Chapter 1


Historical Background

The use of lift by the man can be tracked back to the earlier ages. Man lifted heavy objects to a certain height by using a wooden pole rested at the center & applying effort at the other end thus we can lead to the references the earlier man using some kind of machining to lift stones or tree trunks. The Egyptian built the pyramids by making mud ramp & then rolling the stones ever the ramp in the earlier ages the simple rope hoists were also used to lift the object to a particular height.

Our knowledge of the earlier lift from the writing of the Roman architect Vitiuvious the engineer here of Alexandra both of whom in the first century A.D.. The simplest of these lift was no more than a single pole. One end of which was sunk or fixed on the ground. This beam was raised & held in the position by a part of back stays attached to its upper ends. The pulley vlock. Which held the halling line by a windless fixed to one side of the pole near its base. The windless

can be used by working on the back stays to raise the beam into position. In medievatiange steem were a common feature at building construction at the docks to loads the large ships which were merely rope & pulley hoists the working of the crane heavy relied on the manpower until the advent of the steam engine which powered the windless. CLASSIFICATION OF LIFT

Lift can be classified according to working principle into three types,

a. Mechanical lift b. Hydraulic lift c. Pneumatic lift

a. Mechanical Lift : -

In this ropes chains belts & an electric motor are used to lift the objects

B: Hydraulic Lift :

This Type of equipment consists of an electric motor or internal combustion engine or hydraulic pack to drive a pump which feeds fluids into a hydraulic operating cylinder through the lines with control valves. It provides for speed control over a wise range. Ensures smooth operation of the mechanism without impacts. Employs simple means of protection against overloads & is compact Consequently the hydraulic drive enjoys ever increasing popularity in hoisting installation, especially traveling lift unfortunately high cost of certain constituent components limits the application of the hydraulic drive on a large scale.

C: Pneumatic Lift :

Here compressed air is admitted into the direct acting power cylinders under pressure. The piston rods of the cylinders are linked with the business end it displays low efficiency in handling light loads & limits the radius of action of movable machines by the length of the air hose.

We used the rachet for controlling the movement. 1)Elevator (Base plate of left ):-These plate is mounted on frame with help of two supporter.these mechanism is connected 1st shaft to 2nd shaft for power transmission. 5)Chain &sprocket mechanism:. 2)After connect the winding rope at one side of the elevator and another side of rope is connected winding pully. 1)Elevator(base) 2)Winding Rope 3)Winding pully 4)Rachet Process of manufacturing:1st we made a frame as our required size. 6)Spurgear:-On 2nd shaft near sprocket we arrange the small spur gear. 5)Sprocket and chain mechanism 6)spur Gear small 7)Movable spur gear 8)Big spur gear . 4) Rachet :-In our mechanism we required one side locking movement .CHAPTER 2 CONSTRUCTION AND WORKING As in our mechanism we used mainly Eight Parts. 3)Winding pully:-On these pulley we wind the rope easily. This spur gear is transmit the power from movable spurgear.

Hence this cylinder can produce work in only one direction.7)movable spur gear:-these movable spur gear mounted on 3rd shaft . 8)Big spur gear:-This spur gear is connected to movable spur gear. the stroke length is . (i) Single acting cylinder:. PISTON AND CONTROLLING UNIT:-we used piston and controlling unit to providing power to the our mechanism.In a single acting cylinder. The Force exerted by the compressed compressed air moves the piston in two directions in a double acting cylinder. air cylinders can be sub-divided as (i) Single acting and (ii) Double acting cylinders. According to the operating principle. (ii) Double acting cylinder :-Here we have used double acting cylinder. The pneumatic power is converted to straight line reciprocating motions by pneumatic cylinders. The return movement of the piston is effected by a built-in spring or by application of an external force. In principle. the compressed air is fed only in one direction. which is actuated air. We connected the piston in the center point . using It is the pneumatic actuator. on these spur gear.This gear is moving on 3rd shaft easily.

DOUBLE ACTING CYLINDER . which reciprocatesto and fro with the application of high pressure air. The piston is fitted withthe piston ring which is made of Teflon rubber to make perfect compression of the air.unlimited. be considered before we select a particular size of piston The double acting cylinder consists of 1) Cylinder tube. 4) Bronze rod guide. 2) Piston unit. rod length and stroke length. It contains piston and piston rod. The cylinder is manufactured from aluminium solid bar with central bore on lathe machine. It is then made smooth internally using method of honing and lapping. although buckling and bending must diameter. 6) End covers (flanges) 7) Port connection. Piston rod. rod packing of ‘O’rings. The material used for various parts differs for different types of cylinders depending upon applications. 3) Double cup packing on piston. 8) Cushion assembly.

They are: 1) 2) Neutral or zero position Working position The positions are mostly numbered as 0.3) 5/2 Direction control foot operated valve: Its basic symbol is as shown To control the to and fro motion of a pneumatic cylinder.1. . Similarly one has to control the quantity of pressure and flow rate to generate desired level of force and speed of actuation. valves are used to-(i) start and stop pneumatic energy.5/2 means 5 ways / 2positions. To achieve these functions. Direction control valves are designated to indicate both the number of ways as well as the number of working positions such as 4/2. and reversed with a predetermined sequence in a pneumatic system. 3/2. controlled. A direction control valve has two or three working positions generally. the air energy has to be regulated. (iii)control the flow rate of the compressed air and (iv) control the pressure rating of the compressed air. (ii)control the direction of flow of compressed air.2.

For economical reason. one should take sufficient care and pay attention to see that the pressure drop from the generating point to the point of consumption remains as low as possible. 5/2 DIRECTION CONTROL VALVE 4) Air circulating devices: The compressed air is stored in an air receiver from which air is drawn out in to the consumer point by means of pipe line. This ensures easy exhausting of the valve along with the two positions i. ON and OFF. it is always better if the total drop of pressure is kept limited to a maximum value of . 5 openings are provided.Here we have used 5/2 direction control valve.e. While laying out the pipe line for the system. In this design of direction control valve. Here the spool slides inside the main bore and according that the spool position is made ON or OFF due to the fact that the spool gets connected to the open side or the closed side of the air opening.

Considered the above factors we have selected the flexible hose tubes of 1/8”diameter. Spur gear train: We used to spur gear train mechanism using rpm increase. 4) Types of tube material and types of line fitting. 6) Working environment. .line installations:- 1) Pressure of compressed air in the lines. 3) Permissible pressure drop in the line. 5) Length and diameter of tube or other pipelines. Big spur gear is mounted on shaft or shaft is mounted on single bearing mounted or small gear is mounted on conyorr shaft. The following factors are taken into account while selecting pneumatic pipeline and other air. 2) Total flow rate per unit time through the line.1 bar or even less.0.

It holds the weight of the vertical post and supports the direction control valve. .It forms the robust support to stand the machine vertically.1) Frame Base :. It is made of mild steel channels of size (25 x 25 x 5)mm cross section and 600 x 300mm of rectangular base with the vertical post and the horizontal channel at the top.


1 Basic principle of pneumatic system: Basic Pneumatic System The basic layout of a pneumatic system is shown in fig. The basic differences between hydraulic and pneumatic systems are that in hydraulic system the input mechanical energy is . It could be observed that the basic components involved are similar to a hydraulic system.CHAPTER 3 WORKING: 3.

2. Pneumatic control valves to regulate control & monitor the air energy. 7. 5. 1. Further. A receiver to store the compressed air. in pneumatic systems the working fluid being air.imparted to the oil is by pump. Air distribution lines to distribute the air to various components of the system. AIR CYLINDRES: Air cylinders are the means of converting our pressure in applied force and straight the motion. 3. The major components of the pneumatic systems are: 1. Pneumatic actuators. Filter lubricator regulator (FLR) unit for conditioning of air and regulation of pressure. Air driers. a hydraulic system usually operates at very high pressures to transmit the large force and power while a pneumatic system operates at low pressures of about 5 – 7 bar for industrial applications. 4. the mechanical energy is imparted to air by a compressor. 6. A compressor of appropriate capacity to meet the compressed air requirements. whereas. An air cylinder consist essentially of a tube sealed both ends by covers and fitted with a .

or double acting. The theoretical force of thrust available from a cylinder is directly proportional to the area as available pressureFORCE = 0. D = cylinder bore.7854 * D2*P Where. An air cylinder may be single acting capable of developing in one direction only.piston and piston rod. The majority of air cylinders are designed for working with maximum air pressure of the order of 10 bars. . Compressed sir admitted though a port at one and produces movement of the piston displaced air exhausted though a second port at other end. P = applied pressure. although the usual operating pressure is of the order of 3 bars. acting capable of being pressurized fro each and alternately developing an output force in both directions.

HAND LEVER VALVES PIPE SIZE MEDIA No.PIPING: The function of the piping in either a hydraulic or a pneumatic system is to act as a leak Proof carrier of the fluid. 3/8”. .2.PIPE MATERIAL: Steel pipes are normally used for air mains. OF WAYS ACUATION RETURN MECHANISM PRESSURE MACHINE SPOOL TYRE : 1/ 4”. 4. For braid pipes or smaller lines up to about 25 mm. Bore copper piping nylon tubing is commonly employed with flexible lines at the take off points. AND 1 / 2” BSP : AIR : 5 AND 3 WAY : HANDLEVER : SPRING PUSH-PULL : 0-10 Kg / CM2 : 2 AND 3 POSITION WITH OR WITHOUT DETENT VALVE BODY ALUMINIUM 3.

will choke the how. tubing is not for rigid installations except where adequate support by pipe clips can be arranged. A plain (uncomforted) polythene tubing is more flexible than nylon tubing. since pressure drop is .AIR LINES: The efficiency of any pneumatic system fed through pipelines depends very largely on the pipe size adopted.D. Piping may be divided three classes: Rigid Semi rigid Flexible 5. Pipe lengths. Pipes. Typical maximum pressure rating 7 bar for 15 mm O. resulting in excessive pressure drop is directly proportional to length. however is relatively insignificant as a design control parameter compared with pipe bore size.Flexible nylon tubes may be used directly for smaller diameter house or reinforced with braid for larger. in fact are commonly quoted in terms of pressure drop per unit length. which are too small. Pressure drop figures. Rubber house is used for flexible lines where a wide working temperature is required or larger size is needed.

It is multipurpose machine. 3. Easy to operate. It is profitable . . Unit cost is very cheap . a small change in bore size can have a marked effect on pressure drop. It has unique capability. It is ideal for exercise . It is pollution free .inversely proportional to (bore) 5 approximately in other worlds. Easy to assemble .4 Advantages In the assemble process. No electric contact to machine so it is safe for shock. It die or punch is damaged we can easy change so it’s maintenance cost is low. Where as even doubling the pipe length will only result in doubling the pressure drop. significant productivity gains can be archive by utilizing energy source that is easy to able handle.

5 Disadvantages . Pressure control device isn’t control press at working because speed is not constant . It is not self prime . More space is required .3. . If any leakage efficiency is suddenly decreases .


FLUID POWER 4. belts.1 INTRODUCTION Fluid power system is a power transmission system in which the transmission of power takes place through a fluid medium. to a great extent of a conventional power transmission system.CHAPTER 4. SCHEMATIC LAYOUT OF A FLUID POWER SYSTEM . Such a system avoids the mechanical linkages such as gears. The transmission of power by fluid power system is most convenient and highly efficient. ropes. the present conventional transmission systems are being replaced and changed over to fluid power based systems. chains etc. Due to this.

The mechanical energy supplied by the prime mover is converted into the pressure energy by the pump and it is stored in a fluid. The various parameters such as pressure and flow rate of the fluid can be controlled by using various control valves. Thus the energy supplied by the prime mover has been transmitted conveniently through fluid medium to various places and at these places. This is quite evident from the fact that in olden days simple machines like Pelton wheel were developed to .2 HISTORY OF FLUID POWER In history long ago. man has recognized and accepted fluids as a source of power. The pressurized fluid is now transmitted to different parts of the system through special pipings or tubings. the fluid energy is converted back into mechanical energy by the devices called actuators consisting of cylinders. 4.Prime mover supplies the mechanical energy to a pump or compressor which is used to pressurize a fluid. motors etc. Since the power is transmitted through the fluid as a medium. At the desired places of use. therefore such a system is called as fluid power system. the mechanical energy has been recovered back in a more convenient form.

Closely related to the field of material handling is the field of automation. cylinders. were experimented and perfected. for their efficient operation. electric drive motors etc. Such huge crane handled by a single miniature control valve by an operator. gear boxes. In addition to the main system of loading/unloading hydraulic and pneumatic components are used in brake systems. It includes cranes of very high capacity. fluid power is used for various purposes.transmit irrigation water or water head was used to transmit the power. Large lift belt system could be operated by hydraulic components. engineers started using fluids for power transmission and basic elements like pumps. Because of this a new branch is developed called as ‘Industrial fluid power’. all make use of hydraulic/pneumatic systems. etc. in various mechanical systems. material Handling is the field where fluid power is used in a really big way. control valves. tippers. fork lifts. chains. Now a day in industries. In recent times. clutch systems etc. Both hydraulic as well as pneumatic power finds . Huge material handling trucks. In industries.. Slowly oil hydraulics and pneumatics assumed a place of importance in areas of power generation and replaced many mechanical elements like line shafts. loaders dumpers.

large no of application in automation. . Robotics is another field in flexible automation where pneumatics is widely employed.

Frequent required 10 11 12 Heavy tubes /pipes are needed. 5 6 7 System is more compact. Self lubricating effect. No fire hazard. 8 9 Return line is required for oil. Fire hazard . Works at low pressure. Only Moderate forces can be developed.3 COMPARISON OF HYDRAULIC AND PNEUMATIC SYSTEM No 1 2 3 4 HYDRAULIC SYSTEM Working fluid is a liquid. No need for fluid replenishment. Working fluid is incompressible. Several Mechanical movements could be achieved. Clean system due to air. . Movement is limited. Very high forces could be PNEUMATIC SYSTEM Working fluid is a gas. Works at very high pressure. Light tubing/piping is sufficient. No self lubricating effect. replacement of oil developed It is more bulky.4. Mess and dirt due to oil. Working fluid is compressible. No reserve oil hence no return line.

1 INTRODUCTION: Pneumatic systems form the most primitive and distinct class of mechanical control engineering. linear-rotary and linear-linear is possible. production and assembly of automotive components . These features make them versatile and find universal applications including robotics. which describes any process or device that converts. In a pneumatic system. the working fluid is a gas (mostly air) which is compressed above atmospheric pressure to impart pressure energy to the molecules. Conversion of various combinations of motions like rotaryrotary. The working fluid is abundant in nature and hence the running and maintenance cost of these systems are exceptionally low. They are classified under the term 'Fluid Power Control'. aerospace technology. Pneumatic systems are well suited for the automation of a simple repetitive task. transmits. durability and compact size of pneumatic systems make them well suited for mobile applications. All fluids have the ability to translate and transfigure and hence pneumatic systems permit variety of power conversion with minimal mechanical hardware.CHAPTER 5. PNEUMATIC SYSTEM 5. This stored pressure potential is converted to a suitable mechanical work in an appropriate controlled sequence using control valves and actuators. distributes or controls power through the use of pressurized gas or liquid. The simplicity in design.

. Pneumatically powered machines and robots are to be found in numerous industrial processes such as assembling or arranging components. the Greek word for "air". In addition to a tight sinew. e. bomb deployment units and fabrication process of plastic products. he used air compressed in a cylinder to increase the range of projectiles. has given its name to the technology known as pneumatics.(power steering. And this is not all. CNC machines. Thus. "Pneumatic lift “combines two fascinating pneumatics and computing in one single kit. areas of technology. or packing finished goods. So it is not surprising that "pneuma". a bellows for lighting fires. manual valves and a mini compressor. It is even possible to program and control these machines with a computer. During the industrialization process in the 19th century. In the year 260 BC. 5.g.3 PNEUMATIC LIFT: These consist of pneumatic cylinders. man has used air as an aid in doing various tasks.2 HISTORY OF PNEUMATIC SYSTEM: For thousands of years. Pneumatic technology has become indispensable in modern industry. food products and packaging industry. chassis and engine assembly). a Greek called Ctesibios built the first air gun. 5. machines powered by compressed air were used for mining and building roads.

Compliance is due to the compressibility of air and.g. But in our . have a very rigid behavior and can only be made to act in a compliant manner through the use of relatively complex feedback control strategies. Hydraulic and electric drives. Lately. Thanks to compliance a soft touch and safe interaction can be easily guaranteed.Pneumatic actuators. bellows. pneumatic engines and even pneumatic stepper motors—are commonly used to date. as it has some advantages over the hydraulic system.g. Several types of pneumatic actuators—e. cylinders. Their is no need for fluid replenishment. handling of fragile objects). in contrast. as such. lift as well is starting to use pneumatics as a main motion power source. can be influenced by controlling the operating pressure. There is no fire hazard. 5. This is an important feature whenever there is an interaction between man and machine or when delicate operations have to be carried out (e.4 ? WHY WE USED COMPRESSED AIR PNEUMATIC SYSTEM We used pneumatic system. usually cylinders. are widely used in factory floor automation. One of the major attractions about pneumatics is the low weight and the inherent compliant behavior of its actuators. Light tubing/piping is sufficient.

It is equivalent to 760 mm of Hg or 10. Unduplicated exhaust clear air which escapes through leaking pipe or components don’t cause contamination. It has self cleaning properties.96 kg/kg mol. Explosive proof. Molecular mass. Freezing point at 1 bar = -212º C to -216 ºC. Easily transportable in the vessels and pipes.1 Properties of Air: Air is a mixture of 78% nitrogen. 5.2 Advantages of Compressed Air Pneumatic Systems: 1. No protection against explosion required. Properties of air are very suitable for pneumatic system. . 21% oxygen and 1% other inert gases with moisture by volume. 6. 2. M = 28. Simple construction and ease of handling.4. Characteristic gas constant. Air exerts pressure at sea level of about 1. 3. 4. 7. 3. Freely available from the atmosphere.7 psi ) called atmospheric pressure. 5. Boiling point at 1 bar = -191º C to -194º C.3 m of water pressure as measured by U-tube manometer.4. 4. R = 287 Nm/kg K. Other physical properties of air are: 1. 5. we have used air as a working fluid. 2. Because air has the some advantages over the other gases. Clean system. No return lines are required.013 bar (14.pneumatic system.

It is inaccurate in operation.4.3 Disadvantages of Compressed Air System: 1. 4. Conditioning of air is needed.Pneumatic tools and operating components can be loaded to the point of stopping and are therefore overload safe 10. Refrigeration and air conditioning systems . Air enables high working speed to be obtained Low cost of maintenance. The pressure. To operate pneumatic tools 2. 11. 5. 6. Expensive. Spray Painting 3. High forces can not be transmitted.4. 2.. It provides non-uniform speeds.8. 5. Overload safety. 9. Compressed air systems are used for many industrial applications. 5. 3. Creates noise pollution. speed and forces required can be controlled easily.4 Applications: Usually air at low pressures in the range of 5 to 7 bar is used in pneumatic systems. Some of its applications are: 1.

4. Conveying materials like sand and concrete. in pipe line 7.C Engines 6. Pumping of Water 8. coal mixtures etc. In Robotics . Gas turbine power plants 5. Supercharging of I. In Blast furnaces 10. Driving the mining machinery 9.


process equipment. Unlike positive pressure systems. Vacuum system: Vacuum dilute phase pneumatic conveying system are generally employed for transporting material from multiple sources as storage vessels. and do not impart heat to the material. over longer distance and with greater capacity than possible using vacuum system. to individual or multiple destinations.CHAPTER 6 TYPES OF PNEUMETIC SYSTEM Positive pressure system: Positive pressure dilute phase pneumatic lifts are typically employed to convey bulk material from a single source to one or multiple destination. trucks and rail cars. . vacuum system allow easy pick-up of materials from open containers using wands. Since vacuum systems offer superior leak containment. they are often specified on the basis of cleanliness. particularly when handling hazardous materials.

The machine tool drive is an aggregate of mechanism that transmits motion from an external source. Mechanical Transmission and its elements: 1) Belt Transmission . the transmission takes place through mechanisms that transfer Rotary motion from one shaft to another. The external source of energy is generally a three phase A. A transmission system is the mechanism. The rotary motion of the motor is transmitted to the operative element to provide an operative working or auxiliary motion. motor.C. chains etc. which has a rotary motion at its output shaft. When the required motion is rotary. To the operative elements of the machine tool. which deals with transmission of the power and motion from prime mover to shaft or from one shaft to the other.CHAPTER 7 TRANSMISSION SYSTEM INTRODUCTION The mechanical power produced by prime over I used to drive various machines in the workshop and factories. Transmission of the motion from the external source to the operative element can take place through Mechanical elements such as belts. Gears.

2) Gear Transmission: Efficiency of power transmission in belt and rope drives is less. When the center distance between the two shafts is large than the tight side of the belt should be the lower one the pulley called driver is mounted on the driving shaft while the shaft while the other. This largely used for general purpose on mills and factories especially when the distance between the Shafts is not very great. The power may be transmitted from one shaft another by means of . When the belt moves over the pulleys there is always the possibility of slipping between the belt and pulley and hens the character of the motion transmitted is not positive when positive action is required. Gears and chain must be used.2) Gear Transmission 3) Chain Transmission 1) Belt Transmission: Belt drive is one of the most common effective devices transmitting motion and power from one shaft to the other by means of thin inextensible belt over running over to pulleys. which is mounted on the shaft to which power is to be transmitted is called the driven pulley or follower.

and agriculture machinery in workshops. printing machine etc. The format are known as stepped drives Ex. It is general requirement for any machines that they should provision for regulating speed of travel The regulation may be available in discrete steps or it may be steeples i. They are mostly used when distance between center is short but the center distance is as much as 8m.mating gears with high transmission Efficiency and a gear drive is also provide when the between driver and follower is very small. 3) Chain Transmission: Chains are used for high transmission number. milling machine. Lathe machine. . motor vehicle. They are now generally used for transmission of power in cycle.e. continuous.

they present no fire Hazards and are unaffected by high temperature or atmospheric condition. There are five parts of roller chain. The chain drives intermediate between belt and gear device. Inner plates 5. Pin 2. Roller 4. A chain drive dose not slip 3. The chain drives requires proper maintenance particularly lubrication and slack adjustment. 1. 1. Although they generate noise. Outer plate . 4.CHAIN A chain device consists of an endless chain wrapped around two Sprockets. The C plates Chain consists of a number of links connected by pin joints while the Sprockets are toothed wheels with a special profile for the teeth. However chain can be easily replaced. Bushing 3. The efficiency of chain drive is high at times as high as 98% 2. Chain drive is more compact then Belt or Gear Drive. All automobile especially two wheelers the chain drive is used for transmission power generated by the engine to rear wheel is used for following reasons. Roller chain drives is used in two wheeler for transmission of power.

CONSTRUCTION OF CHAIN The pin is press fitted to two outer link plates while the bush is press to inner link plates. 1 ISO chain Pitch P Roller diameter D1 Width B1 Breaking load for Single stand chain 08 B 12. The pins bushes and rollers are made of alloy Steel. Usually in automobile 08b (ISO chain number) is used the their dimensions are as follows Table No. The bush and the pin form a swivel joint and the outer link are freely fitted on bushes and during engagement.70 8. This result is rolling friction instead of sliding friction between the roller and sprocket teeth and reduces wear.2 . turn with the teeth of the sprocket wheels.75 18.51 7.



Total design work has been divided into two parts mainly. Factors which should be considered for the selecting the material .CHAPTER . Mechanical Design System design mainly concern with the various physical concerns and ergonomics. arrangements of various components on the main frame of machine. space requirements. Suitability of the material for the working condition in service 3.8 DESIGN SELECTION OF MATERIAL The selection of best material in one which serve the desired objective at the minimum cost. System Design 2. The cost of materials In our attempt to design a pneumatic lift. Availability of the raw material 2. number of . we have adopted a very careful approach. 1. 1.

The parts are to be purchased directly are specified and selected from standard catalogues. The process sheets are prepared and passed on to the manufacturing stage. scope of further improvements. detailed design is done and dimensions thus obtained are compared to next highest dimensions which are readily available in the market. The various tolerances on work pieces are specified in the manufacturing drawing. Parts to be purchased For design parts. height of machine components from the ground etc.controls. 1. the components are categorized into two parts. DESIGN OF CHASSIS INPUT DATA  TOTAL WEIGHT = 10KG  NO OF LINKS = 4 2 LINKS OF 900 MM 1 LINK OF 600 MM . This simplifies the assembly as well as post production servicing work. positions of this controls. Design Parts 2. In mechanical design. ease of maintenance.


AREA OF LINK = T1 x B1 ASSUMING WIDTH OF THE LINK = 3 x T1 HENCE. B1 = 3 x T1 2 AREA = 3T1 MI OF LINK 3 I = 1/12 x T1. K = RADIUS OF GYRATION A = AREA K=√I/A 2 K = 0.B1 = 2.75 T1 2 .25 T1⁴ LET.

LINK – 1 L1 = 300 MM PR = 500 N RANKINE CONSTANT = a = 1 / 7500 CRUSHING LOAD ( FY ) = 325 MPa FOR MS NOW. BUCKLING LOAD 2 PR = FY.768 MM ≈ 2 MM .500 T1 – 7980 = 0 T1 = 1. A / 1 + a (L / K ) 2 975T1⁴ . A / 1 + a λ WHERE λ = L / K 2 PR = F.

P = pitch D = pitch circle diameter of sprocket α = the pitch angel α = 360/Z i.97 MM HENCE WE TAKE THICKNESS T = 3 MM Where.e.SIMILARLY CALCULATING THE THICKNESS FOR LINK 2 AND 3 T2 = 2. 360/13= 27.7 Z = number of teeth on sprocket.44 MM AMD T3 = 2. Sin α /2 = .

The length of chain is always expressed in terms of numbers of clanks.M.) Z1. Z2 = Number of teeth on driving and driven shaft the average velocity of the chain is given by V= π x D x n/60 x 103 V = Z x p x n/60 x 103 V = average velocity in meter/sec.Z1 / 2xπ) x p/a .P. L= Ln x P Where L = length of chain in mm Ln = number of link in the chain The numbers of links in the chain are determined by the following relations Ln = 2(a/p) + (Z1 + Z2 / 2) + (Zn. n2 = Speeds of driving and driven shafts (R.The velocity ratio of chain is given by Where I = nl/n2 = Z1 /Z2 n1.

Zl = Number of teeth on Smaller sprocket. Therefore it’s necessary to clean the chain and re-lubricate it to improve its life.Where a = center distance between axis of driving and driven Sprocket. Z2 = Number of teeth on larger Sprocket.8 [Z2Z1/2Xπ]2)A1/2} 2.(Z1 + Z2 /2)]2 . .2) Power retaining of roller Chain The power transmitted by the roller chain can be expressed by the elementary equation KW = Pl X V/ 1000 P1 = Allowable tension in chain V = average velocity of chain In automobile the chain is lubricated by oil and grease. a = P/4{[Ln -(Z1 – Z2 / 2)] + ([Ln . But after some time the dust particle adhere on chain and goes in between roller and bushing and pins.

Me= ½ [km × M + {(km x m) 2 + (kt X T) 2} l/2] Where. Km = Combined Shock and Fatigue factor for bending. Te = [(km× M) 2 + (kt × T) 2] l/2 The equivalent Bending Moment. For Rotating Shaft . 4. Kt = Combined Shock and Fatigue factor for torsion. so shaft is under combined Bending and Torsion. Therefore.1 Design of shaft The shaft is subjected to fluctuating Loads.The wearing of chain also happens due to the following reasons. The equivalent Twisting Moment.

0 to 3.Table No.0 Suddenly applied load 2.5 to 2.0 So we consider the load on chain drive maximum 15kg.5 to 3.4. .1 Nature of load Km Kt Gradually Applied Load 1.0 Suddenly applied load 1.0 with minor shock 1.5 1.5 to 2.0 with Major Shock 1.


4. d = Inner diameter of bearing in mm D = Outer diameter of bearing in mm B = Axial width of bearing in mm . Table No. This bearing has high load carrying capacity & suitable for high running speed. So we have used single row deep groove bearing.6 SELECTION OF BEARING: As load acting on bearing consist of two components Radial & Thrust.6 Principle Dimension Basic load rating in N Designation D D B C Co 20 42 12 9560 4500 6204 Where. 4.

a) C 7 ( UTS – 340 N / mm2 ) b) C 10 ( UTS.400N/mm 2 ) 2. assuming operating pressure = 4 bar 3. ALUMINIUM ( UTS -200N/mm2) DESIGN OF CYLINDERS: ------------------------------------- Let Di be the internal diameter of cylinder. (142344 x (Di )2 x 4 x105) = 5105 N .C = Dynamic load capacity in N Co = Static load capacity in N DESIGN OF PISTON CYLINDERS : ------------------------------------- 1.

Di 6+ Pi ( 1.8 mm (From Pneumatic Handbook) Thickness of cylinder: -----------------------------Material C.Di = 0.0637 m. m. Di = 63.50 . WE take.* ------------------2 16 – Pi ( 1+U) . Considering the cylinder as thick. yield strength.7mm. Sy=340 N/sq. Using CLAVARINO” EQUATION. Di = 69.2U) T= ---------.

we take thickness of cylinder as.9 * ---------------------16 – 0.6) T = 34. T= 3mm. we take length of piston in contact with cylinder =0. .8 ( 1+0.38 mm By practical considerations. DESIGN OF PISTON: ----------------------------- Dia .85mm Considering the effective sealing and guiding the piston red inside the cylinder.3) T = 1.D of cylinder = 69.6 + 0.8 ( 1-0.32 times diameter of piston. of piston = I.

142) x E. Wcr Fc A = Crippling load .consider the condition fixed at both ends for piston rod. = Crushing stress = 320 N/ sq . This helps in reducing wear of the cylinder and provides easy sliding it. piston material is GOI 30 as its grains are small and soft. m. considering the size of “ U” --.cup seal .7 is taken equal to 12. 31. Rankine’ s constant = 1/ 7500 for M.5 . Fc x A Wcr = ------------1: at L/K Where. DESIGN OF PISTON ROD: ------------------------------------- We design the piston rod for bucking . According to Rankine’s formula.S. = fc /( 3.The length of step of Dia . .142 x 3.

142 /4) x D x D 5105 = -------------------------------1+ 1/75010 [1/15 x (4/ D)2 ] 251.58 .2 x D 5105 = ----------------D 4 + 48 .52 =0 D = 6. we have 320 x (3. D4 – 20. Thus putting the values in the above formula.L = Equivalent length of column = ½ for both ends fixed (by using Euler’s theory ) = Least radius of gyration.68 Solving further we get.32 D – 988.

O.Considering the impact load coming on the piston rod . D = 20 mm. we take the diameter of piston rod as . of 4/3) .74 mm.S. D = 19. ( applying a F.


Part Name :Part size Part WT Part Qty shaft

:- 2 8x 650mm :- 8 kg :- 2

Part Material M.S.

Sr. No 1





Cutting the material as required size

Power Hack m/c

Hacksaw Blade

10 min


Make a turning the material both side make a dia of 20mm.

Lathe m/c

Turing Tool

10 min

Part Name :- bearing Plate Part size Part Qty Part Wt Sr .No 1 :- 60 x 10mm x60mm :- 4 :- 6kg Operation Cutting the material as required size Machine Power Hack m/c 2 As in one side after 10mm distance 41mmdia 3 Facing the Both side Lathe m/c Lathe m/c Drilling Bit 20./41mm Turing Tool 15 min 15min Tool Hacksaw Blade Time 10 min

Part Name :- bush Part size Part Qty :- 35 x 15 mm :- 1 1kg

Part Wt 6 :- M.S.

Sr.No 1

Operation Cutting the material as required size

Machine Power Hack m/c Lathe m/c

Tool Hacksaw Blade

Time 10 min


As in center 23 mm hole

Turing Tool

10 min

3.CHAPTER10 LIST OF COMPONENTS Sr. 1. 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 Name of Component Quantity Base plate Shaft Bearing frame ( base) Pistion 5by 2 valve Spur gear small Bearing Big spur gear Rope Bearing housing Chain Sprocket 1 3 7 1 1 1 2 7 1 2mts 7 1 2 . 2. 4 5. No. 6.

4. . Easy Construction. 2. Economical One.14 15 Rachet Compressor 1 1 CHAPTER 11 ADVANTAGES 1. Can be built up to various capacities easily. 5. 6. Easy Manufacturing . Low maintenance cost. For grinding less time required. 3.

CHAPTER 12 APPLICATIONS In big industries. Multistage parking Hospital mall . Necessity Of Compressor.DISADVANTAGES 1. Large Storage Space. 2.

however were overcome by us due to availability of good reference books. fabrication and assembly work of the project model to our entire satisfaction. Needless to emphasis here that we had lift no stone unturned in our potential efforts during machining.CHAPTER . we had enormous practical experience on fulfillment of the manufacturing schedules of the working project model. happy to state that the in calculation of mechanical aptitude proved to be a very useful purpose. we feel quite fulfill in having completed the project assignment well on time. The selection of choice raw materials helped us in machining of the various components to very close tolerance and thereby minimizing the level of wear and tear. Although the design criterions imposed challenging problems which.13 CONCLUSION While concluding this report. We are therefore. .

CHAPTER 14 COST ESTIMATION COST OF MATERIAL Part Name Material Wt Rate / kg Total Rate SHAFT1 shaft 2 BEARING MOUNTER BUSH Ms Ms - 2 6 4 60 120 360 60 240 - 2 60 120 COST OF MACHINE Machine Name Using Time Rate /hr Total Rate Gas cutting ml Lath m/c 30 45 200 250 .

Power Hacksaw Welding 15 175 60 250 COST OF STD PART Part Name qty Rate /qty Total Rate Pistion cylinder 5by 2 valve Big spur small spur gear Sprocket Phumatic pipe Pumatic fitting Chain Bearing 1 1 1 1 4 1mtrs 6nos 2nos 4nos 2400 1200 900 420 240 50 30 180 100 480 .

Small bearing Wheel 1nos 2nos 450 75 900 Cost of Machine Cost of project =Cost of material + Cost of machine + Cast of std part .

Workshop Technology :. Bhandari Tata Mc . 4. J. 5.PSG . Production Technology :. Machine Design :.Gupta . Design of machine Elements :. New Delhi.K.Hajara Chaudhari .Prof .Graw Hill Publishing Co. 3.Prof .CHAPTER 15 REFERENCES 1. B. 2. V. Design Data Book :. Khurmi .R. Jain .K.

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