You are on page 1of 16

Stamatel

Central Eastern Europe

Changes in Crime and Criminal Justice in Post-Socialist Central Eastern Europe

Janet P. Stamatel

Forthcoming in Encyclopedia of Crime & Punishment, Thousand Oaks, C ! Sage "##"

Please do not cite without permission of author.

Stamatel

Central Eastern Europe

The countries of Central Eastern Europe (Albania, Bulgaria, Croatia, Czech Republic, Hungar , !olan", Romania, Slo#a$ia, Slo#enia, an" %ugosla#ia& ha#e e'perience" ma(or political, economic, an" social changes "uring the 1))*s as a result of the collapse of So#iet+st le communism in the region, -ne of the man social

conse.uences of the transition to "emocratic mar$et societies is changes in both the .uantit an" .ualit of reporte" crime, /hile information about crime an" (ustice in this region 0as scarce prior to 1)1), the liberalization of these countries has allo0e" public access to information about these issues, The follo0ing essa "escribes important changes in the amount of crime, t pes of crimes, an" t pes of criminals in Central Eastern Europe "uring the post+socialist transition of the 1))*s, 2n a""ition, it illustrates ho0 t0o

important aspects of the criminal (ustice s stem, policing an" prisons, ha#e also been affecte" b transition processes,

Crime under State Socialism 3or o#er 4* ears, from the en" of /orl" /ar 22 until 1)1), the countries of Central Eastern Europe 0ere rule" b So#iet+st le communism, or state socialism, This authoritarian mo"el of go#ernment controlle" all aspects of social life, inclu"ing politics, economics, religion, e"ucation, an" ci#il societ , Base" upon 5ar'ist+6eninist i"eolog , the goal of this t pe of social organization 0as to create a classless societ , thereb eliminating social ine.ualit , To this en", economic life consiste" of a comman" econom 0ith planne" pro"uction an" "istribution, the abolition of pri#ate propert , full emplo ment for all a"ults, an" e'tensi#e social 0elfare benefits to ensure the e.ual "istribution of 0ealth an" propert , 7n"er the single+part political structure, the

Stamatel Communist !art

Central Eastern Europe

"ictate" economic "e#elopment an" maintaine" tight control o#er

citizens through limite" mobilit , censorship, public persecution of "issenters, an" the brute force of the militia, the militarize" police force of the Communist !art , Crime "oes not e'ist in a utopian communist societ , Ho0e#er, crime "i" e'ist in Central Eastern Europe un"er state socialism an" it 0as interprete" as a 9remnant of capitalism: that 0as e'pecte" to "issipate as state socialism e#entuall became true communism, that is a societ 0ithout classes or pri#ate propert , Accor"ing to

communist i"eolog , 9crime an" conflict, 0hich are seen as resulting from the "emoralizing con"itions of the class societ base" on pri#ate propert , 0ill #anish, thereb ma$ing superfluous an permanent apparatus of coercion in the form of the arm , police an" corrections: (6os 1)11, 1&, 2n realit , communism not onl faile" to eliminate crime, but also create" ne0 forms of crime specific to the legal con"itions of the e'isting socialist or"er, Such crimes inclu"e" hooliganism, 0hich 0as #iolating public or"er or

"isrespecting societ ; parasitism, 0hich 0as not 0or$ing or not contributing e.uall to economic life; theft against socialist propert , 0hich 0as t picall 0or$place theft; an" crimes against the centralize" "istribution of goo"s, such as hoar"ing supplies or pro"ucts, A""itionall , state socialist countries 0ere plague" 0ith the more common crimes of (u#enile "elin.uenc , alcoholism an" "rug abuse, an" corruption, Con#entional 9street: crimes, such as burglar , homici"e, rape, an" assault also e'iste" in socialist countries, but it is "ifficult to measure their pre#alence because of the lac$ of reliable an" #ali" "ata, Ho0e#er, there is consi"erable e#i"ence to suggest that rates of con#entional crimes 0ere lo0er in Central Eastern Europe "uring state socialism than in capitalist countries,

Stamatel

Central Eastern Europe Crime and Social Change in the Post-Socialist Transition

2n 1)1) the era of So#iet+st le communism came to an en" in Central Eastern Europe, follo0e" shortl thereafter b the brea$up of the So#iet 7nion itself, !oor economic performance, lo0 stan"ar"s of li#ing, a gro0ing un"ergroun" ci#il societ , 0i"esprea" corruption, an" international pressure together un"ermine" the authoritarian regimes of these countries an" le" to relati#el peaceful transitions of po0er, <uring the course of a ear, more than 4* ears of communist rule ha" gi#en 0a to the public 0ill, 3or the ne't "eca"e, the countries of Central Eastern Europe became 9transition societies,: simultaneousl o#erhauling their political, economic, legal, an" social

organization, /hile the in"i#i"ual countries follo0e" their o0n reform paths an" there 0as consi"erable "ebate as to the "irection of the reforms, the general tra(ector 0as to replace state socialism 0ith some form of "emocratic capitalism, The single part rule of the Communist !art 0as replace" 0ith open multi+part elections, the comman"

econom 0as replace" 0ith a mar$et econom base" upon suppl an" "eman", propert 0as once again pri#atize", an" the social sphere 0as liberalize" through free"om of speech, religion, press, an" association, B opening national bor"ers, liberalizing tra"e, an" pri#atizing the me"ia, the citizens of Central Eastern Europe 0ere e'pose" to the material an" cultural life of the /est that the ha" been shiel"e" from for "eca"es, Ho0e#er, the initial e'citement o#er the en" of socialist rule 0as short+li#e" as the problems associate" 0ith such a massi#e transformation of societ began to ta$e their toll on the citizens of these countries, -nce the euphoria of the 1)1) re#olutions ha" passe" an" the realit of the long an" "ifficult transition process set it, it soon became clear that filling the #oi" of the communist s stem 0oul" be "ifficult, error+prone, an" costl , Some of the social conse.uences of the reforms inclu"e" a "rop in real 0ages, high inflation,

Stamatel

Central Eastern Europe

unemplo ment, "ecreasing social 0elfare benefits, an" gro0ing social ine.ualities, 2n a""ition, crime became a highl #isible social problem an" the fear of crime among the public became a serious political problem, Some /estern obser#ers an" Central Eastern European reformers ha#e treate" the gro0th of crime in this region as a natural conse.uence of the transition process, 3or e'ample, a !olish statesman 0as .uote" in The Atlantic Constitution (21 <ecember 1))8& as sa ing, 92t>s para"o'ical, but the gro0th in crime is the price one has to pa for free"om:, Ho0e#er, both the real an" percei#e" threat of gro0ing crime rates has

affecte" the .ualit of life for citizens in Central an" Eastern Europe, Researchers ha#e note" a "eterioration of personal an" material securit in the region "ue to crime

problems, 3or e'ample, accor"ing to Bulgarian sur#e "ata, 9crime an" unemplo ment ran$ stabl #er high in the perception of ris$s facing the national societ : (?eno# 1)11@ 2**+2*1&, -fficial crime statistics from #arious sources confirm popular beliefs an" me"ia accounts of increasing crime rates in all countries in the region, Accor"ing to the United Nations World Surveys on Crime Trends and Criminal ustice Systems , reporte"

homici"e an" total theft rates increase" bet0een 1)1) an" 1))4 in all Central Eastern European countries that reporte" "ata (Bulgaria, Croatia, Hungar , !olan", Romania, Slo#a$ia, an" Slo#enia&, but the amount of increase #arie" b countr , 3or e'ample, reporte" homici"e rates in Hungar an" Romania ha" "ecrease" more than 2*A "uring the socialist perio" from 1)1B to 1)1), but the ha" increase" "uring the first four ears of the post+socialist transition perio" 8)A in Hungar an" )A in Romania, The total reporte" theft rate in Slo#a$ia ha" remaine" fairl stable bet0een 1)1B an" 1)1), but "uring the earl transition ears of 1))* to 1))4 the reporte" theft rate increase" 1B8A,

Stamatel

Central Eastern Europe

A""itional e'amples can be foun" in the !uropean Source"oo# for Criminal ustice Statistics, 0hich note" that the reporte" motor #ehicle theft rate increase" o#er 1**A in Bulgaria, the Czech Republic, an" Hungar , an" o#er 2**A in !olan" bet0een 1))* an" 1))B, <uring the same time perio", the reporte" assault rate rose bet0een 11 an" 1B A in Slo#enia, Hungar , Romania, an" !olan", an" o#er B**A in Bulgaria, /hile official crime statistics confirm that there has been a "ramatic increase in crime rates across Central Eastern Europe in the earl 1))*s, this simple statement obscures "ifferences among countries e'periencing similar transition processes, An

e'amination of crime rates across countries, ears, an" t pes of crime paints a much more comple' picture, 3or e'ample, "ata from the United Nations World Surveys on Crime Trends and Criminal ustice Systems sho0 that Bulgaria e'perience" a large (ump in the reporte" homici"e rate from 1)1) to 1))* 0hich continue" to increase stea"il to the mi"+1))*s, 2n contrast, Romania ha" a higher pre+transition reporte" homici"e rate than most other Central Eastern European countries an" sho0e" a fairl stable tren" in the earl 1))*s, /ith respect to total reporte" theft, Bulgaria, Romania, an" Slo#a$ia

sho0e" increasing tren"s from 1)1) to 1))4, 0hile reporte" theft rates in Croatia, Hungar , an" Slo#enia reache" pea$ le#els in 1))1 or 1))2 an" then began to "ecline b the mi"+1))*s, A""itionall , there has been speculation as to 0hether crime rates 0ill continue to rise in Central Eastern Europe or 0hether the 0ill le#el off as the countries begin to stabilize, <ata from the British Home -ffice sho0 consi"erable fluctuations across

countries an" crime t pes in the late 1))*s, 3or e'ample, the reporte" homici"e rate increase" 1A in the Czech Republic, "ecrease" BA in !olan", an" "i" not change in Hungar from 1))C to 1))1, <uring the same perio", ho0e#er, reporte" motor #ehicle

Stamatel

Central Eastern Europe

theft "ecrease" =A in the Czech Republic, increase" 1=A in !olan", an" increase" BA in Hungar , Ho0e#er, earl changes in crime "ata are not necessaril the best pre"ictors of future tren"s because of ran"om fluctuations an" reporting an" recor"ing errors, <ata from the 2nternational !olice -rganization (2nterpol& from 1))* to 1))C in"icate that crime rates in man Central Eastern European countries ma in"ee" be stabilizing at le#els higher than the pre+transition ears, -nce more "ata are a#ailable from the 7nite"

Dations an" 2nterpol for the complete "eca"e, more accurate estimates can be ma"e about the future "irection of crime tren"s in Central Eastern Europe,

Changes in Types of Crimes and Criminals Dot onl has the amount of crime in Central Eastern Europe increase", but the t pes of crimes ha#e also change", Crimes that 0ere pro"ucts of the communist political an" economic organization, such as hooliganism an" parasitism, ha#e been replace" b crimes reflecting the current s stem, 3or e'ample, the pri#atization of propert an" the intro"uction of mar$et reforms 0ithout a full "e#elope" legal an" contractual frame0or$ has le" to ne0 forms of economic crimes, such as rent+see$ing, ta' e#asion, an" illegal emplo ment, A""itionall , "esirable consumer goo"s 0hich 0ere once unobtainable

"uring socialism ha#e become a#ailable after 1)1), but high inflation has "ecrease" citizens> legal purchasing po0er, This has resulte" in increase" theft of popular items such as cars, computers, an" au"io+#isual entertainment an" create" illegal mar$ets for such pro"ucts, -pening national bor"ers has meant that this region of the 0orl" is no0 a ma(or pla er in transnational crime, particularl organize" crime, 9The en" of the Col" /ar, the collapse of state authorit in some countries an" regions, an" the process of globalization

Stamatel

Central Eastern Europe

++ of tra"e, finance, communications, an" information ++ ha#e all pro#i"e" an en#ironment in 0hich man criminal organizations fin" it profitable an" preferable to operate across national bor"ers rather than confine their acti#ities to one countr : (De0man 1))), 221&, E'amples of transnational crimes in#ol#ing Central Eastern Europe are illegal migration, traffic$ing in 0omen, corruption, motor #ehicle theft, an" computer crimes, 3or e'ample, accor"ing to "ata from the 7nite" Dations, the number of cases of traffic$ing in 0omen in Austria rose si' times from 1))* to 1))4 an" almost half of the #ictims 0ere from the Czech Republic an" Slo#a$ia, As another e'ample, of all regions in the 0orl" reporting crime "ata to the 7nite" Dations, Central Eastern Europe ha" the highest o#erall soft0are pirac rate of 18A, -rganize" crime in Central Eastern Europe, particularl the 9Russian 5afia: has gaine" much me"ia attention in the 7nite" States an" abroa", /hile it is "ifficult to measure the e'tent of the problem, the e'istence of such groups has been "ocumente" b (ournalists an" researchers ali$e, 9-rganize" crime groups earl establishe" lin$s in

Hungar , !olan", an" the Czech Republic, 6o0er le#el personnel 0oul" control the high0a s an" the mar$ets in these countries, 7pper le#el figures 0oul" be in#ol#e" in large international mo#ements of mone using the countries of Eastern an" Central Europe as con"uits to the 0est (Shelle 1))), 2C&, These net0or$s consist of former criminals, businessmen, an" former Communist !art elite, as 0ell an" militar an" la0 enforcement personnel, The are not limite" to tra"itional t pes of organize" crime, such as "rug traffic$ing, prostitution, e'tortion, an" rac$eteering, but also tra"e in a #ariet of profitable commo"ities, inclu"ing automobiles, Another change in the .ualit of crime in Central Eastern Europe is the increasing #isibilit of #iolent crime, <uring socialism, most #iolence 0as controlle" b the state in

Stamatel

Central Eastern Europe

terms of public persecution, police brutalit , prison camps, an" e#en e'ecutions, !ri#ate acts of #iolence, such as homici"e, assault, an" rape 0ere often hi""en from public $no0le"ge, The post+socialist transition has not onl brought an increase in #iolent crimes, but also open me"ia co#erage of such e#ents, 2ncreasing #iolence can be partiall attribute" to organize" crime, 92n efforts to seize control of prostitution an" "rug mar$ets an" to establish control o#er areas alrea" "ominate" b crime groups from other regions, crime groups from the East ha#e use" significant #iolence: (Shelle 1))), 21&, A""itionall , #iolence committe" b (u#eniles has also increase", /hile (u#enile "elin.uenc 0as recognize" as a problem in Central Eastern Europe un"er socialism, it continue" to gro0 "uring the transition, 2n !olan" the rate of (u#enile "elin.uenc among outh age" 18 to 1B "ouble" bet0een 1)1) an" 1))=, Accor"ing to information from 2nterpol, outh in Central Eastern Europe 0ere not (ust more criminall acti#e "uring the 1))*s, but also more in#ol#e" in #iolent crimes, 2n !olan" 8,BA of mur"er suspects in 1))1 0ere (u#eniles, 0hich increase" to BA b 1))C, 2n Hungar the proportion of (u#enile mur"er suspects rose from =,8A in 1))1 to C,4A in 1))4 an" then "ecline" to =,=A in 1))C, A""itionall , in Slo#enia the proportion of (u#enile suspects for serious assault gre0 from C,18A in 1))1 to 11,C= A in 1))4 an" then "roppe" to 1*,11A in 1))C, The post+socialist era has brought ne0 t pes of criminal acti#it in the form of economic, transnational, an" organize" crime, The actors in#ol#e" in crime ha#e also change" as organize" criminal net0or$s reach out to "ifferent social spheres an" as (u#eniles become more in#ol#e" in crime, A""itionall , the nature of crime appears to ha#e become more #iolent, particularl among outh,

Stamatel

Central Eastern Europe !$plaining Crime Trends in Post-Socialist Central !astern !urope

1*

The changes that ha#e ta$en place in Central Eastern Europe since 1)1) ha#e affecte" e#er aspect of life ++ politics, economics, religion, e"ucation, legal frame0or$, an" #alue s stems, ?i#en the brea"th of social changes, there is not a single cause of rising crime rates in this region an" the literature on the sub(ect often cites se#eral e'planator factors an" theoretical perspecti#es, Se#eral researchers ha#e pointe" to anomie theor an" the general 9normlessness: of societ follo0ing a social re#olution, Citizens in Central Eastern Europe 0ere frustrate" b the social uphea#al, economic "ifficulties, an" social ine.ualities an" therefore some turne" to illegitimate means to achie#e their goals, Societ 0as also "isorganize" in terms of the social institutions pro#i"ing formal an" informal social control, 3amil units 0ere "isrupte", the e"ucation s stem 0as in crisis, an" man outh organizations an" chil" care centers 0ere close"

lea#ing (u#eniles 0ithout constructi#e acti#ities or super#ision, A""itionall , the en" of state socialism brought the collapse of authoritarian social control, The state an" all of its formal control mechanisms, inclu"ing the la0, (u"iciar , corrections, police, an" militar , 0ere in a state of flu' 0hich create" opportunities for increase" criminal beha#ior, -ther social changes, such as migration 0ithin an" bet0een countries, re"uce" guar"ianship, an" the greater a#ailabilit of "esirable consumer goo"s ha#e also increase" opportunities for criminal beha#ior, /hile there are se#eral reasonable e'planations for these changing crime tren"s, more empirical research is nee"e" to un"erstan" the relationship bet0een social change an" crime in Central Eastern Europe, particularl 0ith respect to #ar ing e'periences across countries,

Stamatel

Central Eastern Europe Changes in the Criminal ustice System

11

Along 0ith all other social institutions, the criminal (ustice s stems of Central Eastern Europe 0ere also greatl affecte" b the reforms initiate" after 1)1), The

countries a"opte" ne0 constitutions for their oung "emocracies an" the legal s stems change" to reflect the ne0 social or"ers, The transition impacte" e#er aspect of the criminal (ustice s stem, inclu"ing "efinitions of 0hat 0as consi"ere" criminal, policing practices, prosecution, court processes, an" sanctions, The follo0ing section illustrates ho0 t0o aspects of the criminal (ustice s stem, policing an" imprisonment, change" as a result of the post+socialist transition,

Policing The communist mo"el of policing consiste" of a centralize", stan"ar"ize", an" militarize" police force, calle" the militia, that gaine" its legitimac "irectl from the communist part , 2ts role inclu"e" not onl crime control, but also political an" social control as it 0as the muscle behin" the Communist !art , 9<uring C4 ears of So#iet rule, the militia 0as transforme" from a militarize" bo" suppressing political opposition to a la0 enforcement bo" responsible primaril for social an" economic or"er: (Shelle 1)))@ CB&, Communist i"eolog "ictate" policing metho"s, 3or e'ample, in or"er to maintain complete authoritarian control, all crimes ha" to be cleare" b the police, This meant that a suspect ha" to be arreste" an" con#icte" for e#er reporte" crime, !olice officers resorte" to coerci#e in#estigati#e metho"s or falsifie" reports to ensure that the cleare" all of their cases, 2n response to the social "isor"er an" rising reporte" crime rates "uring the earl 1))*s, man Central Eastern European countries greatl increase" the sizes of their police

Stamatel

Central Eastern Europe

12

forces, Accor"ing to "ata from the 7nite" Dations, bet0een 1))* an" 1))4 police forces increase" B=A in Slo#a$ia, 4=A in Croatia, 81A in Romania, 2=A in Hungar , an" 1CA in Slo#enia, Ho0e#er, increasing the size of the police force 0as of little comfort to the citizens of these countries because the relationship bet0een the socialist militia an" the public 0as one of fear rather than respect, Therefore, citizens concerne" for their safet in the post+socialist perio" 0ere reluctant to turn to the police for assistance an" the organization face" a serious legitimac crisis, After 1)1) the militia change" its name to 9police: to "isassociate its image from the socialist perio", Ho0e#er, the organization nee"e" more than a name change to create a police force base" on the rule of la0 an" rights of citizens, Some countries .uic$l recognize" the nee" for progressi#e change in this area, 3or e'ample, Hungar , ?erman , !olan", the Czech Republic, an" Slo#a$ia con"ucte" "etaile" re#ie0s of policing practices in their countries soon after 1)1), !ersonnel 0ho 0ere "eeme" corrupt or unable to a"apt to ne0 metho"s of policing 0ere fire" an" policing techni.ues 0ere re#ie0e" for their compatibilit 0ith the ne0l emerging

"emocratic mar$et societies, <espite these efforts, it has been "ifficult to o#ercome the communist legac of 9"emoralize" an" corrupte" police forces 0ith little or no respect for citizens> rights: (Shelle 1)))@ CB&, The police must compete 0ith other go#ernment branches for scarce financial resources at a time 0hen these countries are "ealing 0ith economic uphea#al, The lo0 pa of police officers has ma"e it "ifficult to recruit ne0 talent, as those traine" in the fiel" are li$el to 0or$ for pri#ate securit agencies that simpl pa better, 3inancial constraints ma$e it "ifficult to fulfill basic e.uipment nee"s, such as cars, let alone technological impro#ements, such as computers, A""itionall ,

Stamatel

Central Eastern Europe

18

economic problems encourage corruption 0ithin la0 enforcement an" association 0ith organize" criminal net0or$s, /estern countries ha#e supplie" much of the impetus an" financial support for creating police forces consistent 0ith "emocratic societies, 5an /estern European countries ha#e bi+lateral training an" financial support agreements 0ith particular Central Eastern European countries, A""itionall , the 7nite" States establishe" a training

aca"em in Bu"apest, Hungar to teach in#estigati#e, management, an" forensic s$ills to la0 enforcement personnel from the region, 2n some countries there has been a ten"enc to emulate the more specialize" components of /estern policing s stems, such as anti+ organize" crime units, 3or e'ample, in 1))4 the Slo#a$ Republic establishe" organize" crime units in all ma(or cities an" the Hungarian Dational !olice has also create" specialize" central an" regional units, The creation of elite units a""resses particularl problematic crime areas for the police, but it also "rains financial an" personnel resources from more basic police restructuring,

%mprisonment Sanctioning has also change" in Central Eastern Europe "ue to the post+socialist transition, Bet0een 1)1) an" 1))* countries such as Bulgaria, the Czech Republic, Slo#a$ia, Hungar , !olan", an" Romania significantl re"uce" their prison populations b granting general amnesties in or"er to release prisoners hel" for political reasons b the Communist !art , 2n some countries, such as Bulgaria an" Slo#enia, the prison

populations in the mi"+1))*s remaine" at about the same le#el as in 1))*, Ho0e#er, in se#eral other countries, the increases in reporte" crime rates an" ensuing public fear le" to more puniti#e sanctions for criminals an" the prisons fille" up again, 3or e'ample,

Stamatel

Central Eastern Europe

14

accor"ing to "ata reporte" to the 7nite" Dations, the prisoner rate "ouble" in the Czech Republic bet0een 1))* an" 1))4, 2n a""ition, prison occupanc rates increase"

substantiall bet0een 1))* an" 1))4 in the Czech Republic, Hungar , Slo#a$ia, an" Croatia, This has le" to prison o#ercro0"ing in some countries 0hich, in turn, has put strain on criminal (ustice personnel an" financial resources,

Conclusions The transition in Central Eastern Europe from state socialism to "emocratic capitalism has resulte" in man social problems, inclu"ing a significant rise in reporte" crimes, -fficial crime statistics support me"ia accounts an" public perceptions of gro0ing crime, Ho0e#er, these same sources also sho0 that there is consi"erable #ariation in crime tren"s across time, countries, an" t pe of offense, Eust as state socialism pro"uce" crimes specific to that social or"er, such as hooliganism an" parasitism, the transition societies ha#e also e'perience" ne0 forms of crime as a result of the ne0 political an" economic s stems, #iolence, particularl The appearance of organize" criminal net0or$s an" increasing among outh, ha#e been the cause for much public concern,

A""itionall , the criminal (ustice s stem has ha" to respon" to public an" political pressure regar"ing rising reporte" crime rates at the same time that it is also being restructure" to be more con"uci#e to the ne0 social or"er, Criminal (ustice institutions such as the police an" prisons ha#e face" man challenges in tr ing to "eal 0ith the crime situation in a perio" of fiscal constraint an" organizational uphea#al, The greater a#ailabilit of "ata from Central Eastern Europe an" access to other information sources has create" ne0 opportunities for researchers to further e'plore crime an" (ustice issues in this region,

Stamatel Bibliography

Central Eastern Europe

1=

Barcla , ?or"on C,, an" C nthia Ta#ares (2***&, 92nternational Comparisons of Criminal Eustice Statistics 1))1: FResearch BulletinG, 6on"on, Englan"@ Home -ffice, Research <e#elopment an" Statistics <irectorate, Burnham, R,/,, an" Helen Burnham (1)))&, United Nations World Surveys on Crime Trends and Criminal ustice Systems& '()*-'((+, -estructured .ive-Wave /ata FComputer fileG, 2C!SR #ersion, /ashington, <C@ 7,S, <epartment of Eustice, Dational 2nstitute of Eustice Fpro"ucerG, 1))C, Ann Arbor, 52@ 2nter+uni#ersit Consortium for !olitical an" Social Research F"istributorG, Cebula$, /o(ciech (1))C&, 9Social Turmoil in !ost+Socialist Eastern Europe ++ A Re#olution ?one Astra H: !ast !uropean 0uarterly, 81@1 (5arch&, 111+11), Connor, /alter <, (1)B)&, /eviance in Soviet Society, Crime& /elin1uency& and Alcoholism, De0 %or$@ Columbia 7ni#ersit !ress, European Committee on Crime !roblems (1)))&, !uropean Source"oo# of Crime and Criminal ustice Statistics, Strasbourg@ Council of Europe, 3ran$, ?regor (1))1&, 9!olicing Transition in Europe@ The Role of Europol an" the !roblem of -rganize" Crime,: %nnovation, 11@8, 21C+8*=, ?eno#, Di$olai (1))1&, 9Transformation an" Anomie@ !roblems of Iualit of 6ife in Bulgaria,: Social %ndicators -esearch 48, 1)C+2*), 2llner, 5ichal (1))1&, 9The Changing Iualit of 6ife in a !ost+Communist Countr @ The Case of Czech Republic,: Social %ndicators -esearch 48, 141+1C*, 2nternational Criminal !olice -rganization (1)1)+1))C&, %nternational Crime Statistics, 6 ons, 3rance@ 2C!-+2nterpol ?eneral Secretariat, Jangaspunta, Jristiina, 5atti Eoutsen, an" Datalia -llus, e"s, (1))1&, Crime and Criminal ustice in !urope and North America '((*-'((+, Helsin$i, 3inlan"@ European 2nstitute for Crime !re#ention an" Control (HE7D2&, Jing, 5i$e (1))1&, 9!olicing Change in Eastern an" Central Europe@ Some Contemporar Concerns,: %nnovation, 11@8, 2CC+21=, 6os, 5aria (1)11&, Communist %deology& 2aw& and Crime, A Comparative 3iew of the USS- and Poland, 6on"on, Englan"@ The 5acmillan !ress, 6otspeich, Richar" (1))=&, 9Crime in the Transition Economies,: !urope-Asia Studies, 4C@4, ===+=1),

Stamatel

Central Eastern Europe

1B

5atutino#ic, 2gor (1))1&, 9Iualit of 6ife in Transition Countries@ Central East Europe 0ith Special Reference to Croatia,: Social %ndicators -esearch 48, )C+11), Deapolitan, Eerome 6, (1))C&, Cross-National Crime, A -esearch -eview and Source"oo#, /estport, CT@ ?reen0oo" !ress, De0man, ?raeme, e", (1)))&, 4lo"al -eport on Crime and ustice, De0 %or$@ -'for" 7ni#ersit !ress, Salome, 6ouis E, 9Crime After Communism,: The Atlanta Constitution, (21 <ecember 1))8&, Sal#esberg, Eoachim E, (1))=&, 9Crime, 2ne.ualit , an" Eustice in Eastern Europe@ Anomie, <omination an" Re#olutionar Change,: pp, 2*B+224 in Eohn Hagan an" Ruth <, !eterson (e"s,&, Crime and %ne1uality, Stanfor", CA@ Stanfor" 7ni#ersit !ress, Shelle , 6ouise 2, (1)))&, 9!ost+Socialist !olicing@ 6imitations on 2nstitutional Change,: pp, C=+1C in R,2, 5a0b (e",&, Policing Across the World, De0 %or$, D%@ ?arlan" !ublishing, Shelle , 6ouise 2, (1)))&, 9Crime of the 3ormer Socialist States@ 2mplications for /estern Europe,: pp, 1)+8* in %nternational Police %nstitue Twente, Pu"lic Safety in !urope, Ensche"e@ 3ebo"ru$, Shelle , 6ouise 2, (1))B&, Policing Soviet Society, The !volution of State Control, De0 %or$@ Routle"ge, Shelle , 6ouise 2, (1))B&, 9!ost+So#iet -rganize" Crime@ A De0 3orm of Authoritarianism,: Transnational 5rgani6ed Crime, 2@2K8 (SummerKAutumn&, 122+181, Shelle , 6ouise 2, (1)11&, Crime and 7oderni6ation, The %mpact of %ndustriali6ation and Ur"ani6ation on Crime, Carbon"ale@ Southern 2llinois 7ni#ersit !ress, Siemasz$o, An"rze(, e", (2***&, Crime and 2aw !nforcement in Poland on the Threshold of the 8'st Century, /arsa0, !olan"@ 2nst tut / miaru Spra0ie"li0osci i -fic na Dau$o0a,