes there were described as blanched by antozone. disturb the evidence of the test-papers. It would. Ingall's fine Aurora. at times. S. and on other days same month.. at least. Mr. 1874 {anti.E. Dr. be interesting to investigate whether Aurorae and ozone development are respectively localized. even in so elevated and apparently pure an atmosphere as that of Frant. seen at Champion Hill.

by comparison with the spectra of the gases equatorial of the It. in conjunction with Dr. 1871. collimator. retical considerations. . set of consists of a slit. It is known that the nature of Aurorae is as yet but little It has been considered necessary to abandon the former view that they are discharges of the electricity collected at the poles —because it has been hitherto found impossible to bring the chief lines of the Aurora- spectrum into coincidence with the spectra of the atmospheric gases.APPENDIX E. Oct. The C. Theo- based on the great alterations to which the spectrum of the same gas density. only because it is atmosphere hitherto incapable of artificial The following spectrum itself. VoGEL. 31. explored. By H. * Communicated by the author to the Eoyal Saxon t Reports of the Eoyal Saxon Academy of Science.* frequent appearance of the Aurora in the past winter. constituting the The star-spectrum apparatus belonging to the 11-inch Bothkamp Observatory was used for these observations. prisms a vision directe. times) of this telescope The lowest eyepiece (magnifying four was employed. article will show how demonstration f far I have succeeded. The telescope is capable of being Academy of Science. 1871. and observing telescope. Lohse. is subject under varying conditions of temperature and have very recently led ZoUner to the opinion that probably the a spectrum of another form of our spectrum of the Aurora does not coincide with any known spectrum of the atmospheric gases. as well as this spring. in supporting this view by exact observations of the Auroraas well as air. INQUIRIES INTO THE SPECTRUM OF THE AURORA. has given me opportunity to institute exact inquiries into the spectrum of the Aurora. five prisms with refracting angle 90°.

I have inserted a tiny polished steel cone. or on some of the hydrogen-lines. but could discover no error exceeding 0*01 of a turn of the screw. therefore parallel with the spectral is lines. cone. 25th. and the brilliancy of which can be altered by withdrawing the lamp to a greater distance or lowering the blind. is If the spectrum is very faint. and the setting of the point of the cone on the latter accomplished with great sharpness. Oct. or consists only of bright lines. the distances of the spectral lines can be readily found. Observations of the Aurora. light can be thrown on the the latter is point. in such a way. a fine line of light thus appears. to me. so that even the faintest lines of a spectrum facility can be brought with and certainty into coincidence with the micrometer-screw is this line of light. field which extends to the centre of the of vision. that different centre of the field portions of the spectrum can be brought into the of As fractions of the rotation of this screw are marked. readings followed on the sodium-lines. the very fine point of which reaches to the centre of the field of vision. in order to eliminate errors which might arise in the unavoidable disturbance of any particular part of the spectral apparatus. I have to mention. Repeated measurements of 100 O lines of the solar spectrum have enabled Soleil').INQUIRIES INTO THE SPECTfiUM OF THE AUBOBA. The axis of this cone stands perpendicular to the length of the spectrum. D In the brightest parts. as well as to periodical inequalities in the single vforms of the screw. that after each observation in the position in which the instrument was used. opposite to telescope. —A very bright Aurora. 1. the point of the an opening in the through which. further. The probable error of position on one of the well-marked lines to in the sun's spectrum amounts about 0008 of a turn of the screw with the subjected the screw itself to a lowest eyepiece of the telescope. to neighbourhood of the Fraunhofer line F. I have thorough examination with reference to such range. regulated by a blind. upon the basis of Angstrom's Atlas ('Spectre normal de the indications of the screw directly in wave-lengths. 195 moved vision. and each part. by the aid of a micrometer-screw. 1870. As polished. 2d . express In place of the cross wires originally introduced into the focus of the observing telescope. The head of in the divided into 100 parts. there is For this purpose. besides a very bright line between and E. situated further towards the blue end of the spectrum. the cone lighted by a small lamp. several other fainter lines were to be They discerned. answers about '00016 wave-length.

as the apparatus had not yet undergone the abovementioned alterations. The red rays of the Aurora were not examined. with the same apparatus. yet placed nearer to C *. On Feb. 12. spectrum was present extended from the bright Aurora-line to the lines b of the solar spectrum. of which the greater develop* This red liue was first noticed by Zijllner. spectrum was terminated by the bright line No measure- ments could be taken. in the spectroscope of low dispersion from that of February 11th. another very intense red line appeared in the spectrum between C and D. Dr. shot upwards. in another part of the heavens at the same time 7"10 was the result of four readings. six readings The average of gave 7"09 turns. Yet the appearance of the spectrum was essentially distinct . a clear bright stripe and just before G a very faint broad band of light was perceived. 11th. towards eight o'clock. tions later. 5572 sets of two wave-length.196 APPENDIX E. Feb. out . . wave-length. and was traversed by some bright line standing alone. appeared in the north-west a very bright light-bow of greenish colour as the edge of a dark segment. The average of six readings gave 7"11 turns. and even the brightest line of the spectrum did not diffuse sufficient light to be able to perceive the fine cross wires. and stretched out over the Fraunhofer lines E and b to about midway between b and F. was another beyond F. The greatest Magnificent rays rose to about 60° elevation as the they had the same greenish colouring spectrum also was bow of light. — An exceedingly brilliant Aurora. in the blue part of the spectrum. appeared on a dimly-lighted ground. Even with a very narrow the line between D and E could be well recognized and measured. midnight. and found from or 5569 wave-length. and were coloured red at Amongst the their ends. or 5576 wave-length. later on. towards the blue could Towards the red end of the spectrum no lines development of the Aurora was about . the intensity of the Aurora was already great enough to allow measurements of the brightest line. April 9th. —Towards ten o'clock slit. rays which. a few more be recognized (as in October). 1871. and the appearance of the I again obtained first set exactly the same. Between band b and F. it The green continuous lines. were observable. first Towards the red end the mentioned. ments : the average of six readings in the measuregave 7 '10 turns. equal to 5572 is In a small spectroscope of low dispersion which lines placed further arranged on Browning's plan. Lohse took observasix readings 7*12 turns.

as exactly measured on four evenings 1871.. \ J Broad band of middle. • .. 197 Magnificent red sheaths rose up to the zenith.. to recognize seven lines. at the same time. Probable errors. This line is very bright when the red 10-06 12-33 12-59 12-88 20 ... whilst The red on the other hand. The mean measurements of : four readings on an average. April 14th. unreliable observation. G. 5004 4694 4663 4629 3 . In the brightest part of the Aurora was five lines in the spectrum consisted of somewhat indistinct broad line or rays. I could not again perceive the faint stripe observed on February 12th. so that the lines could be seen the larger spectral ajjparatus. light. otherwise equal in brilliancy with the preceding one..INQUIEIES INTO THE SPECTRUM OF THE AUEORA.. only the bright line in the green could be recognized in spectrum. Extremely faint line. February 11 ' . I append a table of the wave-lengths of the brightest : line. Wavelength. raent took place in the early morning hours. for each gave Turns of screw. Probable errors. The spectrum was like tliat observed on February 12th. Bemarks.. 3 Very faint in those parts of the Aurora in which the red line appears. Very bright line. in the vicinity of line line. —Faint its Aurora. • 22 . the dark segment . becomes noticeably fainter at appearance of the red Une. ^ 7-92 8-71 8-95 • • • • 5390 Brightest line of the spectrum.. 5573 5573 5569 5569 12 April 9 14 Therefore the average result (if only half-weight is allowed to the last 2d2 . The mean of two readings gave 7*12 turns. and measured with the green. band in the blue. or 5569 wave-length. 4-62 7-12 •0037 9 6297 5569 •00014 2 Very bright stripe.1= (w^ §.•< line appears 21 49 5233 5189 4 9 Moderately bright. o . and a only much more intense. allowed us the bright line again appeared in the red part of the spectrum. somewhat less brilliant in the .

42. is According to Angstrom the wave-length of this line 5567 . at the most. The' experiments were made with As Zollner a small inductive apparatus. most part. in which the length of the spark between platinum points in ordinary air was 15 miUims. p. extend only to the Fraunhofer line G. le Spectre Solaire. in the rarest cases. as well as on the Spectrum of the Atmospheric Air. in order to find out Numerous experiments have been made some admitted connexion between the spectrum of the Aurora and the spectra of the principal gases composing the atmosphere. ' t American Journal of Science. I limit myself to noticing some of the often-repeated observations in Pliicker's tubes. and the slit was nearly the same in every experiment. and so narrow that the sodium-lines could be seen separated. amount to no more than 0*015 turn of the screw. I have always employed such weak the gas was only just steadily alight. . hydrogen. is of if the development of the light in the Aurora. too great a pressure might be exercised on the * Eecherches sur worms of the latter. so that the uncertainty of the figures will. On the Spectra of some Gases in Geissler's Tubes. Ixviii. according to the analogy of gases brought to glow in low tem- an electric nature. because it APPENDIX E. for the The measurements. lest. on the other hand. that rarefied spaces. as I feared through further turning the telescope by means of the micrometer-screw. The figures are averages of the indications of the micrometer-screw. The following observations have been repeated often and at various times. according to Winlockf. 123. which contained oxygen. (in the pamphlet mentioned) comes to the conclusion. 2. 5570. only depends upon two readings) gives for the wave5571"3. it must belong to very perature — in order to bring the gases enclosed in the tubes to glow at the currents that lowest possible temperature. length of the o brightest line *. and must be reckoned somewhat more highly only in the case of completely faint misty lines. and nitrogen. The spectrum apparatus was that described above.198 observation. as well as the observations of the spectrum of the air under difierent conditions. with a probable error of •000-92.

Bright . Taint. It is striking that the red nitrogen-line near lines stand 5"04 is also missing there. 6-98 5603 5189 Very faint. misty towards the violet. Faint. Screw. whilst in the wider part they appear on a perfectly dark ground. bright. 11-26 4829 Moderately bright. a. The lines near 3'97 and 11*02 belong to hydrogen. Wave-length. Very faint. Bemarks. In the narrow part of the Pliicker tube. ji >» h. Moderately bright. Oxygen.INQUIRIES INTO THE SPECTRUM OF THE AURORA. . which were decomposed by the galvanic current. Remarka. These two lines are not to be found in a lower temperature in the broad part of the tube. WaTe-length. In the narrow part of the tube the out in the green on a very dimly-lighted ground. misty towards the red end of the spectrum. Probably traces of aqueous vapour were present in the tube. 199 I. Very Very bright. In the wide part of the Pliicker tube. Screw. 8-95 Very bright. 3-97 5-04 6-98 8-19 8-95 10-97 11-02 11-26 13-30 14-05 15-55 6562 6146 5603 5332 5189 4870 4863 4829 4583 4506 4372 Moderately bright. Moderately bright.

The lines appeared on a perfectly dark ground. On Moderately bright. 3-98 6-16 7-01 7-18 7-77 8-95 10-03 10-55 6558 5813 5596 5555 5422 5189 5008 4929 Very bright. In the broad part of the tube. finally. Kemarks. Faint. The tube shows in the narrow part the hydrogen-spectrum some lines belonging to nitrogen are found. on both sides very faint lines. wards the violet. is Very the spectrum in the broad part of the tube . too. Very Very faint. which becomes fainter toFaint. of the first order the lines in the green do not coincide with the lines of the nitrogen. At the connecting-point of the wide ends of the . but on an entirely dark ground. H/3 11'04. most probably small nothing . Screw. 11-5 to 12-9 a bright ground. latter fall at first the light in the narrow part. Hydrogen. E. in opposition to the spectrum of the narrow part. to be seen of the bright shining lines Ha 3"98. then the light at the con- necting-point of the narrow and wide parts. Wave-length. The so. which appear. and by degrees. a. particles of aqueous vapour have been enclosed in the tube and are decomstriking is posed. BemarkB. Bright. though Here. Moderately bright. In the narrow part of the tube. steadily bright 11-04 12-86 13-32 14-05 15-90 4861 4632 4581 4506 4342 Very bright. >• On bright. ^ b. From Moderately bright. H-y 15'90 on the other hand. not is on a partially lighted. four very bright lines and one quite faint one are in the red end of the spectrum. Moderately bright. a dull ground. the light in the upon the slit. 5-30 7-00 8-96 11-28 14-04 60G3 5598 5187 4828 4507 Faint. Moderately bright. a faint ground. Very bright.200 APPENDIX II. Moderately bright. appearance very striking if we bring the tube in front of the slit . On a dimly lighted ground. WaTe-length. Screw. which towards the violet becomes very bright. and. Moderately bright.

the continuous ground of some parts of the spectrum disappears. close lines. which has about the same brilliancy as H/3. whilst by incandescent. Very bright broad misty Very bright Une. and a new line appears near 11 "2 8. J Bright lines. Bright } line. »» bright lines are sharply defined towards the red end of the spectrum. becomes An alteration of the direction of the current has no influence on the appearance. misty line. In the narrow part of the tube. if Bright Faint > line. line. so close together that the intervening spaces appear like fine dark lines. brilliancy. the oxygen. a.INQUIKIES INTO THE SPECTRUM OF THE AUEOEA. Screw. line. The dark intervening spaces are somewhat broader. which is of a more rarefied character. of spec- Here follow several lines. Nitrogen. Broad bright >• lines. broad. A comparison with the spectrum of oxygen shows the bright lines which evolved by the current appears insufficient to bring the hydrogen to it are in the spectrum in the wide end of the tube as belonging to that element. and all of almost equal Very faint fine lines. Very bright j> line. Bright „ l^twJr^^^^iS end " J towards other trum. 201 tube the three well-known hydrogen-lines decrease in intensity. 55^ 5532 5470 5428 5389 5353 5306 5272 5237 5178 5066 4975 4913 4862 4811 4721 4666 4644 4570 4487 4417 4363 4357 4345 4273 Group lines. . broad. fading away towards the other end of the spectrum. III. Bemarks. The heat glow. of faint but at the same time very broad The last is the brightest. being brighter towards the violet end. line. but not uniform. the bright lines somewhat more intense than in the preceding group. This part of the spectrum is very bright. increasing in J ^ brilliancy as they approach the violet end. Bright. J' )» i> »> ^ The Very )i faint line. 3-84 4-85 5-30 5-51 5-69 5-87 6-04 6-20 6-43 6-96 7-13 7-28 7-55 7-74 7-92 8-09 8-32 8-50 8-69 9-01 9-67 10-25 10-66 11-03 11-41 12-11 12-57 12-57 13-42 14-24 15-02 15-66 15-72 15-87 16-72 6620 6213 6063 6000 5948 5896 5846 5802 5741 5607 \ Several faint. Wave-length.

10-67 11-43 12-25 12-73 13-43 14-25 15-03 15-86 . Paint line. Screw. Wave-length. indistinct towards the red. » • Moderately bright line. c. fainter than the last. line. line. b. violet. moderately bright stripe of at the edges. intense. Moderately bright Faint line. 5-18 5-70 7-60 8-41 8-76 9-19 10-0 6100 5945 5159 5289 Broad. Wave-length. indistinct towards \ Very Very Very faint line. Very bright line. Very faint line. Screw. faint line. indistinct towards the Like the last. Moderately bright line. indistinct towards the violet. Moderately bright. Remarks. <'aint line. indistinct. . Quite a faint line. 6-20 7-72 8-20 8-94 9-03 9-90 10-68 11-42 12-59 13-48 14-07 14-25 15-85 16-76 5802 5433 5330 5191 5175 5029 4911 4809 4663 4569 4504 4486 4347 4273 Faint. At the aura of the negative pole. Very bright Une. somewhat indistinct towards the Bright f line. Very bright violet. indistinct Broad. In the wide part of the tube. Here follow several other lines. Dull stripe.202 APPEJSTDIX E. Bright line. broad line. Bemarks.16-76 Somewhat the red. Broad band of light. DuU band of light. Moderately bright line. 5224 5147 5004 4912 4808 4704 4646 4569 4486 4417 4346 4275 '. moderately bright stripe. light. broad.

Perhaps the the tube examined by me had not been thoroughly dried. 203 The observations in the different parts of the tube show plainly the of the negative dependence of the spectrum on the temperature. IV. the appearance of but with dry rarefied since Wullner's researches have proved that dry air yields the same spectrum as nitrogen gas. 8-94. Faint line not sharply defined. on the other hand. and 14-07. yet a comparison of the spectra observed and the aluminium spectrum has shown no connexion between them. Very bright double Faint confused 1 line. filled with pure air. must further mention that the electrodes of the tubes consisted of aluminium. 5-88 6-67 7-20 9-00 9-79 10-03 10-07 11-43 12-69 12-84 13-04 From 14-61 15-88 to 5892 5680 55505180 5047 5008 5002 4803 4651 4633 4612 4453 4444 Very bright double Very bright line. Thence I would conjecture that the tube was not which air in is precise.INQUIRIES INTO THE SPECTfiUM OF THE ATJEORA. and thus the appearance of some lines of the elements before I named is to be explained. Wave-length. the same line which The aura pole gives the line near 10-07 so characteristic of the air-spectrum. is This is met with in the spectra of most of the nebulae. Very bright Fine faint line. of we compare oxygen and hydrogen. we find line part. which ends with a broad washy line. line. Faint line. 2 E . line. Hj3 very faint in the spectrum of the narrow part of the tube near 11*03. Bemarks. line (Na). Atmospheric Air. If The very striking groups of lines in the red and yellow in the spectrum of the narrow part of the tube disappear entirely in the wide the spectra with those above quoted. oxygen-lines appear in the broad part near 8*20. Here follow several other lines. nitrogen. Screw. Confused band of light.

15-90 Here follow In the first several more lines. the electric spark. Very bright line (H).204 APPENDIX E. except that some lines belonging to the spectrum of mercury also appeared. 7'59. Rarefied air saturated with aqueous vapour. The spectrum of rarefied air under similar pressure was found III. Screw. This observation may be regarded as a confirmation of the conjecture above expressed as to the condition of Pliicker's tube III. and which was enclosed by mercury in a tube 8 millims. 12-75 13-28 (15-71) 4644 5585 4358 4341 Moderately bright Une. with a weaker current or longer spark. ] Line fainter than the J \ On preceding.) to accord completely with the spectrum of the light in the broad part of Pliicker's tube. Broad dull band of light brighter line. The bright double line and 10*07. 3-97 (5-88) (6-25) From to 7-03 7-55 7-59 8-72 8-96 10-07 11-05 12-21 6562 5892 5789 5591 5470 5461 5231 6187 5002 4859 4709 Moderately bright line. spectrum appeared at 6'25. in length. i» »i dimly lighted ground. becoming fainter towards the violet. lines of the mercury- a pressure of 22 millims. (nitrogen).. Dull stripe. showed exactly the same lines as Pliicker's nitrogen-tube (b). and 15-71. Remarks. WaTe-length. (Nitrogen b. was no longer to be recognized as a double line. . lines belonging to the platinum spectrum appeared. wide. was allowed to pass between platinum points in ordinary The sodium-line near at 10'03 5-88 appeared continually. Bright double line (Na). — A comparison of the spectrum of rarefied air saturated with aqueous vapour with the former shows the' striking alterations in the spectrum which are brought about by the presence of the aqueous vapour.*^^'"^^-} Very bright line. but appeared as a broad somewhat confused line. of which the brightest part was near 10"05. . No air. air. In the obser- the air saturated with aqueous vapour was under Besides the sodium-lines. j Very faint line (H). observations. Bright Une (H). near 7-03 a somewhat Bright line (H). On a duU Steady ground. Ordinary rarefied under a pressure of 25 to 30 millims. vations described under b. about 1 centim. ?aintir.

In the next place. system of lines in the spectrum of nitrogen of this group of lines . artificially a spectrum which should resemble that of the Aurora in all it Moreover. too. The observations show with some certainty that at least one line at 10*06 of the Aurora-spectrum coincides with the maximum brilliancy of the air- spectrum. may be regarded as probable. Comparison of the Aurora-Spectrum with the Spectra of Atmospheric Gases and of Inorganic Substances. which fifth seems to appear wider very different conditions. as well as in the at The line at 8*71 (6). That this line appears in the Aurora by itself. In the very great difference of the gas-spectra under varying conditions of pressure and temperature. that these strata. The first band of light with the first in the red part of the Aurora-spectrum most probably coincides (a). line in the found again. The most intense line of the Aurora-spectrum at 7*12 is to be also found in the spectrum of nitrogen (a) —as a very faint line. several lines are found in this place in the spectrum of nitrogen as well as the air-spectrum a coincidence between the spectra [a. and that the other lines appear with great probability in the spectra of atmospheric gases. will have a very considerable thickness. Probably only the bright part is perceptible. different gases I turn to the comparison of the observed spectra of and of the air with the spectrum of the Aurora. the sisth line in the Aurora at 10'06 coincides very exactly with the known nitrogen-line appearing band of in the spectra of some of the nebulae. imder the hypothesis that the Aurora are electric discharges in rarefied air-strata. however. and with intensity relatively great. Moreover.INQUIfilES INTO THE SPECTBUM OF THE AURORA. same way with a is nitrogen-line. 2 e2 M . the absence of the intermediate spectrum towards this direction would find its explanation. Lastly. so that here. The third line its Aurora-spectrum. it would indeed be difficult to succeed in pro- ducing parts. air-spectrum met with in the nitrogen-spectrum (c). considering the great alteration of the gas-spectra under difierent conditions of pressure and temperature. The third line of the oxygen-spectrum is 8"95. as to the broad light in the Aurora-spectrum from 12*33 to 12"88. 206 3. qualified for the transmitting of electricity. b) . must be admitted. need not of the appear strange. on account of the extreme faintness of the Aurora and as in nitrogen the increase of the brilliancy of the spectrum takes place towards the violet end. as the spectrum of the Aurora. very vaguely defined on account of coincides in the great faintness.

Bemarks. though remarkable. faint. The wave-lengths in the above-cited ob- servations of the bright Aurora-line vary between 556-9 and 557'3. within certain limits of accuracy. are also to be found. Moderately bright. two lines of the iron-spectrum are situated at 556-85 and 557'17. Moderately bright. and therefore the impossibility of attaining a perfect agreement artificially between the Aurora-spectrum and the gases is exhibited spectra of mixed evident. can only be considered as complete . In this case the conditions of pressure on these air-strata are themselves so different that. spread out behind each other . within certain limits. according to Angstrom. but we shall see the sum of collective spectra. 500-4 f500-651 500-52 500-49 y 500-30 1 Very faint. ^500-20^ Prom 469 \ to 462 •9J^ stronger and 4 very faint iron-lines. Lines of the ironspectrum. 629-7 539-0 '. each will yield its own peculiar spectrum . Here the perfect harmony of the brightest Aurora-line (which was fixed with an exactitude of about one seventh of the separation of the sodium-lines) with the lines of the iron- spectrum is especially striking. 523-3 518-9 630-08 \ 629-85 1 '539-601 539-92 539-05 f 538-85 J '523-43 523-21 522-90 519-79 519-40 < 519-16 519-06 518-51 r [ Moderately bright. and with the aid of Angstrom's Atlas of the Solar Spectrum. worked out by the help of the above-quoted wave-lengths of the with due regard to probable errors. Iron-lines corresponding to the other Aurora-lines. Mostly very faint. so to speak. whilst. . A comparison of the Aurora-spectrum with the spectra of inorganic substances may be easily o single lines of the former. as will be seen from the following com- parison : Aurora-lines. Yet this agreement. Very Very faint.206 APPENDIX E. Very faint.

most intense It will lines. the absence of the accordance with probability to . and in this way explain the appeeirance of relatively very faint iron-lines in the Aurora-spectrum. or.IXQUIEIES INTO THE SPECTEUM OF THE AUEOHA. [I am indebted to Miss Annie Ludlam for a translation from the German of the above Memoir. on the other hand. C] . proof of the presence of iron-vapour in the atmosphere 207 shall when we have succeeded in showing by observation analogous modifications of the relative conditions of brilliancy in the iron-spectrum by alterations of temperature and density . in the case of gases. at any rate. of the alteration of the spectra by conditions of temperature and pressure. — J. quite as certain between the spectrum in question and the spectra of atmospheric gases has been proved above. and an agreement. R. meanwhile remain far more in regard the Aurora-spectrum as a modification of the air-spectrum since we are already aware.

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AUUiOTifAJ 1 PLEASE DO NOT REMOVE FROM THIS CARDS OR SLIPS POCKET UNIVERSITY OF TORONTO LIBRARY QC 971 025 Capron.Dii^Uii^iVu 9t:.UI. John Rand Axirorae: their characters and spectra P&ASci .

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