The Science of Religion for Mankind-Shreemad Bhagwad Geeta-Yatharth Geeta Swami Adgadanand Published By: Shree Paramhans

Swami Adagadanandji Ashram Trust at Smashwords Copyright 1998 Swami Adgadanand Smashwords Edition, License Notes Thank you or downloading this ree ebook! Although this is a ree book" it remains the #opyrighted property o the author" and may not be reprodu#ed" #opied and distributed or #ommer#ial or non$#ommer#ial purposes! % you enjoyed this book" please en#ourage your riends to download their own #opy at Smashwords!#om" where they #an also dis#o&er other works by this author! Thank you or your support!

'eeta in its True Perspe#ti&e Compiled and %nterpreted through the Blessings o Parampoojya Shree Paramhansji (aharaj By Paramhans Swami Adgadanand )*++ years long inter&al Shreemad Bhagwad 'eeta in its authenti# and e&erlasting e,position -hat were the inner eelings and emotions o Shri .rishn when he prea#hed the 'eeta/ All inner eelings #annot be e,pressed in words! Some #an be told" some are e,pressed through the body language" and the rest are to be realised whi#h #an only be understood by a seeker through e,perien#es! 0nly a ter attaining the state whi#h Shri .rishn had been to" an a##omplished tea#her knows what 'eeta says! 1e simply does not reiterate &erses o the 'eeta but" in a#t" gi&es e,perien#es to the inner eelings o the 'eeta! This is possible be#ause he sees the same pi#ture whi#h was there when Shri .rishn prea#hed the 'eeta! 1e there ore" sees the real meaning" #an show it to us" #an e&oke the inner eelings and would lead us on the path o enlightenment! 2e&! Shri Paramhansji (ahraj was also an enlightened tea#her o su#h a le&el and the #ompilation o his words and blessings to grasp the inner eelings o the 'eeta itsel is the 34atharth 'eeta5!!!Swami Adgadanand Published By: Shree Paramhans Swami Adagadanandji Ashram Trust *9A" %st 6loor" 7r! Atmaram 2angnekar (arg" Abo&e Brij (andal 1all" 'irgaum Chowpatty" (umbai 8++ ++9" %ndia Tel: 91 ** ::)) );++ 6a,: 91 ** *;:8 ;1+9 -ebsite: www!yatharthgeeta!#om <mail: #onta#t=yatharthgeeta!#om

'>2> ?A@7A@A Salutations to the guru 7<7%CAT<7 with pro ound re&eren#e to the holy memory o the immortal" blessed" supreme yogi" and the most e,alted S12<< S-A(% PA2(A@A@7 A% o Shree Paramhans Ashram Ansuiya BChitrakootC DD 0m Shree Sadguru 7e& Bhagwan .i Aai DD Aai Sadgurude&am" Paramaanandam"amar shariram a&ikari D @igurna nirmulam" dhaari sthulam"kaatan shulam bha&bhaari DD Surat nij soham" kalimal khoham" janman mohan #hha&idhaari D Amraapur &aasi" sab sukh raashi" sadaa ekraasi nir&ikaari DD Anubha& gambhira" mati ke dhira" alakh akira a&taari D 4ogi ad&aishta" trikaal drashta" ke&al pad anandkaari DD Chitrakutahi aayo" ad&ait lakhaayo" anusuia asan maari D Sri paramhans s&ami" antaryaami" hain badnaami sansaari DD 1ansan hitkaari" jad pagudhaari"gar&a prahaari upkaari D Sat$panth #halaayo" bharam mitaayo"rup lakhaayo kartaari DD 4eh shishya hai tero" karat nihoro"mo par hero prandhaari D Aai Sadguru E E !! bhari DD

?A@7A@A DD Bha&sagar$taran karan he" ra&inandan$bandhan$khandan he sharnagat kinkar bhit mane" gurude& daya kar din jane 1ridi$kandar$tamas$bhaskar he" tum &ishnu prajapati shankar he parbrahma paratpar &ed bhane" gurude& daya kar din jane man$&aaran$kaaran ankush he" nar tran kare hari #hakshush he gun$gaan$paraayan de&gane" gurude& daya kar din jane kul$kundalini tum bhanjak he" hridi$granth &idaaran kaaran he mahima ta& go#har shuddha mane" gurude& daya kar din jane abhiman$praabha&$&imardak he" ati hin jane tum rakshak he man$kampit$&an#hit$bhakti$ghane" gurude& daya kar din jane 2ipusudan mangalnayak he" sukh$shanti$&araabhai daayak he bhay$taap hare ta& naam gune" gurude& daya kar din jane ll Ta& naam sada sukh$saadhak he" patitaadham$maana& paa&ak he mam maanas #han#hal raatri dine" gurude& daya kar din jane Aai sadguruF %sh&ar Praapak heF Bha&rog$&ikaar &inaashak hel man lin rahe ta& shri #harne" 'urude& daya kar din janell 0m Shree Sadguru 7e& Bhagwan .i Aai DD

'<<TA %S A SAC2<7 -2%T 06 T1< -10G< 06 1>(A@%T4 Shri (aharshi ?ed ?yas$ Shri .rishn <ra Be ore the ad&ent o (aharshi ?ed ?yas" no te,t o any pedagogi#al dis#ipline was a&ailable in the te,t orm! 7eparting rom this tradition o oral and per#ei&ing words o wisdom and knowledge" he #ompiled the ante#edent physi#al as well as spiritual knowledge in the te,tual orm o our ?edas" Brahmasutra" (ahabharat" Bhagwad and 'eeta and pro#laimed that" H'opal .rishn has #ondensed the #on#lusion o all the >panishad in 'eeta to enable the humanity to alle&iate itsel rom pangs o sorrow!II The 1eart o all ?edas and the essen#e o all the >panishad is 'eeta" whi#h was eli#ited by .rishn and pro&ided sustenan#e to distraught humanity o reasoned do#trine and approa#h to per#ei&e the Supreme Being! This has endowed the humanity o the ultimate means o Pea#e! The sage" rom among all his works" earmarked 'eeta as the treatise o knowledge and remarked that" the 'eeta is suitable or being earnestly taken as the dri&ing philosophy" o oneIs a#ti&ities o the li e! -hen we ha&e the treatise gi&en to us whi#h was uttered by .rishn himsel " why e&er shall we need to store other s#riptures/ The essen#e o 'eeta is e,pli#itly #lari ied by the &erse : There is only one holy writ whi#h had been re#ited is by Gord .irshn" the son o 7e&aki! There is only one spiritual entity worth emulating and the truth whi#h has been spe#i ied in that #ommentary is $ the soul! There is nothing immortal other than the soul! -hat #hant has been ad&ised by that sage in 'eeta / 0m F HArjun" 0m is the name o the eternal spiritual being! Chant 0m and meditate upon me! There is only one 7harm$to ser&e the spiritual being des#ribed in 'eeta! Pla#e him in your heart with re&eren#e! There ore" 'eeta has remained your own s#ripture! .rishn is the messenger o the holy sages who ha&e des#ribed the di&ine #reator as the >ni&ersal truth o&er the thousands years o age! (any sages ha&e said that" one may e,press their #orporeal as well as eternal desires rom the 'od" be awed by the 'od and not to belie&e in other deities$ has already been pro#laimed by many sages" but only the 'eeta e,pli#itly shows the way to attain spirituality and athom the distan#e on the way o attaining it $ re er to H4atharth 'eetaJ! 'eeta not only gi&es spiritual pea#e" it also makes it easier to attain eternal and enduring alle&iation! %n order to per#ei&e it please re er to the uni&ersally a##laimed #ommentary$ H4atharth 'eetaII! Although 'eeta is uni&ersally a##laimed" it has not been able to take pla#e o do#trine or literature o any religion or se#t" be#ause religious se#ts are always #in#hed by one or the other di#tum or ordain! The 'eeta published in %ndia is a lega#y o the >ni&ersal -isdom! The 'eeta is the ethereal heritage o %ndia" the spiritual #ountry! As su#h" it should be treated as national literature$an e ort may be dire#ted at alle&iating the humanity rom the pathos o the tradition o #lass dis#rimination" #on li#ts and alter#ation and a##ord pea#e!

+++ years ago $ AewismC$ As you re&oked your trust rom the 'od" made idols$ 1e is unhappy! Begin praying to him! Saint Aarathustra B*9++ years ago $ Noroastrian 2eligionC$ (editate upon AhurmaMd to eradi#ate the e&ils inhibiting your heart" whi#h are the root #auses o all the sorrows! (aha&ir Swami B*:++ years ago $ Aain S#ripturesC$ Soul is the truthO By obser&an#e o austere penan#e it #ould be learnt in this birth itsel ! 'autam Buddha B*)++ years ago$ (ahaparinir&&an SuttaC$ % ha&e attained that sublime ultimate stage" whi#h was attained by the earlier saints! This is @ir&ana! Aesus Christ B*+++ years ago$ ChristianityC$ 7i&inity #ould only be a#hie&ed by prayers! Come to me! Then only you would be #alled the son o the 'od! 1ajrat (ohammed Saheb B18++ years ago $ %slamC$ HGa %%%$ Allah (uhammad$ur 2asul$ AllahJ$ There is none worthy o prayers other than the all$ per&ading 'od! (ohammed et alare holy saints! Aadi Shankara#harya B1*++ years agoC$ The wordly li e is utile! The only true being is the name o the Creator! Saint .rishn B)*++ years ago $ 'eetaC$ The 'od is the only truth! A#hie&ement o the di&inity is only possible through meditation! Praying to the idols o 7eities is only done by the morons! Saints (oosa B.C at Shri Paramhans Ashram Aagatanand" ?illage L P! 0! Bareini" .a#hha&a" 7ist! (iraMpur B>!P!C Shree ?edi# Saints BPrime&al Age$ @arayan SuktaC$ The Supreme Being pre&ailling in ea#h spe#k is but the truth! The only way to attain @ir&ana is to understand it! Bhagwan Shree 2am BTreta : (illions o years ago$ 2amayanC$ Aspirant o benedi#tion without praying to The Supreme Being is an ignoramus! 4ogeshwar Shree .abir B:++ years agoC$ The name o 2am is ultimate" all else is utile! The beginning" middle and the end is nothing but the #hant o 2am! Chant the name o 2am" whi#h only is subliminal! 'uru @anak B)++ years agoC$ H<k 0mkar Satguru PrasadiII! 0nly an 0mkar is true being" but it is a a&our o the holy tea#her! .7%?%@< (<SSA'<S P20CGA%(<7 B4 T1< 10G4 SA%@TS" S%@C< P2%(<?AG T%(<S T%GG 7AT<" @0T<7 %@ C120@0G0'%CAG 027<2 Swami Shri Adgadanandji has set up a plaKue ins#ribed with these s#riptures at the entran#e o his residen#e" on the auspi#ious day o 'anga 7ashehara B199.

Swami 7ayanand Saraswati B*++ years agoC$ Pray only to the e&erlasting" immortal one 'od! The #ardinal name o this Almighty is 0m Swami Shri Paramanandji B191* $ 19:9 A! 7!C$ -hen the Almighty bestows bene&olen#e" the enemies turn riends and ad&ersities be#ome 6ortunateness! The 'od is omnipresent! .

>@%602( 71A2( P2%@C%PG<S 1! <?<24 0@<" C1%G72<@ 06 '07: HThe immortal soul in the body is a part o mine and it is 1< who draws the i&e senses and the si..th the mind that dwell in nature!J All human beings are #hildren o 'od! 1)P9 *! P>2P0S< 06 T1< 1>(A@ B074: Q%t hardly needs saying that sin#e pious Brahmin and royal sages BrajarshiC attain to sal&ation" you should also renoun#e this miserable" ephemeral" mortal body and always engage in my worship!J HAlthough de&oid o money and #om orts" yet rare to gain" while you are in the human body worship me! The right or su#h worship is granted to all those in a human body!J 9P.isten#e through worshipping me by 4agya" go to hea&en B%ndralokC" and enjoy godly pleasures as a reward or their &irtuous a#ts!J 9P*+ QThrough worshipping me" people aspire to rea#h the hea&en and % grant it to themI! There ore" e&erything #an be easily attained through the gra#e o Supreme Being!I )! <G%(%@AT%0@ 06 <?<24 S%@ B4 TA.: :! .1 8! <?<2GAST%@' S<<7 %@ 7%?%@< PAT1: HSin#e sel less a#tion neither wears out the seed rom whi#h it sprang nor has any ad&erse . .unti" you should know beyond any doubt that my worshipper is ne&er destroyed!J QA great sinner e&en" i worships (< with one pointedness and single mindedness shall be trans ormed into a noble soul and shall attain the e&erlasting pea#e withinI! There ore" a noble soul is the one who has dedi#ated himsel to the Supreme Being! 9P.P11 9! <?<240@< %S <@T%TG<7 T0 -02S1%P: H<&en i a man o the most depra&ed #ondu#t worships me in#essantly" he is worthy o being regarded as a saint be#ause he is a man o true resol&e! Thus he shortly be#omes pious and a#hie&es eternal pea#e" and so" 0 Son o .! 0@G4 T-0 CAST<S %@ 1>(A@ B<%@'S: HThere are in the world" 0I Parth" two kinds o beings" the pious" on whom % ha&e already dwelt at length" and the de&ilish o whom you will now hear rom me! There are only two types o human beings" the I7e&aI Bdi&ineC o whom the heart is dominated by the noble traits" and the IAsuraI Bde&ilC whose e&il traits dominate the hearts! %n this entire #reation" there are no other types o human beings! 1:P: 8! 6>G6%G(<@TS 06 <?<24 7<S%2< T120>'1 '07: H(en who do pious deeds enjoined by the three ?edas" who ha&e tasted ne#tar and reed themsel&es rom sin" and who wish or hea&enly e.+$.@0-G<7'<: HConstantly resting is the awareness that is #alled adhyatmya and per#eption o the Supreme spirit who is the end o realiMation o truth are all knowledge and whate&er is #ontrary to them is ignoran#e! 7edi#ation to the wisdom o the supreme soul" and the dire#t per#eption o <ternal -isdom" whi#h is the mani estation o the Supreme Soul" #onstitute the #omponents o the real wisdom! Any thing" other than these is ignoran#e! Thus dire#t per#eption o 'od is wisdom! 1.%@' 2<6>'< %@ T1< S>P2<(< B<%@': H<&en i you are the most heinous sinner" the ark o knowledge will #arry you sa ely a#ross all e&ils!J <&en the worst o all sinners #an undoubtedly gain a##ess to the Supreme Being by using the boat o wisdom! 8P.

1 1.arm! 8P*9" *9 11! P<2602(<2 06 4A'4A: H0 the best o .isten#e! There ore" e&eryone" in a human body is entitled to per orm -orship ul (editation B4agyaC! 1*! '07 CA@ B< S<<@: 50 Arjun! mighty armed one" a worshipper #an know this orm o mine dire#tly" a#Kuire its essen#e" and e&en be#ome one with it by a total and unswearing dedi#ation!5%t is easy to see 1im a#e to a#e" know 1im and e&en gain entry into 1im through intense de&otion! 50nly a seer" &iews the soul as a mar&el" another one des#ribes him as a mar&el" and yet another hears him as a mar&el" while there are some who hear him and yet know 1im not! An enlightened sage #ould see this S0>G as a rare wonder! This is dire#t per#eption! 8P.halation to inhalation" others o er their inhaled breath to the e.uru" the yog is who ha&e tasted the ne#tar lowing rom 4agya attain to the eternal Supreme 'od" but how #an the ne.#onseKuen#e" e&en a partial obser&an#e o this dharm liberates BoneC rom the dire terror Bo repeated birth and deathC!J <&en a small amount o a#tion per ormed with a goal o sel realiMation shall ele&ate the seeker rom the terrible ear o birth and death #y#les! 9! T1< AB07< 06T1< S>P2<(< B<%@': HPropelling all li&ing things that best ride a body whi#h is but a #ontri&an#e by his maya" 0 Arjun" 'od abides in the hearts o all beings! Seek re uge with all your heart" 0 Bharat" in that 'od by whose gra#e you will attain to repose and the e&erlasting" ultimate bliss!J 'od resides within the heart o e&ery li&ing being! There ore" one must surrender himsel totally to this Supreme Being with #omplete deta#hment! Through 1is #ompassion" one shall attain the ultimate bliss! *P8+ 1+! 4A'4A: H4et other 4ogis o er the un#tions o their senses and operations o their li e breaths to the ire o 4og Bsel #ontrolC kindled by knowledge! As some o er their e.haled breath" while yet others pra#tise serenity o breath by regulating their in#oming and outgoing breath!J 18P:1$:* The entire a#ti&ities o the sense organs and mental turmoils are o ered as oblations to the soul that is illuminated by wisdom" into the ire o yog! (editators" on the sel " sa#ri i#e the &ital air to apan and similarly apan to pran! 'oing e&en higher than this" a 4ogi restrain all li e or#es and take re uge in the regulation o breath BpranayamC! The pro#edure o su#h pra#ti#es is 4agya! To per orm this a#tion is H027A%@<7 ACT%0@J i!e! .unti" the soul whi#h realiMes me is not born again!5 *P*9 Brahma Bthe #reatorC and his #reations" de& and demons are ull o grie " momentary and mortal!*P*8 1)! -02S1%P 06 0T1<2 '07S: .t li e o men bere t o 4agya be happy" when e&en their li e in this world is miserable/J 6or the men" who do not possess the attitude o yagya" it is &ery di i#ult to obtain human orm in the transmigratory e.! S0>G %S <T<2@AG A@7 T2><: 5The sel " whi#h #annot be pier#ed or burnt or made wet or aded" is uninterrupted" all per&asi&e" #onstant" immo&able and eternal5 Soul alone is true! Soul alone is eternal! 11P)8 18! C2<AT02 A@7 1%S C2<AT%0@S A2< (02TAG: 5All the worlds rom Brahmlok downwards are" 0 Arjun" o are #urrent #hara#ter" but" 0 son o .

7ri&en by the properties o their nature" they who all rom knowledge desire worldly pleasures and in imitation o the pre&ailing #ustoms" worship other gods instead o one single 'od!5 Those whose intelle#t has been robbed through enjoyment o worldly #om orts" su#h oolish persons tend to worship other gods than the Supreme Being!5 8P1: 5Although e&en #o&etous de&otees indeed worship me in worshipping other gods" their worship is against the ordained pro&isions and there ore en&eloped by ignoran#e! 5Those who worship other gods" are worshipping Supreme Being under in luen#e o ignoran#e and their e orts go in &ain! 5(ark you that they who undergo terrible sel morti i#ation without spiritual san#tion and are a li#ted with hypo#risy and arrogan#e besides lust" atta#hment" and &anity o power and who wear out not only the elements that #onstitute their bodies but also me who dwells in their souls are ignorant men with e&il disposition!5<&en people with &irtuousness tend to worship other gods! 1owe&er" you must know that su#h persons too are de&ilish in nature! 9P*+ 1:! T1< %'@0BG<: Those who" a ter orsaking the pres#ribed way o per orming 4agya" but adopt ways without s#riptual san#tion" are #ruel" sin ul and ignoble among the human being! 19! 027A%@<7 P20C<7>2<S: 51e who departs rom the body intoning 0(" whi#h is '07 in word" and remembering me" attains to sal&ation!5The intoning o 0(" whi#h is the synonym or eternal Brahm" remembering only the sole Supreme Being and worship ul meditation is guidan#e o enlightened sage! 19P)$: 18! SC2%PT>2<: 5% ha&e thus instru#ted you" the sinless" in the most subtle o all knowledge be#ause" Bharat" by knowing its essen#e a man gains wisdom and a##omplishes all his tasks!5 '<<TA %S SC2%PT>2< 5So s#ripture is the authority on what ought and ought not to be done" and ha&ing learnt that you ha&e the ability to a#t a##ording to the pro&isions laid down by the s#ripture!5 S#ripture is only a base to take per e#t de#ision in #ase o per orman#e or a&oidan#e o 7>T4! 1en#e one should a#t as per pres#ribed task elaborated in '<<TA! 8P1. 19! 71A2(: 5'rie&e not" or % shall ree you rom all sins i you abandon all other obligations BdharmC and seek re uge in me alone!5 1)P*+ A ter gi&ing up all the #on using ups and downs" and interpretations Bhe who shall take re uge in (<" means who shall #ompletely surrender to the sole Supreme BeingC" the ordained a#tion to a#hie&e ultimate bliss is the real #ondu#t o 71A2(A B*P8+C and e&en i man o the most depra&ed #ondu#t i per orms" is worthy o being regarded as a Saint B9P.+C! B1:P*8C *+! PGAC< 06 ATTA%@(<@T: 56or % am the one in whom the eternal '07" immortal li e" the imperishable 7harm" and the ultimate bliss all abide!5 31e is the dwelling o immortal '07" o e&erlasting li e" o eternal 71A2( and o the unblemished pure joy o attaining the Supreme goal3! %n other words" a '07$oriented saint" an enlightened '>2> is this bliss" personi ied! 18P:: BT1< T2>< <SS<@C< 06 AGG T1< 2<G%'%0@S %@ -02G7 A2< <C10S 06 '<<TAC .

ing %kshwaku! The 2ajarshi rom %kshwaku knew it and during this important period this indestru#tible happening disappeared rom this earth! %nitially there was a tradition o listening and memoriMing! %t was not e&en thought that it #ould be do#umented! (anu (aharaj #arried it in his psy#hologi#al memory and #reated the tradition o memory! Thus this knowledge deri&ed rom 'eeta is the pure (anusmriti! The Gord had imparted this knowledge to the Sun e&en be ore he ga&e it to (anu" so why donIt we #all it Suryasmriti/ %n a#t the Sun is that part o the Gight" the Almighty that is the #reator o this uni&erse! Gord Shri .rishna says" Q% ma the ather o the ultimate li e stream sperm" and the nature is the womb that nurtures itI! The Sun is the originator! Sun is that ultimate power o the Gord that designed the humans! %t is not a personality and where the enlightened power #reated the humans the same power was trans erred the knowledge based on 'eeta that is it was trans erred to the Sun! Sun told the same to his son (anu thus it is #alled (anusmriti! Sun is not a person" it is the sour#e! Gord Shri .(A@>S(2%T% .nowledge deri&ed rom 'eeta is the pure (anusmriti R'eeta appeared e&en be ore the original man (anu RQ%mam &i&aswatehyogam prokta&anaham&yayamIB8!1+C ArjunF % told about this indestru#tible happening to Sun at the beginning o time and Sun told it to (anu! (anu listened to it and #arried it in his memory be#ause what he heard #ould be #arried only in (anuIs smiriti BmemoryC! (anu told the same thing to . 1ey Gord" my desires ha&e subsided! % ha&e gotten memory! % ha&e not only listened but % am #arrying it as part o system now! % will abide by your orders" and will hold the war! 1e pi#ked up his bow" warred" won" and established an empire o the pure dharma and in the orm o a religious s#ripture that original 7harmashastra 'eeta again #ame in #ir#ulation! 'eeta is sour#e religious s#ripture! This is the (anusmriti that was embedded in memory by Arjuna! There is a re eren#e to two 'eeta in ront o (anu R 0ne gotten rom the 6ather" the se#ond" the ?edas whi#h appeared in ront o (anu! There was no third thing that appeared (anuIs time! Those days do#umentation was not a way" paper L pen were not #ommon thus there was the tradition o listening to the knowledge and making it part o the memory! (anu (aharaj" the sour#e human kind" the irst human ga&e the honor o shruti BlisteningC to ?edas and memory to 'eeta! ?edas appeared in ront o (anu" listen to them" they are meant or listening! <&en i you may orget them later onwards there is no harm but 'eeta is smriti" you should always remember it! This is that hea&enly psalm ro the humankind that will ore&er gi&e you li e" pea#e and e&erlasting prosperity! The Gord said R ArjunF % you will not listen to my ad&i#e be#ause o your ego you will #ease to .rishna says R Q% am going to say that same an#ient 4oga or you now! 4ou are my belo&ed dis#iple" true riend! Arjun was intelligent" true worthy! 1e reeled out a #hain o Kuestions like you were born justO the Sun was born ages ago! 1ow do % a##ept that Q4ou told this to the SunI/ 1e asked some twenty twenty$ i&e Kuestions o this type! By the time 'eeta #ame to #on#lusion all his Kuestions were answered" at that jun#ture the Gord 1imsel raised the Kuestions Arjun #ould not muster up and were in his bene it and #lari ied the same! At the end o it all the Gord said" Q ArjunF 7id you listen to my ad&i#e in #on#entration/ -as your ignoran#e raised out o desire has &anished/ Arjun said" @ashto moha smritirlabdha twatprasadanmaya#hyut D Sthitohsmi gatasandehah karishye &a#hanam ta&a DD 18P9.

tin#t! %n the last psalm o episode i teen the Gord said B1)!*+CH%ti guhyatamam shastramidamuktammayanaghaDJQ% ha&e uttered the most #on idential o the #on idential s#ien#eI! By learning it you will a#Kuire all the knowledge and ultimate #redit!I %n the last two psalms o episode si.#ited with the &i#es and pray other operations will not get happiness" prosperity and will neither rea#h abode!I So Arjun"HTasma#h#hhaastram pramanam tekaryaakarya&ya&asthitouhDJthis is the standard s#ien#e behind management o your tasks and untasks! Study it well and a#t a##ordingly! 4ou will be my part" rea#h that indestru#tible position and will attain li e ore&er and e&erlasting pea#e and prosperity! 'eeta is the (anusmriti and as per Gord Shri .rishna 'eeta is the religious s#ien#e" there is no other s#ien#e" no other memory! 1e &arious memories pra#ti#ed in so#iety today is the allba#k o orgetting 'eeta! The memories are the solution or ma#hinations o the royalties and a weapon to build walls in the so#iety! They neither paint a #orre#t pi#ture o (anuIs thoughts neither do they des#ribe (anuIs times! 0riginal (anusmriti 'eeta a##epts 0ne Gord the Almighty the Truth" and proposes being one with it but #urrently a&ailable about 1:8 memories do not e&en talk about the 'od nor they dis#uss the ways to rea#h the Almighty! They limit themsel&es only to get reser&ation in the hea&en and en#ourage those who are not there! They donIt e&er e&en re er to (oksha! .e.ist" that it the one who disrespe#ts the ad&i#es o 'eeta will be#ome e.teen it is said" $H4ahshastra&idhimritsrijya &artane kaamakaaratahDJQThe ones whoshun these s#ien#es by getting e.

plain brie ly why and how they ha&e been used: B%C To take some more prominent e.amples" words su#h as dharm" yog" yagya" sanskar" &arn" sattwa" rajas" tamas" &arnsankar" karm" kshetra" kshetragya" and pranayam" whi#h o##ur through the whole book" are really untranslatable into <nglish! 7harm" or instan#e" is not 5religionO5 and karm is something more then 5a#tion!5 7espite this" howe&er" appro.A 1umble Appeal 7<7%CAT<7 with pro ound re&eren#e to the holy memory o the immortal" blessed" supreme yogi" and the most e.imity to their a#tual pronun#iation % ha&e also dispensed with the pra#ti#e o adding an 5a5 to the last pure #onsonants o <nglish trans#ripts o Sanskrit words! The argument that the sound o the ultimate pure #onsonant is in#omplete unless an 5a5 is added to it is untenable" or had this been the #ase" the entire system o spelling in <nglish would ha&e to be #hanged! % the last 5m5 in 5 arm5 is a #omplete #onsonant sound" why should dharm be trans#ribed as dharma/ .t itsel " readers who ha&e no amiliarity with Sanskrit or 1indi will ind no di i#ulty in #omprehending them! The main obje#t in this translation has been to use the una&oidable Sanskrit words or their <nglish substitutes in su#h a way that they do not look like pat#hwork and obstru#t reading in any way! B%%C As or the <nglish trans#ription o these Sanskrit words" normal <nglish alphabet has been used! Phoneti# s#ript and dia#riti#al marks ha&e been stri#tly dispensed with be#ause they dis#ourage readers and keep them away rom %ndologi#al books! So Sanskar has been trans#ribed as sanskar Bthat is how the word is spokenC rather than as sanskaraO and !! as yagya Bthat is how it is pronoun#edC rather than as yajna! The same prin#iple o trans#ribing Sanskrit words in normal <nglish alphabet with a #lose pro.imity to the way these words are a#tually spoken has been ollowed throughout the book! % belie&e that this way makes or easier" smoother reading! B%%%C -ithout meaning any o en#e to other s#holarly writers" in de eren#e to the same prin#iple o trans#ribing Sanskrit words in the normal <nglish alphabet with a #lose pro.alted S12<< S-A(% PA2(A@A@7 A% o Shree Paramhans Ashram Ansuiya BChitrakootC Sin#e Kuite a good number o Sanskrit words had to be in#luded in the <nglish rendering o 4atharth 'eeta it is use ul to e.imate <nglish eKui&alents ha&e been used where&er possible" but only" o #ourse" i they do not distort or misrepresent the original meaning! So 5a#tion"5 5property"5 and 5sphere5 ha&e been used or karm" &arn" and kshetr respe#ti&ely! Appro.eeping this in &iew" one #annot but #on#lude that people who ha&e a#ted upon the illogi#al premise ha&e done a singular disser&i#e to Sanskrit Btheir own languageC by introdu#ing a system o trans#ription that has led to the distortion o the pronun#iation o su#h a large number o #ommonly used words! So" whate&er be the assumption behind the pra#ti#e o adding an 5a5 to the ultimate pure #onsonant o SanskritP%ndian in their <nglish trans#ription" in a#tual pra#ti#e this 5appendi.imate <nglish eKui&alents ha&e also been used or sattwa" rajas" and tamas" taking #are that they do not obstru#t the low or rhythm o language! But it was not ound possible to ha&e <nglish substitutes or dharm" yog" yagya" sanskar" and &arnsankar" and these words as well as many others ha&e been used as they are! But sin#e the meaning o all Sanskrit words used in the rendering Bwhether with or without <nglish eKui&alentsC is ully #lari ied in either ootnotes or the te.5 is treated as a ull &owel with the sound o 5a5 as in 5 ather5 or 5rather5 or 5bath5 rather than as a part o the #onsonant itsel ! .

B%?C Aust be#ause Sanskrit or 1indi words are trans#ribed in <nglish alphabet they do not be#ome <nglish! So appli#ation o the usual <nglish pra#ti#e o using an 5s5 to make plurals to these words is improper! The plural o karm is karm" not karms! The plural o &ed is &ed" not &eds! So 5s5 has not been used to make plurals o Sanskrit nouns in this translation! 0ne o SwamijiIs dis#iples! .

rishn has #ommended! 1e e.isting #ommentaries on the 'eeta are tou#hed by the #urrent o truth" and yet i one o them$e&en a just and #orre#t interpretation$is pla#ed among a thousand other interpretations it is almost impossible to re#ogniMe it or what it is! %denti i#ation o truth is an onerous task" or e&en alsehood wears the HbrowsJ o truth! The many e.position o the 'eeta! 1undreds o #ommentaries" out o whi#h more than i ty are in Sanskrit" ha&e been attempted so ar! But" although there are s#ores o interpretations" they ha&e a #ommon basis$ the 'eeta" whi#h is only one! -hy" then one may wonder" are there all these di&ergent opinions and #ontro&ersies when 4ogeshwar .pressed is something dynami# and seekers #an know it only through a#tion and by a#tually a&ersing the path o Kuest! So only another sage who has himsel trodden the path and arri&ed at .P2<6AC< %t appears that there is no need o any urther e.rishnIs insights and per#eptions are also his insights and per#eptions! Sin#e he is a seer himsel " he #annot only show the essen#e but also awaken it in others" and e&en prompt and enable them to embark on the way that leads to it! (y noble tea#her$pre#eptor" the most re&ered paramhans Parmanand Ai (aharaj" was a sage o su#h a#hie&ementO and 4atharth 'eeta is nothing but a #ompilation o the meaning that was deri&ed by the author rom his tea#herIs utteran#es and inner promptings! @othing that you will ind in this e.rishn #an realiMe and re&eal the real intent o the 4ogeshwar when he prea#hed to his riend and dis#iple Arjun! -hat is within oneIs mind #annot be ully e.positions o the 'eeta all pro ess that they represent truth e&en though they may not ha&e any inkling o it! As against this" e&en when Kuite a good many interpreters did su##eed in #oming by this truth" or a number o reasons they were pre&ented rom gi&ing a publi# utteran#e to it! The mu#h too #ommon inability to get at the meaning o the 'eeta in its true perspe#ti&e may be attributed to the a#t that .rishn was a yogi" an enlightened sage! 0nly another great an a##omplished Soul$man o knowledge and dis#ernment$who has gradually attained to the ultimate spiritual goal dis#oursed upon by .position belongs to me! And this meaning" as the reader is about to see" embodies a dynami#" a#tion$oriented prin#iple that has to be undertaken and personally gone through by e&eryone who has taken to the path o spiritual seeking and a##omplishment! So long as he is remo&ed rom it" he has e&idently not set upon the way o worship and meditation but is yet roaming about amidst the maMe o #ertain li eless stereotypes! So we ha&e to take re uge in a sage$a Soul o the highest attainment" or this is what .rishnIs sublime state may know what the message o the 'eeta really is! 2ather than just reprodu#ing lines rom the s#ripture" he #an know and demonstrate its intent and signi i#an#e" or .pli#itly admits that the truth he is about to illumine has also been known to and #elebrated by other sages! @ot on#e does he pro ess that only he is aware o this truth or that only he #an re&eal it! .pression and gestures" and e&en by what is named HeloKuentJ silen#e" the rest that is still une.pressed by mere words! -hile some o it is #ommuni#ated by a#ial e.tent to whi#h we are under the domination o one o the three properties o nature" namely" sattwa Bmoral &irtue and goodnessC" rajas Bpassion and moral blindnessC" and tamas Bignoran#e and darknessC! -e #annot #omprehend beyond the limitations imposed by these properties! So it is logi#al that there should be all these disputes about the import o the 'eeta$JThe GordIs Song!J (en all prey to doubts" not only be#ause many di erent &iews are held on a gi&en subje#t" but also be#ause o the a#t that the same prin#iple is o ten enun#iated in di erent ways and styles at di erent times! Suite a good many e.rishnIs message must o ne#essity ha&e been only one/ The pro#laimer &erily speaks o truth that is only one" but i there are ten listeners they #onstrue his meaning in ten di erent ways! 0ur grasp o what has been said is determined by the e.

ternal ramework o its synta#ti#al order! -hy per or#e" we should ind out" do we ind oursel&es depri&ed o truth / As a matter or a#t" with his birth and growing up a man inherits the paternal lega#y o home" shop" land and property" rank and honour" #attle and other li&esto#k" and now$a$days e&en ma#hinery and applian#es! Pre#isely in the same way he also inherits #ertain #ustoms" traditions" and modes o worship: the e&il lega#y o all the three hundred and thirty million 1indu gods and goddesses who were identi ied and #atalogued long ago as well as o the innumerable &arious orms o them all o&er the world! As a #hild grows up" he obser&es his parentsI" his brothersI and sistersI" and" his neighboursI way o worship! 1is amilyIs belie s" rites" and #eremonies are thus permanently imprinted on his mind! % his heritage is worship o a goddess" all his li e he re#ites only the name o that goddess! % his patrimony is worship o ghosts and spirits" he #annot but endlessly repeat the names o those ghosts and spirits! So it is that while some o us adhere to Shi&" some others #lea&e to .rishn has but pro#laimed the &erities that ha&e also been dis#o&ered and witnessed to by other sages o true a##omplishment! The" Sanskrit in whi#h the 'eeta is bodied orth is so simple and lu#id! % we but make a patient and #are ul perusal o its synta.0n the #ontrary he e.horts worshippers to seek ha&en under a seer and imbibe knowledge rom him by an inno#ent" guileless ministering to his needs! So . and the etymology o its words" we #an understand most o the 'eeta by oursel&es! But the di i#ulty is that we are disin#lined to a##ept what these words really signi y! To #ite an instan#e" .haled breathC" and many sa#ri i#e apan to pran" yet many others regulate both pran and apan to a#hie&e per e#t serenity o breath BpranayamC!(any sages resign the in#lination o their senses to the sa#red ire o sel $restraint! Thus yagya is said to be #ontemplation o breath o pran and apan! This is what the #omposer o the 'eeta has re#orded! 7espite this" howe&er" we adamantly hold that intoning swaha and #asting o barley grains" oil seeds" and butter into the altar$ ire is yagya! @othing like this has been e&en suggested by 4ogeshwar .rishn! The 'eeta is not a holy book that belongs to any one indi&idual" #aste" group" s#hool" se#t" nation .rishn says that while many yogi undertake it by o ering pran Binhaled breathC to apan Be.rishn has de#lared in unambiguous terms that true a#tion is the undertaking o yagya! But we yet persist in asserting that all the worldly business in whi#h men are engaged is a#tion! Throwing light upon the nature o yagya" .rishn" and yet others #ling to this or that deity! %t is beyond us to orsake them! % su#h misguided men e&er get a propitious" sa#red work like the 'eeta" they ail to grasp its real import! %t isT possible or a man to gi&e up the material possessions he has inherited" but he #annot rid himsel o inherited traditions and #reeds! 1e #an relinKuish material belongings that are his lega#y and go ar away rom them" but e&en there he is doggedly pursued by the thoughts" belie s" and usages that ha&e been ineradi#ably engra&ed on his mind and heart! 1e #annot a ter all #ut o his head! %t is or this reason that we also #onstrue the truth #ontained in the 'eeta in the light o our inherited assumptions" #ustoms" and modes o worship! % the s#ripture is in harmony with them and there is no #ontradi#tion between the two" we #on#ede itIs &era#ity! But we either reje#t it or twist it to suit our #on&enien#e i this is not the #ase! %s it surprising then that more o ten than not we miserably ail to #omprehend the mysterious knowledge o the 'eeta / So this se#ret #ontinues to remain ins#rutable! Sages and noble tea#her$pre#eptors" who ha&e known the Sel as well as his kinship with the Supreme Spirit" are on the other hand knowers o the truth that the 'eeta embodies! 0nly they are Kuali ied to say what the 'eeta pro#laims! 6or others" howe&er" it remains a se#ret whi#h they #an best resol&e by sitting de&otedly as earnest dis#iples near some sage o awareness! This way o realiMation has been repeatedly emphasiMed by .rishn! 1ow to a##ount or this all too #ommon ailure to #omprehend the true meaning o the 'eeta/ <&en a ter a great deal o hair$splitting and #ramming" all that we su##eed in getting hold o " is nothing more than the e.

or time! %t is rather a s#ripture or the entire world and or all times! % is or all" or e&ery nation" e&ery ra#e" and or e&ery man and woman" whate&er be their spiritual le&el and #apa#ity! %rrespe#ti&e o this" howe&er" just hearsay or someoneIs in luen#e should not be the basis or a de#ision that has a dire#t bearing upon oneIs e.e o renun#iation and knows 'od is a knower o the ?ed! So the per#eption o 'od that #omes a ter the #essation o natureIs dominan#e is named H?ed!J Sin#e this &ision is a gi t rom 'od himsel " it is said to trans#end e&en the Sel ! A sage is also one who has gone beyond the Sel by merging into the Supreme Spirit" and it is 'od who then speaks through him! 1e turns into the medium by whi#h the signs #oming rom 'od are transmitted! So a mere understanding o the literal meaning o words and grammati#al stru#tures is not su i#ient to #omprehend the truth underlying a sageIs utteran#es! 0nly the seeker who has a#hie&ed the state o a non$person by a#tually treading the a#tion$oriented path o spiritual ul illment" and whose ego is dissol&ed in 'od" #an #omprehend this hidden meaning! Although essentially impersonal" the ?ed are #ompilations o the utteran#es o a hundred or a hundred and i ty sage$seers! But when the same utteran#es are put down in writing by others" a #ode o so#ial order and organiMation is also in#luded along with them! Sin#e this #ode is belie&ed to ha&e #ome down rom men o true a##omplishment and wisdom" people tend to adhere to its pro&isions e&en though they may ha&e nothing to do with dharm$ ul illment o oneIs innate spiritual obligation! %n our own time we see how e&en hangers$on o no .perien#e! This ne#essitates that we approa#h the 'eeta a ter reeing oursel&es rom all prejudi#es and pre#on#ei&ed notions! And then we will indeed ind it a pillar o light! To regard the 'eeta as just a sa#red book is not enough! A book is at best a sign$post that guides readers to knowledge! %t is said that one who has known the truth o the 'eeta is a knower o the ?ed$whi#h literally means knowledge o 'od! %n the >panishad Brihadaranyak" 4agn&alkya #alls the ?ed Hthe breath o the <ternal!J But all the knowledge and all the wisdom that the 'eeta embodies" we must always remember" #omes to #ons#iousness only within the worshipperIs heart! The great sage ?ishwamitr" we are told" was absorbed in meditati&e penan#e! Pleased with this" Brahma appeared and$said to him" H6rom this day you are a sage BrishiC!J But not satis ied with this" the hermit went on with his intent #ontemplation! A ter a while Brahma" now a##ompanied by other gods" returned and said" H6rom today you are a royal sage BrajarshiC!J But sin#e ?ishwamitrIs wish was yet un ul illed" he #ontinued with his in#essant penan#e! Attended upon by gods" &irtuous impulses that #onstitute the treasure o di&inity" Brahma #ame ba#k again and told ?ishwamitr that rom that day he was a supreme sage BmaharshiC! ?ishwamitr then said to the oldest o all gods" H@o" % wish to be #alled a brahmarshi BBrahmin sageC who has #onKuered his senses!J Brahma protested that it #ould not be be#ause he had not yet subdued his senses! So ?ishwamitr resumed his penan#e" so rigorously this time that the smoke o the ire o penan#e began to rise rom his head! 'ods then entreated Brahma and the Gord o #reation on#e more appeared be ore ?ishwamitr and said" H@ow you are a brahmarshi!J Thereupon ?ishwamitr rejoined" H% % am a brahmarshi" let the ?ed wed me!J 1is prayer was granted and the ?ed was awakened in his heart! The unknown essen#e$all the mysterious knowledge and wisdom o the ?ed$now be#ame known! This dire#t apprehension o truth rather than a book is ?ed! So where&er ?ishwamitr$an enlightened sage$is" the ?ed abide there! .rishn says in the last #hapter o the 'eeta that e&en just hearing its mysterious knowledge is indeed salutary! But a ter a seeker has thus learnt it rom an a##omplished tea#her" he also needs to pra#tise it and in#orporate it into his own #ondu#t and e.isten#e! .rishn has also re&ealed in the 'eeta that the world is like an indestru#tible Peepal tree whose root abo&e is 'od and whose bran#hes spreading below are nature! The one who #uts this tree down with the a.

#onseKuen#e get their work done by pretending to be intimate with wielders o power" whereas as a matter o a#t they may not be really e&en known to them! Gikewise" #odi iers o rules or so#ial li e and #ondu#t also hide behind great sages and e.perien#e in the midst o li e" and re#ord insights into eternal truths! They are uni ied by their #ommon sear#h or the true nature o reality" and in the #ourse o this sear#h pro&ide glimpses into sublime states o the soul! And the 'eeta is an abstra#t o this essen#e that the >panishad #ontain! 0r" as it might be said" the 'eeta is the Kuintessen#e o the immortal substan#e that the >panishad ha&e #hurned rom the #elestial poetry o the ?ed! <&ery sage who has attained reality is also likewise an embodiment o this Kuintessen#e! And in e&ery part o the world a #ompilation o his utteran#es is known as s#ripture! @e&ertheless" dogmatists and blind ollowers o #reeds insist that this or that holy book alone is a repository o truth! So we ha&e people who say that only the .t and are #ertainly not di&ested o #harm by reKuent repetition! %n both the original 1indi &ersion and its <nglish rendering" the pe#uliar meanings o these e.pressions ha&e been stri#tly adhered to and there are e.rishn has also repeatedly employed and stressed terms su#h as a#tion BkarmC" yagya" &arn" &arnsankar" war" sphere BkshetrC" and knowledge or dis#rimination BgyanC in the 'eeta! These words are in&ested with uniKue meanings in the #onte.perien#e #annot be had again! There are others who hold orth that no man #an go to hea&en without pla#ing his aith in Aesus Christ" the one Son o 'od! -e o ten hear people say" HThere #annot be su#h a sage or seer or prophet again!J But all this is nothing but blind" irrational orthodo.planations where&er reKuired! These words and their uniKue meanings whi#h ha&e been almost #ompletely lost today #onstitute the main attra#tion o the 'eeta! Sin#e readers will meet them again and again in 4atharth 'eeta" brie de initions o these terms are gi&en below: .ploit their &enerable names to win subsisten#e! The same has happened with the ?ed! 6ortunately" howe&er" what may be deemed the essen#e o the ?ed$the di&ine re&elations o saints and seers who li&ed thousands o years ago$is enshrined in the >panishad! @either dogma nor theology" these meditations #on#ern dire#t" o&erwhelming religious e.pressions! Besides #hoosing a poeti# medium" 4ogeshwar .#lusi&ely with demonstrating the way by whi#h the Soul may attain the immortal state a ter whi#h there are no sha#kles o birth and death! <&ery sage$tea#her$like a writer$has his own style and #ertain a&ourite e.oran is a re&elation o truth and that its &isionary e.y! The essen#e per#ei&ed by all true sages is the same! %ts uni&ersality makes the 'eeta uniKue among the eminent sa#red works o the entire world! That also makes it a yardsti#k by whi#h the &era#ity o other holy books #an be tested and judged! So the 'eeta is that tou#hstone that &indi#ates the substan#e o truth in other s#riptures and also resol&es disputes arising rom their sometimes in#ompatible or e&en #ontradi#tory assertions! As it has been pointed #ut" almost all holy books abound in pro&isions or worldly li e and sustenan#e" and also in dire#ti&es or religious rites and #eremonies! There are also introdu#ed into them$in order to make them more attra#ti&e$sensational and e&en dread ul a##ounts o what ought or ought not to be done! %t is so un ortunate that people blindly a##ept all these super i#ial matters as the Hessen#eJ o dharm" orgetting that regulations and modes o worship that ha&e been laid down or the #ondu#t and sustenan#e o physi#al li e are bound to undergo #hange with pla#e" time" and situation! This really is behind all our #ommunal and religious disharmony! The uniKueness o the 'eeta is that it rises abo&e temporal Kuestions and re&eals the dynami# way by whi#h man may a#hie&e per e#tion o the Sel and inal absolution! There is not a single &erse in the whole #omposition that is #on#erned with sustenan#e o physi#al li e! 0n the #ontrary" ea#h &erse o the 'eeta demands o its dis#iples that they eKuip themsel&es and get ready or the inner war$the dis#ipline o worship and meditation! %nstead o embroiling us" like other sa#red books" in the irre#on#ilable #ontradi#tions o hea&en and hell" it is #on#erned e.

A2( 40'/E The -ay o Sel less A#tion! Setting upon a#tion with dependen#e on an a##omplished tea#her and total sel $surrender is the -ay o Sel less A#tion! T1< T2>T1 2<?<AG<7E ..2%S1@/ per#ei&ed be ore him and whi#h they will per#ei&e herea ter! 4A'4A/E 4agya is the name o a #ertain pro#ess o worship and meditation! .A2/E The ad&ent o #on usion into the worshipper and his #onseKuent straying rom the path o 'od$realiMation is &arnsankar! 1>(A@ CAT<'02%<S/E 'o&erned by natural properties" there are two #ategories o men" the godly and the ungodly$the righteous and the unrighteousO dri&en by their inborn in#linations they as#end or des#end! '07S/E 'ods represent the #olle#ti&e body o &irtuous impulses that abide in the realm o heart and enable the Soul to attain the sublimity o the supreme 'od! A?ATA2/E The word means Hin#arnation!J This in#arnation is always brought about within manIs heart" ne&er outside! ?%2AT 7A2S1A@/E The phrase may be translated as H&ision o the 0mnipresent!J %t is a .nowledge or 7is#rimination! -orship and meditation are a#tion! <mbarking on this a#tion with relian#e upon oneIs own prowess and ability is the -ay o knowledge! @%S1.S1<T2/E The word means Hsphere!J The sphere where the abo&e war is ought is the human body" a #omposite o the mind along with senses! '4A@/E The word means HknowledgePdis#ernment!J 7ire#t per#eption o 'od is knowledge! 40'/E Attainment to the Supreme Spirit who is beyond worldly atta#hment and repulsion is yog! '4A@ 40'/E The -ay o .A2(/E The word means Ha#tion!J>ndertaking o yagya is a#tion! ?A2@/E The our stages into whi#h a#tion$the ordained mode o worship$has been di&ided are the our &arnO rather than being #aste$names they represent the lower and higher states o the same worshipper! ?A2@SA@.A( .rishn has re&ealed the same truth whi#h seer$sages had B4 .2%S1@/E 1e was a 4ogeshwar" an adept in yog" an a##omplished tea#her T2>T1/E The Sel or Soul alone is true! SA@ATA@/E The word means Heternal!J The Soul is eternalO 'od is eternal! SA@ATA@ 71A2(/E %t is the #ondu#t that unites with 'od! -A2/E H-arJ is the #on li#t between the ri#hes o di&inity and the de&ilish hoard that represent the two distin#t" #ontradi#tory impulses o the mind and heart! %ts inal #onseKuen#e is the annihilation o both! .

and 8! A#tion BkarmC is irst mentioned in the thirty$ninth &erse o Chapter *! Beginning with this" i we read upto Chapter 8" we will #learly understand why Ha#tionJ is worship and meditation! Chapters 1: and 19 argue #on&in#ingly that this is truth! -hereas the problem o &arnsankar is dealt with in Chapter .rishn was an a##omplished sage ByogiC! The reality dis#losed by the 'eeta will be known rom Chapter * itsel " whi#h demonstrates how HeternalJ and HtruthJ are substitutesO but these #on#epts are also dealt with throughout the poem! The nature o HwarJ will be #lear by Chapter 8 and whate&er doubts there are in regard to this subje#t are all ully resol&ed by Chapter 11! 1owe&er" more light is thrown on it upto Chapter 1:! 0ne should turn again and again to Chapter 1. and by Chapter 1.aura& and the Panda& in the great %ndian epi#s 2amayan and (ahabharat! -here is the battleground on whi#h this HwarJ is ought/ The 7harmkshetr and .'od$gi ted intuition in a sageIs heart" per#eptible only when the Supreme Being stands as a &ision within the worshipper! T1< 2<?<2<7 '07/E The supreme goal! The one trans#endental 'od alone is it or worship! The pla#e where he should be sought or is the realm o heart: and he #an be realiMed only through the medium o sages BA##omplished tea#hersC who ha&e attained that unmani est state! @ow" out o these" in order to understand .nowledge will be #learly known rom Chapters . it will be e&ident that . Chapters! As it has already been said" instead o pro&iding skills needed or the sustenan#e o worldly" mortal li e" the 'eeta instru#ts its &otaries in the art and dis#ipline that will surely bring them &i#tory in the battle o li e! But the war the 'eeta portrays is not the physi#al" worldly war that is ought with deadly weapons" and in whi#h no #onKuest is e&er o a permanent #hara#ter! The war o the 'eeta is the #lash o innate properties and in#linations" the symboli# representation o whi#h as HwarJ has been a time$honoured literary tradition! -hat the 'eeta portrays as a war between 7harmkshetr and .urukshetr o .rishnIs orm one has to study upto Chapter .urukshetr" between the ri#hes o piety and the a##umulation o impiety" between righteousness and unrighteousness" is no di erent rom the ?edi# battles between %ndr and ?ritr$between awareness and ignoran#e" or the Purani# struggles between gods and demons" or the battles between 2am and 2a&an and between the .plained and dwelt upon right till the end! The meaning o yagya will be Kuite distin#t rom a reading o Chapters . to : and there is hardly any need o going to any later #hapters or it! %ntrodu#ed in Chapter *" the -ay o Sel less A#tion is e. and 8" or a more elaborate treatment o the subje#t we ha&e to look #are ully at Chapter 18! Chapter 1: a##ounts or the di&ision o men into the two #ategories o the godly and the demonia#al! Chapters 1+ and 11 re&eal the omnipresent" #osmi# orm o 'od" but the subje#t is also taken up in Chapters 9" 9" and 1)! That the other gods and goddesses are only hollow myths is established in Chapters 9" 9" and 19! Chapters . that per#eption is gi&en the name o knowledge BgyanC! The signi i#an#e o yog is distin#tly seen by Chapter :" although delineation o the se&eral aspe#ts o the Kuestion again runs through the whole #omposition! The -ay o .ternal pla#e like a temple with its idols" the proper seat or worship o 'od is the realm o the de&oteeIs heart within whi#h the e.er#ise o #ontemplation o the in#oming and outgoing breath is taken up in se#lusion! %n #ase a reader is hard$pressed or time" he will grasp the #ore o the 'eeta by studying only the irst si."8" :" and 18 show beyond any doubt that" rather than any e." in#arnation Ba&atarC is illumined in Chapter 8! Although the our old &arn #lassi i#ation is hinted at in Chapters . or its elaborate a##ount o the sphere$the battle ield$where the HwarJ is ought! %t will be #learly understood rom Chapter 8 and then rom Chapter 1.

ashi" an emblem o the san#tity that abides within manO and .#essi&e in atuationO the e&il$minded 7ushashanO .urukshetr is the sphere where" sin#e times immemorial" we ha&e been undergoing repeated birth" repeated death" and repeated #on#eption in the motherIs womb! -hen" through the agen#y o a noble tea#her$pre#eptor" the seeker embarks on the true way o worship and meditation and begins gradually to make his way towards the Supreme Being$embodiment o the most sublime dharm" .aura&$with a strength o ele&en akshauhini! <le&en is the number o the ten sense organs and the one mind! That whi#h is #onstituted o the mind along with the ten senses is the de&ilish hoard" a part o whi#h is 7hritrashtr" who persists in ignoran#e in spite o his awareness o truth! 'andhari" his #onsort" is the type o sense$bound disposition! Along with them there are also 7uryodhan" the symbol o e.ripa#harya" the type o #ompassionate #ondu#t in a state o in#omplete worshipO and ?idur" who stands or the Sel that dwells in ignoran#e but whose eyes are always aimed at the Panda&! ?idur is the nature$bound Sel that yet stri&es to make his way towards &irtue and spiritual enlightenment" be#ause he is a ter all an imma#ulate part o the Supreme Spirit! Thus the number o unrighteous impulses" too" is in inite! As we ha&e thus seen" the sphere$the battle ield$is only one" the physi#al body" but the impulses that wage #onstant war against ea#h other on it are two! -hile one o them tempts man to regard .ing o .unti" the type o duti ul #ondu#t" are parts o the treasure o di&inity! Be ore the awakening o righteousness in a manIs heart" with his de i#ient understanding he regards whate&er he does as an obligation! But" in truth" he is in#apable o doing what is worthwhile be#ause there #annot be an awareness o proper duty without the ad&ent o moral &irtue and goodness! .arn is thus the type o a#tion that is hostile to the essentially di&ine #hara#ter o the Sel ! 1e stands or traditions and usages whi#h bind and hinder men rom getting rid o alse" misguided rites and #eremonies! -ith the awakening o &irtue" howe&er" there is the gradual emergen#e o 4udhisthir" the embodiment o dharmO Arjun" the image o a e#tionate de&otionO Bheem" the type o pro ound sentimentO @akul" the symbol o regulated li eO Sahde&" the adherer to truthO Satyaki" the repository o goodnessO the .unti be ore she is wedded to Pandu! And the most ormidable enemy o her other sons$the Panda&$is this .arn" who spends all his li e ighting the Panda&" is the only a#Kuisition o .tension o this sphere! 1elplessly dri&en by the three properties$sattwa" rajas" and tamas$man is #ompelled to a#t! 1e #annot sur&i&e or e&en a moment without undertaking a#tion! .the 'eeta are no geographi#al lo#ations! As the poet o the 'eeta has made .urukshetr$o the .arn" the perpetrator o alien deedsO the deluded BheeshmO 7rona#harya o dual #ondu#tO Ashwatthama" the image o atta#hmentO the skepti#al ?ikarnO .untibhoj" the symbol o world$#onKuest through earnest undertaking o duty! The total number o the Panda& army is se&en akshauhini! HAkshJ is another word or &ision! That whi#h is made up o lo&e and awareness o truth is the treasure o di&inity! %n a#t" the se&en akshauhini" whi#h is gi&en as the total strength o the Panda& army" is no physi#al re#koningO the number &erily represents the se&en steps$the se&en stages o yog$that the seeker has to tra&erse in order to rea#h the most sublime 'od" his supreme goal! 0pposed to the Panda& army" embodiments o pious impulses that are beyond #ounting" is the army o .arn! .rishn re&eal to Arjun" the physi#al" human body itsel is the sphere$the pat#h o earth$on whi#h the sown seeds o good and e&il sprout as sanskar! The ten organs o sense" mind" intelle#t" sensibility" ego" the i&e primary substan#es" and the three nature$born properties are said to be #onstituents o the whole e.urukrhetr Bsphere o a#tionC is trans ormed into 7harmkshetr Bsphere o righteousnessC! -ithin this human body" in its mind and heart$the innermost seats o thought and eeling$there ha&e always dwelt the two distin#t" primordial tenden#ies$the di&ine and the de&ilish! Pandu" the image o &irtue" and .

rishnIs e.aura& alone! % he has to destroy bodies" are the Panda& also not physi#al beings/ %s it not that ArjunIs kinsmen are on both sides/ %s it possible to kill the sanskar$based body with a sword/ <&en more intriguingly" i the body is perishable and without real e.hortation whether Arjun has to slay the .rishn to enlighten him on that whi#h brings the most propitious eli#ity to the Sel ! ArjunIs yearning is or inal beatitude rather than or any material reward! So he begs .rishn is standing up or the sake o a mere body" isnIt he himsel a sin ul" deluded being with a utile li e/ But" as we ha&e seen" Arjun o the 'eeta is no more than a symbol$the embodiment o lo&ing de&otion! The a##omplished tea#her is e&er in readiness to help his dis#iple! Arjun and .aura& army" e&en the Panda& warriors are hurling themsel&es into the iery mouth o the 0mnipresent and getting annihilated! <&en pious impulses are thus dissol&ed with inal attainment and the ultimate #onseKuen#e then issues orth! % the a##omplished sage undertakes any enterprise a ter this inal dissolution" it is only or the guidan#e and edi i#ation o his less ortunate ellowmen and dis#iples! Aiming at amelioration o the world" sages ha&e de&ised #on#rete" tangible metaphors to represent subtle abstra#tions! So it is that #hara#ters o the 'eeta are all symboli#$mere metaphors$ or ormless" unmani est in#linations and abilities! Some thirty to orty #hara#ters are named in the irst #hapter" one$hal o whom epitomiMe or#es o piety whereas the others stand or or#es o impiety! The irst hal are Panda&" while the others belong to the .rishn rom the beginning to the end! And this Arjun too is" as we are about to see" nothing more than a type! 2ather than a three$ dimensional indi&idual" he is the type o a e#tionate de&otion! At the outset Arjun is deeply agitated at the an#ied prospe#t o loss o what he mistakenly assumes to be the timeless and eternal dharm o his amily! But the 4ogeshwar points out to him that grie and irresolution are an o shoot o ignoran#e" or the Soul alone is eternal and indestru#tible! The body is perishable and Arjun is e.nature as real and thus e e#ts his degradation to birth in lower orms" the other #on&in#es him o the reality and all$per&ading domination o the Supreme Being and so pro&ides a##ess to him! -hen the seeker takes re uge in a sage who has per#ei&ed the essen#e" there is a gradual but steady as#ent o &irtuous impulses on the one hand while" on the other" there is a de#line and then the inal destru#tion o e&il impulses! -hen there remains no malady and the mind is per e#tly restrained" e&en the restrained mind at last #eases to be and there is no longer any need o e&en the treasure o di&inity! Arjun has the &ision that ollowing a ter the .isten#e" who is this Arjun/ And who is .aura& #amp! About hal a doMen o these #hara#ters are again alluded to on the o##asion o ArjunIs &ision o the all$per&ading 'od! Apart rom these two #hapters" there is no other mention o these #hara#ters anywhere else in the 'eeta! 0ut o them Arjun alone is present be ore 4ogeshwar .rishn not only to instru#t but also support and se#ure him" or he is a pupil who has ound shelter under a lo&ing tea#her! This theme o an earnest and de&oted pupil learning rom an enlightened and #aring tea#her$pre#eptor runs through the whole o the 'eeta! (o&ed by sentiment" i someone insisted on staying with my most re&ered and noble mentor Parmanand Ai" he would say" H'o and li&e anywhere you like with your body" but in your mind be with me! <&ery morning and e&ening re#ite some one or two$lettered name like 2am" Shi&" or 0(" and #ontemplate my orm in your heart! % you #an se#urely hold on to this orm" % shall gi&e you the one whose name you re#ite! -hen your hold gets yet stronger" % shall always abide .rishn are respe#ti&ely the lo&ing" dedi#ated pupil and the #on#erned" #aring mentor! Sin#e he is #on used about the meaning o dharm" he most humbly entreats .horted to ight be#ause it is so! But it is not #lear rom .rishn standing by to de end and prote#t/ %s he with Arjun to sa&e and preser&e a body/ 7oesnIt he pro#laim that one who toils or the body is a sin ul" deluded man who li&es in &ain/ So i .

rishnIs mani old glories in Chapter 11" Arjun #ringes with ear and begins to apologiMe or his petty improprieties! As an a e#tionate riend and #onsiderate tea#her" .rishn readily orgi&es him and re$assumes his pla#id" benign orm! 1e then tells Arjun that neither has anyone seen this mani estation o his in the past nor #an anyone see it in the uture! % it is so" &ision o the Supreme Spirit was meant or Arjun alone" and the 'eeta then is apparently o no use or us! But doesnIt Sanjay ha&e the same &ision along with Arjun/ And hasnIt .rishn had only #on erred on his belo&ed riend and dis#iple the ability to be worthy o his army/ %n a#t" the whole o the means or spiritual a##omplishment #annot be put down in bla#k and white! <&en a ter one has gone through the 'eeta se&eral times" there is yet the ne#essity o a#tually tra&ersing the path o 'od$realiMation that the Gord has #harted! This is the ne#essity$whi#h 4atharth 'eeta is all about! Shree 'urupurnima Auly *8" 198. Swami Adgadanand! .rishn gi&en the assuran#e earlier that" enlightened and redeemed by the yagya o knowledge" many sages ha&e been blessed with a dire#t per#eption o him/ -hat a ter all does 4ogeshwar .rishn intend to #ommuni#ate/ Arjun is a personi i#ation o a e#tion and dedi#ation" and these are eelings shared by all mankind! @o man de&oid o these sentiments has seen the #o&eted 'od be ore and no man de&oid o these sentiments #an see him in the uture! %n 'oswami TulsidasIs words" 2am #annot be realiMed without lo&ing aith despite endless re#itation" yog" and relinKuishment! So Arjun is a symboli# igure! And i it is not so" it would be wiser o us to keep the 'eeta aside" or in that #ase Arjun alone was entitled to per#eption o 'od! At the end o the same #hapter Bi!e!" 11C" .rishn" and o whether there was an a#tual war #alled the (ahabharat" the 'eeta is by no means a portrayal o physi#al war are! Standing on the brink o that histori#al war" it was not his army but Arjun who was unner&ed! The army was ully in readiness to ight! 7oesnIt it imply" then" that by prea#hing to Arjun" .in your heart like a #harioteer!J -hen our Sel has be#ome one with the orm o the a##omplished tea#her" he dwells as intimately with us as our own limbs! 1e begins to guide e&en be ore the emergen#e o &irtuous in#linations within the mind! And when he abides in the de&oteeIs heart" he is e&er awake and inseparably with this dis#ipleIs Sel ! A ter &iewing 4ogeshwar .pression or Htender a e#tion!J And that is the distinguishing mark o Arjun! 1e is also a symbol o seeking! An a&atar" too" is symboli#al and so are also all the other #hara#ters o the 'eeta so that we may be enabled to see in the great war o .urukshetr Hthe battle$ ield o the Soul!J %rrespe#ti&e o whether there were a#tual histori#al personages su#h as Arjun and .rishn assures his riend and de&otee" H0 Arjun" s#or#her o enemies" a worshipper #an know this orm o mine dire#tly" a#Kuire its essen#e" and e&en be#ome one with it by total and unswer&ing de&otion!J H%ntent de&otionJ is only another e.

C1APT<2 1: T1< 40' 06 %22<S0G>T%0@ A@7 '2%<6 1! 7hritrashtr said" QQAssembled at .uru means HdoOJ the word is an imperati&e! As .rishn" where the war o his sa#red poem was ought! HThis body is itsel " 0 Arjun" a battle ield" and one who #onKuers it grows spiritually de.rishn has said" H7ri&en by the three propertiesU*V born out o prakriti BnatureC man is #ompelled to a#tO without a#tion he #annot e&en li&e or a moment!J These properties" &irtue" ignoran#e" and passion" #ompel him to a#t! <&en in sleep a#tion does not #ease" or it is the ne#essary sustenan#e or the body! The three properties bind men" rom the le&el o gods to that o the lowest #reatures su#h as worms! So long as the material world and its properties are" kuru must be! There ore" the sphere o birth and death" o that whi#h is e&ol&ed rom a pre&ious sour#e or prakriti BnatureC is .urukshetrU1V" at 7harmkshetr" and eager or #ombat" 0 Sanjay" what did my and PanduIs sons do/J 7hritrashtr is the &ery image o ignoran#eO and Sanjay is the embodiment o sel $restraint! %gnoran#e lurks at the #ore o the obje#ti&e" the outward$looking" mind! -ith his mind en&eloped in darkness" 7hritrashtr is blind sin#e birth" but he sees and hears through Sanjay" the epitome o sel $#ontrol! 1e knows that 'od alone is real" but as long as his in atuation or 7uryodhan born rom ignoran#e lasts" his inner eye will be o#used on the .terous by per#ei&ing its essen#e!J 1e then elaborates the stru#ture o this Hbattle ield"J sphere o a#tion #onstituted o ten per#eptors U.urukshetr" whereas the sphere o righteous impulses whi#h guide the Sel to 'od" the highest spiritual reality" is 7harmkshetr! U*VSattwa" tamas and rajas" the three gun or properties or #onstituent Kualities o all material obje#ts and beings! Sattwa is &irtue or the Kuality o goodnessO tamas is ignoran#e or darkness" and rajas is passion or moral blindness! Ar#haeologists are engaged in resear#h in Punjab" .alted sage who has enri#hed himsel with worship and meditation! This ield belongs to one who realiMes its essen#e" and the war ought on it is the only real war! 1istory is #rowded with wars o the world" but the &i#tors in these wars ha&e but sought in &ain or a permanent #onKuest! These wars were nothing beyond a#ts o retribution! True &i#tory lies in subduing matter and in per#ei&ing" as well as be#oming one with" the .VThe ten organs o sense : i&e o per#eption BgyanendrianiC and i&e organs o a#tion BkarmendrianiC! U8VPrimary substan#es! The #lue to the mystery o the #on li#t between the opposed impulses begins to be seen when one turns or enlightenment to an e.ashi" and Prayag to lo#ate .V" the obje#ti&e and the subje#ti&e mind" the ego" the i&e elementsU8V" and the three properties! The body itsel is a ield" a ring or an arena! The or#es that #lash on this ield are two old" the godly and the ungodly" the di&ine and the de&ilish" the o spring o Pandu and those o 7hritrashtr" the or#es that are #ongenial to the essentially di&ine #hara#ter o the Sel and those whi#h o end and demean it! U.urukshetr when it is in ested with demonia#al powers! .urukshetr! But the poet o the 'eeta has himsel suggested" through .aura&" who symboliMe the ungodly or#es o negati&e" sin ul impulses! U1VThe ield or sphere o dharm! 7harm is not only moral &irtues and good works" but the essential #hara#ter that enables a thing or being to be its own Sel ! The human body is a ield or #ombat! -hen there is abundan#e o di&inity in the realm o the heart" the body is transmuted into a 7harmkshetr B ield o dharmC" but it degenerates into a .

#essi&e atta#hment to worldly obje#ts" goes to his tea#her! Atta#hment is at the root o all grie s" indeed their so&ereign! %t tempts one away rom the spiritual treasure and so it is named 7uryodhan! 0nly the Soul property is the stable property and it is atta#hment whi#h generates impurity in it! %t draws one to the material world! But it also pro&ides the primary moti&e or enlightenment! %nKuisiti&eness is possible only as long as there is atta#hment" or else only the impe##able Spirit remains! So" a ter ha&ing seen the Panda& army arrayed" that is" a ter ha&ing glimpsed the righteous impulses that are in tune with the Sel " 7uryodhan" a &i#tim o atta#hment" goes to his tea#her 7rona#harya and says: .rishnU:V! himsel " an adept in yogU9V! U)VThe Sanskrit eKui&alent here is guru: an ideal tea#her! The un#tion o su#h a tea#her" as it is understood in 1indu thought" is two old! 1e" o #ourse" elu#idates the s#riptures" but" what is more important" he also tea#hes by the e.#ellen#e will be 4ogeshwar .! HBehold" 0 master" this massi&e army o PanduIs sons marshalled in battle ormation by your wise pupil" the son o 7rupad B7hristdyumnC!II 7hristdyumn" the son o 7rupad" is the stead ast mind that treasures aith in the uni&ersal" immutable reality! 1e is thus the master" the type o righteous impulses that lead to sel less a#ti&ity in a spirit o egoless re&eren#e to spiritual di&inity! H@ot means but the determination o mind needs to be irm!II Get us now re&iew the Panda& army at length! 8! H1ere in the army are many &aliant ar#hers" 4uyudhan" ?irat and the great martial #ommander 7rupad" who are a worthy mat#h or the bra&e Arjun and Bheem" andE II This army is #omposed o those who #an guide souls to the Supreme Spirit" like Bheem who is an embodiment o resolute sentiment" the image o tender de&otion Arjun" and many other &aliant warriors su#h as Satyaki" endowed with goodness" ?irat and the great warrior leader 7rupad" symboliMing #onsisten#y and stead astness on the path o spirituality" andE .Supreme Spirit that trans#ends it! This is the only #onKuest in whi#h there is no prospe#t o de eat! This is true sal&ation a ter whi#h there are no etters o birth and death! The mind lying in the abyss o ignoran#e per#ei&es through one who has mastered the mind and the senses" and thus knows what has transpired on the battle ield" where ighters in#lude e&en those who ha&e known its reality! ?ision is e&er in proportion to mastery o the mind and the senses! *! HSanjay said" QAt the time" a ter ha&ing seen the Panda& army standing in battle array" .rishn is a mortal as well as 'od B?ishnu" eKui&alent to Brahm$ the Supreme Spirit" in his eighth in#arnationC! U9V4og : that whi#h unites the Sel with the Supreme Spirit! 4ogeshwar is an adept in yog! .ample o his li e! U:VTo grasp the spirit o the 'eeta it is important to keep in mind that .ing 7uryodhan approa#hed his tea#her 7rona#harya and spoke thus!I II 7ual #ondu#t itsel is 7rona#harya! -hen the awareness dawns that we are alienated rom 'od there arises in the heart an a#ute hunger or the attainment o that e.ing 7uryodhan" an embodiment o e.alted Spirit! 0nly then do we set out to seek an a##omplished tea#her" a realiMed sage B'uruCU)V! Between the two opposed impulses" this awareness is the irst initiator into wisdom" although the tea#her o ultimate e.

#ellen#e! Although the monar#h o impulses that are alien to the essentially spiritual #hara#ter o the Sel " it is ignoran#e Batta#hmentC that irst moti&ates us to stri&e or the realiMation o the treasure o di&inity! As or his own side" 7uryodhan dwells on it but brie ly! 1ad it been an a#tual" e.)! H7hrishtketu" Chekitan" and the mighty .arn" and also .ternal war" he would ha&e gi&en an elaborate a##ount o his army! But only a ew per&ersions are #ited" or they ha&e to be #onKuered and they are destru#tible! There are mentioned only about hal a doMen o these" at the heart o all o whi#h there yet dwells an unworldly propensity! 9! HBe it known to you" 0 the worthiest o the twi#e$bornU8V BBrahminsC" the names o those who are most eminent amongst us" the #hie s o our armyO these % now name or your in ormation!J HThe worthiest o the twi#e$born!J That is how 7uryodhan addresses his tea#her 7rona#harya be ore he introdu#es to him the #hie s o his army! HThe worthiest o the twi#e$bornJ would hardly be an appropriate term o address or a #ommander$in$#hie i the war were a physi#al" e.untibhoj" who #onKuers world li e by doing what is worthy o doing! Then Shaibya" o &irtuous #ondu#t! :! HThe &alorous 4udhmanyu" the mighty >ttmauj" Saubhadr" and 7raupadiIs i&e sons" all great warriors!II The heroi# 4udhmanyu o warlike temperO >ttmauj with the spirit o abandon that lows rom sa#red e.ing o .untibhoj" and Shaibya" the unparalleled among men andE II 7hrishtketu" the stead ast$in$duty" Chekitan" who #an rein in his straying thought and #on#entrate it on the Supreme Spirit! The .ternal war! %n a#t" the 'eeta dwells upon the #on li#t between #ontradi#tory innate impulses" upon the dual #ondu#t whi#h is 7rona#harya! The world o matter e.ripa$&i#tor in wars" Ashwatthama and ?ikarn" as well as Saumdutti BBhurishrawa" son o SomduttC!II The #ommander$in$#hie is 7rona#harya himsel " symboliMing dual #ondu#t! And then there is .#ellen#eO Abhimanyu BSaubhadrC" SubhadraIs son" with a mind without ear be#ause it is propped up by righteousness" and the i&e sons o 7raupadi who hersel is a orm o dis#ernment o the di&ine" all are great warriors named tenderness" beauty" #ompassion" spiritual repose and #onsisten#y! All o them are noted or their ability to tra&erse the path o spiritual ul illment with per e#t skill! 7uryodhan thus enumerates to his tea#her about a s#ore o names rom the side o the Panda&" whi#h represent some &ital prin#iples o di&ine e.ashi" an emblem o the sa#redness that resides within the world o the body! Purujeet" the one who obtains &i#tory o&er matter in all its orms$gross" subtle" and instrumental! .ists and there is duality i we are e&en in the least isolated rom 'od! 1owe&er" the urge" too" or o&er#oming this duality o obje#t$spirit is deri&ed irst rom the tea#her 7rona#harya! %t is imper e#t knowledge that indu#es the hunger or enlightenment! U8VTwi#e$born be#ause o the spiritual birth or awakening BattainmentsC that #omes through sel $study and #ontemplation! %t is now time to ha&e a look at the leaders o the impulses whi#h are hostile to the essentially sa#red #hara#ter o the Sel ! 8! H4our &enerable sel " Bheeshm and .ing o the holy #ity o .ashi" as well as Purujeet and .

ripa#harya! .ripa#harya represents the a#t o #ompassion by the seeker in the state be ore Sel $realiMation! 'od is the mine o #ompassion and the sage attains to the same state a ter ul illment! But during the period up to a##omplishment" so long as the worshipper is remo&ed rom 'od and 'od is remo&ed rom him" when the un#ongenial impulses are still ali&e and strong" and he is besieged by delusion$i the seeker eels #ompassion at this stage" he is destroyed! 6or a#ting with pity" Sita U9V had to undergo penan#e in Ganka or years! U9VSita was the wi e o Gord 2am" who was the main #hara#ter o the epi# 2amayan! (other .arn" a betrayer o the sa#red #hara#ter o Sel " and the #onKuering warrior .pressed a similar &iew! HAttainments made" through per e#t meditation are indeed attainments" but they are also as ormidable obsta#les in the way o the endea&our o the indi&idual Soul or identi i#ation with the Supreme Spirit as sensual desire" anger" greed" and delusion!J 'oswami Tulsidas has said" H0 'arud" mani old are obsta#les built up by maya Bthe illusion by whi#h the unreal" physi#al uni&erse is regarded as truly e.ity and #on usion! They are all #hie s o the outward lowing #urrent o li e! 9! HAnd Bthere areC many other skilled warriors" too" eKuipped with numerous arms" who ha&e orsaken hope o li e or my sake!II And many other &aliant warriors are resol&ed" 7uryodhan intimates to 7rona#harya" to ight or .the grandsire Bheeshm" the &ery image o delusion! 7elusion is the ountainhead o de&iation rom the ideal state! Sin#e it sur&i&es till the &ery end" delusion is the grandsire! The whole army has perished" but Bheeshm yet li&es on! 1e lies un#ons#ious on his bed o arrows and still #ontinues to breathe! Gike Bheeshm" too" are .ploiting the situation" 2a&an #arried Sita away and Sita had to stay in Ganka held #apti&e or many months therea ter! % Sita had waited or 2am to #ome ba#k" as he had instru#ted her and not le t the sa ety o her meditation hut out o an ill ad&ised Bwhat in Buddhist literature is #alled idiot #ompassion$ that is negle#ting to take #are o your own well being in the name o helping othersC eeling o pity and #ompassion or the begging sage" then she #ould ha&e a&oided all the torture and troubles that she then had to undergo! ?ishwamitr ell rom gra#e be#ause he elt tenderness at su#h a stage! (aharshi Patanjali" the pre#eptor o yog$aphorism" has e.istent and distin#t rom the Supreme SpiritC when we stri&e to unra&el the knots o properties o nature$ mere distortions o truth! Attainment o san#tity ele&ates" but the mind #onjures up one temptation a ter another!II The illusory maya obstru#ts in many ways! %t brings men a##omplishments and untold wealth" and e&en turns them into holy beings! % a being o su#h a##omplishment just passes by" e&en a dying man is re&i&ed! @otwithstanding the re#o&ery o the patient" howe&er" the seeker shall be destroyed i he regards the #ure as his own a#hie&ement! %nstead o one si#kness a thousand maladies will swarm upon his mind" the pro#ess o re&erent #ontemplation o the di&ine will be interrupted" and he will so stray rom the right path that the world o matter o&erwhelms him! % the goal is distant and the seeker eels #ompassion" this one a#t alone is su i#ient to result in the deba#le o his whole army! So he has to be on his guard against the eeling o #ompassion until the moment o inal attainment" although at the same time it is also true that #ompassion is the hallmark o a saint! But be ore ultimate ul illment" #ompassion is the mightiest warrior among the e&il" demonia#al impulses! %t is thus that Ashwatthama is an image o inordinate atta#hment" ?ikarn o inde#ision" and Bhurishrawa o perple.aikayi banished him as a re#luse to the orests! 0beying the order o his mother Gord 2am stayed in the jungles! Sita appealed to Gord 2am to bring her a 'olden 7eer! 2am in order to ul ill his wi e3s desire" went a ter the deer but instru#ted her or her prote#tion not to lea&e the sa ety o her meditation hut no matter what the temptation" while she was alone" until he returned! 0n#e 2am had le t" seeing Sita alone and unprote#ted" 2a&an$ <&il king o Ganka who lusted a ter Sita and wanted her or his wi e approa#hed the hut in the disguise o a sage! Sita #ompassionately #ame out to o er alms to the apparent sage! <.

abir: HSin#e desire is the maker o birth and illusion" and it is desire that #reates the material world" he who abandons desire is the one who #annot be #onKuered!II That whi#h is ree rom delusion is eternal and unmani est! 7esire is illusion and progenitor o the world! %n .#essi&e atta#hment hasten to a Kui#k demise! Bheeshm is blessed with death by wish! So the death o desire and death o delusion are one and the same! This idea has been so lu#idly e.aura& #hie s to de end Bheeshm rather than ight with the Panda&! This is intriguing! A ter all" what kind o Hde enderJ is this Bheeshm who #annot e&en de end him sel / -hat #ompli#ates the matter e&en more is that the .his sake e&en at the #ost o their li e! But there is no pre#ise enumeration o them! 7uryodhan then points out the innate Kualities with whi#h ea#h o the two armies is orti ied! 1+! H0ur army de endedU1+V by Bheeshm is un#onKuerable" while their army de ended by Bheem is easy to &anKuish!II 7uryodhanIs army" Hde endedJ by Bheeshm" is in&in#ible" whereas the opposing army o the Panda&" Hde endedJ by Bheem" is easy to #onKuer! The use o ambiguous puns su#h as a paryaptam and aparyaptamU11V is itsel a sign o 7uryodhanIs doubt ul state o mind! So we ha&e to look #are ully at the power that Bheeshm represents on whi#h all the .aura& #annot be de eated i Bheeshm is sa e and ali&e! So it is obligatory or all the .pressed by Sant .abirIs &iew" Hthe Sel whi#h a#hie&es reedom rom desire is united with the athomless" eternal" boundless reality! 0ne who is ree rom desire dwells within the Sel and ne&er alls rom gra#e" or he has his being in the Supreme Spirit!J At the beginning there are numerous desires" but e&entually there remains only a longing or the realiMation o 'od! The ul illment" too" o this wish also marks the end o desire! 1ad there been something higher" greater" or more pre#ious than 'od" one" would surely ha&e #ra&ed or it! But when there is nothing beyond or abo&e him" what else #an be desired/ -hen all things that #an be had are a#hie&ed" the &ery roots o desire are destroyed and delusion perishes utterly! This is BheeshmIs death by wish! Thus" de ended by Bheeshm" 7uryodhanIs army is in&in#ible in e&ery respe#t! %gnoran#e is present as long as there is delusion! -hen delusion is dead" ignoran#e also dies! The Panda& army" on the #ontrary" de ended as it is by Bheem" is easy to #onKuer! Bheem is the &ery image o sentiment! H'od dwells in eeling!II .aura& hopes rest" as well as the Kuality symboliMed by Bheem whi#h the Panda&$endowed with the treasure o di&inity$rely upon! 7uryodhan then gi&es his inal estimate o the situation! U1+V%n the an#ient 1indu art o war are" ea#h army had o #ourse a #ommander$in$#hie " but it had also a #hampion" a man o &alour$#ourage and intelligen#e" who a#ted as its de ender! U11VTwo #ontradi#tory interpretations are possible be#ause aparyaptam means both insu i#ient or unlimited and paryaptam both adeKuate and limited! 11! HSo" while keeping to your respe#ti&e stations in the se&eral di&isions" all o you should doubtlessly prote#t Bheeshm alone on all sides!J 7uryodhan #ommands all his #hie s to keep to their posts and yet prote#t Bheeshm on all sides! The .aura& are also wholly dependent on him! So they ha&e to de&ise all possible measures o de en#e or him! This is #ertainly no physi#al warrior! Bheeshm is delusion! So long as delusion is ali&e" unrighteous impulses #annot be &anKuished! H%n&in#ibleJ here means Hdi i#ult to &anKuishJ rather than Himpossible to &anKuish!J As 'oswami Tulsidas has said" HThe most di i#ult to #onKuer is the hostile world o matter and the one who subdues it is indeed heroi#!II % delusion #eases" ignoran#e too #eases to e.rishn has des#ribed it as de&otion! %t lays .ist and the residues o negati&e eelings su#h as e.

hold on e&en 'od! The sentiment o de&otion is a pious impulse o lawless per e#tion! %t is a prote#tor o righteousness! 0n the one hand so resour#e ul that it brings about realiMation o the Supreme Spirit" on the other hand it is also so deli#ate and ragile that this dayIs idelity and adheren#e o ten turn into nothingness and e&en outright pri&ation on the ne.aura& BBheeshmC blew his #on#h to blare orth a lion$like roar!II Con#hes are blown a ter the .rishn and Arjun" riding in their magni i#ent" sa#red #hariot drawn by lawlessly white horses BHwhiteJ symboliMes purityC" also blow their H#elestialJ #on#hes! HCelestialJ means beyond the material world! 4ogeshwar .aura& #hallenge with their own de#larations" the irst o whi#h is made by 4ogeshwar .isten#e that is beyond the worlds o both mortals and gods" and &erily the whole uni&erse BBrahmlokCU1*V" whi#h are all a li#ted with the ear o birth and death! The #hariot under his #harge is not made o gold and sil&er and woodO e&erything about him is #elestial" the #hariot" the #on#h and" there ore" also his message! .aura& ha&e no message other than that o ear! %nto.isting dread e&en more rightening! 7elusion #annot o er anything else e.aura& ha&e taken sto#k o their strength! The trumpeting o #on#hes is a de#laration o the intention" o ea#h o the #hie s" o what he #an o er a ter #onKuest! The mighty grandsire Bheeshm" the eldest o the .aura& ha&e nothing to de#lare against this! @umerous #on#hes rom their side are trumpeted simultaneously" but they altogether inspire no other eeling e.i#ated with a sense o alse su##ess" the outward$looking impulses that o end and demean the human Soul render the bonds o in atuation yet stronger! @ow the Panda&" representing righteous impulses that are in harmony with the di&ine #hara#ter o the Sel " respond to the .t day! Today we admire a sage or his &irtue" but the &ery ne.#ept this! So renun#iation o the material world is the right step or one who Kuests or Sel $realiMation! -orldly in#linations are like a mirage$a mere shadow o ignoran#e" and the .! HThen there abruptly arose a tumult o #on#hes and kettledrums" tabors" drums" and #ow$ horns!II A ter BheeshmIs blowing o his #on#h" numerous other #on#hes" drums" and trumpets are sounded together" and they make an awesome noise! The .rishnC and PanduIs son BArjunC" seated in the magni i#ent #hariot to whi#h white steeds were yoked" blew their #elestial #on#hes!II A ter the .aura&" blows his #on#h to produ#e a lion$like roar whi#h gladdens 7uryodhanIs heart! The lion represents the terrible" tooth$and$ #law" aspe#t o nature! 0ur hair stands on end and our hearts beat &iolently when we hear the roar o a lion in a still" solitary orest e&en though we are miles away rom the beast! 6ear is a property o nature" not o 'od! Bheeshm is the &ery image o delusion! % delusion pre&ails" it will enwrap the material worldIs orest o ear whi#h we inhabit in yet another shroud o ear to make the e.rishn himsel ! 18! HThen" too" (adha& B.aura& #hie s! 1.#ept ear! 6ear" although in &arying degrees" is born out o ea#h per&ersion! Similar is also the message o the #on#hes o the other .pression to a similar &iew! H0nly meditation pra#tised or a long time with #onstant de&otion and re&eren#e #an be irm!II @ow let us listen to the lourish o the warriorsI #on#hes! 1*! HTo 7uryodhanIs delight then" his mighty grandsire and the eldest o the .rishnIs trans#endental message is a promise to render unto souls the most auspi#ious" unworldly e.aura&" .t day we grumble and #a&il be#ause we ha&e seen him relishing deli#a#ies! 7e&otion is shaken by suspi#ion o e&en the slightest law in the lo&ed one! The impulse o righteousness is undermined and the ties with the obje#t o a e#tionate de&otion are broken! So it is that the Panda& army de ended by Bheem #an be #onKuered with ease! (aharshi Patanjali has gi&en e.

unti" blew the #on#h Anant&ijay" whereas @akul and Sahde& blew their #on#hes Sughosh and (anipushpak!J .#ept the longed$ or 'od! % the de&otion to him is per e#t" it embra#es the &irtues that pro&ide a##ess to the Supreme Spirit! 7hananjay is another name o this a#ulty! 0ne kind o wealth is the e.ternal ri#hes whi#h are needed or physi#al sustenan#e" but that has nothing to do with the Sel ! The really lasting wealth o man" whi#h he #an truly #all his own" is realiMation o his Sel " the 'od within! %n the Brihadaranyak >panishad" 4agna&alkya tea#hes the same to his wi e (aitreyi when she asks him" H(y lord" i this whole earth belonged to me with all its ri#hes" should % through its possession attain immortality/J The sage replies" H@o" your li e would be like that o the wealthy! @one #an possibly hope to be immortal through wealth!II Bheem o awesome deeds blows his great #on#h Paundr" whi#h denotes sentiment! The heart is the spring as well as the habitat o eeling! This is why Bheem is #alled ?rikodar" the large$ hearted! 4ou are atta#hed to a #hild" but that atta#hment belongs essentially to your heart! %t only mani ests itsel in the #hild! Sentiment is athomless and mighty" and this sentiment is BheemIs great #on#h that is now blown! The a e#tion that he represents is embodied in sentiment! That is why Bheem blows the #on#h named Paundr! 1owe&er" although sentiment is mighty" it #an be so only through the medium o lo&e! 'oswami Tulsidas admits that he has known the omnipresen#e o 'od only through its mani estation in lo&e! 1:! H.rishnIs message is o establishing a dire#t #onta#t with this Supreme Being! But how will he a e#t this state/ U1*V0ne o the three worlds o 1indu thought: (rityulok Bthe earth$the world o mortalsC" 7e&lok Bhea&en$the world o godsC" and Brahmlok Bthe world o Brahma who is the most hoary and the grandsire o all gods" yet not eternalC! 1)! QQ-hile 1rishikesh B.perien#es o de&otees" e&en pangs o separation and o##asional disen#hantment and tears! There should be nothing or a de&otee e.Beyond these worlds there is only the one uniKue and indes#ribable 'od! .unti is the &ery image o duti ulnessO and 4udhisthir" the embodiment o dharm Bnatural pietyC! % oneIs adheren#e to dharm is steady" Anant&ijay will bring about the absorption o the Sel in the boundless 'od! The one who is irm in battle is 4udhisthir: one who is unshaken by the #on li#ts between Sel and the material world$between the body and the trans#endental Soul" and to whom the essen#e .rishnC blew his #on#h Pan#hjanya and 7hananjay BArjunC the #on#h named 7e&dutt" ?rikodarU1.ing 4udhisthir blows the #on#h Anant&ijay Bendless #onKuestC! .V?rikodar is literally interpreted" the one with a wol s belly whi#h is ne&er ull! Gikewise" a de&otees heart longing or 'od is ne&er satiated! 7hananjay Bthe &i#tor o wealthC is the a e#tionate de&otion that attains to the state o di&ine e.rishn is a yogi" an ideal tea#her! As Arjun says in the 'eeta" HGord" % am thy dis#iple!J %t is only an a##omplished tea#herO who #an make us relinKuish all obje#ts o sensual pleasure" and to see and listen to and tou#h nothing e.altation! This de&otion is a eeling o tenderness or the desired obje#t" whi#h in#ludes within itsel all the e.ing 4udhisthir" the son o .#ept the #o&eted 'od! U1.V BBheemC o awesome deeds blew the great #on#h Paundr!II So 1rishikesh Blord o the sensesC" who knows all the mysteries o the human heart" blows the #on#h Pan#hjanya! This is a de#laration o his intent to restrain the i&e organs o per#eption whi#h #orrespond to word" tou#h" orm" taste" and smell" and to transmute their in#linations into de&otion! <.erting #ontrol on the wild senses and dis#iplining them into aith ul ser&itors is the gi t rom an a##omplished tea#herO the gi t" indeed" rom the admired 'od! .

ternals and dwells with the Sel ! This adheren#e to truth is #ulti&ated by in#essant re le#tion" meditation" and samadhiU1)V! The more joy one eels in dwelling with the one reality" the more restraint one gains o&er ea#h breath" the mind" and the instruments by whi#h obje#ts o sense a e#t the Sel ! The day they are totally restrained is the day when we are absorbed in the ultimate essen#e! Pro&iding" like a good instrument" harmonious a##ompaniment to the song o the Sel is true satsang! U18V%n yog philosophy" restraint o the mind is a##epted as the se#ond o the eight prin#ipal steps o meditation! U1)VSamadhi$ per e#t absorption o the mind and heart in the one #ontemplated obje#t" i!e! 'od! The physi#al ruby is hard" but the jewel o breath is e&en more tender than a lower! 6lowers all and wither soon a ter they bloom" and we #an ne&er say that we shall li&e until the ne.t breath! But i there is true adheren#e to the Sel " it leads us to realiMe the highest goal through pro&iding #ontrol o&er ea#h breath! There is nothing to pro#laim beyond this" although ea#h de&i#e is help ul in tra&ersing a #ertain stret#h o the path o spiritual per e#tionU1:V! Sanjay urther speaks on the subje#t: U1:VState o deta#hment rom the material uni&erse and renun#iation o worldly desires! 19$18! HThe .o the sphere o a#tion has been re&ealed! 1e is enabled e&entually" by 'od who alone is real" #easeless" and immutable" to o&er#ome all the #ontradi#tions! @akul" who is a symbol o restraintU18V" blows the #on#h named Sughosh! As restraint grows irmer" e&il is subdued and the dominan#e o righteousness is pro#laimed! Sahde&" the adherer to truth" blows on the #on#h whi#h bears the name o (anipushpak! Sages ha&e des#ribed ea#h breath as a pre#ious ruby! H-hat a pity that we sKuander the jewels o our breath on idle gossipFJ 0ne kind o satsang is the moral dis#ourse we hear rom noble men" but the real spiritual dis#ourse is internal! A##ording to .ashi is an emblem o the sa#redness that resides in the physi#al body! -hen a man withdraws his mind and sense organs rom all physi#al things and #on#entrates on the Sel within his body" he is pri&ileged to merge with and dwell within 'od! The body whi#h is #apable o su#h a union is .isten#e BsanskarC! The #hain o sanskar is inta#t so long as 'od has yet to be realiMed! 1ow #an there be true renun#iation till the moment o that ul illment/ Till then we are only way arers! 7elusion subsides only when the desired 'od is attained and the merits o pre&ious deeds are redu#ed to nothing! So it is Shikhandi who pro&es to be the undoing o Bheeshm" the image o delusion and sel $de#eption! Shikhandi represents the uniKue Kuality that is essential or the man who #hooses the path o re le#tion" a truly mighty ighter on his side! .ashi" a great bowman" Shikhandi who dwells in the Supreme Spirit" the un&anKuished 7hristdyumn" ?irat and Satyaki" 7rupad and the sons o 7raupadi" and SubhadraIs son o power ul arms BAbhimanyuC" all blew" 0 lord o the earth" their own #on#hes!II The sa#red #ity o .ing o .ashi! The Supreme Spirit dwells in and per&ades e&ery single body! So HparmeshwasahJ here means dwelling in the Supreme Spirit rather than a Hmighty warrior!II Shikhandi represents the reje#tion o shikha$sutrU19V Bsa#red signs traditionally worn by 1indusC! There are people who belie&e they ha&e a#hie&ed renun#iation just be#ause they ha&e got their heads sha&ed #lean" #ast away their sa#red threads" and stopped lighting ire! But they are mistaken" or" as a matter o a#t" shikha symboliMes a goal whi#h has to be attained" and sutrU18V the merits o a#tion in a pre&ious e.rishn" the Sel alone is true and eternal! True satsang #omes about when the mind reins itsel in rom all e.

with a yaksh! Thus trans ormed in se.ist altogether! *+$**! HThen" 0 .untiIs son BArjunC" whose ensign bore the image o 1anuman" raised his bow and spoke to 1rishikesh thus: Q0 A#hyut B.rishnC" keep my #hariot between the two armies so that % may wat#h those who are ormed up or #ombat and know whom % ha&e to ight in the ensuing battle!I II Sanjay" an epitome o sel restraint" endea&ours to enlighten the mind lying under a pall o ignoran#e by pointing out that apart rom the other e.aura& hearts with their unrighteous and outward$looking impulses #annot but be rent! Their power wanes by and by! And i the pro#ess meets with su##ess" in atuation #eases to e." Shikhandi a terwards in the (ahabharat war su##eeded in killing Bheeshm" who de#lined to ight with a woman! U18VThe word has se&eral other meanings" too" su#h as per e#tion " sa#red rites" et#! 7hristdyumn" the stead ast mind that treasures aith in the uni&ersal" immutable di&inity" and ?irat" #apable o per#ei&ing the omnipresen#e o the great 'od" are the main #onstituents o sa#red e.#hange her se.hibited on the ensign is no #ommon monkey but 1anuman himsel who has risen abo&e all distin#tions! To him honour and dishonour are the same! .emplary #aptains o the Panda& army there is the 1anuman$ensign o Arjun! 1anuman" a symbol o true renun#iation! 7isen#hantment with the world and the desire to renoun#e it are the mark o ArjunIs battle$standard! Some interpreters ha&e named this standard Hmonkey$ensignJ be#ause o its renMied luttering! But this is una##eptable" or the primate e.ing" a ter &iewing the sons o 7hritrashtr in array" when the dis#harge o missiles was about to #ommen#e" .U19VShikha is a lo#k o hair grown on the #rown and sutr is the sa#red or sa#ri i#ial thread worn by 1indus! A##ording to the (ahabharat" in order to a&ert the #alamity o her ather$in$ law 1iranya&armans" to whose daughter she was married as an a#t o de#eption" in&ading the kingdom o her ather 7rupad" Shikhandi managed$by se&ere austerities$to e.#ellen#e! Satyaki is truth ulness! There #an ne&er be a all rom piety as long as there is truth ulness or the desire to ponder o&er truth" it always prote#ts us rom being routed in the war between spirit and matter! 7rupad" representing the ideal o #onsisten#y and stead astness in the per orman#e o duty" the i&e sons o meditation$like 7raupadi" symbols o #ompassion" tenderness" beauty" and spiritual repose" who are all great warriors pro&iding assistan#e to the Kuest or the desired goal" and the long$armed Abhimanyu" all blow their separate #on#hes! HArmJ is a symbol o the sphere o a#tion! -hen the mind is reed rom ear" its rea#h is immensely enlarged! So Sanjay addresses 7hritrashtr and a#Kuaints him with how the #hie s o the Panda& army ha&e made their pro#lamations with their #on#hes! <a#h one o them is a prereKuisite o the skill o tra&ersing a #ertain length o the way to spiritual eman#ipation! Their obser&an#e is ne#essary and that is why they are enumerated in detail! 1owe&er" there is" a ter these preliminary stages" that stret#h o the path whi#h is beyond the per#ei&ing mind and intelle#t! This is the length along whi#h one is enabled to tra&el only by the blessedness o the great 'odIs awakening within the Sel ! 1e stands up rom the Sel as &ision and is sel $e&ident! 19! HThe loud tumult" re&erberating through hea&en and earth" pier#ed the hearts o 7hritrashtrIs sons!II The great tumult" e#hoing through hea&en and earth" rends the hearts o 7hritrashtrIs sons! There is the Panda& army" too" but the hearts that are rent are only those o 7hritrashtrIs sons! -hen the manna o Pan#hjanya" made up o true knowledge" realiMation o the in inite" destru#tion o e&il" and a irmation o piety" begins to low" the .

#ellen#e whi#h is always one with the real" the Sel " and whi#h has no unrighteousness or impurity about it! U19V0ne who has #onKuered sleep! U*+VPritha is another name o .#essi&e atta#hment! Arjun wishes to obser&e well the kings who ha&e assembled to ight in the war or the #ause o in atuation! *8$*)! QQThus addressed by 'udakeshU19V" 0 des#endant o Bharat B7hritrashtrC" 1rishikesh parked the uniKue #hariot between the two armies" in ront o Bheeshm" 7ron" and all the other kings" and said" QBehold" 0 son o PrithaU*+V BArjunC" the assembled .rishn" who knows all that is to know o the mind and heart" parks the #hariot o une.unti! There is also in Parth and asso#iation with parthi& whi#h means made o dust! The meaning is similar to that o 7ust thou art! *:$1P*8! HParth then saw" mustered in the two armies" un#les" grandun#les" tea#hers" maternal un#les" brothers" sons" grandsons and riends" as well as athers$in$law and well$wishers! Seeing all these kinsmen assembled together and o&erwhelmed by intense pity" he spoke thus in great sorrow:J Parth" the per e#t marksman who has made a #hariot o his earth ormed bodyU*1V" looks at the army and sees his kinsmen! -hat is noteworthy is that in the two armies he sees only his own amily" the amilies o maternal un#les" and o athers$in$law" riends" and tea#hers! A##ording to s#holarly estimates" the two armies o the (ahabharat #onsisted o eighteen akshauhini #hariots" elephants" horses" and oot soldiers" whi#h is appro.#elled beauty in the midst o all the kings who ha&e staked out #laims on the earth whi#h is the body in ma#ro#osm" and asks Parth to behold the assembled .! HSin#e % wish to obser&e those who ha&e assembled here to ight or pleasing 7hritrashtrIs wi#ked$minded son B7uryodhanC in the battle!II Arjun wants the #hariot to be parked in ront o the .rishn to park the #hariot/ Arjun wants to as#ertain well who the warriors intent upon battle are" whom he has to ight in this business o war are! *.imately :)+ million" a &ery large number indeed! %t hardly needs saying how the world is a#ed today with numerous gra&e problems o ood and housing on a##ount o rising population! So what are we to make o it when we are told that just three or our amilies o ArjunIs kinsmen are so large in number/ %s it possible or any amily to be so huge/ The answer must be in the negati&e! So what we ha&e here is a portrayal not o physi#al armies but o the sphere o the mind and heart! 0&er#ome with deep #ompassion" when he sees all his kinsmen mustered or battle" Arjun speaks in grie ! 1e grie&es be#ause he .uru!I II Sanjay in orms 7hritrashtra how on being reKuested by Arjun" who has mastered sleep" .#ellentJ #hariot in Kuestion is made o neither gold nor sil&er" nor o any material substan#e! <.'i&ing up lust or material obje#ts whi#h ha&e been heard or seen" o worldly obje#ts and sensual pleasures" is renun#iation! So" a ter ha&ing seen 7hritrashtrIs sons arrayed just when missiles are about to be laun#hed" Arjun" whose distin#ti&e motto is renun#iation" li ts his bow and speaks to 1rishikesh" the lord o senses and knower o the mysteries o the heart" addressing him as the Hin allible!J 1e reKuests his #harioteer to station the #hariot between the two armies! 1is words" howe&er" are not words o #ommand to a #harioteer" but a prayer by a de&otee to the worshipped one" an a##omplished tea#her! But why does he want .aura& so that he may see the kings" desirous o battle" who ha&e joined the e&il$minded 7uryodhan or the sake o his happiness$ or 7uryodhan who represents e.aura&! The He.#ellen#e is de ined in this world in terms o its agreeableness or disagreeableness to the mortal body! But su#h a &iew is misleading" or that alone is e.

ing o 7eath says to @a#hiket" 5.1! H% see" 0 (adha& B.sees that he has to ight his own amily! U*1V%n the >panishad .! HThey or whose sake we #ra&e or a kingdom" pleasures" and enjoyments are ormed up here" putting at stake both their li&es and wealth!II The amily" or whose sake Arjun has desired the happiness o a kingdom and other pleasures" is now mustered on the battle ield despairing o its li e! % he had desired a kingdom" it was or them! % he had hungered or the pleasures o wealth and indulgen#e" it was be#ause he wanted to enjoy it along with his kith and kin! But he now desires neither a kingdom nor pleasures" nor enjoyment" be#ause he sees his kinsmen standing against him without any hope o li e! -hate&er he had desired was dear to him or their sake! But he does not need these things i he has to get them at the #ost o his kinsmen! 7esires remain as long as there are amily ties! <&en a poor man ha&ing only a wret#hed ho&el to li&e in will not a##ept an empire e.rishn" my limbs grow weak" my mouth is dry" my body trembles" my hair stands on end" the 'andee& BArjunIs bowC slips rom my hand" my skin is burning all o&er" % am unable to stand" and my mind is bewildered!II Gooking at the gathering o his kinsmen" Arjun is unner&ed! 1is body grown inert" his mouth is par#hed" his limbs tremble" and his hair stands ere#t! The 'andee& alls rom his hand and his skin is hot! 1e is sorely distressed by the prospe#t o a war in whi#h his own kinsmen a#e him! 1e is #on used! 1e bewails that he #annot e&en stand properly and look ahead! .*! QQ% aspire" 0 .now that the body is the #hariot" the Sel the rider" the intelle#t is the #harioteer" and the mind the reins!5 *8$..)! HTea#hers" un#les" nephews as well as grandun#les" maternal un#les" athers$in$law" grandnephews" brothers$in$law" and other kinsmen! Though they might slay me" % yet ha&e no desire to kill them" 0 (adhusudanU**V B.8$. in the idea o slaughtering kinsmen in the battle!II Arjun sees ad&erse signs o the impending war! 1e does not see anything propitious in the slaying o his own amily! 1ow #an any good result rom su#h killing/ .rishnC" e&en or a realm made up o the three worlds" still less or this earth alone!II .+! HArjun said" ISeeing these kith and kin" mustered with the purpose o waging war" 0 .rishnC" or enjoyment" or e&en li e itsel /J ArjunIs whole amily is on the brink o war! So he does not wish or either &i#tory or the kingdom that this &i#tory may bring him" or e&en the pleasures o that kingdom! 0 what use will be a kingdom or enjoyment or li e to him/ 1e then states the reasons or his relu#tan#e to ight in the war: .atha" the .rishnC" inauspi#ious portents" and % #an per#ei&e no pre i.rishn" a ter neither &i#tory nor a realm and its pleasures or o what a&ail is so&ereignty to us" 0 'o&ind B.tending o&er the entire length and breadth o the world i or this he has to kill his amily" riends" and kinsmen! Arjun says the same thing! 1e is ond o pleasures and he lo&es &i#tory" but o what good #an they be to him i the &ery people or whom he desires these rewards are no longer with him/ 0 what use will enjoyment o pleasures be in their absen#e/ A ter all" who are the people he will ha&e to kill in the war/ .

tension o the ties o atta#hment/ -hat is there in it or us in the absen#e o these bonds/ The world as we know it is only an e.rishnC" rom slaying these sons o .V Parmanand Ai used to say" HTo be a sadhu Bas#eti#C is the same as to die!J <&en i the uni&erse has beings whom he regards as li&ing" there is no one whom the as#eti# #an regard as belonging to his own amily! As long as there is su#h a one" the eeling o atta#hment remains! As or this weakness" the one who is stri&ing to realiMe his Sel is a winner only when he reje#ts and destroys his atta#hment as well as all the other asso#iated eelings! -hat is this world but an e.iller o the demon (adhu and also destroyer o arrogan#e! %n an army ormed o appro.ith and kin are always in the oreground o a manIs #ons#iousness! At the beginning he belie&es that his sa#red adoration will be help ul in his endea&our to make his kinsmen happy! 1e looks orward to enjoying his a#Kuisitions along with them! But what shall he do with the happiness i his own people are no longer with him/ So is it with Arjun! 1is &ision has so ar been limited to the pleasures that #an be had rom a kingdom and hea&en! 1e has till now en&isaged the ultimate happiness in terms o hea&en and a realm #omposed o the three worlds! % there is any reality beyond this" Arjun yet has no inkling o it! .tension o the mind! 4ogeshwar .tension o the mind as the world! The man who has withstood and subdued its power has #onKuered the whole uni&erse! .imately :)+ million men Arjun #an see only his own amily! -ho really are these innumerable kinsmen/ Arjun &erily is an image o tender de&otion! 1is dilemma is the one that a#es e&ery de&otee when he sets out on the path o worship ul adoration BbhajanC! %t is e&eryoneIs desire that he should attain the highest reality by re&eren#e and worship! But he is illed with despair when" under an e.The people to be slain are ArjunIs own lesh and blood! As he tells .rishn has portrayed the same e.rishn sorrow ully" he does not wish to harm his kinsmen although in doing so he might lose his own li e at their hands" e&en or ruling o&er all the three worlds! U**VAn epithet o ?ishnu" the irst deity o the 1indu Trinity" meaning .VThe author3s tea#her$pre#eptor! Paramhans is an honori i# title used or an as#eti# o the highest order" one who has learnt per e#t #ontrol o his senses by abstra#t meditation! %t is not that only Arjun is #on used! A e#tionate atta#hment resides in e&ery heart" and e&eryone with su#h a eeling is in a state o #on usion! .rishn tells Arjun in the nineteenth &erse o Chapter )" HThe whole #osmos is o&er#ome e&en in this world by those whose minds repose in eKuality!J Su#h a state o #alm" o mental eKuipoise" is made possible by the #omplete annihilation o ego! This rees the mind rom its sel $#entered subser&ien#e to the material world! A ter ego has #eased to e.perien#ed and a##omplished tea#herIs tutelage" he #omes to understand the undamental nature o the #on li#t between the material body and the di&ine Sel " and realiMes against whom he has to wage his war! 1e wishes that his atherIs amily" his wi eIs amily" his maternal un#leIs amily" people who lo&e him" riends" and tea#hers should all li&e with him in happiness" and that" while pro&iding or all o them" he should also attain 'od! So he is #on used when #on ronted with the a#t that in order to orge ahead in his task o worship he has to abandon his amily! Be#ause o his atta#hment" the prospe#t o se&ering the bonds o kinship #on uses and unner&es him! (y noble tea#her" the re&ered ParamhansU*.:! H-hat happiness #an we ha&e" 0 AanardanU*8V B.ist" only the Sel remains in a pure state! So this is the way to attainment o sal&ation and inal beatitude Bbrahma&asthaC whi#h trans#ends the transitory li e o nature! %t is thus that those who ha&e realiMed this state are not subje#t to the limitations o the material world! U*.

8$.7hritrashtr/ 0nly sin will all to our lot i we kill e&en these wi#ked men!J -hat happiness #an Arjun gain rom killing 7hritrashtrIs sons/ 7hritrashtrU*)V denotes the Hinsolent or pro ligate nation"J and born rom it is 7uryodhan" the image o in atuation! But shall e&en the slaying o su#h an e&il kinsman make Arjun and .amples o many others who ha&e gone the same way be#ause o their disillusionment with the #ondu#t o a stepmother! .rishn! <&ery no&i#e taking re uge in an a##omplished tea#her reasons in the same way! Arjun is under the impression that perhaps the problem that is bothering him has not yet o##urred to" .rishnC" i we slaughter our own kinsmen/J %s it not surprising that the .ture o #lasses B&arnsankarC!II .rishn" meaning one who is worshipped$soli#ited or prosperity and eman#ipation! U*)V7hrisht Bpro liga#yCW rashtr BnationC X 7hritrashtr! .rishn" should they themsel&es" knowing the e&ils o destroying amilies" not desist rom the #rime/ -hat deser&es spe#ial noti#e here is ArjunIs belie that not only he" but .rishnC" there is generated an unholy mi.ist! Parado.rishn" too" is about to make the same error! So he also indire#tly a##uses .rishn how they #an be happy by killing their kinsmen! -ithout ignoran#e and atta#hment the idea o amily #annot e.9! HSo it is not or us to kill 7hritrashtrIs sons" or how indeed #an we be happy" 0 (adha& B.i#ally" howe&er" it is this ignoran#e that also pro&ides the initial urge or knowledge! Some great men like Bhartrihari and Tulsidas were dri&en to renun#iation by their spouses" whereas there are e.rishn happy/ The .aura&C ha&e no awareness o the e&il they do in destroying amilies and in being trea#herous to riends" why should we" 0 Aanardan" who know that it is e&il to destroy amilies" not turn away rom the sin ul a#t/J Straying rom righteousness be#ause o their arrogan#e and a&ari#e" the .aura& are at this moment seen as kith and kin/ 7idnIt they #ome to the battle ield as oes/ %n truth" physi#al relationship arises rom ignoran#e! 1e is my maternal un#leO here is my wi eIs amilyO this is the #ommunity o my own people! -hat are all these" but ignoran#e/ -e ha&e people who are a e#tionate to us and we ha&e our amily" and we ha&e our world" but all these we ha&e only as long as there is atta#hment! All su#h ties are demolished when there is no atta#hment! That is why e&en sworn enemies now appear to Arjun as kinsmen! 1e asks .aura& are blind to the sin they #ommit by destroying amilies and pra#tising trea#hery against riends! This is their error! But why" Arjun wishes to know rom .rishn! All the same" they are both reasonable men and it is reKuired o them to think o the e&il #onseKuen#es o destroying a amily! 8+! H%n #ase o the destru#tion o a amily its eternal sa#red traditions are lost" and impiety a li#ts the whole amily with the loss o its &alues!II >ntil now Arjun has &iewed amily traditions as the eternal BSanatanC 7harm! And he also belie&es that with the loss o these traditions" amilies are laden with sin! 81! H-hen sin pre&ails" 0 .aura& are unrighteous" but the Panda& will be only guilty o sin i they kill them! -e #all men e&ildoers i they adopt impious ways or their li&elihood! %n a#t" howe&er" the worst elons are those who put obstru#tions in the way o the Sel ! The gra&est o enders in this respe#t are lust" wrath" a&ari#e" and inordinate atta#hment whi#h obstru#t oneIs realiMation o the Sel ! U*8V4et another epithet o .rishn" women o the amily stray rom &irtue" and when they are un#haste" 0 des#endant o the Q?rishnis" B?arshneya: .9! HAlthough" with their minds &itiated by greed" they Bthe .

! HThe sin #ommitted by destroyers o amilies" whi#h #auses an intermingling o #lasses" puts to an end the timeless dharm o both #aste and amily!II A##ording to Arjun" the e&ils o &arnsankar destroy the traditions o both amilies and their destroyers! 1e holds the &iew that amily traditions are #hangeless and eternal! But .-hen unrighteous ways dominate a amily" its women lose their #hastity and there arises an intermingling o di erent #lasses" o in#ompatible #ultures and ways o li&ing! A##ording to Arjun" this sin ul intermingling o##urs when women lose their &irtue! But .rishn #ontradi#ts this: H% am ully #ontented in the Sel and there is nothing more pre#ious whi#h is beyond my rea#h! 4et % #ontinue to pra#tise meditation and renun#iation" and urge others to the same! But these are only means and not the goal" and when the goal is a#hie&ed who #ares or the means/ So i the a#hie&er su#h as % negle#ts the means" his ollowers o an in erior merit will emulate him and they" too" will gi&e up the reKuired means! Con used and misled rom the path o Sel $ realiMation" they then perish!J Ga#king in true a#hie&ement" they only swagger emptily as i they were per e#t! This imitation #reates a #haos! There remains no distin#tion between the deser&ing and the undeser&ing! This #on usion is &arnsankar and the tea#her himsel is held responsible or this disorder! That is why an ideal tea#her always tea#hes by his own #ondu#t! 6or a while" howe&er" he #hooses to remain silent" and Arjun goes on with his elaboration o the e&ils o &arnsankar! 8*! HThe unholy intermingling o #lasses #ondemns the destroyer o the amily as well as the amily itsel to hell" or their an#estors" depri&ed o the o erings o obseKuial #akes o ri#e and water libations" all B rom their hea&enly abodeC!II %t is a Kuality o &arnsankar to dispat#h amilies and their destroyers to hell! 7i&ested o obseKuial gi ts o ri#e #akes" their ore athers also lose their hea&enly home! The present is destroyed" the an#estors o the past all" and the posterity to #ome will also des#end to hell! @ot only this" but$ 8.rishnIs &iew it is a mere delusion! U*:VSanatan is the eternal! Sanatan 7harm may thus be interpreted appro.imately as that immutable BshashwatC" eternal" di&ine prin#iple that animates all things and beings" and whi#h enables them to realiMe themsel&es! Sanatan is also the 'od almighty and &irtues that re&eal him! ?alues that re&eal him within the heart are Sanatam 7harm! 88! H-e ha&e heard" 0 Aanardan" that hell is indeed the miserable habitat" or an in inite time" o men" the traditions o whose amilies ha&e been destroyed!J (en whose amily traditions are destroyed ha&e to dwell in hell endlessly! -hat is signi i#ant though is that Arjun has only heard so! As he belie&es" with the destru#tion o a amily" not only its traditions but also its #hangeless" e&erlasting dharm is destroyed! 1e thus eKuates traditions with Sanatan 7harm! %t is well known" he says" how a man has to su er in hell or the loss o his dharm! But he has only heard so: not seen" but only heard o it! 8)! HTempted by the pleasures o temporal power" alas" what a heinous #rime ha&e we resol&ed to #ommit by killing our own kith and kinFJ .rishn re utes this later by asserting that Sel alone is the #hangeless and eternal Sanatan 7harmU*:V! Be ore a man has realiMed the essen#e o this Sanatan 7harm" he gi&es #reden#e to some tradition or the other! Su#h is ArjunIs belie at the moment" but in .

rishn! All seekers" as it has already been said" eel thus at the outset! A##ording to (ahatma Buddh" so long as a man has only partial knowledge he regards himsel as a repository o great wisdom" but as he begins to learn the se#ond hal o the knowledge he has to a#Kuire" he regards himsel as a great ool! Arjun #onsiders himsel a wise man in the same way! 1e takes the liberty o persuading .istent and distin#t rom the Supreme Spirit! The initial step o the spiritual way arer is to seek moral e.urukshetr! The irst #hapter" as we ha&e seen" elaborates the respe#ti&e stru#ture and base o the strength that #hara#teriMe the ad&ersaries! The sounding o #on#hes pro#laims their &alour as well as intentions! There is then a re&iew o the armies that are" to ight in the war! Their numeri#al strength is estimated at appro.rishn that it is simply not possible that their sin ul a#t #an ha&e any propitious out#ome" and also that their resol&e to destroy their amily is moti&ated by sheer greed o so&ereignty and its pleasures! They are really #ommitting a terrible error! Con&in#ed that the error is not only his" he has a dig at .urious mansions" but a ter two days they begin to pine or their dis#arded ho&els! Su#h is the strength o atta#hment! %t is behind ArjunIs eeling that it will be propitious e&en i he is killed unresisting by the armed sons o 7hritrashtr" or it will ensure the #hildren o the amily a prosperous and happy li e! 89! HSanjay said" ISpeaking thus and smitten by grie " in the midst o the battle ield" Arjun put aside his bow and arrows" and sat down in the #hariot!I II %n other words" Arjun withdraws rom the #on li#t between the physi#al body$the sphere o a#tion$and the Sel within with his awareness o 'od! YYY The 'eeta is an in&estigation o the war o kshetr$kshetragya: o the #on li#t between the material body" engaged in a#tion" and the a##omplished Soul that is e&er #ons#ious o his oneness with the Supreme Spirit! A song o re&elation" it stri&es to demonstrate what 'od must be in all his di&ine splendour! The sphere that the song #elebrates is a battle ield: the body with its dual" opposed impulses that #ompose the H7harmkshetrJ and the H.#ellen#e so as to subdue unrighteous impulses! SubseKuently" with the per#eption o and union with the .imately :)+ million" but the number is really in inite! @ature embodies two points o &iew" rele&ant to the opposed impulses that #lash on the ield o a#tion! There is irst the inward looking mind that always aims at realiMation o the Sel and looks up to the adored 'od! 0n the other hand" there is the outward looking mind" preo##upied with the material world and dominated by unrighteous impulses! The irst enables the sel to be absorbed in the most sublime dharm that is embodied in 'od" whereas the se#ond #ontri&es illusion BmayaC by &irtue o whi#h the material world is taken as really e.rishn when he remarks that the error is also his! And" at last" he deli&ers his inal &iew o the matter: 8:! H% shall indeed pre er the prospe#t o being slain by the armed sons o 7hritrashtr while B% am mysel C unarmed and unresisting!II 1is death at the hands o 7hritrashrIsIs armed sons" while he himsel is unarmed and unresisting" will be a##ording to Arjun a ortunate e&ent! 1istory will then remember him as a magnanimous man who had a&erted a war by sa#ri i#ing his own li e! People orsake their li&es or the happiness o tender" inno#ent #hildren so that the amily may thri&e! People go abroad and li&e in lu.1ow regrettable that although possessed o wisdom" they are yet determined to #ommit a gra&e sin by being intent upon killing their own amily be#ause o greed o regal power and its pleasures! At this point Arjun regards his knowledge as in no way less than that o .

annada" 0riya" Sindhi" Sanskrit" @epali" Punjabi and >rduC and the same #ould be downloaded rom http:PPwww!yatharthgeeta!#omP! P2<6AC< 06 C1APT<2 %@ A>7%0 CASS<TT<S .nowledge o the Supreme Spirit" the S#ien#e o 4og" and the 7ialogue between .immutable" eternal 'od" e&en the need or righteousness is done away with and the inal out#ome o the war between matter and spirit is re&ealed! Gooking at the armies on the battle ield o li e we see our own amilies" and they ha&e to be destroyed! The world is but an e.rishn and wishes to be enlightened on why they B.tension o atta#hments! Atta#hment to the amily pro&es an obsta#le in the primary stage o the worshipperIs de&otion to the desired goal! 1e is shaken when he dis#o&ers that he shall ha&e to part with his near and dear ones and treat them as though they had ne&er e.t o the Book" 4atharth 'eeta is a&ailable in &arious %nternational B<nglish" 2ussian" 6ren#h" 'erman" Spanish" Chinese" %talian" @orwegian" 7ut#h" Portuguese" Arabi#" Aapanese" PersianC and %ndian languages B1indi" Bengali" Assamese" 'ujarati" (arathi" Tamil" Telugu" (alayalam" .rishn and heC" men o saga#ity" should be bent upon #ommitting the heinous sin o destroying their amily! A##ording to his &iew o the issue at hand" e&en .isted! 1e inds nothing but unpropitious harm in his a#t o destroying his own people! Gike Arjun he" looks or an es#ape into pre&ailing traditions! Arjun says that amily traditions are the Sanatan 7harm! 7estru#tion o amily and #aste traditions by war is thus destru#tion o the eternal dharm itsel ! And when dharm is lost" women o the amily grow un#haste and there is a sin ul intermingling o #lasses whi#h must dri&e both the amily and its destroyers to hell or an inde inite time! -ith his limited knowledge and wisdom" Arjun is desperate to prote#t the amily traditions whi#h he regards as Sanatan 7harm! So he pleads with .rishn is about to be#ome an a##essory to the #rime! 6inally" he asserts adamantly that in order to sa&e himsel rom the sin he shall not ight! Saying this he sinks despairingly in the rear o the #hariot! %n other words" he turns his ba#k on the pre#ious enterprise o the perennial #on li#t that rages between matter and spirit" between godly and ungodly impulses" between or#es that drag a man down to gross nature and or#es that ele&ate and inally take the Soul to the Supreme 'od! Commentators ha&e #alled this irst #hapter o the 'eeta HArjun ?ishad 4og!J H?ishadJ is grie ! Arjun is a symbol o tender" a e#tionate de&otion! 'rie is the moti&e as well as instrument o the de&otee who is #on#erned about the preser&ation o the Sanatan 7harm! Su#h was the sorrow o (anu" whom 1indus belie&e to be the representati&e man and ather o the human ra#e! 'oswami Tulsidas has said" QI6ull o grie is my heart sin#e % ha&e only led my li e without lo&e o 'od!J A man sinks into grie be#ause o irresolution! Arjun is apprehensi&e o &arnsankar" o intermingling o #lasses" or su#h hybridiMation only leads to damnation! 1e also grie&es be#ause he ears or the sa ety o Sanatan 7harm! So the title HSanshay ?ishad 4og"J is appropriate or the #hapter! Thus #on#ludes the 6irst Chapter" in the >panishad o the Shreemad Bhagwad 'eeta" on the .rishn and Arjun" entitled:HSanshay ?ishad 4ogII" or QQThe 4og o %rresolution and 'rie II Thus #on#ludes Swami AdgadanandIs e.position o the 6irst Chapter o the Shreemad Bhagwad 'eeta in QQ4atharth 'eeta!II 1A2% 0( TAT SAT YYY @ote: The te.

tremely sin ul" residing anywhere in the uni&erse all are entitled to gain entry in it! The 'eeta spe#i i#ally stresses on the up$li tmen o these embroiled or #aught up in the bondage o worldly a airs towards an ennobling and liberating spiritual path" whereas those who are &irtuous are already engaged in the ordained a#tion and meditation! That pre#ious and uni&ersal tea#hing is presented herein! @ote: The audio o the Book" 4atharth 'eeta is a&ailable in &arious %nternational B<nglish" 'ermanC and %ndian languages B1indi" Bengali" 'ujarati" (arathi" Tamil" TeluguC and the same #ould be downloaded rom http:PPwww!yatharthgeeta!#omP! .The '<<TA" a #omplete message in itsel " o re&eren#e and dedi#ation to one Supreme Spirit" is an open in&itation or sa#redness to all! whether ri#h or poor" o noble birth or unknown parentage" a &irtuous person or a sinner" a woman or a man" #haste or e.

esh$.ambalU*8V" the members o whi#h regarded the pra#ti#e o growing hair" so that it #ould be used like a blanket" as a standard o per e#tion! There ha&e been some who thought it pious to li&e like #ows" while others ha&e li&ed and #ondu#ted themsel&es in the manner o dogs! But all these were only stupid #ustoms that ha&e nothing to do with awareness o 'od! There were s#hisms and oolish #ustoms in the past" and they are with us e&en today! There were also di&isions and stupid #ustoms in .rishn speaks to him! U*8VGiterally translated" .tin#tion o the Sanatan 7harm itsel and" along with that" destru#tion o amilies and loss o #i&iliMed ways! 6ar rom being an independent &iew o Arjun" his ideas only re le#t some inherited #reeds he had a#Kuired earlier be ore approa#hing an a##omplished tea#her su#h as .esh$.rishn! (ired in these traditions" men de&ise numerous religions" se#ts" groups small and large" and #astes beyond re#koning! Some press the nose while others pier#e their ears" while yet others lose their dharm be#ause they are tou#hed by someone" or be#ause their ood and drink are de iled! %s it just to blame the so #alled Huntou#hablesJ or non$1indus or this state o a airs/ By no means! The blame should rather be apportioned among those who propagate delusions in the name o dharm! As or us who listen to them" we are blind &i#tims o what are but misguided #ustoms" and so we" too" ha&e to bear part o the blame! %n (ahatma BuddhIs time there was a se#t #alled .ambal is blanket o hair! 1! HSanjay said" QTo him BArjunC" whose eyes were brimming with tears o grie be#ause he was o&er#ome by pity" (adhusudan spoke thus!III To Arjun" his eyes illed with tears o sorrow and pro ound agitation" (adhusudan" the destroyer .aura& and Panda&" but Arjun alone is subje#t to misgi&ings! 1owe&er" Arjun is the &ery embodiment o de&otion as a way arer on the path o spiritual Kuest! %t is his lo&e or 'od that inspires him to get ready or the war between matter and spirit! The initial stage is thus o lo&e" adoration! (y re&ered tea#her used to say" HBelie&e that adoration o the Supreme Spirit has #ommen#ed when" e&en while one is leading the li e o a householderU*9V" there are signs o weariness and tears" and sentiment so power ul that it #hokes the throat!II (ani old strands are entwined in lo&e: o dharm" pre#ept" restraint" pious asso#iation" and sentiment! U*9V'arhastya : the se#ond o the our stages in the traditional 1indu li e" the other three being brahm#harya" &anprasth" and sanyas! %n the irst stage o spiritual seeking" atta#hment to the amily looms as an obsta#le! At the outset e&eryone wishes to a#hie&e the ultimate reality" but the worshipper is o&ertaken by despair when he realiMes that a ter going a #ertain length o the way he will ha&e to se&er all his ties o atta#hment to the amily! So he learns to be #ontented with whate&er #ustoms he had ollowed earlier! 1e e&en #ites pre&ailing #ustoms to justi y his in atuation" just as Arjun does when he insists that amily rites are Sanatan 7harm! The war will #ause the e.C1APT<2 *: C>2%0S%T4 AB0>T ACT%0@ %n the nature o a pre a#e" Chapter 1 presents the seekerIs doubts and #on usions! The parti#ipants in the war in#lude all o the .rishnIs time" and Arjun is a &i#tim o some o them! This is seen rom his our arguments" namely that war destroys the eternal Sanatan 7harm and that it produ#es &arnsankar" an unholy intermingling o disparate #lasses and ways o li e! 0bseKuial o erings o diseased an#estors will #ease and that we shall by being engaged in destroying our ra#e" in&ite great #urses on us! Thereupon" 4ogeshwar .

ual prowess" is yet unmanly i he has no awareness o the embodied Soul! This Sel is the real man BPurushC" radiant and unmani est! The endea&our to know this Sel is true manliness BpaurushC! %t is be#ause o this that .rishn asks Arjun not to surrender to impoten#e! %t is unworthy o him! 1e is a s#or#her" a ormidable &anKuisher" o oes! So he ought to reje#t his gro&eling eebleness and stand up or battle! 1e should gi&e up his so#ial atta#hments" or they are mere railties! At this Arjun raises his third Kuestion: 8! HArjun said" Q1ow" 0 (adhusudan" slayer o enemies" shall % shoot arrows in the battle against men like Bheeshm and 7ron who deser&e only honour/III .rishn says to Arjun: U*9VAgyan: the ignoran#e whi#h makes a man #onsider himsel as distin#t and separate rom the Supreme Spirit and the material world as truly e.rishn uses the term H&ishamJ or the pla#e where Arjun and he are at the time! Besides meaning Hdi i#ultJ or Hdangerous"J the word also means HuniKueJ or HuneKualled!J So .rishn #all ArjunIs &iews spiritual ignoran#e/ 1as Arjun not said #ategori#ally that it is his heart elt wish to de end Sanatan 7harm / %s it spiritual ignoran#e to be resol&ed" body and soul" to prote#t what Arjun belie&es to be the immutable" eternal dharm/ A##ording to .horts Arjun not to yield to impoten#e BklaibyamC! %s Arjun impotent$la#king in &irility/ Are we &irile men/ An impotent man is one who is de&oid o manliness! All o us" a##ording to our wisdom" do what we belie&e to be manly! A peasant who sweats day and night in his ields" tries to pro&e his manliness by his labour! Some demonstrate their manliness in #ommer#e and yet others try to pro&e that they are real men by abusing their powers! %roni#ally" howe&er" e&en a ter this li elong display o manliness" we depart but empty$handed at the end! %s it not ob&ious then that all this is not true manliness/ True manliness is Sel $knowledge: awareness o the Soul and its di&ine origin! To #ite yet another e.ample rom the Brihadaranyak >panishad" 'argi tells 4agn&alkya that a man" though endowed with se.o arrogan#e" speaks: *! QQThe Gord said" Q6rom what #ause" 0 Arjun" does this unmanly Bun$Arjun$likeC" hea&en$ barring" and shame ul despair #ome o&er you at this perilous spot/III .isting! .rishn adds" sages would ha&e pra#tised it! 1ad amily traditions been the ultimate reality" they would ha&e been used as a ladder or #limbing up to hea&en and sal&ation! -hen (eera sang her songs o di&ine adoration" people de#lared her insane and her mother$in$law #ondemned her as a destroyer o the amily! But no one today remembers the mother$in$law or shedding #opious tears o #on#ern about the well$being o her amily and sa ety o its honour" while the whole world #herishes the memory o (eera! A ter all" how long #an we remember the man who is #on#erned only about his amily/ %s it not e&ident then that #ustoms whi#h bring neither glory nor sublime happiness" and whi#h ha&e at no time been a##epted by an Arya Ba man o dharmC" must be a kind o ignoran#e/ .rishn e.rishn it is so" or it has not been the pra#ti#e o those who truly deser&e to be #alled men! @either does it pro&ide a##ess to hea&en! %t is also not #ondu#i&e to glory! The one who keeps irmly to the path o righteousness is an Arya! %n 1indu s#riptures" instead o re erring to any ra#e or sto#k" HAryaJ denotes an e.#eptionally #ulti&ated man who adheres s#rupulously to dharm! % dying or oneIs amily were not an instan#e o ignoran#e" .rishn really wishes to know that whi#h has #aused spiritual ignoran#e BagyanCU*9V in Arjun in this unusual" unparalleled setting! The setting is one" the like o whi#h" #an be ound nowhere else in the entire world" be#ause it is the sphere o spiritual stri&ing towards an unworldly" #elestial goal! %n su#h a uni&ersal and undisputed setting" how has spiritual ignoran#e #ome o&er Arjun/ -hy does .! H7onIt gi&e in" 0 Parth" to unmanliness or it does not be#ome you! So" 0 Parantap" stand up and dri&e away this disgra#e ul weakness o your heart!II .

#ellen#e the dis#iple shares it" and the distin#tion between the tea#her and the pupil is obliterated! .ploits e&en the tea#herIs o i#e as a shield to ward o parti#ipation in the war! )! H<&en to li&e in this world as a mendi#ant begging or alms is better than killing tea#hers" or i l kill them all my joys and ri#hes and desires in this world will be dren#hed in BtheirC blood!J Arjun pre ers the li e o a beggar who li&es on alms to killing his tea#hers! 2ather than meaning Hto beg or li&elihoodJ B or the sustenan#e o the bodyC" HbeggingJ here denotes soli#iting great men$through rendering e&en a hal $hearted ser&i#e to them$ or the a&our o propitious ortune! 6ood is the only 'od" a ter partaking o whi#h the SoulIs hunger is assuaged or e&erU.+V! That he should" e&en though in small measures" #ontinue to taste the manna o 'odIs e.rishn as (adhusudan" destroyer o the demon o ego" and wants to know rom him how he #an ight with his grandsire Bheeshm and tea#her 7ron! Both are deser&ing o only re&eren#e! 7ual #ondu#t" as we ha&e seen" is 7rona#harya: the #ondu#t that arises rom the eeling that 'od is separate rom us and we are separate rom him! But the #ons#iousness o this duality is also the initial urge or spiritual a##omplishment! This is 7rona#haryaIs e.#ellen#e! A ter assimilating the tea#herIs e.Arjun addresses .#ellen#e as a tea#her! And then there is Bheeshm" the &ery image o delusion! So long as we stray rom the right path and are under the sway o delusion" #hildren" amily" and kinsmen all appear as our own! The eeling that they belong to me$are mine" is the medium through whi#h delusion works! The deluded man regards them as worthy o worship and #lings to them" or that one is ather" the other one grand ather" and still another the tea#her who has taught him! But a ter spiritual attainment there is neither tea#her nor pupil" and the Sel who has gained awareness o the essen#e" o the Supreme Spirit" is le t all alone! -hen the Sel is absorbed in 'od" neither is the tea#her a pre#eptor nor the dis#iple a re#epta#le! This is the state o the most e.alted e.rishn says" HArjun" you shall dwell in me!J Arjun will be#ome identi#al with .rishn" and the same is true o e&ery sage who has known attainment! %n su#h a state the tea#herIs e.isten#e merges into" and his magni i#en#e lows spontaneously like a #rystal stream through" the dis#ipleIs heart! But Arjun is yet ar rom that state and at present he e.#ellen#e by ser&ing and soli#iting a sage" without ha&ing to part with his amily" is the #ra&ing behind ArjunIs tear ul appeal! 7onIt most o us do the same/ %t is our aspiration that we should gradually" at some point" a#hie&e spiritual liberation without ha&ing to destroy the ties o amilial lo&e and atta#hment! But there is no su#h way or the seeker who has a#hie&ed a higher le&el o a##omplishment than this and is strong enough to a#e the war raging on the battle ield o his heart! Soli#iting and imploring like an almsman rather than doing something on oneIs own is like begging or ood like a mendi#ant! U.+VThe idea is ound at se&eral pla#es in the >panishad! The >panishad Taittiriya says" Those who worship ood as 'od BBrahmC gain all material obje#ts! 6rom ood are risen all beings" whi#h born" li&e and grow by ood! All beings subsist on ood" and" when they die" ood partakes o them! %n the H7hamnadayad SuttJ o (ajjhim @ikaya" (ahatma Buddh has also de#lared the ood obtained by begging in erior be#ause it is like lesh re#ei&ed as alms! 1ow will he pro it" Arjun asks" by killing his tea#hers/ -hat else #an the world reward him with or this #rime but the unnatural enjoyment o bloodstained pleasures o sensual grati i#ation and material prosperity/ %t appears rom this that he perhaps belie&es that lo&ing adoration o 'od will augment his worldly happiness! So his only a#hie&ement e&en a ter the most strenuous .

rishnIs duty to show him the right path be#ause he BArjunC is a dis#iple who has ound shelter under him! 6urthermore" he needs not only instru#tion but also support when he stumbles! 1e is like the man reKuesting a helper to pla#e the load on his ba#k" help him in se#uring it there" and also to #ome along with him" or who will put ba#k the load in pla#e again i it slips down! Su#h is ArjunIs abje#t submission to .rishn! At this point ArjunIs surrender is #omplete! >ntil now he had thought himsel an eKual o .#used rom ighting in the war i these are to be his only rewards in return! 1e is utterly disheartened and he does not know what to say a ter this! 9! HSanjay said"I A ter ha&ing thus spoken to 1rishikesh" Arjun" the #onKueror o sleep and destroyer o oes" told 'o&indU.rishn in merit and" in a#t" e&en superior to him in #ertain skills! But now he really puts himsel at the mer#y o his #harioteer! An a##omplished tea#her dwells in his dis#ipleIs heart and is always by his side until the goal is rea#hed! % he is not there by his side" the pupil may alter in his Kuest! Gike the guardians o a maiden who prote#t her till her marriage" an a##omplished tea#her a#ts as a #harioteer who skill ully manoeu&ers his dis#ipleIs Soul sa ely a#ross the perilous &alleys o nature! Arjun now makes one more submission: 8! QQ% do not see that obtaining an undisputed and pro itable dominion o&er the whole earth or" B or that matterC e&en lordship o&er the gods" #an #ure the grie that is wearing out my senses!II Arjun #annot belie&e that e&en a se#ure and lu#rati&e realm e.rishn to tell him the means that will de initely be the most #ondu#i&e to what is supremely propitious or him! But why should .1V B.rishn do this/ A##ording to Arjun" it is .aura&IsC #onKuering us or our #onKuering them $ e&en 7hritrashtr Is sons $who are our enemies" and yet a ter killing whom we may not wish to li&e!J <&en possession o the hoped$ or delights is not assured! Arjun is at his witIs end as to what #ourse o a#tion #an bring him glory" or whate&er he has said till now has been pro&ed to be only ignoran#e! 1e does not also know whether he will rout the .*V" whi#h #ontain ordinan#es or #eremonial a#ts and sa#ri i#ial rites as well as the enjoyment o bene its arising rom a due .rishnC that he would not ight" and then he ell silent!III So ar ArjunIs attitude has been determined by the PuranU.rishn again: 9! H-ith my mind swamped with eeble pity and #on usion regarding duty" % entreat you to instru#t me as to what is de initely #ondu#i&e to my glory" or % am your dis#iple and ha&e taken re uge in you!J -ith his heart en eebled by pity and his mind #louded with in atuation in regard to dharm" Arjun begs .tending a#ross the whole earth or e&en an %ndr$like lordship o&er the gods o hea&en #an help him get rid o the sorrow that is withering his senses! % his grie is unabated" what shall he do with all these a#Kuisitions/ 1e begs to be e.aura& or they will rout him! 7hritrashtrIs sons" a ter slaying whom he should not desire to li&e" are arrayed against him! -hat shall he li&e or i his eelings o atta#hment represented here by his kinsmen" all o them progeny o 7hritrashtrIs ignoran#e" are destroyed/ At the same time" howe&er" it o##urs to Arjun that what he has said now may be also alse! So he turns to .struggle" he belie&es" #an be nothing more than enjoyment o ri#hes whi#h sustain the body and sensual pleasures! 1e goes on to make yet another reasoning: :! H% hardly know whi#h is better" their Bthe .

! HSin#e the embodied Spirit passes through in an#y" youth" and old age in the body" and then transmigrates into another body" men with stead ast minds do not grie&e o&er his passing away!II As the embodied soul wa.es rom #hildhood to youth" then wanes to old age" and assumes one new body a ter another" wise men are not prey to in atuation! At some time a man is a boy and then he grows into a young man! But does he die by this/ Then he grows old! The Sel is e&er the sameO only the #ondition o the physi#al body in whi#h he resides goes on #hanging! There is no #ra#k in him when he #hanges o&er to a new body! This #hange rom one physi#al body to another will #ontinue until the Soul is united with the Supreme Spirit who alone is beyond all #hange! 18! HThere are sensations o heat and #old" and o pain and pleasure" 0 son o .isten#e in the uture! <.per orman#e thereo ! %n these works" hea&en is the ultimate goal: but .rishn has parti#ularly stressed its e.ist at any time in the ages to #ome! The a##omplished tea#her is or e&er" and so are a e#tionate dis#iples as well as rulers who symboliMe the per&ersions o passion and moral blindness! 1ere" besides throwing light on the permanen#e o 4og in general" 4ogeshwar .*V@ame o #ertain an#ient sa#red #ompositions" eighteen in number and belie&ed to ha&e been written by ?yas! These works #ontain the whole body o 1indu mythology! 1+! H1rishikesh then" 0 Bharat B7hritrashtrC" with a smile as it appeared" spoke thus to him BArjunC who sat mourn ully between the two armies!II .rishn" meaning 5a keeper o #ows5 or 5a herdsman!5 U.rishn later enlightens Arjun that this line o thought is mistaken! U.1V0ne o the se&eral names o .rishn tells Arjun that while he grie&es or those who are unworthy o su#h grie " he also speaks words o wisdom" but men o dis#ernment mourn neither or those whose souls ha&e departed nor or the ones who are li&ing! They do not grie&e or the li&ing be#ause they shall also die! That means that Arjun only talks like a wise manO he does not know the reality" sin#e$ 1*! H%t is not that either you or %" or all these kings" did not e.ist in the past" nor is it that our being will #ome to an end in the uture!II %t is not" .rishn" knower o se#rets o the innermost heart B1rishikeshC" speaks smilingly to the grie&ing Arjun: 11! HThe Gord said" Although sorrowing o&er those who ought not to be grie&ed or" you yet speak wise wordsO but the dis#riminating mourn o&er neither the li&ing nor those who are dead!III .plains" that he" the a##omplished tea#her" or Arjun$the de&oted pupil" or all these kings with the &anity that is #hara#teristi# o rulers o men" did not e.plaining why the dead should not be mourned o&er" he says: 1.rishn e.unti" as senses meet their obje#ts! Bear them patiently" 0 Bharat" be#ause they ha&e a beginning and an end" and are transient!II The #onta#t o senses and their obje#ts" whi#h generates pleasure and pain" and eelings o #old and warmth" is o##asional and momentary! Arjun should" there ore" abandon them! But instead o that" he is shaken by the mere thought o pleasures that are deri&ed rom the union o senses and their obje#ts! The amily or the sake o whom we yearn or pleasures and the tea#her whom we re&ere both represent the atta#hment o senses! But the #auses o this atta#hment are .

rishn tells him that his priMe will be amrit rather than the pleasures o hea&en or earthly power! -hat is this amrit/ 1:! QQThe unreal has no being and the real has no non$beingO and the truth about both has also been seen by men who know the reality!II The unreal has no e.now that sin#e the Spirit whi#h per&ades the uni&erse is imperishable and immutable" no one #an e e#t his destru#tion!J That whi#h spreads through and is present in e&ery atom o the uni&erse is indestru#tible! @o one is #apable o destroying the imperishable prin#iple! But what is the name o this deathless amrit/ -ho is he/ 18! H6ight" 0 Bharat BArjunC" be#ause while the bodies whi#h #lothe the Soul are said to #ome to an end" the embodied Spirit itsel is or e&er" indestru#tible" and boundless!II Arjun is e.rishn speaks o this: 1)! HSo" 0 the noblest o men BArjunC" one who is possessed o eKuanimity in pain and pleasure" and irm" and untormented by these B eelings produ#ed by the meeting o senses with their obje#tsC" deser&es Bto tasteC the ne#tar o immortality!II The stead ast man" who regards sorrow and happiness with eKuipoise and is not troubled by his senses and their asso#iation with obje#ts" is worthy o the state o immortality that realiMation o the Supreme Spirit brings! 1ere .rishnIs reply to this is that the distin#tion between the real and the unreal has also been re&ealed to sages who ha&e realiMed the true nature o the human Soul as identi#al with the Supreme Spirit per&ading the uni&erse! That is to say that .rishn re ers to an attainment" namely amrit" literally the drink o immortality! Arjun had thought that in return or the war he would be rewarded with either a hea&enly abode or the authority to rule o&er the earth! But now .isten#eO it has no being and so bringing it to an end is out o the Kuestion! 0n the other hand" there is no absen#e o the real in all time$past" present or uture! Arjun then asks .urukshetrJ has a moderate #limate! 7uring the mere eighteen days that is the total duration o the (ahabharat war" is it possible that seasons will #hange: that winter and summer will #ome and go/ The truth is that enduran#e o #old and heat" o happiness and sorrow" o honour and dishonour" depends upon the seekerIs spiritual endea&our! The 'eeta is" as we ha&e seen more than on#e" an e.rishn whether he is saying this as an in#arnation o 'od! .rishn o the 'eeta is a seer who has gained an insight into reality! -hat" a ter all" are true and alse" real and unreal/ 19! H.horted to get up and ight be#ause all these physi#al bodies that embody the indwelling" boundless" and eternal Spirit are said to be ephemeral! This Spirit" the Sel " is imperishable" and it #annot be destroyed at any time! The Sel is real" whereas the physi#al body .ternaliMation o the inner #on li#t that rages within the mind! This war is the war between the gross physi#al body and the Sel whi#h is aware o his identity with 'od! %t is a #on li#t in whi#h ultimately e&en the or#es o di&inity grow inert a ter they ha&e subdued unrighteous impulses and enabled the Sel to be#ome one with 'od! -hen there remains no impiety" what else is there or pious impulses to ight/ The 'eeta is thus a pi#turiMation o inner #on li#t that rages within the mind! -hat ad&antages" howe&er" will the re#ommended sa#ri i#e o senses and their pleasures bring/ -hat is gained by this/ .momentary" alse and perishable! @either shall our senses always meet with obje#ts they enjoy" nor shall they always be #apable o enjoyment! So Arjun is #ounselled to gi&e up sensual pleasures and learn to withstand the demands o his senses! But why is Arjun #ounselled thus/ %s it a 1imalayan war in whi#h he has to endure #old/ 0r is it a desert war in whi#h he has to su er heat/ As knowledgeable people say" the a#tual H.

isten#e! And sanskar rests upon the mind! Per e#t subjugation o the mind" so that it #an be #hangeless" irm" and #onstant" and the dissolution o the last sanskar" are all di erent aspe#ts o the same pro#ess! The disintegration o the last #rust o this sanskar marks the end o physi#al e.arm 4ogC! %n the 'eeta" he has rom time to time urged Arjun to wage war" but in the entire poem there is not one &erse that supports the idea that this war is a physi#al war or in any way related to the idea o a#tual bloodshed! <&idently this war is the war between the opposed impulses o righteousness and unrighteousness" the or#es o piety and those o impiety" that is ought within manIs Soul$the seat o all thought and eeling! 19! HThey are both ignorant" he who belie&es that the Sel slays and he who thinks that he is slain" or he neither slays nor he is slain!II U..rishnIs injun#tion to Arjun is" H6ight be#ause the body is mortal!J But it is not e&ident rom the e.rishn there to de end/ %s Arjun not a body" too/ %s .rishn has said that there is #hange rom one body to another just as a man grows rom #hildhood to youth" and then to old age! % you ha#k a body to pie#es" the Soul just puts on another body like a new apparel! The real base o the body is #onstituted by sanskar" the merits$the in luen#es and impressions$ earned during a pre&ious e.V2! -! <merson" the Ameri#an trans#endalist poet$philosopher" has rendered the idea in his poem entitled Brahma B18)9C thus : % the red slayer thinks he slays! 0r i the slain think he is slain" They know not well the subtle ways % keep" and pass" and turn again! *+! H@either Be&erC born nor dying" neither at any time #oming into being nor #easing to be" the Sel is birthless" perpetual" un#hanging" and timeless" and he is not destroyed when the body is destroyed!II The Sel " the 'od within soul" is neither at any time born nor does he at any time die" or what he undergoes in the name o death is a mere #hange o apparel! 1e #annot also be anything other than Sel " be#ause he is birthless" permanent" eternal" and prime&al! 7isintegration" death" o the body does not annihilate the sel ! The Sel alone is real" timeless" un#hanging" and eternal! -ho .is subje#t to death" and so unreal and none.rishn has named it a#tion BkarmC or the -ay o Sel less A#tion B@ishkam .isten#e! To bring about this dissolution we ha&e to undertake aradhana" worship and adoration" o the desired 'od! .aura&! ArenIt the men on the side o Panda&" too" HbodiesJ/ Are the Panda& immortal/ % physi#al bodies are mortal" who is .!1.istent at all times! .C is ignorant and wanting in dis#ernment/ Su#h a wret#hed man li&es in &ain! There is also another problem! -ho really is this Arjun/ As it was said in Chapter %" Arjun is an embodiment o a e#tionate de&otion! Gike a aith ul #harioteer" the re&ered 'od is always with his de&otee! Gike a riend" he guides him and shows him the right way! -e are not a physi#al body! The body is a mere garment" a dwelling or the Soul to li&e in! The one who li&es in it is the a e#tionate Sel ! The physi#al body was sometime ba#k #alled Hun#easing!J <lemental wars and slaughter do not destroy the body! -hen one body is orsaken" the Soul just assumes another body! %t is with re eren#e to this that .hortation whether Arjun is reKuired to kill only the .rishn there to de end that body whi#h is unreal" without being" and un#easing/ % it is so" may it not be assumed that he too is ignorant and la#king in dis#rimination" the power that distinguishes between the &isible world and the in&isible Spirit! 7oesnIt he himsel say later that the man who thinks o and toils only or the physi#al body B.V 1e who regards the Sel as the slayer and he who regards him as the slain are both unaware o his real nature" or he neither kills nor #an he be killed! The same point is stressed again: U..

isten#e! -hen the store o sanskar is depleted" the Sel dis#ards the body! % the sanskar is o two daysI duration only" the body will be on the brink o death on the se#ond day itsel ! Beyond sanskar there is not e&en a single breath o li eO sanskar is the body and the Sel assumes a new body a##ording to his sanskar! A##ording to the Chandogya >panishad"J HA man is primarily his will! As is his will in this li e" so does he be#ome when he departs rom it!J %t is the irmness o his will in one li e that determines what a man will be in the ne.t! (an is thus born in bodies that are shaped by his own will! So death is a mere physi#al #hange: the Sel does not die! .are you/ A ollower o the eternal 7harm/ -hat is or e&er/ The Sel ! So you are a ollower" a dis#iple" o the Sel ! The Sel and Brahm B'odC are synonymous" And who are you / A worshipper o the eternal 7harm! -hat is immutable/ The Sel " o #ourse! That is to say that you and % all are adorers o the Sel / But i we are not amiliar with the spiritual path to the eternal truth" the way o ollowing the di#tates o the Sel until he is one with the Supreme Spirit" we ha&e nothing that is worthy o being des#ribed as #hangeless and e&erlasting! -e are on trial or the inal absolution and in #lose pro.! QQThis Sel is neither pier#ed by weapons" nor burnt by ire" nor made damp by water" nor dried up by wind!II -eapons #annot #lea&e the Sel ! 6ire #annot singe him! 1e #annot also be dren#hed by water" nor withered by wind! .rishn again emphasiMes the same imperishability o the Soul! *.imity to 'od i we pine or him" but we #annot be deemed as ha&ing been admitted as long as we are #redulous enough to a##ept blindly one wrong #on&ention or the other masKuerading as Sanatan 7harm! Be it in %ndia or any other #ountry" the Soul in all is identi#al! So" i anywhere on the earth there is a man who is aware o the true nature o Sel and his ultimate goal" and who is eager to take to the way whi#h will e&entually lead his Sel to the Supreme Spirit" be he a pro essed Christian" (uslim" Aew" or anything else" he undoubtedly also belongs to the old o Sanatan 7harm$the #hangeless and eternal! *1! H1ow #an he" 0 Parth" who is #ons#ious o the Soul within as imperishable" permanent" birthless" and immutable" kill or mo&e another to kill/J Arjun is addressed as Parth" or he has made a #hariot o the earth$made body and is preparing to take a per e#t aim at the Supreme Spirit! The man who knows that the embodied Soul is indestru#tible" permanent" beyond birth" and unmani est$how #an he make others slay or be a slayer himsel / 7estru#tion o what is indestru#tible is impossible! And" being beyond birth" the Sel is also ne&er born! So why grie&e or the body/ This idea is urther elaborated in the ollowing &erse: **! HGike a man who puts on new garments a ter dis#arding his worn out #lothes" the embodied Sel " also" #asts o tattered bodies and transmigrates into other bodies that are new!II The Soul reje#ts bodies that ha&e been ra&aged by old age or some other disease and dresses himsel in new apparel just as a man throws away old" torn #lothes and puts on new #lothes! But i new #lothing is needed only when the abri# o old #lothes is weakened" why do young #hildren die/ These HgarmentsJ ha&e yet to grow and e&ol&e! %t was said a little earlier that the body rests on sanskar" the impressions rom a#tion attained in the #ourse o a pre&ious e.

*8! QQThe Sel " whi#h #annot be pier#ed or burnt or made wet or aded" is uninterrupted" all$ per&asi&e" #onstant" immo&able" and eternal!II The Sel #annot be #ut or pier#ed throughO he #annot be burntO and he #annot be soaked! <&en the whole irmament #annot #ontain him within its e.ample o ignoran#e and points out that the Sel alone is eternal! % we do not know the means by whi#h we #an realiMe our Sel and his goal" we ha&e no inkling o Sanatan 7harm! %ndia has paid a hea&y pri#e or this ignoran#e! The total number o (uslim in&aders who #ame to this #ountry in the (iddle Ages was appro.pert o the se#tion o the ?ed whi#h is related to #eremonial a#ts and sa#ri i#ial rites! The ne.amples o how we ha&e su ered be#ause o our mindless #ustoms that ha&e nothing to do with dharm! There used to li&e i ty$to$si.imately twel&e thousand! Today they ha&e multiplied to more than *8+ million! Twel&e thousand #ould reasonably ha&e grown to a ew hundred thousand to 1+ million at the most! They #ould not ha&e grown to more than this! But their number now is more than a *8+ million! @ow" who are the majority o them but 1indus" our own #oreligionists and brothers" who were lost to the old be#ause o our absurd taboos o ood and tou#h/ %n a#t" their #on&ersion is a proo that we ha&e by and large lost tou#h with Sanatan 7harm! -e are so be ogged by silly #ustoms that we ha&e lost the #apa#ity to realiMe that ood and tou#h #annot destroy Sanatan 7harm! The truth is that no obje#t o the material world #an tou#h this uni&ersal spiritual prin#iple! -hat has made us lose millions o our brothers is not dharm but only some stupid #on&entions! And the same mis#on#eptions must be held responsible or our worsening #ommunal situation" partition o %ndia" and e&en or the serious threats to our national unity and integrity that we are a#ing today! There are innumerable e.)V and % am a Brahmin! 1ow on earth #an % eat your ood/J The mullahs replied" H2e&ered sir" we sorely need wise men like you!II Therea ter the Brahmin was set ree! U.t day when the mullahs reKuested him with olded hands to eat something" the Brahmin lared up and said" Hyou are a 4a&anU.rishn inds it an e.)V0riginally meaning an lonian B'reekC" but now used or any alien or non$1indu! 1e went ba#k to his &illage and saw his people using the well as be ore! So as a penan#e he went on ast! -hen people asked him or the reason" he told them how some (uslims had #limbed upon the low wall around the well" and how they had also poured de iled water and #ast a pie#e o partly$eaten bread into it! Stunned" the people o the &illage asked" H-hat shall we do now/J .panse! The Sel is beyond doubt" e&er$ resh" omnipresent" immo&able" #onstant" and e&erlasting! Arjun has pronoun#ed amily traditions to be eternal! So" a##ording to him" the war will destroy Sanatan 7harm itsel ! But .8VAn e.8V Brahmin o the &illage! -hen he #ame" the mullahs #aught hold o him and gagged him! Then be ore his eyes they drew some water out o the well" drank some o it" and poured the rest ba#k into the wellO they also dropped a pie#e o partly$eaten bread into it! The Brahmin looked on dumb ounded at all this" but he was helpless! 6inally" the mullahs le t along with the Brahmin" whom they lo#ked up in their house! U.shatriya amilies in a &illage in 1amirpur distri#t! But today they are all (uslims! -ere they proselytiMed" we may ask" under threat o swords and guns/ @ot at all! -hat really happened was this R 0ne night a #ouple o mullahs hid themsel&es near the only well o the &illage" knowing that the irst bather to #ome to the well in the morning would be the karmkandiU.ty #ultured .

rishn" and their 'od! The powers that they had taken as or e&er now #eased to e.rishn re utes him and points out .The Brahmin replied" H@othing" be#ause we ha&e lost our dharm!J People were usually not edu#ated in those days! @o one knows how long sin#e women and the" so #alled Huntou#hablesJ had been depri&ed o the right to learn! The ?aishya were #on&in#ed that making money was their only dharm! The .ist or them! That is how the ignorant &illagers looked at the Kuestion! The truth is" howe&er" that the power that was dead was only #ertain stupid #ustoms whi#h people had taken or dharm out o their spiritual ignoran#e! 7harm prote#ts us and is" there ore" stronger than us! But whereas e&en the mortal body needs some kind o a weapon to be killed" the pe#uliar QQdharmII o the gullible 1indu was destroyed by a mere tou#h! -hat kind o dharm was it" we wonder" or it is man$made #ustoms whi#h die" nor that whi#h is eternal and immutable / That whi#h is eternal is so strong and impregnable that arms #annot pier#e it" ire #annot burn it" and water #annot wet it! @othing that belongs to the material world #an tou#h it" let alone ood and drink! Some su#h misguided traditions had pre&ailed at the time o Arjun" too" and he was ob&iously one o their &i#tims! So he tear ully whines to .rishn about the eternal nature o amily rites and #ustoms! The war" he says" will destroy Sanatan 7harm" and when this is lost" all the members o the amily are bound to end up in hell! %t is e&ident that what Arjun is talking about is some #ustomary belie s o his time! That is why the spiritually adept .pe#ted to kill themsel&es! (en o staun#h aith" they yet looked or an alternati&e be#ause o their mistaken belie ! <&en today the (uslims o the 1amirpur &illage solemniMe their weddings like 1indus! 0nly at the end o the #eremony a mullah is brought in to per orm the nikah #eremony! All o them were on#e aith ul 1indus and all o them are now aith ul (uslims! The #atastrophe" as we ha&e seen" was brought about by nothing more than the pre&ailing 1indu belie that their water would be de iled i it was tou#hed by a (uslim! The misguided &illagers were #on&in#ed that they had lost their dharm by using de iled water! So that is what dharm had been redu#ed to in medie&al %ndia! %t had turned into something like the plant whose lea&es shrink and droop at being tou#hed! -e #all this plant Gajwanti Bthe shy oneC! %ts lea&es #ontra#t i you just tou#h them" but they e.shatriya o the &illage o our sad story slunk one a ter the other into a #orner like rightened sheep" shuddering with the unbearable agony o the thought that they had lost their dharm! Some o them e&en #ommitted sui#ide! But" o #ourse" all o them #ould not be e.shatriya thought" why should they study and learn/ -hat had they" wielders o arms" to do with dharm! 7harm had thus turned into a monopoly o the Brahmin! @ot only were they ramers o religious laws as well as their interpreters" they had also appointed themsel&es the inal arbiters o right and wrong$o the true and the alse! Su#h was the #ountryIs moral and spiritual degradation in the medie&al times! As against this" in an#ient %ndia" not only the Brahmin but members o all #lasses and e&en women had been entitled to study o the ?ed! Sages o di erent s#hools had then #omposed the ?edi# &erses and parti#ipated in spiritual dis#ourses and debates! An#ient %ndian rulers are known to ha&e se&erely punished those who propagated preten#e and a e#tation in the name o dharm! They had also paid due respe#t to the s#riptures o religions other than their own! But in medie&al %ndia" ignorant o the spirit o Sanatan 7harm" the .shatriya were absorbed in the laudatory songs o minstrels! @o sooner did their masterIs sword lash than there was lightning and the throne o 7elhi began to shake! % honour #ame rom mus#le power" the .pand and irm up when you remo&e your hand! -hat a great pity that a mere plant re&i&es as soon as the hand that tou#hed it mo&es away" but the dharm o the 1amirpur &illagers withered so irre&ersibly that it #ould ne&er re&i&e again! Their dharm was dead" and also gone or them ore&er were their 2am" their .

rishn will a irm that the Supreme Spirit alone is real! By restraining the mind" the worshipper sees him and be#omes one with him! At the moment o attainment he realiMes 'od and" the &ery ne.nowing that this immutable" eternal Sel per&ades all" what should we look or/ This is what .rishn answers the Kuestion thus: *9! H0nly a seer &iews the Soul as a mar&el" another one des#ribes him as a mar&el" and yet another one hears him as mar&el! -hile there are some who hear him and yet know him not!II .rishn has told Arjun that the unreal has no e.that the Sel alone is perpetual! % we do not know the way to this embodied 'od" we are yet uninitiated into the spirit o Sanatan 7harm! .istent! The Sel is that reality! %t is the Sel that is #hangeless" #onstant" eternal" and unmani est! They who know the essen#e ha&e ound the Sel adorned with these traits! @ot linguists nor the a luent" but only seers ha&e known the uniKue #hara#ter o the Sel ! %n Chapter 18" .rishn has said be ore that only enlightened" realiMed" sages ha&e &iewed the Sel ! @ow he elaborates the rareness o this &ision! 0nly a rare sage sees the Sel $&iews him dire#tly rather than just hear o him! Similarly" another rare sage speaks o his substan#e! 0nly he who has seen the Sel #an des#ribe him! 4et another rare seeker hears him as a wonder" or e&en hearing the &oi#e o the Sel is not possible or all be#ause it is meant only or men o high spiritual attainment! There are people who hear the Sel and yet know him not" be#ause they are in#apable .isten#e and neither is the real e&er none.t moment a ter this" he inds his own soul adorned with 'odlike traits! 1e sees then that this Sel is true" eternal" and per e#t! This Sel is beyond the rea#h o thought! 6ree rom any de&iation" it is #alled immutable! .rishn then uses simple logi# to demonstrate the #ontradi#tions between ArjunIs thoughts! *:! H4ou ought not to grie&e" 0 the mighty$armed" e&en i you think o him Bthe Sel C as e&er$ born and e&er$dying!II Arjun ought not to mourn e&en i he regards the Sel as #onstantly born and #onstantly dying! *9! HSin#e this also pro&es the #ertain death o what is born and the #ertain birth o what dies" you ought not to grie&e o&er the ine&itable!II <&en the assumption that the Sel is e&er$born and e&er$dying only goes to establish that the born must die and the dead must be born! So Arjun ought not to grie&e o&er what must be" or sorrowing o&er something whi#h is ine&itable is in&iting yet another sorrow! *8! H-hy grie&e o&er the matter" 0 Bharat BArjunC" when all beings" disembodied be ore birth and disembodied a ter death" appear to possess a body only between the two e&ents/J All beings are body$less be ore birth and also body$less a ter death! They #an be seen neither be ore birth nor a ter death! %t is only between birth and death that they assume the orm o a body! So why grie&e uselessly o&er this #hange/ But who #an see this Sel / .rishn speaks o now: *)! H.nowing that the Sel is unmani est" a non$obje#t to the senses" in#omprehensible be#ause he is a non$obje#t to the mind" and #hangeless" B0 ArjunC" it does not be it you to grie&e Bo&er himC!II The Soul is unmani est and not an obje#t o the senses! 1e #annot be grasped by the senses! 1e is present e&en when there is the asso#iation o senses with their obje#ts" but he #annot be #omprehended! 1e is beyond thought! 1e is eternal and he is present e&en when the mind and its &olitions persist" but he is beyond per#eption" enjoyment" and a##ess! So the mind has to be restrained! .

o treading the spiritual path! A man may listen to" #ountless words o wisdom" split hairs" and be eager to a#Kuire the highest wisdom! But his atta#hments are possessed o irresistible might and a ter only a short while he inds himsel re&ersed to worldly business! So at last .rishn gi&es his &erdi#t: ;+! HSin#e the Sel dwelling in all bodies is unslayable" 0 Bharat" it does not be it you to grie&e or li&ing beings!II Arjun ought not to mourn or li&ing beings be#ause the Sel " in whate&er body he is" #an be neither slain nor pier#ed through! 7uly e,pounded and treated with authority" the point at issue that Hthe Sel is eternalJ is #on#luded here! But there arises another Kuestion at this point! 1ow to realiMe and ul il the Sel / %n the whole o the 'eeta only two ways are suggested or this" irst Hthe -ay o Sel less A#tionJ B@ishkam .arm 4ogC and" se#ondly" Hthe -ay o 7is#ernmentJ B'yan 4ogC! The reKuired a#tion or both the ways is the same! Stressing the ne#essity o this a#tion" 4ogeshwar .rishn says: ;1! H%n &iew o your own dharm" too" it is unworthy o you to ear" or there is nothing more propitious or a .shatriya than a righteous war!II %t does not be it Arjun to be hesitant e&en i he just keeps his dharm in &iew" be#ause there is no greater good or a .shatriya than a war o piety! %t has been repeatedly said that Hthe Sel is immutable"J that Hthe Sel is eternal"J and that Hthe Sel is the only real dharm!J @ow what is this dharm o the Sel BswadharmC/ The Sel is the only dharm" although the #apa#ity to engage in this dharm &aries rom indi&idual to indi&idual! This ability arising rom oneIs disposition has been named swadharm or the inherent dharm! An#ient sages di&ided the tra&ellers on the eternal path o the Sel into our #lasses" Shudr" ?aishya" .shatriy" and Brahmin" a##ording to their innate abilities! %n the primary stage o a##omplishment e&ery seeker is a Shudr" meaning one who is de i#ient in knowledge! 1e spends hours on worship and adoration o 'od" and yet ails to render e&en ten minutes o his time truly bene i#ial to his spiritual Kuest! 1e is unable to #ut through the illusory a#ade o the material world! Sitting de&outly at the eet o a realiMed Sage" an a##omplished tea#her" at this stage helps in the #ulti&ation o &irtues in his nature! -ith this he is promoted to the le&el o a seeker o the ?aishya #lass! 'radually realiMing that a##omplishments o the Sel are the only true a##omplishments" he be#omes adept in seiMing and prote#ting his senses! Passion and wrath are atal to the senses" whereas dis#rimination and renun#iation prote#t them" but they are by themsel&es in#apable o annihilating seeds o the material world! 'radually" then" as the worshipper progresses urther" his heart and mind grow strong enough to #ar&e their way through the three properties o nature! This is the inborn Kuality o a .shatriy! At this point the worshipper a#Kuires the ability to destroy the world o nature and its per&ersions! So this is the point o #ommen#ement o the war! By urther re inement a ter this" the worshipper is slowly ele&ated to the #ategory o a Brahmin! Some o the &irtues that now grow in the seeker are #ontrol o the mind and senses" in#essant #ontemplation" simpli#ity" per#eption" and knowledge! By slowly per e#ting these Kualities" then" he ultimately attains to 'od" and at this stage he #eases to be e&en a Brahmin! At a sa#ri i#e per ormed by Aanak" .ing o ?ideh" answering Kuestions by >shast" .ahol" Aruni" >ddalak" and 'argi" (aharshi 4agn&alkya said that a Brahmin is one who has a#hie&ed dire#t realiMation o the Sel ! %t is the Sel " dwelling in this world and the higher world" and in all beings" that go&erns all rom within! The Sel is the inner ruler! The sun" the moon" the earth"

water" ether" ire" stars" spa#e" the sky" and e&ery moment o time$are under the authority o this Sel ! This embodied Sel " knowing and #ontrolling the mind and the heart rom within" is immortal! 1e is the imperishable reality BAksharC and anything that is not Sel is destroyed! %n this world" he who o ers oblations" per orms sa#ri i#es" pra#tises austerities" e&en though or many thousands o years but without an awareness o this reality" gains little: all his o erings and e,er#ises are perishable! 1e who departs rom this li e without knowing the imperishable is like a wret#hed miser! But he who dies with knowledge o reality is a Brahmin!U;:V U;:VThe >panishad Brihadaranyak! Arjun is .shatriy worshipper! A##ording to .rishn there is no more bene i#ial way or su#h a seeker than war! The Kuestion is: what is meant by the term .shatriy / >sually" in so#ial usage" it is taken as one o the terms su#h as Brahmin" ?aishya" and Shudr" whi#h are denominations o H#astesJ determined by birth! These our #onstitute what are known as the our old &arn! But that su#h was not the original intent behind the pro&ision is e&ident rom what the 'eeta has to say about the inherent disposition o the .shatriy! 1ere .rishn just demonstrates the duty o a .shatriy! The problem" namely o what &arn is and how a man o in erior &arn #an by his #ondu#t gradually ele&ate himsel to a higher #lass" is repeatedly taken up and resol&ed at the &ery end o the sa#red #omposition! .rishn says that he has #reated the our &arn! 7id he in doing so di&ide men into our #lasses/ 1e himsel says that it was not so: he has only di&ided a#tion into our #ategories a##ording to the innate property! So we ha&e to see what that a#tion is whi#h has thus been di&ided! Properties are &ariable! The #orre#t mode o worship #an ele&ate one rom the lowest property o ignoran#e to that o passion and moral blindness" and hen#e to &irtue" or the Kuality o goodness! So through gradual #ulti&ation o the inherent property" any indi&idual #an e&ol&e himsel into a Brahmin! 1e is" then" possessed o all the Kualities that are essential to the attainment o and union with the Supreme Spirit! .rishn lays down that e&en i the inherent ability" by whi#h a man parti#ipates in this dharm" is o the unmeritorious and ignorant Shudr le&el" it is bene i#ial in the highest sense" be#ause it is the starting point rom where he #an set out on the path o Sel $#ulti&ation! 1owe&er" the worshipper is destroyed i he imitates the manner o higher #lasses! Arjun is a worshipper o the .shatriy #lass! That is why .rishn enjoins him to remember his ability to wage war" be#ause through it he will know that irresolution and grie are unworthy o him! There is no better task than this or a .shatriy! Clari ying the point urther" the 4ogeshwar says: ;*! HBlessed indeed" 0 Parth" are the .shatriy who" without seeking" #ome upon su#h a war whi#h is like an open door to hea&en!J The per e#t marksman Arjun has made a #hariot o the temporal body itsel ! 0nly the most ortunate among .shatriy get an opportunity to ight in a war o righteousness that pro&ides ighters with an open gateway to hea&en! The worshipper o the .shatriy #lass is strong enough to subdue all the three properties o matter! The door to hea&en is open to him be#ause he has stored an abundan#e o di&ine ri#hes in his heart! 1e is Kuali ied or the enjoyment o #elestial e,isten#e! This is the open way to hea&en! 0nly the ortunate among the .shatriy" the ones who ha&e the #apa#ity to wage war" are able to know the signi i#an#e o the in#essant struggle that goes on between matter and spirit! There are wars in the world! People assemble at a pla#e and ight! But e&en &i#tors in these wars ail to se#ure a lasting &i#tory! These wars are" in a#t" only a#ts o getting satis a#tion by deliberately in li#ting injury or injuries in li#ted$mere a#ts o &engean#e! The more a man

suppresses others" the more he is e&entually suppressed himsel ! -hat kind o &i#tory is this in whi#h there is only sense$withering grie / And at the end the body is also destroyed! The really bene i#ial war is the #on li#t between matter and spirit" or a single #onKuest in this war results in domination o matter by the Sel ! This is a #onKuest a ter whi#h there is no possibility o de eat! ;;! HAnd i you do not engage in this righteous war" you will lose the dharm o your Sel and glory" and be guilty o sin!II % Arjun does not ight in this war o matter and spirit" whi#h will a ord him a##ess to the Supreme Spirit$to the immutable" eternal dharm" he will be depri&ed o his inherent #apa#ity or a#tion and struggle" and wallow in the mire o repeated birth and death" and o disgra#e! .rishn then #lari ies the nature o this disgra#e: ;8! HAnd all will or e&er speak o your disgra#e and su#h disgra#e is worse than death itsel or a man o honour!II People will long speak ill o ArjunIs unmanliness! <&en today sages like ?ishwamitr" Parasher" @imi" and Shringi are remembered #hie ly or their transgressions o the path o righteousness! So worshippers re le#t on their dharm! They think about what others will say o them! Su#h thought is help ul in the pro#ess o spiritual seeking! %t pro&ides the urge or perse&ering with the Kuest or the ultimate reality! %t also pro&ides support o&er a #ertain length o the spiritual way! %n amy is e&en worse than death or honourable men! ;)! H<&en the great warriors who ha&e a high regard or you will then s#orn you or ha&ing turned your ba#k upon the war out o ear!II The mighty warriors" in whose esteem Arjun will then all rom honour to dishonour" will belie&e that he had retreated rom the war due to #owardi#e! -ho are these other great warriors/ They" too" are seekers who make their way strenuously along the path o spiritual realiMation! The other ormidable warriors who oppose them are" on the #ontrary" desire or sensual pleasure" anger" greed" and atta#hment" that drag the worshipper with eKual tena#ity towards ignoran#e! Arjun will be disgra#ed in the eyes o the &ery people who now hold him in high esteem as a worthy seeker! Apart rom this" ;:! HThere #an be nothing more pain ul or you than the disparaging and improper words your ad&ersaries will speak against your &alour!II 1is enemies will malign Arjun and utter words about him that should not be spoken! A single blemish is su i#ient to bring upon one a shower o slander and abuse rom all dire#tions! <&en words" improper or spee#h" are spoken! Can there be a greater grie than being an obje#t o su#h #alumny/ So .rishn tells Arjun: ;9! H2ise up with determination or the war be#ause i you die in it you will attain to hea&en and" i you win" you will attain to the most e,alted glory!II % Arjun loses his li e in the war" he will go to hea&en and be with Swar $ the indestru#tible 'od! The impulses that guide one towards the world o matter that is e,ternal to the Sel will be retarded! And his heart will then o&er low with the di&ine Kualities that enable one to realiMe the Supreme Spirit! %n #ase he wins" howe&er" he will attain to the state o redemption" the noblest a##omplishment! So .rishn e,horts Arjun to get up determinedly and prepare or war! >sually by the &erse under e,amination it is understood that i Arjun dies in the war" he will be

pri&ileged to li&e in hea&en" but that i he is &i#torious he will be rewarded with enjoyment o worldly pleasures! But we #annot but remember that Arjun has told .rishn that" in neither a realm made up o all the three worlds" nor e&en in an %ndr$like lordship o&er gods" #an he see the means that #an remedy the grie that is wearing out his senses! % he is to a#hie&e only all this" he has said" he will not ight at any #ost! @e&ertheless" .rishn e,horts him to ight! -hat greater reward than domination o&er the earth in #ase o &i#tory and #elestial pleasures in #ase o de eat does .rishn promise Arjun in order to make him ight/ Arjun is" in a#t" a dis#iple aiming at the truth and e,#ellen#e that lie beyond earthly and hea&enly joys! .nowing this" .rishn" the a##omplished tea#her" tells him that e&en i the time allotted to his body e,pires in the #ourse o the war and he does not su##eed in rea#hing his goal" imbued with di&ine ri#hes he will gain an e,isten#e in Swar" the #hangeless and eternal! % " on the other hand" he su##eeds in the struggle while his temporal body is still ali&e" he will a#hie&e the sublimity o 'od and thus attain to the state o the highest glory! 1e will thus be a winner both ways: i he #onKuers he will attain to the highest stateO and i he loses he will ind an abode in hea&en and enjoy godly pleasures! There is pro it in &i#tory and there is pro it too in de eat! The point is reiterated: ;8! H4ou will not in#ur sin i you get up and ight the war" treating &i#tory and de eat" pro it and loss" and happiness and sorrow" alike!II .rishn #ounsels Arjun to regard with an eKual mind happiness and sorrow" pro it and loss" and &i#tory and de eat" and prepare or war! % he parti#ipates in the war" he will not be guilty o sin! 1e will gain the state o sublimity" the most pre#ious possession that is possible or a man to ha&e" in #ase o su##ess" and a#hie&ement o godhood e&en in #ase o de eat! So Arjun should deliberate well on his gains and losses" and prepare or war! ;9! HThis knowledge whi#h % ha&e imparted to you" 0 Parth" is related to 'yan 4og" the -ay o knowledge" and now you should listen to me on .arm 4og" the -ay o Sel less A#tion" with whi#h you #an su##ess ully se&er the etters o a#tion as well as its #onseKuen#e BkarmC!II .rishn tells Arjun that the knowledge" he has spoken o " is related to the -ay o .nowledge! -hat knowledge is it e,#ept that Arjun should ight/ The substan#e o the -ay o 7is#rimination or .nowledge is only that i we ight a##ording to our disposition a ter a #are ul appraisal o our #apa#ity as well as o pro it and loss" we shall attain to the state o ultimate bliss i we win" and to hea&enly" godlike e,isten#e e&en i we are &anKuished! There is gain in both #ases! % we do not a#t" others will speak disparagingly o us and look upon us as ha&ing retreated like #owards" and we shall be disgra#ed! So to orge ahead on the path o a#tion with a #are ul understanding o oneIs innate nature is itsel the -ay o .nowledge or 7is#ernment! -e usually #ome a#ross the mis#on#eption that no war needs to be ought on the Path o .nowledge! %t is said that knowledge in&ol&es no a#tion! -e think in our &anity: H% am pure!J QQ% am enlightened!J$ QQ% am a part o 'od himsel !J A##epting it as an a,iom that e,#ellen#e be gets e,#ellen#e" we sit idly! But this is not the -ay o .nowledge a##ording to 4ogeshwar .rishn! The Ha#tionJ whi#h has to be per ormed in ollowing the -ay o .nowledge is similar to that whi#h has to be undertaken or the -ay o Sel less A#tion! The only di eren#e between the two ways is that o attitude! The man who treads the Path o .nowledge a#ts with a proper e&aluation o his situation and with sel $relian#e" whereas the man who takes to the Path o Sel less A#tion also a#ts" but with relian#e upon the mer#y o the adored 'od! A#tion is a basi# reKuirement o both the ways and in ea#h o them it is the same" although it has to be done in two di erent ways! The attitudes behind the a#tion in the two ways are di erent! So .rishn asks Arjun to listen to him while he speaks o the -ay o Sel less A#tion" armed with whi#h he #an e e#ti&ely destroy the bonds o a#tion and its #onseKuen#e! 1ere the 4ogeshwar

has" or the irst time" spoken o karm" although without e,plaining what it is! %nstead o dwelling upon the nature o a#tion" he des#ribes its #hara#teristi# traits! 8+! HSin#e sel less a#tion neither wears out the seed rom whi#h it sprang nor has any ad&erse #onseKuen#e" e&en a partial obser&an#e o this dharm liberates BoneC rom the dire terror Bo repeated birth and deathCJ! %n the per orman#e o a#tion without #o&eting the ruits thereo " the initial impulse or the seed is not destroyed! %t also does not gi&e rise to any e&il! So sel less a#tion" e&en though done in small measures" rees us rom the great ear represented by birth and death! That ne#essitates re le#ting o&er the nature o su#h a#tion and walking at least a ew steps along its path! -orshippers who ha&e renoun#ed the &anity o earthly possessions ha&e trodden this path" but so #an those who lead the li e o householders! .rishn tells Arjun to just sow the seed" or the seed is ne&er destroyed! There is no power in nature" no weapon" whi#h #an destroy it! The material world #an only #o&er it up momentarily and hide it or a while" but it #annot wipe out the initial inspiration" the seed" o the a#t o spiritual a##omplishment! A##ording to .rishn" e&en the gra&est o sinners #an doubtlessly #ross o&er by the ark o knowledge! 1e means e,a#tly this when he says that i the seed o sel less a#tion is just planted" it is imperishable! %t does not e&en ha&e any ad&erse out#ome in so mu#h as it does not abandon us midway a ter showing us how we #an progress towards spiritual attainment! <&en i we gi&e it up" it works doggedly on or our inal liberation! This is why sel less a#tion" e&en in a small measure" pro&ides reedom rom the great dread o birth and death! 0n#e planted" e&en a ter repeated birth" the seed o su#h a#tion takes us to the realiMation o 'od and to eman#ipation alike rom pleasure and rom pain! The Kuestion is what we ha&e to do i we #hoose the -ay o Sel less A#tion! 81! H0n this auspi#ious path" 0 .urunandan BArjunC" the resolute mind is one" but the minds o the ignorant are di&ided and many!II The mind whi#h is earnestly and irmly oriented to sel less a#tion is uni ied! Sel less a#tion is only one and its out#ome is also one! Spiritual a##omplishment is the only true a#hie&ement" The gradual realiMation o this attainment by ighting against or#es o the material world is an enterprise! This enterprise and resolute a#tion" with a single goal are also one and the same! Then what about those who propagate more than one mode o a#tion/ %n .rishnIs &iew they are not true worshippers! The minds o su#h men are endlessly di&ided and that is why they #onjure up endless ways! 8*$8;! H7esire$ridden men" 0 Parth" who are gi&en only to listening to ?edi# promises o rewards or a#tion" who belie&e that the attainment o hea&en is the highest goal o temporal birth and its a#ti&ities" and who speak pretentious words to des#ribe the many rites and #eremonies that they regard as #ondu#i&e to the a#hie&ement o worldly pleasure and power" are ignorant and bere t o dis#ernment!II The minds o su#h men are riddled with endless dissensions! Co&etous and atta#hed to the tempting promises made by ?edi# &erses" they regard hea&en as the most sublime goal and they belie&e in nothing beyond this! Su#h ignorant men not only de&ise numerous rites and #eremonies" the per orman#e o whi#h is e,pe#ted to bring su#h rewards as the ne,t birth" sensual enjoyment" and worldly dominion" but also launt them in lowery and a e#ted language! To put it di erently" the minds o men without dis#rimination ha&e in inite di&isions! They are addi#ted to pre#epts whi#h promise ruits o a#tion and a##ept the pledges o the ?ed as inal and authoritati&e! They regard hea&en as the highest goal! Be#ause their minds are split by many

horting him to be a Brahmin! Brahmin and .pound them but also gi&e utteran#e to them in igurati&e language! Get us now see the e e#t o all this! 88! H7elighted by ornamental words and atta#hed to worldly pleasures and dominan#e" men without dis#rimination ha&e irresolute minds!J (inds whi#h are a e#ted by the tempting words o su#h people are also #orrupted and they also ail to a##omplish what is worthwhile! The people whose minds are enamoured o su#h words" and who are atta#hed to sensual enjoyment and temporal power" are depri&ed o their #apa#ity or a#tionO they are bere t o resol&e or the true a#tion that is a prereKuisite o #ontemplation o the worshipped 'od! But who are the people that lend their ears to these unwise men/ 0 #ourse" rather than being knowers o the Sel within and the Supreme Spirit without" they are the ones who are addi#ted to sensual pleasure and temporal power! The minds o su#h men are la#king in will or the a#tion that is needed or the ultimate union o the Sel with the Supreme Spirit! -hat e.a#tly is the meaning o the assertion that they" too" are mistaken who are blindly de&oted to ?edi# pronoun#ements/ .rishn speaks about this: 8)! HSin#e all the ?ed" 0 Arjun" only illumine the three properties" you should rise abo&e them" be ree rom the #ontradi#tions o happiness and sorrow" rest on that whi#h is #onstant" and be un#on#erned with getting what you do not ha&e as well as with prote#ting what you ha&e" in order to dedi#ate yoursel to the Sel within!J The ?ed only illumine the three properties o natureO they know nothing o what is beyond them! So Arjun should go beyond the sphere o a#tion laid down by the ?ed! 1ow to do this/ .shatriy are" among others" names o Kualities that are inherent in the dispositions o di erent &arn Bor what are now more #ommonly known as #astesC! But the &arn$tradition is originally" as we ha&e already seen" a#tion$oriented rather than a so#ial pro&ision determined by birth! -hat use has he or a petty pond who has a&ailed himsel o the #rystal #urrent o the 'anga/ Some use a pond .rishn is e.rishn #ounsels Arjun to rise abo&e the ?ed and be a Brahmin! Arjun is a .rishn ad&ises Arjun to liberate himsel rom the #on li#ts o joy and sorrow" #on#entrate on the one #hangeless reality" and desire neither the unobtained nor the obtainedO so that he may de&ote himsel single$mindedly to the indwelling Sel ! This is how he #an rise abo&e the ?ed! But is there any pre#eden#e o anyone going beyond them/ .di eren#es" they in&ent numerous modes o worship! They do speak o 'od" but behind the #o&er o his name they build up a whole multitude o ritual #eremonies! @ow" are these a#ti&ities not a orm o a#tion/ .rishn denies that these a#ti&ities are true a#tion! -hat then is true a#tion/ The Kuestion remains unanswered at this point! 6or the time being .shatriy and .rishn says that as a man trans#ends the ?ed" e&en so he #omes a#e to a#e with the Supreme Spirit" and that the man who is aware o him is a true ?ipr" a Brahmin! 8:! HA ter the inal absolution a man does not need the ?ed" just as we do not need a pond when there is the all$stret#hing o#ean BaroundC!II -hen a man is surrounded by the o#ean on all sides" he has no use or a pond! Aust so a Brahmin who has gained knowledge o the Supreme Spirit has no use or the ?ed! That means that the one who knows 'od trans#ends the ?ed" and that man is a Brahmin! So .rishn only states that ignorant minds are di&ided minds" be#ause o whi#h they ormulate an unlimited number o rites and #eremonies that are not real a#tion! They not only e.

ist! 1e should not #o&et these ruits and neither should he grow disillusioned with a#tion! So ar .rishn says" has the right to a#tion but not to its results! So Arjun should persuade himsel that ruits o a#tion simply do not e.rishn has not so ar de ined a#tion! As or the way o doing it" he has said in the orty$ irst &erse: BeC The mind whi#h is resol&ed to do this a#tion is only one and the way o doing it is also only one! 7oes it mean" then" that people engaged in other multi arious a#ti&ities are not really engaged in the worship o 'od/ A##ording to . and 8! .rishn has not so ar told us what this a#tion is that men are reKuired to do! 1e has so ar elaborated only its #hara#teristi#s" what the gains rom it are" and the pre#autions that ha&e to be obser&ed in the #ourse o its per orman#e! 4et the Kuestion o what e.pounds the pre#autions to be obser&ed in the per orman#e o a#tion! 89! HSin#e you are entitled only to the per orman#e o a#tion but ne&er to the ruits thereo " you should neither desire rewards o a#tion nor be drawn to ina#tion!J Arjun" .ists or stragglers who lag behind! 6urther elu#idation o the problem begins rom this point! SubseKuently .rishn has irst used the term Ha#tionJ Bkarm: meaning both a#tion and its #onseKuen#eC in the thirty$ninth &erse o the #hapter" but he has not indi#ated what this karm is and how to per orm it! 1e has" howe&er" des#ribed its #hara#teristi# traits! BaC 1e has told Arjun that by the per orman#e o a#tion he will be reed rom the bonds o a#tion! BbC 1e has then said that the seed or initial impulse o a#tion is indestru#tible! 0n#e it is initiated" nature has no means to destroy it! B#C There is" Arjun has been told" not e&en the slightest law in this a#tion" or it ne&er abandons us while we are stranded amidst the temptations o #elestial pleasures and worldly a luen#e! BdC Per orman#e o this a#tion" e&en in small proportions" #an eman#ipate us rom the great ear o birth and death! But" as it is e&ident rom the summary abo&e" .rishn" the a#ti&ities o su#h people are not a#tion! <.rishn has told Arjun that he has a right to a#tion" but not to its ruits! So Arjun should not desire these ruits! At the same time he ought not to lose aith in the per orman#e o a#tion! %n other words" he should be #onstantly and de&otedly engaged in its per orman#e! But .or ablution" while others wash their #attle in it! A sage who has known 'od by dire#t per#eption has the same kind o use or the ?ed! They are undoubtedly use ul! The ?ed e.plaining why it is so" he adds that the minds o men without dis#ernment are dri&en by endless di&isions" be#ause o whi#h they tend to in&ent and elaborate an unlimited number o rites and #eremonies! So they are not true worshippers! They use pretentious and ornate language to des#ribe these rites and #eremonies! So that manIs mind is also poisoned who is lured by the #harm o their words! The ordained a#tion is" there ore" only one" although we ha&e not yet been told what pre#isely it is! %n the orty$se&enth &erse .a#tly sel less a#tion is has so ar remained unanswered! %t is" in a#t" answered only in Chapters .rishn has not yet said what this a#tion is! The &erse is usually interpreted as meaning: 7o whate&er you wish" only do not desire its ruits! That is" say those who interpret the &erse thus" what sel less a#tion is all about! %n a#t" howe&er" .rishn e.

.rishn again re&erts to what he has already said: 88! QQThe eKuipoise o mind that arises rom pro ound absorption in the per orman#e o a#tion a ter renoun#ing atta#hment and being e&en$minded in respe#t o su##ess and ailure is" 0 7hananjay BArjunC" gi&en the name o yog!J 2esting in yog" renoun#ing in atuation or worldly ties" and looking at su##ess and ailure with an eKual mind" Arjun should undertake a#tion! But what a#tion/ .rishnIs pronoun#ement is that men should do sel less a#tion! <Kuipoise o mind is what is #alled yog! The mind in whi#h there is no une&enness is ull o eKuanimity! 'reed destroys its e&enness" atta#hments make it uneKual" and desire or the ruits o a#tion destroy its serenity! That is why there should be no hankering a ter the ruits o a#tion! At the same time" howe&er" there should also be no diminishing o aith in the per orman#e o a#tion! 2enoun#ing atta#hment to all things" seen as well as unseen" and gi&ing up all #on#ern about a#hie&ement and non$a#hie&ement" we should only keep our eyes i,ed on yog" the dis#ipline that joins the indi&idual Soul with the Supreme Spirit" and lead a li e o strenuous a#tion! 4og is thus the state o #ulmination! But it is also the initial stage! At the outset our eyes should be i,ed on the goal! %t is or this reason that we should a#t keeping our eyes on yog! <Kuanimity o mind is also named yog! -hen the mind #annot be shaken by ailure and su##ess" and nothing #an destroy its e&enness" it is said to be in the state o yog! %t #annot then be mo&ed by passion! Su#h a state o mind enables the Soul to identi y himsel with 'od! This is another reason why this state is #alled Samattwa 4og" the dis#ipline that makes the mind illed with eKuanimity! Sin#e there is" in su#h a state o mind" #omplete renun#iation o desire" it is also #alled the -ay o Sel less A#tion B@ishkam .arm 4ogC! Sin#e it reKuires us to per orm a#tion" it is also known as the way o A#tion B.arm 4ogC! Sin#e it unites the Sel with the Supreme Spirit" it is #alled yog! %t is ne#essary to keep in mind that both su##ess and ailure should be &iewed with eKuanimity" that there should be no sense o atta#hment" and that there is no desire or the rewards o a#tion! %t is thus that the -ay o Sel less A#tion and the -ay o .nowledge are the same: 89! HTake re uge in the way o eKuanimity ByogC" 7hananjay" be#ause a#tion with desire or the ruits thereo is ar in erior to the path o dis#rimination" and they are indeed paupers who are moti&ated by lust B or rewardsC!II Co&etous a#tion is distant rom and in erior to the Path o 7is#rimination! Those who yearn a ter praise are wret#hed men" &ile and de&oid o judgement! Arjun is" there ore" urged to ind shelter in the e&en$minded -ay o .nowledge! <&en i the Soul is rewarded with what he desires" he will ha&e to assume a body in order to enjoy it! So long as the pro#ess o #oming and going" o birth and death" lasts" how #an there be ultimate redemption/ A seeker should not desire e&en absolution" or absolution is total reedom rom passions! Thinking o&er the a#Kuisition o rewards i he gets any" his worship is interrupted! -hy should he now #ontinue any urther with the task o meditation on 'od/ 1e goes astray! So yog should be obser&ed with a per e#tly e&en mind! .rishn des#ribes the -ay o .nowledge B'yan$.arm$Sanyas 4ogC as also the Buddhi$or Sankhya 4og! 1e suggests to Arjun that he has attempted to enlighten him on the nature o Hdis#riminationJ in its relation to the -ay o .nowledge! %n truth" the only di eren#e between the two is that o attitude! %n the one" one has to pro#eed only a ter making a proper e,amination o the #onstru#ti&e and negati&e aspe#ts o the undertaking" while in the other" too" eKuanimity has to be preser&ed! So it is also #alled the -ay o <Kuanimity and 7is#rimination BSamattwa$ Buddhi 4ogC! Be#ause o this and be#ause men possessed o desire or rewards are redu#ed to

miserable wret#hedness" Arjun is ad&ised to ind shelter in the -ay o .nowledge! )+! HAs the Soul endowed with a mind o eKuanimity renoun#es both meritorious and e&il deeds in this world itsel and the art o a#ting with eKuipoise is yog" the endea&our to master the way o eKuanimity o dis#rimination is Samattwa 4og!II Stoi# minds gi&e up both the sa#red and the sin ul in this li e itsel ! They adopt an attitude o deta#hment to both! So Arjun should stri&e or the eKuanimity o mind that is deri&ed rom the -ay o .nowledge! 4og is the skill o a#ting with eKuipoise! Two attitudes towards a#tion pre&ail in the world! % people do a work" they also wish or its ruits! % there are no rewards" they may not e&en like to work! But 4ogeshwar .rishn regards su#h a#tion as bondage and states that worship o the one 'od is the only worthwhile a#tion! %n the present #hapter he has only named a#tion! %ts de inition is gi&en in the ninth &erse o Chapter ;O and its nature is dwelt upon at length in Chapter 8! %n the &erse about to be Kuoted" the skill o a#ting in reedom rom worldly #ustoms is that we should per orm a#tion and do it with dedi#ation" but at the same time with &oluntary renun#iation o any right to its ruits! 1owe&er" it is but natural to be #urious about what will be#ome o these ruits! But" o #ourse" there is no doubt that sel less a#tion is the right way o a#tion! The whole energy o the desireless worshipper is then dire#ted to his a#tion! The human body is meant or worship o 'od! At the same time" though" one would like to know whether one has just always to go on a#ting or whether the per ormed a#tion will also produ#e some result! .rishn now dwells upon this problem: )1! H2enoun#ing all desire or the ruits o their a#tion and BthusC reed rom the bondage o birth" wise men who are skilled in the way o eKuanimity and dis#rimination a#hie&e the pure" immortal state!II -ise men endowed with the yog o dis#rimination renoun#e the ruits arising rom their a#tion and are liberated rom the bondage o birth and death! They a#hie&e the pure" immortal state o oneness with 'od! Appli#ation o intelle#t is #ategoriMed here into three kinds! 6irstly by the way o dis#rimination Bin &erses ;1$;9C! This yields two results : 7i&ine ri#hes and ultimate bliss! Se#ondly by the way o sel less A#tion Bin &erse ;9$)1C whi#h produ#es only one #onseKuen#e$liberation rom the dire terror o repeated birth and death by attaining imma#ulate indestru#tible oneness with god! These are the only two ways des#ribed or the yog! The third type o appli#ation o intelle#t is done by the ignorants who are engaged in other endless modes o a#tions and who all into the #y#les o repeated birth and death a##ording to their deeds! ArjunIs &ision is limited only to a#Kuisition o so&ereignty o&er the three worlds and e&en o&er 'ods! But e&en or the sake o these he is not in#lined to war! At this point" .rishn re&eals to him the truth that a man #an attain to the immortal state through sel less a#tion! The -ay o Sel less A#tion also pro&ides a##ess to the state o being whi#h death #annot break into! At what point" though" will a man be in#lined to the per orman#e o su#h a#tion/ )*! HAt the time when your mind has su##ess ully made its way a#ross the swamp o atta#hment" you will be #apable o the renun#iation whi#h is worth hearing o and whi#h you ha&e heard!II The &ery moment ArjunIs mind" indeed the mind o any worshipper" has steered sa ely a#ross the marsh o atta#hment" and when it is #ompletely ree rom yearning or either #hildren or ri#hes or honour" all its worldly ties are broken! %t will then be re#epti&e" not only to what is proper or

hearing" but also to the idea o renun#iation" making it an integral part o its a#tion a##ording to what it has learnt! At the present moment" howe&er" Arjun is unprepared to listen to what is proper or hearingO and so the Kuestion o its in luen#ing his #ondu#t" o #ourse" simply does not arise! .rishn again illumines the same worthiness: );! H-hen your mind" now shaken by the #on li#ting pre#epts o the ?ed" a#hie&es a #hangeless and #onstant e,isten#e within the being o Supreme Spirit" you will then attain to immortal state through pro ound meditation!II -hen ArjunIs mind" at present dri&en through and through by the #ontradi#tory tea#hings o the ?edU;9V" a#hie&es the state o steady #ontemplation o 'od" it will be#ome #hangeless and #onstant" and then he will master the skill o e&en minded dis#rimination! 1e will then a#hie&e the per e#t eKuilibrium whi#h is the ultimate state o immortality! This is the #rowning point o yog! The ?ed undoubtedly instru#t usO but as .rishn points out" the #ontradi#tory injun#tions o the Shruti #on use the mind! Pre#epts there are many" but it is un ortunate that people usually keep away rom the knowledge that is it or learning! U;9VThe irst part o the ?ed" known as -orks BShrutiC" the ?ed known by re&elation" and #hie ly made up o hymns and instru#tions regarding sa#red rites and #eremonies! The se#ond part" known as .nowledge BSmritiC" is made up o the >panishad that are #on#erned with awareness o 'od" the highest aspe#t o sa#red truth! Arjun is told that he will rea#h the stage o immortality" the #ulmination o yog" when his agitated mind a#hie&es #onstan#y by meditation! This naturally whets ArjunIs #uriosity about the nature o sages who e,ist in an e,alted state o per e#t spiritual bliss" and whose minds are immo&able and at pea#e in the state o abstra#t meditation! So he asks .rishn: )8! HArjun said" Qwhat" 0 .esha&" is the mark o the man who has attained the state o true meditation and eKuanimity o mind" and how does this man with irm dis#rimination speak" sit" and walk /III That Soul whi#h has resol&ed his doubts is in the state o samadhi or per e#t absorption o thought in the Supreme Spirit" the one worthy obje#t o meditation! 0ne who has a#hie&ed e&en$ minded dis#rimination by identi i#ation with the eternal essen#e" whi#h has neither a beginning nor an end" is said to be in the state o abstra#t #ontemplation o the nature o the Supreme Spirit! Arjun asks .rishn or the Kualities o the man with a mind o eKuanimity engaged in su#h #ontemplation! 1ow does a man with stead ast wisdom speak/ 1ow does he sit/ -hat is his gait/ Arjun has thus asked our Kuestions! Thereupon .rishn says: ))! QQThe Gord said" QA man is then said to be stead ast in mind when he has renoun#ed all the desires o his mind and a#hie&ed #ontentment o the Sel through the Sel !III -hen a man has renoun#ed all his desires and a#hie&ed his SoulIs #ontentment through the #ontemplation o his Soul" he is said to be a man o irm dis#ernment! This Sel is apprehended only through #omplete abandonment o passion! The sage who has &iewed the ine able beauty o his Sel and ound per e#t satis a#tion in him is the man with a steady judgement! ):! H1e is indeed a steady$minded sage who is unmo&ed by sorrow and indi erent to happiness" and who has o&er$#ome his passion" ear and anger!II 1e whose mind is untroubled by bodily" a##idental" and worldly sorrows" and who has rid

himsel o desire or physi#al pleasures" and whose passions" ear" and anger ha&e been subdued" is the sage with dis#rimination who has a#hie&ed the #ulmination o spiritual dis#ipline! .rishn then points out other Kualities o this saintly man: )9! HThat man has a steady mind who is entirely ree rom atta#hment and who neither gloats o&er su##ess nor abhors ailure!J That man has a irm wisdom who is totally ree rom in atuation and who neither wel#omes good ortune nor repudiates mis ortune! That alone is auspi#ious whi#h draws a Soul to the being o 'od" whereas that whi#h pulls the mind to temptations o the material world is inauspi#ious! The man o dis#rimination is not too happy in a&ourable #ir#umstan#es and he also does not s#orn ad&ersities" be#ause neither is the obje#t whi#h is it or attainment di erent rom him nor is there or him any e&il that may sully the purity o his mind! That is to say that he has now no need or urther stri&ing! )8! HAs a turtle pulls in its limbs" this man reins in his senses rom all obje#ts" and then he truly has a steady mind!II -hen a man pulls ba#k his senses rom all sides and restrains them within his mind like a turtle pulling its head and eet within its shell" his mind is steady! But it is only an analogy! As soon as the turtle knows that the danger is gone" it again e,pands its limbs! 7oes a man o stead ast wisdom also" in the same way" let his senses loose a ter restraining them" and resume enjoyment o worldly pleasures/ )9! H-hile obje#ts o sensual pleasure #ease to be or the man who withdraws his senses rom them" his desire or these obje#ts yet remainsO but the desires o the man o dis#rimination are #ompletely erased by his per#eption o 'od!II The obje#ts o sense #ome to an end or the man who has reje#ted them be#ause his senses no longer per#ei&e them" but his desires yet sur&i&e! The eeling o atta#hment li&es on! But the passions o the yogi" the doer o sel less a#tion" are annihilated by his per#eption o the ultimate essen#e that is 'od! The a##omplished" or enlightened" sage does not" like the turtle" re$e,tend his senses to obje#ts whi#h are pleasing to them! -hen on#e his senses ha&e shri&elled" all the in luen#es and impressions BsanskarC he has #arried with him rom a pre&ious e,isten#e are irre&o#ably dead! 1is senses do not then return to li e! By apprehending 'od through the obser&an#e o the -ay o Sel less A#tion" e&en the atta#hments to obje#ts o sensual pleasure be#ome e,tin#t! 6or#e has o ten been a eature o meditation" and by its use seekers rid themsel&es o obje#ts o sense! But thoughts o these obje#ts persist! These atta#hments are brought to an end only with the per#eption o 'od and ne&er be ore that" be#ause be ore this stage residues o matter persist! %n this #onne#tion" my most re&ered tea#her Shree Parmanand Ai used to #ite an e&ent rom his own li e! 1e had heard three &oi#es rom hea&en when he was about to gi&e up home! -e respe#t ully asked him why these &oi#es rom hea&en #ame to him aloneO there had not been any or us! 1e replied that he" too" had the same doubt! But then he had an intuition that he had been an as#eti# during his last se&en births! 7uring the irst our o these he had only roamed about garbed in a holy manIs paraphernalia" with a sandal paste mark on his orehead" ash rubbed on his body" and #arrying the water pot used by as#eti#s! 1e had then li&ed in ignoran#e o yog! But during the last three births he had been a true saint" as su#h a Soul should beO and there was now the awakening o the way o yog in him! %n the last li e inal liberation had been almost at hand and the end was in &iew" but a #ouple o his desires had remained! Although he had irmly

#ontrolled his outward body" there were these passions within him! That was why he had to go through yet another birth! And in this birth within a limited time 'od had reed him rom all his passions" rendered him two resounding slaps as it were by pro&iding him with all sights and sounds" and made him a true sadhu! .rishn means pre#isely the same when he pro#laims that although a manIs asso#iation with obje#ts o sense ends when he restrains them rom rea#ting to these obje#ts" he is rid o desire or these obje#ts only when he knows his own Sel as the identi#al 'od through meditation! So we ha&e to a#t until we ha&e a#hie&ed this per#eption! 'oswami Tulsidas has also said that at irst there are passions in the heart" whi#h are swept away only by true de&otion to 'od! .rishn speaks about how di i#ult it is to withdraw the senses rom their obje#ts: :+$:1! H0 son o .unti" men ought to subdue their senses whi#h seiMe or#ibly e&en wise and stri&ing minds" and de&ote themsel&es to me with per e#t #on#entration" be#ause only that manIs mind is unwa&ering who has a#hie&ed #ontrol o his senses!J (utinous senses ra&ish e&en dis#erning and a#ti&e minds" and undo their steadiness! So with ull #ontrol o&er his senses" eKuipped with yog and de&otion" Arjun should ind shelter in 'od" o whom .rishn is an in#arnation" or that man alone has a irm mind who has subdued his senses! 1ere 4ogeshwar .rishn e,plains what ought to be pre&ented in the #ourse o worship" as also the #omponents o spiritual seeking whi#h it is the duty o men to undertake! 2estraint and prohibition alone #annot subdue the senses! Along with negation o senses there must also be in#essant #ontemplation o the desired 'od! %n the absen#e o su#h re le#tion" the mind will be preo##upied with material obje#ts" the e&il #onseKuen#e o whi#h we see in the words o .rishn himsel ! :*! HThey whose thoughts are o sensual obje#ts are atta#hed to them" atta#hment gi&es rise to desires" and anger is born when these desires are obstru#ted!II The eeling o atta#hment still persists in men who ha&e got o&er their #on#ern with the obje#ts o sense! 7esire is born rom atta#hment! And there is anger when there is an obsta#le in the way o satis a#tion o desire! And what does the eeling o anger gi&e rise to / :;!H7elusion is born rom anger" by whi#h memory is #on usedO #on usion o memory undermines the a#ulty o dis#rimination and" when dis#rimination is lost" the seeker de&iates rom the means o absolution!II Con usion and ignoran#e arise rom anger! 7istin#tion between the eternal and the transient is obliterated! 2emembran#e is shaken by delusion" as it happens with Arjun! .rishn says again that in su#h a state o mind one #annot determine wisely what to do and what not to do! Con usion o memory weakens the seekerIs dedi#ation and loss o dis#rimination makes him de&iate rom his goal o being one with 'od! 1ere .rishn has emphasiMed the importan#e o #ulti&ating un#on#ern with sensual obje#ts! The worshipperIs mind should rather always be #on#erned with that$word" orm" in#arnation" or abode$by whi#h his mind may be enabled to be one with 'od! The mind is drawn to sensual obje#ts when the dis#ipline o worship is rela,ed! Thoughts o these obje#ts produ#e atta#hment" whi#h in its own turn results in desire or them! Anger is generated i the satis a#tion o this desire is obstru#ted in any way! And ignoran#e inally undoes the power o dis#ernment! The -ay o Sel less A#tion is also said to be the -ay o .nowledge" or it has always to be kept in &iew that desire must not be allowed to enter the worshipperIs mind! There are" a ter all" no real

perien#e happiness/ There #an be no de&otion without knowing the obje#t o de&otion and knowledge #omes rom #ontemplation! -ithout de&otion there #an be no pea#e and a man with a disturbed mind #annot e.ruits! Ad&ent o desire is inimi#al to wisdom! Steady #ontemplation is" there ore" a ne#essity! A man who does not always think o 'od strays rom the right path that will lead him to ultimate bliss and glory! 1owe&er" there is one #onsolation! The #hain o worship is only broken" not #ompletely destroyed! 0n#e the joy o worship has been e.perien#ed an intuiti&e per#eption o the identity o Sel and the Supreme Spirit a#hie&es the state o the most sublime pea#e" be#ause he has subdued his senses" and there ore remained untou#hed by their obje#ts e&en though he may be wandering in their midst! @o prohibitions are needed or su#h a man! There is or him nothing unpropitious anywhere against whi#h he should ight and de end himsel ! There is also or him no good or whi#h he should yearn! :)! HA ter realiMing the ultimate repose" all his Bthe seekerIsC sorrows disappear" and the bliss ul mind o su#h a man Kui#kly grows in irmness!II Blessed with a &ision o 'odIs ine able glory and his di&ine gra#e" all the worshipperIs grie s$ the temporal world and its obje#ts whi#h are the abode o all sorrows$&anish and his power o dis#rimination grows strong and steady! 1erea ter" .rishn dwells upon the lot o those who ha&e not a#hie&ed the saintly #ondition: ::! HA man without spiritual a##omplishment has no wisdom nor true aith" and a man without de&otion knows no pea#e o mind! Sin#e happiness depends on pea#e" how #an su#h men be happy/J A man who has not undertaken meditation is de&oid o sel less a#tion oriented wisdom! This impo&erished man is e&en de i#ient in the eeling o de&otion to the all$per&ading Spirit! 1ow #an su#h a man" without an awareness o the Sel within and the 'od without" be at pea#e/ And how #an he" without pea#e" e.perien#ed" when taken up again" it resumes rom the same point at whi#h it was dis#ontinued! QThis is the ate o the worshipper who is atta#hed to sensual obje#ts! But what is the lot o the seeker who has mastered his mind and heart/ :8! HBut that man a#hie&es spiritual tranKuility who has mastered his mind" and who remains una e#ted by sense$obje#ts although he may be roaming amidst them" be#ause his senses are properly restrained!J Possessed o the means o spiritual realiMation" the sage who has e.rishn again dwells upon the importan#e o a#tion$oriented #ondu#t! :8! QQThere ore" 0 the mighty$armed BArjunC" the man who pre&ents his senses rom straying to obje#ts has a steady dis#rimination!J .perien#e happiness" mu#h less the state o #hangeless" eternal bliss! :9! H6or" as the wind #aptures the boat on water" just so e&en one o the senses" that roam amidst obje#ts o their grati i#ation and with whi#h the intelle#t dwells" is strong enough to sweep away the dis#rimination o one who is unpossessed o spiritual attainment!II As the wind dri&es a boat ar away rom its destination" e&en one out o the i&e senses ro&ing amongst obje#ts per#ei&ed by the intelle#t #an get hold o the man who has not undertaken the task o spiritual Kuest and dis#ipline! There ore in#essant remembran#e o 'od is essential! .

rishn answers all these Kuestions! The mark o a sage is that he is like an o#ean! Gike an o#ean he is not bound by rules" that he must sit like this and walk like that! %t is men like him who a#hie&e the ultimate pea#e" or they ha&e sel $#ontrol! They who yearn or pleasure #an ha&e no pea#e! 91! QQThe man who has renoun#ed all desires" and who #ondu#ts himsel without ego" arrogan#e" and atta#hment" is the one who a#hie&es pea#e!II (en who ha&e gi&en up all desires" and whose a#tions are entirely ree rom the eelings o % and .#ellen#e! So how #an any other impression be made on su#h a mind/ %n this one &erse" thus" .rishn has answered se&eral o ArjunIs Kueries! Arjun was #urious to learn the mark o a sage who knows the di&ine reality: how he speaks" how he sits" how he walks! -ith the single word$QQo#eanII $the omnis#ient .rishn and Arjun! :9! HThe true worshipper ByogiC remains awake amidst what is night or all #reatures" but the perishable and transient worldly pleasures amidst whi#h all li&ing #reatures stay awake are like night or the sage who has per#ei&ed reality!J The trans#endental Spirit is like night or li&ing beings be#ause he #an be neither seen nor #omprehended by thought! So he is like night" but it is in this night that the spiritually #ons#ious man remains awake be#ause he has seen the ormless and known the in#omprehensible! The seeker inds a##ess to 'od through #ontrol o senses" pea#e o mind" and meditation! That is why the perishable worldly pleasures or whi#h li&ing beings toil day a ter day is night or 'odIs true worshipper! The sage alone" who beholds the indi&idual Sel and the >ni&ersal Sel and is indi erent to desire" su##eeds in his enterprise o 'od$realiMation! So he dwells in the world and is yet untou#hed by it! Get us now see what .The man who restri#ts his senses rom being drawn to their obje#ts is a man o steady wisdom! HArmJ is a measure o the sphere o a#tion! 'od is #alled Hmighty$armedJ BmahabahuC" although he is bodiless and works e&erywhere without hands and eet! The one who be#omes one with him or is in#lined to him and is on the way to his sublime splendour is also there ore" Hmighty$ armed!J That is the signi i#an#e o the use o this epithet or both .rishn has to say on the way in whi#h this realiMed sage #ondu#ts himsel ! 9+! HAs the water o the many ri&ers alls into the ull and e&er #onstant o#ean without a e#ting its tranKuility" e&en so the pleasures o sense merge into a man o steady dis#rimination without produ#ing any de&iation" and su#h a man attains the state o the most sublime pea#e rather than yearn or sensual enjoyment!II The ull and #hangeless o#ean assimilates all the ri&ers that low &iolently into it without losing its repose! Similarly the man who is aware o the oneness o his Sel and the Supreme Spirit assimilates all worldly pleasures within himsel without in any way straying rom his #hosen path! 2ather than longing or sensual grati i#ation" he aims at the a#hie&ement o the most sublime bliss o uniting his Sel with the supreme 'od! 2a&aging e&erything that #omes in their way$#rops" men and animals" and their habitations$and with a rightening roar" the &iolently sweeping #urrents o hundreds o ri&ers all into the o#ean with a tremendous or#e but they #an neither raise nor lower its le&el by e&en an in#hO they only merge into the o#ean! %n the same &iolent way sensual pleasures assault the sage who has attained knowledge o reality and merge in him! They #an impress on him neither weal nor woe! The a#tions o a worshipper are non good and non$e&ilO they trans#end good and e&il! The minds whi#h are #ons#ious o 'od" restrained and dissol&ed" bear only the mark o di&ine e.

rishn and Arjun" entitled: .pounding the merits o a#tion" and by indi#ating the pre#autions to be obser&ed in the per orman#e o a#tion as well as the #hara#teristi# marks o the sage who has gained dire#t knowledge o the Sel and 'od through per#eption" .rishn has told Arjun to listen to him on the -ay o Sel less A#tion" or by knowing it he will be liberated rom the sha#kles o material li e! 1e has the right only to a#t" but he has no right to the ruits o his a#tion! At the same time he ought not to lose dedi#ation to a#tion! 1e must always be prepared to a#t! By the per orman#e o su#h a#tion he se#ures the most e.rishn has said" but not what a#tion is! %n a#t" the se#tion popularly known as HThe 4og or -ay o 7is#riminationJ is not a #hapterO it is but a #ontri&an#e o re&iewers rather than a #reation o the poet o the 'eeta! There is nothing surprising in this" be#ause we #an at best interpret a work only a##ording to our own understanding! %n this H#hapterJ" as we ha&e seen" by e.nowledge BgyanmargiC! Se#ondly" there is the ollower o the -ay o 7e&otion BbhaktimargiC! The man o de&otion or doer o sel less a#tion inds re uge in 'od and pro#eeds on his #hosen path with total dependen#e on his gra#e! Possessed o #on iden#e in his own strength" on the #ontrary" the man o dis#rimination goes along his way a ter making a proper e&aluation o his own ability" as well as o the pro it and loss in the enterprise! But the two ha&e a #ommon goal and the same enemies! @ot only the man o dis#rimination" but also the man o de&otion has to o&er#ome the same ad&ersaries" namely" anger" desire" and other impieties! Both o them ha&e to renoun#e desireO and the a#tion" too" that has to be per ormed under both the dis#iplines is one and the same! Thus #on#ludes the Se#ond Chapter" in the >panishad o the Shreemad Bhagwad 'eeta" on the .nowledge" whereas applying onesel to the same task with lo&ing dependen#e on the worshipped 'od is the -ay o Sel less A#tion" also known as the -ay o Pious 7e&otion BBhakti (argC! 'oswami Tulsidas has portrayed the two ways" both leading to ultimate liberation" thus: H% ha&e two sons! The elder son is a man o dis#rimination! But the younger one is a mere boy" de&oted to me like a aith ul ser&ant and desirous only o rendering me ser&i#e and homage! The latter thus relies on me" whereas the ormer depends upon his own prowess! Both o them ha&e" howe&er" to struggle and ight against the same enemies" namely" passion and anger! .nowledge and the -ay o Sel less A#tion! Per orman#e o the reKuired a#tion a ter a #are ul re&iew o oneIs #apa#ity and sel $determination is the -ay o .rishn has aroused ArjunIs #uriosity and also answered some o his Kueries! The Sel is immutable and eternal! Arjun is e.alted knowledge o the Sel and o 'od" and a#hie&es ultimate pea#e! All this .mine" realiMe the ultimate pea#e beyond whi#h there is nothing to stri&e or and a#hie&e! 9*! HSu#h" 0 Arjun" is the stead astness o the man who has realiMed 'odO a ter attaining this state he subdues all temptation and" resting irmly in his aith" with his death he #ontinues in this state o rapture o the union o his Sel with 'od!II Su#h is the state o one who has realiMed 'od! 2i&ers o temporal obje#ts merge into these o#ean$like sages who are endowed with sel #ontrol and an intuiti&e per#eption o 'od! %t is said by some that the 'eeta is #ompleted in the se#ond #hapter itsel ! But the #hapter #an be a##epted as a #on#lusion only i all the impli#ations o a#tion BkarmC get elu#idated by a mere naming o the pro#ess! %n this #hapter .horted to know it in order to learn reality! There are two ways o a#Kuiring this knowledge" the -ay o 7is#rimination or .rishn says in the same way that he has two kinds o de&otees! There is irst the ollower o the -ay o .nowledge o the Supreme Spirit" the S#ien#e o 4og" and the 7ialogue between .

up dogmas into something" whi#h is meant or uni&ersal and timeless well$being! This di&ine 'eeta is presented e.annada" 0riya" Sindhi" Sanskrit" @epali" Punjabi and >rduC and the same #ould be downloaded rom http:PPwww!yatharthgeeta!#omP! P2<6AC< 06 C1APT<2 %@ A>7%0 CASS<TT<S S#riptures are #reated with two main obje#ti&es! 0ne is to prote#t the so#ial order and the #ulture" in whi#h the people #ould ollow the ootsteps o their noble an#estors! The se#ond is to ensure that people #an gain ultimate" eternal pea#e! Su#h s#riptures as the 2amayan" the Bible" the Suran" and so on" deal with both these aspe#ts! But" be#ause o the material &iewpoints held by most people" they tend to adhere only to those that are o immediate so#ial use! %n the spiritual te.t o the Book" 4atharth 'eeta is a&ailable in &arious %nternational B<nglish" 2ussian" 6ren#h" 'erman" Spanish" Chinese" %talian" @orwegian" 7ut#h" Portuguese" Arabi#" Aapanese" PersianC and %ndian languages B1indi" Bengali" Assamese" 'ujarati" (arathi" Tamil" Telugu" (alayalam" .#lusi&ely in terms o timeless spiritual roots and #on#epts! @ote: The audio o the Book" 4atharth 'eeta is a&ailable in &arious %nternational B<nglish" 'ermanC and %ndian languages B1indi" Bengali" 'ujarati" (arathi" Tamil" TeluguC and the same #ould be downloaded rom http:PPwww!yatharthgeeta!#omP! .ts" also" we ind many re eren#es to use ul so#ial pra#ti#es" #on irming their rele&an#e! There ore" Sage ?ed ?yas" while writing the (ahabharat" the epi# within whi#h the 'eeta is an inherent part" had #learly re erred to so#ial as well as spiritual matters! 1owe&er" in the 'eeta itsel " there is not a single &erse that is #on#erned with the sustenan#e o physi#al li e or the propagation o so#ial or religious #on&entions" rites or #ustoms! This was to ensure that people should not mi.position o the Se#ond Chapter o the Shreemad Bhagwad 'eeta in H4atharth 'eetaJ! 1A2% 0( TAT SAT YYY @ote: The te.H.arm$Aigyasa!"II or QICuriosity About A#tion!II Thus #on#ludes Swami AdgadanandIs e.

rishn was urging him" although he himsel belie&ed the -ay o .nowledge" he will in the #ase o &i#tory attain to the Supreme Spirit" whereas e&en in the e&ent o de eat he will be pri&ileged to lead a godly li e/ (oreo&er" he has to pro#eed on the way only a ter a due e&aluation o his assets and liabilities! So he inds knowledge easier than sel less a#tion" and he begs o .nowledge! And what is that knowledge e.nowledge to be superior to the -ay o Sel less A#tion" to engage in su#h a dread ul a#t as killing his own kinsmen! %t was a reasonable Kuery! % we really ha&e to go somewhere to whi#h there are two ways" we shall surely try to ind whi#h one o the two is less haMardous! % we do not ask this Kuestion" we are not true way ares$not true seekers! So Arjun turns to .rishn to tell him unambiguously the one way by whi#h he may a#hie&e eman#ipation! .isten#e in hea&en! There is e&erything in &i#tory" in#luding su##ess" and godhood e&en in de eat! (ore or less" in either #ase there is some gain and absolutely no loss! .rishn then e.nowledge or men o wisdom and the -ay o Sel less A#tion or those who are a#ti&ely engaged in the task that will inally make them one with 'od! %n both the ways" a#tion has to be .rishn told Arjun that the knowledge he had dis#oursed upon was related to the -ay o .#ept that Arjun ought to ight/ % he is a &i#tor he will be rewarded with the most e.rishn! 1! HArjun said" Q+ Aanardan" i you think knowledge superior to a#tion" why do you" 0 .plained the same knowledge in relation to the -ay o Sel less A#tion" by whi#h Arjun #ould be #ompletely ree rom the #ompulsions o a#tion! 1e also indi#ated the #hara#teristi# eatures o the way and stressed the essential pre#autions that ha&e to be obser&ed in the #ourse o su#h a#tion! Arjun will be liberated rom the etters o a#tion i he does not desire its ruits and engages in it sel lessly" but without any weakening o his dedi#ation to its per orman#e! 1owe&er" although ultimately there will be absolution" this way$the -ay o Sel less A#tion$is one on whi#h Arjun #ould not see the #ontinuan#e o his own indi&idual being! So he thought the -ay o .rishn promised him that ollowing the -ay o .esha&" ask me to engage in earsome a#tion/I II HAanardanJ is one who is mer#i ul to his people! So Arjun is hope ul that .rishn: *! HSin#e your #omple.C1APT<2 .rishn then speaks to him! .rishn had" in a#t" set out to dispel ArjunIs irresolution" but his words ha&e only added to his doubts! So he reKuests .ed on the way" he has to be in#essantly engaged in the task! 1as not .rishn will enlighten him on why he is prompting him to adopt the dread ul way! Arjun inds the way rightening be#ause on this way he has only the right to a#t" but without entitlement at any time to the rewards o his a#tion! There should also be no loss o dedi#ation and" with #onstant submission and his eyes i. words are so #on using to my mind" kindly tell me the one way by whi#h % may attain to the state o blessedness!II .8V! %t rather re ers to the last #hapter in whi#h .rishn had spoken o the two ways" re#ommending the -ay o .nowledge or sages and the -ay o Sel less A#tion or men o a#tion! J HBe oreJ here does not mean a bygone era ByugC like the 'olden or Treta AgeU.: >2'%@' T1< <@<(4IS 7<ST2>CT%0@ %n Chapter *" .nowledge easier and more readily a##essible than the -ay o Sel less A#tion and wished to know why .! QQThe Gord said" Q% told you be ore" 0 the sinless BArjunC" two ways o spiritual dis#ipline" the -ay o 7is#rimination or .alted state and" e&en in de eat" he will ha&e a godly e.

per ormed! So a#tion is an essential! U.9V but whose mind #ontinues to be preo##upied with obje#ts o their grati i#ation!J Su#h ignorant men who dwell upon sensual obje#ts while restraining the senses outwardly by hath yog are alse men and not men o wisdom at all! %t is e&ident that su#h pra#ti#es were pre&alent in the age o .8V%n 1indu thought there are our ages ByugC o the world" Satya Treta" 7wapar" and .ali Bthe present ageC! The irst and the last are also known as 'olden and %ron respe#ti&ely! 8! H(an neither attains to the inal state o a#tionlessness by desisting rom work" nor does he a#hie&e 'odlike per e#tion by just renun#iation o work! II There is no es#ape rom a#tion! A man #annot a#hie&e the state o a#tionlessness by not #ommen#ing work" nor #an he attain to the state o di&ine per e#tion by merely gi&ing up an undertaken task! So" whether Arjun pre ers the -ay o .nowledge or the -ay o Sel less A#tion" he has to toil alike or ea#h o them! >sually" at this point" seekers on the way to 'od begin to look or short#uts and es#apes! -e ha&e to be on our guard against the #ommon mis#on#eption that we be#ome Hsel less doersJ just be#ause we do not undertake any work! That is why .rishn emphasiMes the point that one does not a#hie&e the state o a#tionlessness by just not beginning work! The point where both good and e&il deeds #ease #ompletely" where alone there is true Ha#tionlessness"J #an be rea#hed only through a#tion! There are the misguided ones" on the other hand" who belie&e that they are un#on#erned with a#tion be#ause they are men o intelle#t and dis#ernment" and be#ause there is no a#tion as su#h on their #hosen path! But they who renoun#e a#tion under su#h an impression are not really men o wisdom! Aust renun#iation o an undertaken task #annot lead anyone to the attainment o realiMing and be#oming one with 'od! )! HSin#e all men ha&e doubtlessly sprung rom nature" no one #an at any time li&e e&en or a moment without a#tion!J @o man #an e&er e&en or a ra#tion o a se#ond li&e without a#tion be#ause the three properties o matter born rom nature #ompel him to a#t! As long as nature and its properties are" no man #an be without a#tion! .alted knowledge: the knowledge obtained rom meditation on the sublime truths whi#h tea#h man to be aware o his own Sel and how he may be reunited with the Supreme Spirit! The ire o this knowledge annihilates all a#tion! -hat really the 4ogeshwar means by this is that a#tion #eases to be when yog has gone beyond the three properties o the material world" and when a #lear out#ome o the meditati&e pro#ess #omes orth in the orm o a dire#t per#eption o as well as dissolution o the Sel in 'od! But be ore this #ompletion o the ordained task" a#tion does not end and we are not rid o it! :! HThat deluded man is a dissembler who apparently restrains his senses by &iolen#eU.rishn says in the thirty$third and thirty$se&enth &erses o Chapter 8" that all a#tions #ease to be and dissol&e into the most e.rishn su#h people are #unning liars! -hether our pre eren#e is the -ay o 7is#rimination or the -ay o Sel less A#tion" work has to be undertaken or ea#h o them! U.9V1ath yog: so #alled be#ause it is pra#tised in ways that do &iolen#e to the body! Su#h as .rishn" too! There were some who" instead o pra#tising what ought to be pra#ti#ed just restrained their senses by unnatural means and #laimed that they were wise and per e#t! But a##ording to .

standing on one leg" holding up the arms" inhaling smoke" et#! 9! HAnd" 0 Arjun" that man is meritorious who restrains his senses with his mind and employs his organs o a#tion to do sel less work in a spirit o #omplete deta#hment!II 1e is a superior man who e.ternalC #ontrol o&er his senses" so that his mind is reed rom passions" and who does his duty in a state o total desirelessness! @ow" although we ha&e known that work has to be done" the di i#ulty is that we do not yet understand the pre#ise nature o this work! That is also ArjunIs problem and .rishn" tasks other than this are only orms o worldly bondage! Anything other than the per orman#e o this yagya is a orm o sla&ery rather than a#tion! %t is important to remind oursel&es on#e more o .rishn tells Arjun in the si.teenth &erse o Chapter 8: HBy this a#tion you shall be reed rom the e&il that binds the world!J So a#tion" as used in the 'eeta" is something that liberates rom the bondage o world! U8+VThe irst and the most an#ient o the sa#red 1indu Trinity who is belie&ed to ha&e presided o&er the a#t o #reation! 1owe&er" the Kuestion o what this ordained a#tion is still remains unresol&ed! .unti" be unatta#hed and do your duty to 'od well!II Contemplation o 'od is the only real a#tion! That #ondu#t is a#tion whi#h enables the mind to #on#entrate on 'od! %t is a pres#ribed a#t and" a##ording to .erts inner Brather than e.rishnIs injun#tion to Arjun that he shall be reed rom the e&ils o this world only by doing the one real work! The a##omplishment o this work" o yagya" is a#tionO and Arjun is urged to do it well in a spirit o deta#hment! %t #annot be per ormed without disinterest in the world and its obje#ts! .#ept making his physi#al journey through endless li&es/ -hen #lothes are worn out" we #hange them and put on new ones! Aust so" this whole world" rom the lowest #reatures to the most highly e&ol&ed" rom BrahmaU8+V to its most distant limits" is mutable! Through births" low and high" this Soul has been making his physi#al journey sin#e an unknown beginning! A#tion is something that #ompletes this journey! % there is yet to be another birth" the journey is still in#omplete! The seeker is still on his way" tra&elling through bodies! A journey is #omplete only when the destination is rea#hed! A ter being dissol&ed in 'od" the Sel does not ha&e to tra&el any urther through physi#al births! The #hain o the Sel Is reje#tion o old bodies and assumption o new ones is now broken! So a#tion is something that rees the Sel " the Purush" rom the ne#essity o journeying through bodies! .rishn now pro#eeds to resol&e it! 8! H4ou ought to do your pres#ribed a#tion as enjoined by s#ripture" or doing work is better than not doing any" and in the absen#e o it e&en the journey o your body may not be #ompleted!II Arjun is prompted to do the pres#ribed a#tion$the ordained task$whi#h is distin#t rom all other kinds o work! Per orman#e o this a#tion is pre erable to ina#tion" be#ause i we do it and tra&erse e&en a small part o our way" it #an res#ue us rom the great ear o birth and death! Per orman#e o oneIs spiritual duty $ the ordained a#tion$ is" there ore" the better #ourse! By not doing it we #annot e&en #omplete the journey o our Soul through di erent bodies! This journey is usually interpreted as Hsustenan#e o the physi#al body!J But what kind o sustenan#e is this/ Are we a physi#al body/ This Soul" the embodied Sel " that we know by the name o Purush$ what else has he been doing e.rishn now begins to answer the Kuestion! 9! HSin#e the #ondu#t o yagya is the only a#tion and all other business in whi#h people are engaged are only orms o worldly bondage" 0 son o .

rishn" they simply are not what he means by a#tion! -hate&er other than yagya is done is only a orm o worldly bondage" not true a#tion! The per orman#e o yagya is the only real a#tion! But instead o e.So the #ondu#t o yagya is a#tion! But another Kuestion that now arises is what this worthwhile a#t o yagya is! Be ore answering this Kuestion" howe&er" ." .ts o sel ishness and sel lessness! But a##ording to .rishnIs way that he irst des#ribes the #hara#teristi# eatures o the subje#t he has to elu#idate in order to #reate a respe#t ul attitude towards it" then points out the pre#autions that ha&e to be obser&ed in the #ourse o its per orman#e" and only inally e.plaining what yagya is" he now dwells upon its genesis! 1+! HAt the beginning o kalp$the #ourse o sel $realiMationU81V Prajapati Brahma shaped yagya along with mankind and enjoined on them to as#end by yagya whi#h #ould gi&e them what their hearts aspired to!II PrajapatiU8*V Brahma" the god presiding o&er #reation" made mankind along with yagya at the beginning and told men to progress through yagya! This yagya" wholly propitious" was pres#ribed or ordained as the a#tion whi#h would satis y their hunger or realiMation o the eternal 'od! U81V>sually meaning 1+++ yug BagesC" making up a period o 8.rishn irst gi&es a brie a##ount o the origin o yagya" as also o what it has to o er! %t is only in Chapter 8 that it is #lari ied what that yagya is$the doing o whi#h is a#tion! %t is e&ident rom this that it is .pounds the main prin#iple! Be ore we pro#eed" let us re#all what .rishn has said o another aspe#t o a#tion: that it is a pres#ribed ordained #ondu#t and that what is usually done in its name is not true a#tion! The term Ha#tionJ was irst used in Chapter *! %ts #hara#teristi# traits as well as the pre#autions needed or it were pointed out! But the nature o this a#tion has remained unspe#i ied! %n Chapter .* million years o mortals" kalp also signi ies a pro#ess o treatment or restoration o health BkayakalpC! So kalp here means the whole #ourse o sel $realiMation! U8*VAnother epithet o the deity presiding o&er #reation as well as o a true as#eti#! 1e also is a pati" the lord and sa&iour! Gike the deity he" too" pres#ribes a #ourse o meditation! 1e is like a monar#h and his dis#iples are his subje#ts! Thus prajapati here is the man o per e#tion who has be#ome a transmitter o 'od3s essen#e! -ho was the #reator o mankind along with yagya/ -as it Brahma and who is he/ %s he" as it is belie&ed" the 'od with our heads and eight eyes/ A##ording to .rishn only points out the origin and spe#ial eatures o yagya" and it is only in Chapter 8 that he will elaborate the #on#ept o the a#tion whi#h is it to be done! A proper understanding o this de inition o a#tion is the key to our #omprehension o the 'eeta! All men are engaged in some work or the other" but that is di erent rom true a#tion! Some o them do arming" while others are engaged in trade and #ommer#e! Some hold positions o power" while othersO are just ser&ants! Some pro ess that they are intelle#tuals" while others earn their li&ing by manual labour! Some take up so#ial ser&i#e" while others ser&e the #ountry! And or all these a#ti&ities people ha&e also in&ented #onte.rishn has so ar said that no one #an li&e without a#tion! Sin#e man li&es in nature" he must a#t! @e&ertheless there are people who restrain their sense organs by use o or#e" but whose minds are still o##upied with obje#ts o the senses! Su#h people are arrogant and their e orts are &ain! So Arjun is told to restrain his senses to per orm the ordained a#tion! But the Kuestion yet remains: what a#tion should he per orm/ 1e is told that the a##omplishment o yagya is a#tion! But that is not really answering the Kuestion! True that yagya is a#tionO but what is yagya/ %n the present #hapter .rishn there are no beings like gods! The sage who has realiMed and be#ome one with the Supreme Spirit" the ountainhead rom .

#ellen#e and yagya" and instru#ted men that they would prosper through the obser&an#e o yagya! By this prosperity they did not mean that #lay houses would #hange into bri#k$and$plaster mansions! @either did they promise that men would begin to make more money! They rather wished men to know that yagya would ul il their 'od$in#lined aspirations! A logi#al Kuestion that #on ronts us here is whether yagya leads to immediate attainment o 'od or only by gradual steps! Brahma urther said to mankind: 11! HAnd may you #herish gods by yagya and may gods oster you" or this is the means by whi#h you will inally a#hie&e the ultimate state!J Cherishing gods by yagya means ostering sa#red impulses! And that is also how gods oster mankind! Thus" by mutual augmentation men will ultimately a#hie&e that inal bliss a ter whi#h there is nothing more to a#hie&e! The deeper we enter into yagya Blater yagya will be e.plained as a way o worshipC" the more is the heart enri#hed with di&inity! The Supreme Spirit is the only 'od and the means$the impulses$that pro&ide a##ess to that 'od are the QQdi&ine treasureII be#ause they bring the ultimate 'od within rea#h! This" rather than the #ommonly imagined gods su#h as a pie#e o stone or mass o water" is the true di&ine wealth! %n .isten#e! 1e urther adds: 1*! HThe gods you oster by yagya will shower upon you without asking all the joys you wish or" but the man who a&ails himsel o these joys without ha&ing paid or them is truly a thie !J The di&ine ri#hes we earn and store by yagya will gi&e us nothing else besides joys related to the re&ered 'od! They are the only powers whi#h gi&e! There is no other way to attain to the adored .whi#h all mankind has arisen" is QQprajapati!J -isdom that results rom knowledge o 'od is itsel Brahma! At the moment o this realiMation the mind be#omes a mere instrument! %t is 'od himsel who then speaks through the &oi#e o the sage! There is #onstant growth o wisdom a ter the #ommen#ement o spiritual adoration" or worship! Sin#e at the beginning this wisdom is endowed with knowledge o 'od" it is #alled brahm&itt! 'radually" as e&il impulses are subdued and the knowledge o 'od is enri#hed" this wisdom is said to be brahm&idwar! As it as#ends yet higher and gets more re ined" it #omes to be known as brahm&idwariyan! At this stage" the sage who is blessed with knowledge o 'od also a#hie&es the #apa#ity to bring others on to the way o spiritual growth! The highest point o wisdom is brahm&idwarisht" that state o di&ine inundation in whi#h the spirit o 'od lows through it like a #rystal #urrent! (en who ha&e attained to this state enter into and dwell in the Supreme Spirit rom whom all mankind is born! The minds o su#h sages are mere instruments and it is they who are #alled Hprajapati!J By disso#iating themsel&es rom the #ontradi#tions o nature" they #reate the Sel who is yet unaware o the pro#ess o meditation or 'odIs worship! Con erring per e#tion whi#h is in a##ordan#e with the spirit o yagya is the #reation o mankind! Prior to this human so#iety is un#ons#ious and #haoti#! Creation has no beginning! Sanskar has always been there: but be ore the sages #on erred per e#tion on it" it was de ormed and in a state o anar#hy! To shape it in a##ordan#e with the reKuirements o yagya is the a#t o re ining and adorning! Some su#h a##omplished sage or sages #reated yagya besides #reating mankind at the beginning o kalp" the #ourse o Sel $realiMation! The word QQkalp"J howe&er" also means #ure o si#kness! Physi#ians e e#t su#h #ures and there are some who e&en reju&enate us! But their remedies are only or ephemeral bodies! The true #ure is that whi#h pro&ides liberation rom the general malady o the world! The beginning o worship or adoration is the #ommen#ement o this remedy! -hen meditation is #omplete" we are wholly #ured! Thus sages with their beings in the Supreme Spirit ga&e a proper shape to spiritual e.rishnIs words su#h gods ha&e no e.

rishn in a di erent way: the one who eeds on what is generated by yagya merges into the Supreme Spirit! The sage who eeds on 'odIs manna that issues rom yagya is liberated rom all sins or" in other words" rom birth and death! Sages eat or liberation" but a sinner eats or the sake o the body that is born through the medium o atta#hment! 1e eeds on e&il! 1e may ha&e sung hymns" known the way o worship" and also made a little bit o the way" but despite all this there arises in him a #loying desire that he should a#hie&e something or the body and its obje#ts o atta#hment! And it is Kuite likely that he will also get what he desires! But then" a ter this HjoyII" he will ind himsel stationary at the &ery point rom whi#h he had begun his spiritual Kuest! -hat greater loss #an there be than this/ -hen the body itsel is destru#tible" how long #an its pleasures and joys be with us/ So" irrespe#ti&e o their di&ine adoration" su#h men partake only o sin! U8.! QQThe wise who partake o what is le t o&er rom yagya are rid o all e&il" but the sinners who #ook only or the sustenan#e o their bodies partake o nothing but sin!J They who subsist on the ood deri&ed rom yagya are absol&ed o all sins! The moment o a#hie&ement in the #ourse o augmenting the di&ine plenty is also the moment o its #ompletion! -hen yagya is #omplete" the le to&er is 'od himsel U8.V6ood represents the lowest orm in whi#h the Supreme Spirit is mani ested! The idea o 'od as ood re#urs through the >panishad! %n the >panishad Prashn" the sage Pippalad says" 6ood is Pran Bthe primal energyC and 2ayi Bthe gi&er o ormC! 6rom ood grows seed" and rom seed are born all #reatures! A##ording to the >panishad Taittiriya" 0ut o Brahm B'odC" who is the Sel " #ame etherO out o ether" airO out o air" ireO out o ire" waterO out o water" earthO out o earth" &egetationO out o &egetation" oodO out o ood" the body o man! They are not destroyed" but they do not progress on the way! That is why .V! The same has been said by .t day! That is why yagya is said to generate rain! % an indis#riminate oblation or o ering to all o the so$#alled gods and burning o barley grains and oil seeds #ould produ#e rain" why should deserts ha&e remained barren/ Thus rain here is the shower o gra#e that is an out#ome o yagya! This yagya" again" arises rom a#tion and is indeed brought to #ompletion by a#tion! Arjun is told to remember that this a#tion is born rom the ?ed! The ?ed is the &oi#e o sages .ed on that di&ine manna! 6ood results rom rain: not the rain that alls rom #louds" but the shower o gra#e! The yagya whi#h ha&e been undertaken and stored earlier themsel&es #ome down as a shower o gra#e! TodayIs worship is gi&en ba#k to us as gra#e the ne.'od! The man who tries to enjoy this state without making an o ering o di&ine ri#hes" the righteous impulses" is doubtlessly a thie who is gi&en nothing! And sin#e he gets nothing" what is there or him to enjoy/ But he pretends all the same that he is per e#t" a knower o the essen#e! Su#h a braggart is shy o the path o righteousness and so he is truly a thie Balbeit an unsu##ess ul oneC! But what do the attainers gain/ 1.rishn stresses a#tion BworshipC undertaken in a sel $e a#ing spirit! 1e has so ar said that the pra#ti#e o yagya #on ers the highest glory and that it is a #reation o a##omplished realiMed sages! But why do su#h sages undertake the shaping and re inement o mankind/ 18! HAll beings get their li e rom ood" ood grows rom rain" rain emerges rom yagya" and yagya is an out#ome o a#tion!J 1)! HBe it known to you that a#tion arose rom the ?ed and the ?ed rom the indestru#tible Supreme Spirit" so that the all$per&asi&e" imperishable 'od is e&er present in yagya! All #reatures are born rom ood! 6ood %s 'od himsel whose breath is li e! A man turns to yagya with his mind i.

rishn demonstrates again! 18! HSu#h a man has neither anything to gain rom a#tion nor anything to lose rom ina#tion" and he has no interest in any being or any obje#t!II Pre&iously there was" but now there is or su#h a man neither any pro it in doing$ nor any loss in .istent in yagya! The impious lo&er o sensual pleasures who does not ollow the way o this pres#ribed a#tion li&es in &ain! That is to say that yagya is an a#tion in whi#h there is no #om ort or the senses! The injun#tion demands parti#ipation in the a#t with #omplete subjugation o the senses! Sin ul are they who yearn or sensual #om orts! But e&en a ter all this" it has not been de ined what yagya is! That brings us to the Kuestion whether we ha&e to pra#tise yagya or e&er" or will there also be an end to it / 4ogeshwar .rishn named Ha#tionJ in Chapter *" whereas in this #hapter he has told Arjun" and so all o us" to per orm the ordained a#tion! 0bser&an#e o yagya is this a#tion! -hate&er else is done besides this is only a part o worldly li e! So one should" in a spirit o deta#hment" per orm the a#tion o yagya! .who li&e in 'od! The &i&id per#eption" rather than #ramming o #ertain &erses" o the unmani est essen#e is named ?ed! The ?ed is born rom the imperishable 'od U88V! The truths o the ?ed ha&e been pro#laimed by great souls" but" sin#e they ha&e be#ome one with 'od" the imperishable 'od himsel speaks through them! %t is or this that the ?ed is said to be o di&ine origin! The ?ed #ame rom 'od! And the sages" being one with 1im" are only instruments! %t is he whose spokesmen they are! 'od mani ests himsel to them when they ha&e restrained the desires o their mind by yagya! The omnipresent" ultimate" and imperishable 'od is" there ore" always present in yagya! So yagya is the only way to attain to him! This is what .rishn speaks about it: 19! HBut there remains nothing more to do or the man who rejoi#es in his Sel " inds #ontentment in his Sel " and eels adeKuate in his Sel ! II The man who is utterly de&oted to his embodied Soul" inds satis a#tion in him and eels that he needs nothing more besides him$has nothing more le t to do! A ter all" the Sel was the goal! 0n#e the unmani est" immortal" indestru#tible essen#e o the Soul has been realiMed" there is nothing beyond to seek! A man su#h as this needs neither a#tion nor worship! Soul and 'od$Sel and the Supreme Spirit$are synonymous! This is what .rishn has then gi&en an a##ount o the #hara#teristi# eatures o yagya and said that yagya had its origin in Brahma! (ankind is in#lined to yagya with sustenan#e in &iew! 4agya arises rom a#tion and a#tion rom the di&inely inspired ?ed" whereas the &isionaries who per#ei&ed the ?edi# pre#epts were enlightened sages! But these great Souls had shed their ego! -ith this attainment" what was le t as an out#ome was only the imperishable 'od! The ?ed is there ore arisen rom 'od and 'od is e&er e.rishn tells Arjun: U88V0 the Brihadaranyak >panishad : All .nowledge and all wisdom" what we know as the 2ig ?ed" the 4ajur ?ed" and the rest" ha&e all been breathed orth rom the <ternal! They are the breath o the <ternal! 1:! HThe man in this world" 0 Parth" who lo&es sensual pleasure and lead an impious li e" and does not #ondu#t himsel in a##ordan#e with the thus pres#ribed #y#le Bo Sel $realiMationC" leads but a utile li e!J The pleasure$lo&ing" sin ul man who" despite his birth in human orm" does not #ondu#t himsel in keeping with the means o the ordained a#tion or" to put it di erently" does not ollow the way o attaining to the state o immortality through ostering gods and so also himsel by tending the di&ine ri#hes o his nature" li&es but in &ain! 6or the sake o re#apitulation" .

plained in the ollowing &erse! *1! H0thers emulate the a#tions o a great man and #losely ollow the e.ternal world or with any o the layer upon layer o inner aspirations! -hen he has grasped the &ery highest" what use has he or anything else/ 19! HSo always do what is right or you to do in the spirit o sel lessness" or in doing his duty the sel less man attains to 'od!J %n order to a#hie&e this state" Arjun ought to be disinterested and do well what is it or him to do" or a sel less man realiMes 'od only through sel less a#tion! The a#tion whi#h is worthy o doing is the same as the ordained a#tion! So to inspire Arjun to ordained a#tion" .rishn urther adds: *+! HSin#e sages su#h as Aanak had also attained to the ultimate realiMation by a#tion" and keeping in mind" the preser&ation o the B'od madeC order" it is in#umbent upon you to a#t!II Aanak here does not mean the .rishn had only sometime ba#k said that there was neither any gain in a#tion nor any loss in ina#tion or a great Soul a ter he has rea#hed the state o realiMation! 4et" howe&er" keeping in mind the interest o the world and the preser&ation o its order" he #ontinues to a#Kuit himsel well o his pres#ribed duty! The reason or this is e.ing o (ithila! HAanakJ is an epithet o ather$the gi&er o li e! 4og" the way by whi#h the indi&idual Soul may be united with the Supreme Spirit and thus se#ure absolution" is janak" or it brings out and mani ests the embodied Soul! All those who are endowed with yog are sages like Aanak! (any su#h great men possessing true wisdom ha&e also a#hie&ed the inal bliss through a#tion aimed at the ultimate attainment! H>ltimateJ stands or realiMation o the essen#e that the Supreme Spirit represents! All great saints" su#h as Aanak" ha&e attained to the state o ultimate realiMation through per orman#e o the a#tion whi#h is yagya! But a ter attainment they a#t with the wel are o the world in &iew! They work or the betterment o mankind! So Arjun" too" is worthy o being a true leader o the people a ter attainment! .rishn also unobtrusi&ely #ompares himsel with those great men to suggest: H%" too" am a great Soul like them!J **! HAlthough" 0 Parth" there is no task in all the three worlds whi#h % ha&e to do" and neither is there any worthwhile obje#t whi#h % ha&e not a#hie&ed" % am yet engaged in a#tion!II Gike other sages o attainment" .! H6or should % not be diligent in the per orman#e o my task" 0 Parth" other men will ollow .rishn has also nothing remaining to do! 1e said a little earlier that sages ha&e no duty to per orm to other beings! Similarly" in all the three worlds he has nothing to do and there is not e&en the least desirable obje#t that he does not ha&e! And yet he is earnestly engaged in a#tion! *.ample set by him!J The man who has known his Sel " and who inds joy and #ontentment in his embodied Soul" has nothing to gain rom a#tion nor anything to lose rom ina#tion! But" on the other hand" there are instan#es o men o true attainment su#h as Aanak and others who were assiduously engaged in a#tion! %n the ollowing &erse" .the absen#e o doing! 1e #eases to ha&e any sel ish relationship with any being! The Sel is #onstant" eternal" unmani est" #hangeless" and indestru#tible! -hen on#e this Soul has been known and one is joyous" #ontented" and absorbed in him" what else is there beyond to sear#h or/ And what shall we gain by any urther seeking/ 6or su#h a man there is no harm in orsaking a#tion" be#ause he no longer has the mind on whi#h impieties #an make an impression! 1e is not the least #on#erned with beings o the e.

ample i he does not a#t! *8! H% % do not per orm my a#tion well" the whole world will perish and % Shall be the #ause o &arnsankar and so a destroyer o mankind!II % he does not a#Kuit himsel o his task with #aution" not only will all the worlds stray" but he will also bring about &arnsankar and so the destru#tion o all mankind! % the enlightened" a##omplished sage is not #autiously engaged in meditation" so#iety will be #orrupted by imitating his e.rishn" the Soul dis#ards an old body and enters into a new one with the sanskar o all the merits and demerits he had earned in a pre&ious li e through a#ts o his mind and senses! This sanskar o a soul has nothing to do with the physi#al parents o the new body! They make no di eren#e to the de&elopment o Souls and there is" thus" no relationship between womenIs un#hastity and the birth o &arnsankar! To disintergrate and get s#attered among obje#ts o nature instead o progressing steadily towards the Supreme Spirit is &arnsankar! %t is in this sense that a sage is the #ause o destru#tion o mankind i he does not indu#e others to a#t while he is himsel earnestly engaged in his pres#ribed task! 2ealiMation o the indestru#tible 'od" the root rom whi#h e&erything is born" is li e" whereas to be engrossed in the innumerable obje#ts o nature and stray rom the di&ine path is death! So that sage who does not indu#e other men to walk along the path o a#tion is a destroyer$&erily a murderer" o humanity! 1e is a .ample in e&ery way!II % he is not #are ul about the due per orman#e o his assigned task" other men will also beha&e like him! 7oes it mean that e&en emulating .my e.#ept worship ul meditation! % sages who ha&e realiMed 'od do not a#t" by their e.ample people behind them will also gi&e up a#tion! Common people will ha&e an e.abir" and Aesus Christ ha&e all been saints in the true sense" but the so#ial respe#tability o all o them is open to Kuestion! A Soul #omes to a new body with all the merits he had earned in a pre&ious e.er#ise! So great Souls labour or the edi i#ation and guidan#e o those who lag behind! .rishn B'odC may be an error/ By his own admission" he will set a bad e.plains why .rishn is doing the same! The impli#ation is #lear that .#use or li#en#e i they ind that the saint does not meditate" indulges in minor &i#es" and parti#ipates in #heap gossip! 7isillusioned" they will withdraw rom worship and all into impiety! That e.ample others also will lose sight o their duties and be#ome &arnsankar" or #on li#ting properties o nature are then #ombined in them! -omenIs #hastity and purity o sto#k are eatures o so#ial order$a Kuestion o rights! %t is not that they ha&e no utility or so#iety" but it is also true that moral transgressions o parents do not a e#t their #hildrenIs righteousness and #ontemplation o 'od! An indi&idual obtains sal&ation by his own deeds! 1anuman" ?yas" ?ashisht" @arad" Shukde&" .rishn re uted him and a irmed that there would be &arnsankar only i he was not assiduously engaged in his appointed task! %n a#t" 'od himsel is the true &arn BKualityC o Sel ! Straying rom the path that takes one to the eternal 'od is" there ore" the aberration #alled &arnsankar! % the saint who has per#ei&ed 'od desists rom per orman#e o the worthy task" by ollowing his e.ample! There is no loss to the sage i he does not a#t be#ause he has realiMed the ultimate goal by su##ess ul #ompletion o his a#t o worship! But that is not true o others who ha&e perhaps not yet e&en set oot on the path o this spiritual e.rishn says that i he does not do his appointed duty" all mankind will all rom gra#e and he will be the #ause o &arnsankar! A##ording to Arjun" there is a destru#ti&e intermingling o disparate #lasses when women grow un#haste! %n Chapter l" he was troubled by the ear that there would be &arnsankar i women lost their &irtue! But .isten#e! A##ording to .rishn" too" was a sage$a true yogi! 1e works just as other sages do or the good o the world! The mind is &ery unstable! %t desires e&erything e.

nowledge is dire#t per#eption! So long as we are e&en in the least remo&ed rom 'od and he" the desired one" rom us" ignoran#e is present! -hen this darkness pre&ails" there is atta#hment to a#tion and its #onseKuen#es! The sel less meditate with a de&otion whi#h is &ery mu#h similar to the atta#hment with whi#h the ignorant do their work! There #an be no atta#hment in men who are un#on#erned with doing" but e&en these sages ought to a#t or the good o the world and or the strengthening o or#es o piety so that other men take to the right path! *:! H2ather than #on using and undermining the aith o the ignorant who are atta#hed to a#tion" the wise man should prompt them to dwell in 'od and a#t well as he himsel does!II %nstead o #reating #on usions in the minds o the ignorant who are engaged in the per orman#e o the said a#tion" seers who ha&e dire#tly per#ei&ed 'od should be #are ul that no a#t o theirs should #ause a weakening o other menIs dedi#ation! %t is the duty o the sage" who is blessed with sublime knowledge" to inspire others to per orm the pres#ribed a#tion in whi#h he himsel is so earnestly engaged! This is why e&en in e.nowledge or a aith ul doer o sel less a#tion" he must not allow himsel to eel arrogant on a##ount o his meditation! .rishn now deals with who the doer o a#tion is and what the moti&es o a#tion are! U8)VThe guru Bnoble tea#herC" tea#hing not only by pre#ept but by the e.rishn tells Arjun: *)! HAs the ignorant a#t with a eeling o atta#hment to their a#tions" e&en so" 0 Bharat" the wise ought to a#t or the presentation o the Bdi&inelyC established world$order!II A wise man" sel less and endowed with spiritual knowledge" a#ts in order to inspire the hearts o other men to a#t or their good just like any sel ish and ignorant man! -e may be ignorant e&en though we know the way o and pra#tise yagya! .ample rather than pre#ept!IIU8)V Thus it is the duty o a sage that while he is engaged in a#tion himsel " he should also keep other de&otees engaged in meditation! A de&otee should in the same way dedi#ate himsel to worship with sin#ere adoration" but whether he is a ollower o the -ay o .ample o his own li e! *9! HAlthough all a#tion is #aused by the properties o nature" the man with an egoisti# and deluded mind presumes that he himsel is the doer!II .treme old age my re&ered tea#her used to wake up at two in the morning and #ough to warn others that he was awake! And then he would begin to #all loudly" QQ'et up" you earthly men!J -hen all o us had risen and sat down to meditate" he would himsel lie down or a while! Then he would get up again and say" H7o you think % was sleeping/ % ha&e really been #on#entrating on my breath! % lie down be#ause my body is old and sitting is pain ul or me! But you young men ha&e to sit irm and straight and #ontemplate until your breathing is like the #ontinuous" smooth low o a stream o oil" with no break in its #urrent and no e.ternal thought to disturb your #on#entration! %t is the worshipperIs duty to be in#essantly o##upied with the task o meditation until then! As or my breath" it is steady and straight like a bamboo shoot!J This is why the sage has to a#t well himsel " or without that he #annot indu#e his dis#iples to do the same! HA tea#her should tea#h by e.destroyer o mankind i he does not #he#k the rittering away o minds and senses" and #ompel other men to keep to the right path! 1e is then an embodiment o &iolen#e! True non&iolen#e is #ulti&ating oneIs own Sel and" simultaneously" also urging others to spiritual dis#ipline and growth! A##ording to the 'eeta" physi#al death is only a #hange o perishable bodies and there is no &iolen#e in this! So .

rishn! *8! HBut the wise man" who is aware o di erent spheres o the properties o nature in the orm o mind and senses as well as o their a#tion upon obje#ts" is not a prey to atta#hment" 0 the mighty$armed" be#ause he knows that the mind and senses BgunC dwell upon obje#ts o per#eption BgunC!J Seers who ha&e per#ei&ed the ultimate essen#e are aware o the distin#tion between the properties o nature and a#tion" as also o the a#t that these properties are preo##upied with themsel&es" and are disinterested in their a#tion! H<ssen#eJ here means the Supreme Spirit rather than the i&e Bor twenty$ i&eC elements or primary substan#es that are #ountable! %n .perien#e" #ontinuous thought" and simpli#ity! The properties o nature are mutable! So the per#epti&e sage alone is able to see that the e.nowledge must deem a#tion as gi ted to him by the properties o nature! % " on the #ontrary" he presumes that he himsel is the doer" it will make him &ain and #on#eited! <&en a ter progressing on to superior properties he should not get addi#ted to them! The seeker" on the other hand" who has #hosen the -ay o Sel less A#tion" has no need to analyMe the nature o a#tion and properties o nature! 1e has to a#t only with a total sel $surrender to 'od! %n this #ase" it is or the 'od within BguruC to see whi#h properties are making their entry and whi#h are departing! The seeker on the -ay o Sel less A#tion belie&es e&erything $ #hange in properties as well as his gradual ele&ation rom the lower to the higher ones $ to be a blessing rom 'od! So" although he is #onstantly engaged in a#tion" he neither eels the &anity o being the doer nor be#omes atta#hed to what he is doing! 2e erring to this as well to the nature o the war at hand" .6rom the beginning to the moment o attainment" all a#tion is per ormed be#ause o the properties o nature" but the man whose mind is #louded with &anity thinks arrogantly that he is the doer! 1e takes it or granted! But how #an we belie&e that worship o 'od" too" is brought about by the properties o nature! The ne#essary e&iden#e is pro&ided by .+! HSo" 0 Arjun" #ontemplate the Sel " surrender all your a#tion to me" abandon all desire" pity" and grie " and be ready to ight!J .rishn says: .#ellen#e or otherwise o a#tion is determined by the #onstituent properties! These properties e e#t their work through their instruments" the senses and their obje#ts! But they who ha&e not yet gone beyond these properties" and are still midway" are addi#ted to whate&er they do! *9! HThey ought not to undermine the aith o the deluded who are unaware o the truth" be#ause they are enamoured o the #onstituents o matter and so atta#hed to senses and their un#tions!J (en who ha&e an in atuation or nature get addi#ted to their a#tions when they see them gradually e&ol&ing towards the le&el o superior properties! -ise men who know the truth should not unsettle these de#ei&ed men who la#k in both knowledge and energeti# e ort! %nstead o disheartening them" the wise should en#ourage them be#ause they #an rea#h the ultimate state where a#tion #eases to be only through the per orman#e o a#tion! A ter making a #are ul appraisal o his inborn #apa#ity and situation" the seeker who has resol&ed to a#t by the -ay o .rishnIs words" 'od is the only elementO besides him there is no other reality! 'oing a#ross the properties o nature" the sages who dwell in 'od$the only reality" are enabled to per#ei&e di&isions o a#tion a##ording to the properties o nature! % the predominant Kuality or property is ignoran#e BtamasC" it shows itsel in the orms o lethargy" sleep" and wantonness$in brie " in a general disin#lination to a#tion! % the basi# property is passion BrajasC"the resulting a#tion is #hara#teriMed by an unwillingness to retreat rom worship and a sense o authority! % the dominating property is &irtue or Kuality o goodness BsattwaC" the a#tions prompted by it bear su#h traits as #on#entration o mind" meditati&eness" a positi&e attitude towards e.

Arjun is told to ight" restraining his thoughts within his innermost being" surrendering in a meditati&e state all his deeds to the 'od in ..rishn" and in absolute reedom rom aspiration" pity" and sorrow! -hen a manIs thought is absorbed in #ontemplation" when there is not the least desire o hope anywhere" when there is no eeling o sel $interest behind the a#t" and when there is no regret o&er the prospe#t o de eat" what kind o war #an a man ight/ -hen thought is withdrawn rom all sides into the innermost spirit" against whom will he ight/ And where/ And who is there to ight against/ %n a#t" howe&er" it is only when you enter into the meditati&e pro#ess that the true orm o war emerges! %t is only then that it is known that the throng o unrighteous impulses" o desire" wrath" attra#tion and repulsion" and o desire and hunger" all de&iations rom piety" whi#h are #alled kuru" are the great enemies that #reate atta#hment to the world! They obstru#t the seeker o truth by laun#hing a &i#ious assault! To o&er#ome them is real war! To subdue them" to #ontra#t onesel within oneIs mind" and to a#hie&e the state o steady #ontemplation is real war! .rishn a##ounts or it thus! .rishnIs pre#ept that Hone should ightJ are also liberated rom all a#tion! This assuran#e o 4ogeshwar .*! H.! HSin#e all beings are #onstrained to a#t in #on ormity with their natural disposition and the wise man also stri&es a##ordingly" o what a&ail #an &iolen#e Bwith natureC be/J All beings are dominated by their go&erning property and a#t under its #ompulsion! The sage who is blessed with per#eption also makes his e orts in a##ordan#e with his nature! 0rdinary men abide in their a#tions and the wise in their Sel ! <&eryone a#ts a##ording to the ines#apable demands o his nature! This is a sel $e&ident and in#ontro&ertible truth! %t is or this reason that" a##ording to .1! H>nKuestioning and de&oted men who always a#t a##ording to this pre#ept o mine are liberated rom a#tion!J 6reed rom illusion and possessed o eelings o adoration and sel surrender" men who always a#t in #on ormity with .rishn also points out another reason! .rishn again stresses the point! .rishn" or who" in other words" do not wage war in a state o meditation in whi#h there is #omplete sel $surrender as well as reedom rom desire" sel $interest" and grie " are depri&ed o the ultimate bliss! % this is true" why donIt people in&ariably do so/ .rishn is not or a 1indu" a (uslim or a Christian" but or all o humanity! 1is do#trine is that one should make war! %t may appear rom this that this tea#hing is or warmongers! 6ortunately there was the setup o a uni&ersal war be ore Arjun! But" when we are #on ronted by no su#h prospe#t why do we seek resolution in the 'eeta or why do we so adamantly insist that the means o liberation rom a#tion is a&ailable only to ighters o a war/ The truth is Kuite the #ontrary! The war" o the 'eeta is that o the heart$the innermost Sel ! This is the war between matter and spirit" knowledge and ignoran#e" 7harmkshetr and .urukshetr! The more we try to #he#k our thought by meditation" the more the unrighteous impulses emerge as enemies and laun#h a terrible atta#k! ?anKuishing their demonia#al powers and restraint o thought are at the &ery #entre o this war o the di&ine song! The one who is rid o illusion and engages in the war with aith" is per e#tly liberated rom the bondage o a#tion" and o birth and death! But what happens to the one who retreats rom this war/ .rishn" men do not ollow his tea#hing e&en though they know it! >nable to o&er#ome desire" sel $interest" and sorrow" or" in other words" atta#hment and a&ersion" they ail to a#t in the pres#ribed way! .now that skepti#al men" who do not a#t in keeping with this pre#ept o mine be#ause they are de&oid o knowledge and dis#rimination" are doomed to misery!II 7eluded men" drunk with atta#hment and la#king in dis#rimination" who do not ollow the tea#hing o .

8! H7o not be ruled by atta#hment and a&ersion" be#ause both o them are the great enemies that obstru#t you on the way to good!J Attra#tion and repulsion lie within the senses and their pleasures! 0ne should not be dominated by them be#ause they are ormidable enemies on the way that leads to good and liberation rom a#tionO they ra&ish the seekerIs worship ul attitude! -hen the enemy is within" why should one ight an e.rishn warns against this! .)! HAlthough in erior Bin meritC" oneIs own dharm is the best and e&en meeting with death in it brings good" whereas a dharm other than oneIs own" though well obser&ed" generates only ear!II There is a seeker who has been engaged in worship or ten years and there is another who is being initiated into the pro#ess only today! %t is but natural that the two #annot be eKual! The no&i#e will be destroyed i he imitates the e..alted saint Shree Parmanand Ai! %t is so #alled be#ause o its asso#iation with Ansuiya" wi e o the sage Atri" representing the noblest kind o #hastity and wi ely de&otion! .perien#ed worshipper! %t is or this reason that .ternal war/ The enemy is in league with the senses and their obje#ts$within the mind! So the war o the 'eeta is an internal war! The human heart is the ield on whi#h there are marshalled the di&ine and de&ilish impulses $ the or#es o knowledge and ignoran#e" the two aspe#ts o illusion! To o&er#ome these negati&e or#es" to destroy the de&ilish by ostering di&ine impulses" is real war! But when the unrighteous or#es are annihilated" the utility o righteous impulses also #omes to an end! A ter the Sel is united with 'od" pious impulses too are dissol&ed and merge with him! To o&er#ome nature thus is a war that #an be ought only in a state o #ontemplation! 7estru#tion o eelings o atta#hment and a&ersion takes time! (any seekers" there ore" orsake meditation and suddenly take to imitating some a##omplished sage! .rishn says that" e&en though de i#ient in Kuality" oneIs own dharm is better than another manIs well$obser&ed dharm! The ability to engage in a#tion that arises rom oneIs nature is oneIs dharm! So dying in the obser&an#e o oneIs own dharm is truly ortunate! A ter the Soul assumes a new body" he will resume his journey rom the same point o spiritual attainment at whi#h he had stopped in his last physi#al li e! The Soul does not die! A #hange o #lothing does not #hange the mind and its thoughts! To masKuerade as men who ha&e gone ahead o him will #ause the seeker only more ear! 6ear is a Kuality o nature" not o 'od! The pall o nature is thi#kened when there is imitation! There is abundan#e o #heap imitation on the HspiritualJ path! (y re&ered tea#her on#e heard a hea&enly &oi#e telling him that he should go and li&e at AnsuiyaU8:V! So he tra&elled all the way rom Aammu to Chitrakoot and began to li&e in the dense orests o Ansuiya! (any holy men used to pass by that way! 0ne o them saw that although Paramhans Parmanand Ai was li&ing all naked" he was yet held in the highest esteem! So he also at on#e abandoned the small strip o #loth he had been using as a loin#loth" ga&e away his as#eti#Is sti#k and water pot to another holy man" and went about all nude! -hen he #ame ba#k a ter a while" he saw that Parmanand Ai was also talking with people and e&en abusing them Bhe had a di&ine #ommand that he rebuke and e&en #ondemn his dis#iples i ne#essary or the sake o their good$that he wat#h o&er the tra&ellers on the spiritual pathC! %n imitation o the great man" the other holy man also began to speak abusi&ely! But people retaliated with angry and unpleasant words" and the poor impostor was le t wondering why people retorted to him whereas no one spoke a word o protest to the Paramhans Ai! U8:VA holy pla#e in the state o %ndia #alled (adhya Pradesh" the seat o Swami Adgadanand3s tea#her" the most e.

shatriya" and Brahmin! A#tion begins at the le&el o the lowest" but in the #ourse o his spiritual Kuest the same seeker #an e&ol&e into a Brahmin! 6urther than this" when he is united with 'od" there remains neither Brahmin" nor .rishnIs answer to the Kuestion is pro&ided in the ollowing &erse! .shatriya" nor ?aishya" nor Shudr" but only pure intelligen#e" the eternal and #hangeless Supreme Spirit! 1e then trans#ends all these #lasses! .rishn has named the seekers treading on these paths respe#ti&ely Shudr" ?aishya" .-hen he again returned a ter two years" he saw Parmanand Ai sitting on a thi#k and so t mattress and people anning him! So the helpless man had a wooden seat brought to the orest" got a mattress spread o&er it" and hired a #ouple o men to an him! Crowds o people began to lo#k to him on (ondays when the holy man pra#tised his Hmira#les:J #harging i ty rupees i someone wanted a son and twenty$ i&e rupees or a daughter! But he had to run away within a month be#ause he was e.now that desire arising out o the emotional property o nature BrajasC and insatiable as ire is the same as wrathO and learn to re#ogniMe it as your most wi#ked enemy in this world!I II .9! HThe Gord said" Q.posed as a liar! So imitation does not help when we tread on the spiritual path! The seeker has to pra#tise his own dharm! -hat is this oneIs own dharm BswadharmC/ %n Chapter *" .rishnC" is that whi#h dri&es man" or#ed against his will as it were and with relu#tan#e" to a#t impiously/I II -hy does a man" although like one who is dragged to something whi#h he despises" a#t in sin ul ways/ -hy does he not #ondu#t himsel a##ording to the pre#epts laid down by .:! HArjun said" Q-hat" 0 ?arshneya B.rishn says that he has #reated the our #lasses! But" as it was pointed out earlier" the #lassi i#ation was on the basis o a#tion rather than a##ording to birth! But what is that a#tion whi#h orms its basis/ %s it what is usually done in and or the world/ .rishn/ .rishn #ontradi#ts this and speaks o the ordained task or a#tion! As we ha&e seen" this ordained a#tion is the pro#ess #alled yagya" in whi#h one breath is o ered as sa#ri i#e to another and all the senses are restrained" all o whi#h is in a true sense the pra#ti#e o yog and meditation! The spe#ial e.rishn told Arjun that or the Brahmin" truly de&out men possessed with knowledge o the Supreme Spirit" instru#tion in the ?ed was like taking a bather to a mere puddle! But Arjun was urged to learn the ?ed and grow into a Brahmin! %n other words the inherent dharm is subje#t to #hange! 1owe&er" the really signi i#ant point is that the inherent dharm is the most #ondu#i&e to oneIs well$being! But this does not mean that Arjun should imitate a Brahmin" and dress and look like him! The same path o a#tion has been di&ided by the sage into our parts: the lowest" medium" good" and e.er#ise whi#h takes one to the adored 'od is meditation! ?arn are a di&ision o this a#t o meditation itsel into our #ategories! A man should begin his Kuest at the le&el o his natural ability! This is the inherent dharm! % the seeker imitates those who are superior to and ahead o him" he will be only burdened with ear! 1e will not be destroyed #ompletely" or in the spiritual enterprise the seed is indestru#tible! But he will be o&erwhelmed by terror and impo&erished under the burden o material world! % a student o primary le&el sits in graduate #lasses" he #annot be#ome a graduate although or sure he will orget e&en the alphabet! -hy" Arjun asks" does man then not a#t a##ording to his inherent dharm/ .#ellent! .shatriya! 6rom the point o &iew o his innate property" the inherent dharm" Arjun was de#lared a .rishn had named it and told Arjun that e&en with his own dharm in &iew it was his duty to wage war! There was no more blessed a way or a .shatriya! .

unti" e&en wise menIs dis#rimination is engul ed by desire" insatiable like ire and their perpetual enemy J So ar .8! HAs ire is en&eloped by smoke" a mirror #louded with dust" and a oetus hidden by the womb" e&en so knowledge is engul ed by desire!J 7is#rimination is obs#ured by the mantle o desire and wrath! % we burn damp wood" there is only smoke! There is ire" but it #annot leap into lame! A dust$#o&ered mirror #annot gi&e a #lear image! Aust so" when there e.presses his &iew on the problem! 8+! HSin#e the senses" mind" and intelle#t are the seats o desire" it is through them that it deludes a being by #louding$his a#ulty o dis#rimination!J So we ha&e the answer! 0ur worst oe dwells within our own senses" mind" and intelle#t! %t is through them that desire en&elops knowledge and deludes the embodied Soul! 81! HSo" 0 the best o Bharat BArjunC" irst subdue the senses and kill determinedly this desire" the heinous destroyer o both spiritual and physi#al knowledge!II Abo&e all" Arjun must #ontrol the senses be#ause his enemy lies #on#ealed within them! The enemy is within us and it will be utile to look or him outside! The war that has to be waged is internalO it has to be ought within the mind and heart! So Arjun must subdue his senses and kill this sin ul desire whi#h ra&ages both knowledge o the unmani est Spirit and knowledge o the physi#al world! 1owe&er" he #annot storm them dire#tlyO he has irst to lay siege to the stronghold o moral per&ersions itsel by &anKuishing the senses! But to restrain the senses and mind is most di i#ult! The su##ess o this endea&our always appears doubt ul! .9! HAnd" 0 son o .! HThere ore" 0 the mighty$armed" knowing the Soul$subtle and in e&ery respe#t mighty and .rishn dispels this pessimisti# attitude by pointing out the many weapons at his disposal whi#h a man #an use to ight against the enemy! 8*! HAbo&e senses there is the mind and abo&e mind there is the intelle#t" and the one whi#h lies abo&e all o them is the Soul within" supremely power ul and yet subtle!II So man is not so helpless a ter all! 1e has an armoury o plenti ul arms with whi#h he #an wage war with strength and #on iden#e! 1e #an use his mind against the senses" his intelle#t against the mind" and abo&e all these there is his Soul" all power ul and yet unmani est! That Soul is the real Hus"J and so we are strong enough to subdue not only our senses" but also our mind and intelle#t! 8.rishn e.rishn has named two enemies" desire and wrath" but in the thirty$ninth &erse he mentions only one o them" namely" desire! %n truth" the eeling o anger lies within desire! -hen a task is su##ess ully #ompleted anger subsides" but when desire is obstru#ted anger reappears! So anger resides at the heart o desire! %t is important to know where the enemy hides" or knowing this will a#ilitate a total destru#tion o the enemy! .7esire and wrath that spring rom the natural property o passion ha&e an insatiable appetite or sensual pleasure and are the most sin ul desire and wrath are the #omplements o atta#hment and repugnan#e! So Arjun is warned that he must regard them as his most dangerous enemies! And now their deleterious e e#ts are dwelt upon! .ist the per&ersions known as desire and wrath" the mind #annot ha&e a #lear per#eption o 'od! .

positors o the 'eeta ha&e gi&en this #hapter the title o H.rishn has de ined a#tion as the #ondu#t o yagya! %t is #ertain that yagya is the ordained mode! -hate&er else is done by men" besides this" is one orm or another o worldly ser&itude! %t will be a irmed in Chapter 8 that #ondu#t o yagya is the a#tion whi#h e e#ts reedom rom the material world! The #hapter des#ribes the origin o yagya as well as what the #ondu#t o this dis#ipline has to o er! %t then portrays the #hara#teristi# eatures o yagya! The importan#e o #ondu#ting yagya is repeatedly stressed" or this is the ordained a#tion! They who do not pra#tise it are not only sin ul lo&ers o pleasure" but they also li&e &ainly! Sages o yore had realiMed the state o attainment and a#tionlessness through yagya! They were men who had rejoi#ed and elt adeKuate in the Sel ! So there was le t nothing more or them to do! 4et they #ontinued to be assiduously engaged in their task or the guidan#e o their less ortunate ellowmen who had lagged behind! .arm 4ogJ BH-ay o A#tionJC" but this is not appropriate! 4ogeshwar .rishn repeatedly #autions sages like himsel that they ought not to #on use and undermine the aith o the initiated seekers" e&en though they may be engaged in material tasks" be#ause they #an a#hie&e the ideal state only through a#tion! % they stop a#ting" they will be destroyed! The right a#tion reKuires the waging o war by #on#entrating on the Sel and the Supreme Spirit! But what is the need o war when the eyes are #losed and a manIs thought is #entered on #ontemplation" and when the senses are all #on ined within the intelle#t/ A##ording to .rishn mentioned a#tion in Chapter *" and his elaboration o its signi i#an#e #reated a re&erent attitude towards the subje#t! %n the present #hapter . and" as it may be seen rom the attempted summary" we ha&e not yet been told what pre#isely a#tion or yagya is! -hen we understand the nature o yagya" we will also #omprehend the nature o a#tion! This #hapter mainly stresses the instru#tional role o sages" o great Souls" who ha&e per#ei&ed reality! The #hapter is thus a dire#ti&e or re&ered tea#hers! They will lose nothing i they do not undertake any a#tion and they will not gain anything or themsel&es i they do it! And yet they ha&e to be a#ti&e or the wel are o mankind! 1owe&er" nothing o real signi i#an#e has been said or seekers who wish to realiMe 'od! They are not told what they ha&e to do or this! This #hapter is" there ore" not about the -ay o A#tion! The a#tion whi#h has to be undertaken has not yet been illumined! So ar all that we ha&e been told is that the #ondu#t o yagya is the pres#ribed .rishn" when a seeker sets out on the path o worship" desire and anger" and attra#tion and repulsion appear as rightening hurdles in his way! To ight and o&er#ome these negati&e impulses is war! <ntering progressi&ely deeper into the state o meditation by gradual elimination o the demonia#al" alien impulses o .urukshetr is war! So this is a war whi#h rages in the state o meditation! This" in brie " is Chapter .meritorious" restrain the mind with your intelle#t and kill this desire" your most ormidable enemy!II Possessed o knowledge o the unmani est and yet mighty Soul that is beyond intelle#t" and a ter a due appraisal o his innate strength and restraining the mind with his intelle#t" Arjun must slay desire" his worst enemy! Arjun has to kill this enemy a ter a proper s#rutiny o his inherent #apa#ity! 7esire is a terrible oe" or it deludes the Soul through the senses! So knowing his strength and with #on iden#e in the might o his Soul" Arjun should kill this desire$his enemy! 0 #ourse" this enemy is internal and the war to be waged against it is also internal$ o the sphere o the mind and heart! YYYYY (any lo&ing e.rishn #ompares himsel with these great Souls! 1e" too" is le t with nothing to do and nothing to a#hie&e" and yet he de&otes himsel to a#tion or the good o mankind! Thus he re&eals himsel as a yogi" an as#eti# or saint" engaged in #onstant meditation! 1e is indeed" as we ha&e seen" a 4ogeshwar" an adept in yog! 6urther" in the #hapter" .

position o the Third Chapter o the Shreemad Bhagwad 'eeta in H4atharth 'eetaII! 1A2% 0( TAT SAT YYYYY @ote: The te.a#tion! But" then" we are kept in dark about what yagya is! %t has to be admitted" though" that the most detailed portrayal o war is ound only in Chapter . in the whole o the 'eeta! 'lan#ing at the 'eeta as a whole" it is in Chapter * that .rishn has told Arjun that the knowledge he has imparted to him is related to the -ay o .rishn and Arjun" entitled: HShatru ?inash$PrernaII or QQ>rging the enemyIs destru#tionII Thus #on#ludes Swami AdgadanandIs e.nowledge! The knowledge is that Arjun should ight be#ause it is pro itable or him in &i#tory as well as de eat! Gater" in Chapter 8" .nowledge o the Supreme Spirit" the S#ien#e o 4og" and the 7ialogue between .+ to 8.rishn e.tbook! %s it not a great honour and blessing or ea#h o us then" that this 'eeta #an be our own personal" spiritual te.horts Arjun to ight be#ause the body is destru#tible! 1e should ight be#ause the body is ephemeral! This is the only #on#rete reason or ighting gi&en in the 'eeta! Gater while e. are #on#erned with the setup o war" its ine&itability" the #ertain destru#tion o those who re use to ight" the names o enemies who ha&e to be killed" weighing o oneIs strength" and the determination to slay the enemies! The #hapter thus identi ies the enemies and" at the end" also pro&ides the reKuired en#ouragement to the seeker to destroy these enemies! Thus #on#ludes the Third Chapter" in the >panishad o Shreemad Bhagwad 'eeta" on the .nowledge" war is said to be the only means or a#hie&ing the most auspi#ious end! .rishn only says that the enemies ha&e already been slain by him" so Arjun has just to stand as a pro.rishn will tell Arjun that" resting irmly in yog he should se&er the irresolution in his heart with the sword o dis#rimination! This sword is the sword o yog! There is no re eren#e to war at all rom Chapter ) to Chapter 1+! %n Chapter 11" .tbook/ .e o renun#iation! There is no mention o any war in the later #hapters" although in Chapter 1: there is an a##ount o demons who are doomed to hell! The most detailed portrayal o war is thus ound in Chapter .t o the Book" 4atharth 'eeta is a&ailable in &arious %nternational B<nglish" 2ussian" 6ren#h" 'erman" Spanish" Chinese" %talian" @orwegian" 7ut#h" Portuguese" Arabi#" Aapanese" PersianC and %ndian languages B1indi" Bengali" Assamese" 'ujarati" (arathi" Tamil" Telugu" (alayalam" .y and earn glory! The enemies ha&e been killed e&en without his killing themO and the power whi#h dri&es all beings and obje#ts will also use him as an instrument to e e#t what he wishes! So Arjun should stand up boldly and kill his enemies who are nothing but li&ing #orpses! %n Chapter 1)" the world will be #ompared to a mighty$rooted Peepal tree and Arjun will be dire#ted to seek spiritual per e#tion by #lea&ing the tree with the a.annada" 0riya" Sindhi" Sanskrit" @epali" Punjabi and >rduC and the same #ould be downloaded rom http:PPwww!yatharthgeeta!#omP! P2<6AC< 06 C1APT<2 %@ A>7%0 CASS<TT<S The 'eeta was ne&er intended or any spe#i i# indi&idual" any spe#i i# #aste" religion" path" pla#e" time or or any #on&entional #ulture! %t is a uni&ersal and eternal spiritual treatise! %t is enduringly and most rele&ant to e&ery nation" e&ery religion" e&ery li&ing being! %n a#t" it is meant or e&eryone" e&erywhere! The 'eeta is a s#ripture that is meant or the entire human ra#e as a spiritual te.! ?erses .plaining the -ay o .

@ote: The audio o the Book" 4atharth 'eeta is a&ailable in &arious %nternational B<nglish" 'ermanC and %ndian languages B1indi" Bengali" 'ujarati" (arathi" Tamil" TeluguC and the same #ould be downloaded rom http:PPwww!yatharthgeeta!#omP! .

tin#t!II .C1APT<2 8: <G>C%7AT%0@ 06 T1< 7<<7 06 4A'4A %n Chapter .rishn says that at the beginning he taught yog to the Sun! % a realiMed sage just #asts a glan#e at a de&otee" the re inement o yog is transmitted into the li e$breath o the lu#ky Soul! All beings that li&e are animated by the sun$by 'od who is subje#t to himsel alone! Sin#e light is li e or breath" it is ordained that the Supreme Spirit #an be attained only by the regulation o li e$breath! Transmission o pious instin#ts into early man is the imparting o knowledge o yog to the Sun" a ter whi#h in due time the seed o this per e#tion sprouts in the mind! This is how gods pass on the knowledge to (anu! A ter the seed has sprouted in the mind" there will arise a wish or the realiMation o the sageIs utteran#e! % the mind has something in it" there is also the desire to a#hie&e it! This is (anuIs prea#hing yog to %kshwaku! There will be a longing" or aspiration to do that ordained a#t whi#h is eternal and whi#h liberates rom the bondage o a#tion! % it is so" there is the will to a#t and worship is Kui#kened! .rishn had gi&en the assuran#e that i a man ollowed his pre#ept" ree rom delusion and with sin#ere de&otion" he would be liberated rom the bondage o a#tion! 4og Bboth o knowledge and a#tionC has the power to e e#t liberation rom this ser&itude! The idea o waging war is embodied in yog! %n the present #hapter he points out who the author o yog is" as well as the stages by whi#h this dis#ipline has e&ol&ed! 1!HThe Gord said" Q%t was % who taught the eternal yog to the Sun$ B?i&aswatC" who then taught it to (anu" who taught it to %kshwaku!I II %t was he" .rishn has said earlier that the in#eption" the seed" o this pro#ess is indestru#tible! % it is but begun" it does not #ease until it has a#hie&ed per e#tion! The body is #ured by medi#ines" but worship is the remedy or the Soul! The beginning o worship is the beginning o Sel $#ure! This a#t o de&otion and meditation is also the #reation o an a##omplished sage! To the primiti&e man lying un#ons#ious in the night o ignoran#e" who has not gi&en a thought to yog" is brought to the per e#tion o yog when he meets with a sage$just by looking at the great man" by listening to his &oi#e" by rendering albeit an inadeKuate ser&i#e to him" and by asso#iating with him! 'oswami Tulsidas has also said this: H>ltimate bliss is granted to the man who has per#ei&ed 'od as well as to the man who has been noti#ed by 'od!J ." 4ogeshwar .rishn" as we ha&e seen" was a yogi! So it is a yogi" a sage dwelling in the Supreme Spirit" who initiates the e&erlasting yog at the beginning or" in other words" at the #ommen#ement o worship and transmits it into the li e breath! The Sun represents the way o 'od$realiMationU89V! 'od is the Hone light that gi&es light to all!II U89V%n the >panishad Prashn we ind this: The wise know him who assumes all orms" who is radiant" who is omnis#ient" and who is the one light that gi&es light to all! 1e rises as the sun o a thousand rays and abides in in inite pla#es! 4og is e&erlasting! .rishn says" who at the beginning o de&otion BkalpC" imparted the knowledge o eternal yog to the Sun BsymboliMing righteous impulsesC" rom whom it was passed on to (anu BsymboliMing mindC" son and then to %kshwaku BsymboliMing aspirationC! .rishn now speaks about the point to whi#h yog takes us a ter it has been set in motion! *!H7eri&ed rom tradition" this yog was known to sages o the royal stage BrajarshiCU88V"but at this point" 0 the destroyer o oes" it de#lined and was almost e.

rishn has dealt with the in#eption o yog by a sage" the obsta#les in its way" and the means o o&er#oming them! But Arjun now asks him : 8! HArjun said" QSin#e ?i&aswat B#ra&ing or 'odC was born in the distant antiKuity and your birth is only re#ent" how am % to belie&e that you had taught yog to him/II .traordinary powers are generated in worshippers who ha&e rea#hed this le&el! At this #riti#al stage" yog almost #eases to be in this world BbodyC! So the problem is how to #arry it beyond this di&iding line! %t seems that e&ery seeker is destroyed a ter rea#hing this stage" but a##ording to .a#tly like you and me" or hours" and without stopping!J This made me sad and % wondered how 'od speaks! This was an amaMing re&elation to me! A ter a while (aharaj Ai would say" J-hy do you worry/ 'od will also speak to you!J @ow % realiMe that e&ery word o what he said is true! This is the sentiment o riendship that binds the indi&idual Soul with the Cosmi# Spirit! -hen 'od begins to resol&e doubts like a riend" only then #an the worshipper #ross the destru#ti&e stage sa ely! So ar 4ogeshwar .shatriya worshipper" o the le&el o rajarshi at whi#h" lashed by wa&es o a#hie&ement" worshippers are in danger o being destroyed! %t is not that the bene i#ial nature o yog is #an#elled at this stage" but worshippers usually stumble a ter arri&ing at this point! That eternal and supremely mysterious yog .rishn now imparts to Arjun" be#ause his dis#iple is in the same way on the brink o destru#tion! And he does this be#ause Arjun is de&oted to him" single$ mindedly reliant upon him" and a belo&ed riend! -hen the 'od we #ra&e or$the a##omplished sage$abides in the Soul and begins to instru#t him" only then does real worship begin! 1ere 'od and the a##omplished sage$ tea#her" as prompters" are synonymous! % 'od des#ends into the heart at the le&el at whi#h we stand" begins to #he#k and guide" and support in #ase the worshipper stumbles$only then is the mind ully restrained! >nless 'od stands by as a #harioteer" #lose to the Soul as a prompter" there #annot be an adeKuate initiation to his path! Be ore this the adorer is on trialO he has not yet a#hie&ed the state o true worship! (y re&ered tea#her$my 'od" used to say" H1aF % had many a narrow es#ape! But 'od sa&ed me! 'od taught me thisE told me thatE II % sometimes asked" H(aharaj Ai" does 'od also speak and talk/J Thereupon he would say: H1o" 'od talks e.This yog" transmitted by an a##omplished saint into the breath o the primiti&e" barbari# man" and therea ter lowing rom breath into the mind" then#e to longing Bor aspirationC" and rom that to a#ti&e pra#ti#e" thus de&eloping by gradual stages" rea#hes the royal stage and is then re&ealed to the seeker! <.rishn it is not so! 0ne who has taken re uge in him as a lo&ed de&otee and dear riend is spared! U88V2eaders need to be warned against a #ommon misunderstanding about the word rajarshi! %t is said that a .rishn has had a re#ent birth" in remembered time" whereas the breath o knowledge he #laims to .! HThat is the timeless yog whi#h % now impart to you" be#ause you are my de&otee and belo&ed riend" and be#ause this yog embodies a supreme mystery!II Arjun is a .shatriya is ele&ated to the status o rajarshi by dint o his pious li e and austere de&otion just as a Brahmin is raised to the position o a brahmarshi! But in truth 'od has made neither Brahmin nor .shatriya" and neither Aew nor Christian! These are only so#ial orders" based on birth or o##upation! So rajarshi is used here to denote one o the our spiritual states whi#h are distinguished only by the inner merits o a worshipper irrespe#ti&e o his #aste or #reed! Su#h an interpretation is #orre#t" or otherwise the yog o 'eeta has to be assumed as meant or only members o one #aste whi#h is untenable! .

rishn" howe&er" there is no su#h in#arnation as may be seen by others! 'od is not born in a #orporal orm! %t is only by gradual stages that he #ontrols his three$ propertied nature by the e.er#ise o yog$maya and mani ests himsel ! But what are the #ir#umstan#es o su#h mani estation/ 9 H-hene&er" 0 Bharat" righteousness BdharmC de#lines and unrighteousness is rampant" % mani est mysel !J .rishn resol&es the doubt thus: )! HThe Gord said" Q0 Arjun" you and % ha&e passed through innumerable births but" 0 &anKuisher o oes" whereas you do not ha&e memory o your pre&ious births" % do!II .rishn like other bodies/ :!HAlthough imperishable" birthless" and 'od o all beings" % mani est mysel subduing the materialisti# world o nature by the mysterious power o atm$maya!II .rishn" his birth is unlike that o others! Attainment o the Sel is distin#t rom attainment o a body! .rishnIs mani estation #annot be seen with physi#al eyes! 1e is birthless" hidden" and eternal" and yet he is born with a human body! There ore" they who prea#h that death o the physi#al body brings liberation o er" but" a alse #onsolation! A Soul realiMes the ultimate essen#e while he is yet in his assumed human body! % there is e&en the slightest law" he has to undergo another birth! Till now Arjun has thought .ha&e transmitted to the Sun belongs to Hthe dark ba#kyard and abyss o time!J So how is Arjun to belie&e that .rishn to be a mortal like him! That is why he speaks o his re#ent birth! %s .rishn is the one who had enun#iated yog at the beginning/ .rishn #alls yog$maya" o whi#h we are unaware! This is the maya o Sel that pro&ides a##ess to the Soul and leads to awareness o the Supreme Spirit! %t is by the operation o this yog$maya that .rishn and Arjun ha&e had numerous births" but the latter does not remember them! The worshipper does not know! But he who has beheld his Sel knows it and one who has realiMed the unmani est knows it! A##ording to .rishn is imperishable" birthless" and per&ading the breath o all beings" but he is mani ested when he restrains materialisti# atta#hments by atm$mayaU89V! 0ne kind o maya is the moral ignoran#e that makes one a##ept the reality o the material world" and whi#h is the #ause o rebirth in low and in erior orms! The other maya is that whi#h .rishn subdues his three$ propertied nature and mani ests himsel ! U89V%n 2am Charit (anas" the de&otional retelling and translation o thirty other %ndian epi#s" the 2amayan" by the great poet Tulsidas" 'oswami Tulsidas has de ined maya thus: -hereas % and these are mine" you and those are yours! This notion is maya" o whi#h all #reatures are &i#tims! %t is two old" made up irst o ignoran#e and then o enlightenment! The irst is a notorious rogue be#ause it entraps e&ery #reature in the pit alls o birth and death! 0n the #ontrary" although the other is reputed as the only ountain o &irtues" it is wholly animated by the 'od within and has no power o its own! The pro#ess o enlightenment is #alled &idya$maya! Sin#e it unites the indi&idual Soul with the %n inite" it is also named yog$maya! And be#ause it enables the Soul to attain to his highest glory" it is also known as atm$maya! A ter a##omplishment a yogi is blessed with the power that enables him to look a ter thousands o his dis#iples at on#e! This power" #alled atm$maya" is the one that is used here! People usually say that they will ha&e a &ision o 'od when he mani ests himsel through an in#arnation! A##ording to .

rishn tells Arjun that a worshipper who is earnestly de&oted to his ultimate goal is a sage" but he #an be sa&ed only when the low o di&ine impulses su#h as wisdom" renun#iation" and sel $restraint" whi#h pro&ide a##ess to the obje#t" is unimpeded! Similarly" doers o wi#ked deeds are not undone just by the destru#tion o their none..rishn assumes a mani est orm rom age to age to destroy impediments that obstru#t the smooth low o righteous impulses su#h as wisdom" renun#iation and restraint" as also to annihilate the demonia#al or#es o passion" anger" atta#hment and repugnan#e" and to rein or#e dharm! HAgeJ" as used by .rishn tells the de&out Arjun that when hearts all into inertia in regard to the Supreme Spirit" the most sublime dharm" and when the pious are unable to see how to #ross sa ely to the other bank" he begins to shape his orm in order to mani est himsel ! Su#h a eeling o weariness had #ome to (anu! 'oswami Tulsidas has written o his grie $laden heart be#ause his li e had passed without #ontemplation o 'od! -hen despairing tears low rom the eyes o lo&ing worshippers be#ause o their o&erpowering eeling o helplessness at their inability to steer a#ross unrighteousness" 'od begins to mould his orm into a mani est shape! But that also implies that 'od mani ests himsel to only lo&ing worshippers and only or their well$being! 'odIs in#arnation #omes about only within the heart o a blessed worshipper! But what does the mani est 'od do/ 8! H% mani est mysel rom age to age to de end the pious" destroy the wi#ked" and strengthen dharm!J 'od mani ests himsel as a sa&iour o saintly men! 1e" the adored" is the one 'od a ter attaining whom there is nothing else to #ontemplate! .istent mortal bodies" be#ause they will be reborn with the same wi#ked impressions BsanskarC they had earned in the pre&ious li e" and do .aliyug o dharm! The man passing through this stage does not do his duty e&en though he knows it! 1e knows what he is orbidden to do" and yet he does it! These stages o dharm" o its as#ent and des#ent" are determined by innate properties! These stages are the our ages ByugC a##ording to some" the our #lasses B&arnC a##ording to others" and the our le&els o spiritual seeking$e.aliyugC! -hen there is predominan#e o ignoran#e and abundan#e o lethargy" slumber and pro#rastination" that is the stage o the .th &erse o the #hapter! %nspired by 'od" this knowledge is the one whi#h makes the heart a &eritable dwelling o 'od! But how #an one know through whi#h Stage one is passing at the moment/ -hen &irtue and moral goodness BsattwaC alone are a#ti&e in the heart" when passion and ignoran#e ha&e subsided" when all ears are stilled" when there is no eeling o repulsion" when there is the ne#essary strength to rest irmly on the signals that are re#ei&ed rom the desired goal" when the mind is o&er lowing with happiness$then alone is one enabled to enter into the 'olden Age! 0n the other hand" when the or#es o darkness BtamasC" #ombined with passion and moral blindness BrajasC" are sweeping through" when there are animosities and #on li#ts all around" the worshipper is passing through the %ron Age B.aliyugC! %t rather alludes to the stages o rise and all" o the wa.ing and waning" o dharm through whi#h human nature has to pass! These are stages o dharm and the human heart has to progress through them! 'oswami Tulsidas has written about it in 2am Charit (anas B9! 1+C!$ the de&otional retelling and translation o the %ndian epi#" 2amayan rom Sanskrit into the language o the people by the poet Tulsidas! The stages o dharm undergo &ariation in e&ery heart at all times" not be#ause o ignoran#e but be#ause o the operation o the di&ine power o maya! This is what has been named atm$maya in the si.#ellent" good" medium" and low$ a##ording to yet others! %n all the stages 'od stands by the worshipper! @e&ertheless" there is a plenty o di&ine a&our at the highest stage" whereas the assistan#e appears to be meagre at the lower stages! So .rishn here" does not re er to histori#al ages like the 'olden Age BSatyugC or the %ron Age B.

rishn mani ests himsel in all ages to destroy moral per&ersions and to strengthen dharm! %nstallation o the one #hangeless 'od alone is the inal destru#tion o e&il! %n brie " .rishn isO we will be identi#al with him! %n#arnation is ne&er e.rishn urther says that the Soul alone is the ultimate reality! -hen the Soul is united with this >ni&ersal Spirit" he too be#omes 'od! So only a man who has realiMed the Sel #an see and #omprehend 'odIs mani estation! %t is e&ident there ore that 'od mani ests himsel in a worshippersIs heart! At the outset the worshipper is not able to re#ogniMe the power whi#h transmits signals to him! -ho is showing him the way/ But a ter he has per#ei&ed the truth o the Supreme Spirit" he begins to see and understand" and therea ter when he dis#ards the body he is not reborn! .rishn! -hen seers alone #an see 'odIs in#arnation and works" why do we ha&e these #rowds o hundreds o thousands o men awaiting the birth o 'od so that they #an see him/ Are we all seers/ There are many who masKuerade as sages" mainly by dressing as holy men" and who #laim that they are in#arnations" and whose agents resort to publi#ity to pro&e it! The #redulous rush like sheep to ha&e a &iew o these H'od$men"J but .rishn has said that his mani estation is internal" obs#ure" and luminous" and that the one who sees his radian#e be#omes one with him! But instead o this people ha&e made his idols whi#h they worshipO and they imagine that he dwells somewhere in hea&en! But this is ar rom the truth! .rishn already is! 1e represents the possibilities o mankind$their uture! The day we a#hie&e per e#tion within oursel&es" we will also be what .the same e&il whi#h they had done be ore! So .rishn it is not so! 9! H1e who has per#ei&ed the essen#e o my radiant in#arnations and works" 0 Arjun" is ne&er born again a ter dis#arding his body" but dwells in me!II 'odIs in#arnation" his gradual mani estation through pro ound remorse" and his works$ eradi#ation o hindran#es whi#h generate e&il" pro&ision o the essentials o Sel $realiMation" and reinstatement o dharm$ are not like the birth and deeds o mortals! Per#ei&ed only as abstra#tions" 'odIs in#arnation and operations #annot be seen with physi#al eyes! 1e #annot be measured by mind and wisdom! 'od" so ins#rutable and mysterious" is per#eptible only to him who has known the reality! 0nly he #an &iew 'odIs in#arnation and works" and on#e he has made this dire#t per#eption" he is not born again but dwells in .ternal! % a heart is brimming .rishn a irms that only men o per e#tion #an see 'od! @ow" who is this man we #all a seer/ 'i&ing his &erdi#t on the real and the alse in Chapter *" .istent in all time$past" present and uture! This has been the e.perien#e o seers rather than o linguists or wealthy men! @ow he reiterates that although 'od mani ests himsel " only per#ei&ers o essen#e #an see him! 1e has been united with the ultimate reality and be#ome a seer! -e do not be#ome seers by learning to #ount the i&e Bor twenty$ i&eC elements! .rishn only means by this that i men do the ordained task" they will ind that they too are radiant! -hat others ha&e the potential to be" .rishn told Arjun that the unreal has no being and that the real has ne&er been none.rishn has said that he mani ests himsel again and again" in all #ir#umstan#es and #ategories" to destroy e&il and oster good" and to strengthen aith in the Supreme Spirit! But he does this only i there is pro ound regret in the worshippersI heart! So long as the gra#e o the worshipped 'od is not with us" we #annot e&en know whether e&il has been destroyed or how mu#h o it still remains! 6rom the beginning to the moment o inal attainment" 'od stays by the worshipper at all stages! 1e mani ests himsel only in the de&oteeIs heart! 7oesnIt e&eryone see him when he mani ests himsel / A##ording to .

rishn rewards his worshippers a##ording to the nature o their de&otionO he assists them in the same degree! %t is the worshipperIs dedi#ation that is returned to him as gra#e! .rishn says that men who ollow his way" worship gods or the attainment o a#tionlessness" that is" they strengthen the di&ine impulses within! .rishn shapes himsel and appears in a heart that is illed with pro ound sorrow at the predominan#e o unrighteousness! %t is people with su#h hearts who realiMe him! -hat 4ogeshwar .rishnIs pre#ept! But they do not always do this in the right way! 1*! H7esiring ruits o their a#tion" men worship mani old gods" or the rewards o a#tion are then earned Kui#kly!J 7esiring a##omplishment o the a#tion within this human body" men take to the worship o many gods! $that is" they #ulti&ate the se&eral righteous impulses! .rishn now pro#eeds to distinguish worshippers a##ording to their Kualities! 11! H0 Parth" as men worship me" e&en so do % a##ept them" and knowing this the wise ollow me in e&ery way!II .rishn had pre&iously #alled per#eption o reality he now #alls knowledge BgyanC! 'od is the ultimate reality! To per#ei&e him is wisdom! (en with this knowledge there ore realiMe him! 1ere the problem is resol&ed and .rishn pro&ides sola#e to the #ommon people by telling them that many ha&e realiMed him by treading on the ordained path! 1+! H6ree rom passion and anger" wholly dedi#ated to me" inding shelter in me" and puri ied by knowledge and penan#e" many ha&e realiMed my being!II (any who ha&e taken re uge in .rishn has told Arjun to per orm the ordained a#tion" whi#h is per orman#e o yagya" a way o worship" in whi#h the in#oming and outgoing li e$breaths are o ered to 'od as oblation and the outward$looking senses are burnt out in the ire o sel $restraint" and whose inal out#ome is the attainment o 'od! The true meaning o a#tion is worship and this is again #lari ied later in this #hapter! The out#ome o this a#tion is oneness with the eternal 'od" the supreme goal: the state o total a#tionlessness! .with lo&e and adoration" there is a possibility o its e.nowing this" men who are per&aded by di&ine sentiment through and through ollow .rishn$ with single$mindedness and #omplete deta#hment" reed eKually rom passion and passionlessness" ear and earlessness" anger and absen#e o anger" and puri ied by knowledge and penan#e" ha&e attained to his state! %t is not that only now it is so! This #anon has always been in operation! (any ha&e attained to his state be ore! But what is the way/ .nowing this se#ret" the righteous #ondu#t themsel&es with single$mindedness a##ording to the way laid down by him! They who are dear to him a#t a##ording to his way! They do what he ordains them to do! 'od shows his a&our by standing with the worshipper as a #harioteerO he begins to walk along with the worshipper and mani est his glory! This is the orm o his lo&ing #are! 1e stands up or the destru#tion o or#es that generate wi#kedness and to prote#t righteous impulses that pro&ide a##ess to reality! >nless the worshipped 'od a#ts as the earnest #harioteer who alerts at e&ery step" despite his dedi#ation and #losing his eyes in meditation" and all other endea&ours" the worshipper #annot #ope with the ad&ersities o the material world su##ess ully! 1ow is he to know how mu#h distan#e he has #o&ered and how mu#h more remains to be #o&ered/ The adored 'od stands inseparably with the Sel and guides him: that he is now at this point" that he should do this" and walk like that! Thus the gul o nature is gradually bridged and" guiding the Soul ahead by gradual steps" 'od at last enables him to merge into him! -orship and adoration ha&e to be per ormed by the de&otee" but the distan#e on the path whi#h is #o&ered by the de&otee is only by 'odIs gra#e! .perien#ing the di&ine in#arnation! All the same .

rishn represents himsel as the maker o the our #lasses! 7oes it mean that he has di&ided men into our rigid #ategories determined by birth/ The truth is rather that he has di&ided a#tions into our #lasses on the basis o inherent properties! All the same" as he tells Arjun" he$the imperishable 'od$is a non$agent and should be known as su#h! The innate property BgunC o a being or o a thing is a measure" a yardsti#k! % the dominant property is that o ignoran#e or darkness BtamasC" it will result in an irresistible in#lination to laMiness" e. that Arjun ought to pra#tise yagya to oster gods$to strengthen his righteous impulses! 1e will progress more and more as these impulses are gradually strengthened and augmented! Thus" ad&an#ing step by step" he will at last a#hie&e the ultimate bliss! This is the inal stage o the pro#ess o spiritual ad&an#ement that has to be gone through rom the beginning to the end! Stressing the point" .! HAlthough % ha&e #reated the our #lasses B&arnC$Brahmin" ..rishn said in Chapter .rishn says that they who ollow him" e&en though aspiring or a##omplishment o a#tion in their human bodies" tend the righteous impulses whi#h Kui#ken the ad&ent o the state o a#tionlessness! @e&er ailing" the pro#ess in&ariably su##eeds! -hat is the meaning o HKui#klyJ or HsoonJ here/ %s it that no sooner do we #ommen#e a#tion that we are rewarded with the inal a#hie&ement/ A##ording to .#essi&e sleep" wantonness" a&ersion to work" and #ompulsi&e addi#tion to e&il in spite o the realiMation that it is e&il! 1ow #an worship #ommen#e in su#h a state Q-e sitI and worship or two hours and we try to do it with the utmost earnestness" and yet we ail to se#ure e&en ten minutes that are truly propitious! The body is still and Kuiet" but the mind whi#h should be really Kuiet soars alo t wea&ing webs o an#ies! -a&es upon wa&es o spe#ulation toss it! Then why do we sit idly in the name o meditation and waste time/ The only remedy at this stage is to dedi#ate oursel&es to the ser&i#e o wise men who dwell in the unmani est and o those who ha&e gone ahead o us on the path! This will subdue negati&e impressions and strengthen thoughts that are #ondu#i&e to worship! 'radually" with the diminishing o or#es o darkness and ignoran#e" there is the growing sway o the Kuality o rajas" and a partial awakening o the property o good and moral &irtue BsattwaC as well" be#ause o whi#h the worshipperIs ability is ele&ated to the ?aishya le&el! Then the same worshipper begins spontaneously to imbibe Kualities su#h as #ontrol o the senses and to a##umulate other &irtuous impulses! Pro#eeding urther on the path o a#tion" he is endowed with the wealth o righteousness! The property o rajas now grows aint and tamas is dormant! At this stage o de&elopment the worshipper steps on to the .shatriya" ?aishya and Shudr$ a##ording to innate properties and a#tions" know me the immutable as a non$doer!II .shatriya le&el! Prowess" the ability to be immersed in a#tion" unwillingness to retreat" mastery o&er eelings" the #apa#ity to #ar&e his way through the three properties o nature$are now the inherent eatures o the worshipperIs disposition! -ith yet urther re inement o a#tion" sattwa makes its approa#h" at whi#h there is the e&olution o &irtues su#h as #ontrol o the mind and senses" #on#entration" inno#en#e" #ontemplation and abstra#t meditation" and aith as well the #apa#ity to hear the &oi#e o 'od$all Kualities that pro&ide a##ess to 1im! -ith the emergen#e o these Kualities the worshipper #omes to belong to the Brahmin #lass! This" howe&er" is the lowest stage o worship at this le&el! -hen ultimately the worshipper is united with 'od" at that point$the highest point$he is neither a Brahmin" nor a .rishn" it is de#reed that this height #an be only gradually #onKuered" mo&ing step by step! @o one #an leap a#ross to the summit at on#e and bring about a mira#le like the re&elations that tea#hers o di&inity nowadays #laim or abstra#t meditation! Get us now see how it is! 1.shatriya" nor a ?aishya" nor a Shudr! So worship o 'od is the only a#tion$the ordained a#tion! And it is this one a#tion that is di&ided into our stages a##ording to the moti&ating properties! The di&ision was made" as we ha&e seen" by a saintZby a 4ogeshwar! A sage dwelling in the unmani est was the maker o this di&ision! 4et .rishn tells Arjun to regard .

plain the meaning o a#tion to you well" so that knowing it you may be eman#ipated rom e&il!II -hat are a#tion and the state in whi#h there is no a#tion/ <&en men o learning are #on ounded by these Kuestions! So .rishn has stressed the per orman#e o a#tion" but he has not yet e.rishn knows rom his ele&ated position will be reed rom a#tion! So whate&er .rishn might ha&e been" the unmani est 'od or an enlightened sage" his attainment is within the rea#h o all o us! %t was with this kind o wisdom that earlier men aspiring or sal&ation had set upon the path o a#tion! %t is or this reason that Arjun is told to do what his prede#essors ha&e done! This is the only way that leads to the sublime good! So ar .nowledge or the -ay o Sel less A#tion" a#tion is a ne#essity in ea#h #ase! 0ne be#omes neither wise by renoun#ing a#tion nor eman#ipated rom a#tion by just not undertaking it! They who suppress their organs o a#tion with &iolen#e are just arrogant hypo#rites! So Arjun should a#t" restraining his senses with the mind! .rishn tells Arjun that he is going to e.him" the indestru#tible and maker o &arn" as a non$doer! 1ow #an it be so/ 18! QQ% am unsullied by a#tion be#ause % am not atta#hed to it" and they who are aware o this are in the like ashion un ettered by a#tion!II .pound well the meaning o a#tion to him" so that he #an be reed rom worldly bondage! 1e has already said that a#tion is something that liberates rom the etters o temporal li e! @ow" again" he stresses the importan#e o knowing what it is! 19! H%t is essential to know the nature o a#tion as well as o a#tionlessness" and also that o .isten#e ha&e also per ormed a#tion in earlier times" you too should ollow the e." that" whether one pre ers the -ay o .rishn is unatta#hed to the ruits o a#tion! 1e said be ore that the deed by whi#h yagya is a##omplished is a#tion" and that the one who tastes the ne#tar o wisdom generated by yagya merges into the #hangeless" eternal 'od! So the inal #onseKuen#e o a#tion is attainment o the Supreme Spirit himsel ! And .rishn told him to do the ordained a#tion" whi#h is per orman#e o yagya" to #lari y the meaning o a#tion! And now in this #hapter he has told Arjun that e&en s#holars o great erudition are #on ounded by the problems o what a#tion is and what a#tionlessness is! So it is important that a#tion and a#tionlessness are understood well! 1:! H<&en wise men are #on used about the nature o a#tion and a#tionlessness" and so % shall e.rishnIs a##omplishment! 1)! HSin#e it is with this wisdom that men aiming at sal&ation rom worldly e.ample o your prede#essors!II %n the past" too" men desiring sal&ation had a#ted with the same realiMation: that the patterns o a#tion are se&ered when as the inal out#ome o his a#tion the doer is one with 'od" and when he is liberated rom desire e&en or him! .rishn has o&er#ome e&en the desire or 'od be#ause he has be#ome identi#al with 1im! So he is also unmani est like 'od! There is now no power beyond or whi#h he should stri&e! So he is untou#hed by a#tion" and they who know him rom the same le&el" rom the le&el o 'od realiMation" are also not bound by a#tion! Su#h are the realiMed sages who ha&e rea#hed the le&el o .plained what this a#tion is! 1e only mentioned it in Chapter * and told Arjun to listen to him on sel less a#tion! 1e des#ribed its spe#ial eatures" one o whi#h is that it gi&es prote#tion against the terrible ear o birth and death! 1e then dwelt upon the pre#autions that ha&e to be obser&ed in its per orman#e! But despite all this he has not pointed out what a#tion is! 1e later added" in Chapter .rishn belongs to this state! So he is untainted by a#tion and" i we ha&e what he has" we too will be reed rom the bonds o a#tion! -hoe&er knows what .

plained in the ne.#ellen#e! The a#tion o men who ha&e attained to the ultimate bliss is ree rom all un#ertainty and error! 6or sages who dwell and ind #ontentment in the Sel " and lo&e him and the Supreme Spirit" there is neither any pro it in a##omplishing a#tion nor any loss in orsaking it! But they yet a#t or the good o those who are behind them! Su#h a#tion is pure and it is ree rom all doubt and ignoran#e! U)+V@ot only here but in the whole o the 'eeta" where&er the preposition 3&i3 is pre i.t &erse" and i we do not understand the distin#tion between the two here" we will perhaps ne&er understand it! 18! H0ne who #an per#ei&e non$a#tion in a#tion and a#tion in non$a#tion is a wise man and an a##omplished doer o per e#t a#tion!J A#tion means worshipO and the a##omplished doer is one who sees non$a#tion in a#tion" that is" who #ontemplates 'od and yet belie&es simultaneously that rather than being the doer" he has only been prompted to a#tion by his inherent properties! 0nly when this ability to see non$a#tion has been mastered and the #ontinuity o a#tion is unbroken" should one belie&e that a#tion is pro#eeding in the right dire#tion! The man with this insight is a wise man! &erily a yogi" endowed with the means by whi#h the indi&idual Soul is united with the Supreme Spirit" and a doer o per e#t a#tion! There is not e&en the slightest error in his per orman#e o a#tion! Brie ly" then" worship is a#tion! A man should pra#tise it and yet see non$a#tion in it" that is" realiMe that he is just an instrument while the real doer is the underlying property! -hen we know that we are non$doers and there is yet #onstant and unimpeded a#tion" only then is made possible the per orman#e o that a#tion whi#h results in the ultimate good! (y noble tea#her" the re&ered (aharaj Ai" used to say to us" H>ntil 'od runs into a #harioteer to restrain and guide" real worship does not begin!J -hate&er is done be ore this stage is no more than a preliminary attempt to be admitted to the way o a#tion! The whole weight o the yoke rests on the o.t Bwhi#h has been translated here as Hmeritorious a#tionJC as H orbidden or prohibited a#tionJ and Hdiligent a#tion"J et#! But the preposition &iU)+V pre i.ed to the root karm here denotes merit or e.rishn speaks about this ne.#ellen#e! -e ha&e just seen Hmeritorious a#tion!J So we are now le t with a#tion and a#tionlessness! They are e.rishn has said about a#tion and yagya" so ar! -hat is usually done in the name o a#tion" he has said" is not a#tion! A#tion is a pres#ribed undertaking$the per orman#e o yagya! .en and yet the ploughman is the one who dri&es them" and the ploughing o the ield is said to be his a##omplishmentT <&en so although all the burden o worship is borne by the worshipper" the real worshipper is 'od be#ause he is always by the de&ote" urging and guiding him! >ntil 'od deli&ers his judgement" we #annot e&en know what has been done through us! Are we yet settled in the Supreme Spirit or are we just roaming about in the wilderness o nature/ The worshipper who thus goes ahead on the spiritual path under 'odIs guidan#e" and who a#ts with #onstant belie that he is a non$doer" is truly wiseO he knows the reality and he is indeed a yogi! 1owe&er" is the worshipper to go on a#ting or e&er or will there e&er be a point o respite/ 4ogeshwar .ed to a root" it denotes e.t &erse" let us re#all brie ly" or the sake o better understanding" what .t! But" be ore we #ome to the ne.meritorious a#tion" or the ways o a#tion are BSoC ins#rutable!J %t is o the utmost importan#e to know what a#tion is and what a#tionlessness is" as also the a#tion whi#h is ree rom all doubt and ignoran#e and whi#h is undertaken by men o wisdom who ha&e renoun#ed all worldly desire and atta#hment! This is imperati&e be#ause the problem o a#tion is a great riddle! Some #ommentators ha&e interpreted the word QQ&ikarmII in the te.

rishn anything apart rom this that is done is worldly bondage rather than a#tion! 6rom what .rishn said that many yogis depend upon serenity o breath during silent re#itation o the deityIs name by restraining the li e$winds" in whi#h state there is neither internal &olition nor #oming into the mind o any desire rom the e.rishn has spoken about the nature o yagya" it is e&ident that it is a parti#ular mode o worship whi#h guides the de&otee to the adored 'od and e e#ts his dissolution in 1im! 6or the per orman#e o this yagya one has to subdue the senses" #ontrol the mind" and augment pious impulses! Con#luding this part o the argument" .-hate&er else besides it is done is not a#tion! A##ording to .rishn tells Arjun that a well$#ommen#ed a#tion gradually be#omes so re ined and sublimated that it takes the mind abo&e will as well as irresolution and then" with the burning out o e&en the last desire whi#h he does not know but whi#h he was pre&iously eager to know" the worshipper is blessed with dire#t per#eption o 'od! 7ire#t knowledge o 'od by ollowing the path o a#tion is #alled knowledge BgyanC: the sa#red knowledge that enables the Soul to be united with the Supreme Spirit! The ire o this dire#t per#eption o 'od annihilates a#tion or e&er! -hat was sought has been a#hie&ed! There is nothing beyond it to Kuest or! -ho is there beyond 'od to sear#h or with urther endea&our/ So with the attainment o this wisdom" the need or a#tion #omes to an end! 2ightly ha&e sages #alled men with su#h wisdom pandit" men o pro ound erudition! Their learning is per e#t! But what does su#h a saint do/ 1ow does he li&e/ .rishn now illumines his way o li e! *+! H%ndependent o the world" e&er #ontented" and renoun#ing all atta#hment to a#tion as well as its ruits" su#h a man is ree rom a#tion e&en while he is engaged in it!J 7e#lining to rest upon obje#ts o the world" utterly #ontented with dwelling in the eternal 'od" and dis#arding not only desire or the ruits o a#tion but e&en atta#hment to 'od be#ause now he is not remo&ed rom 1im" this sage is a non$doer e&en while he is diligently employed in the per orman#e o a#tion! *1! H1e who has #onKuered his mind and senses" and gi&en up all obje#ts o sensual pleasure" does not partake o sin e&en when his body seems to be engaged in a#tion!J %t is only the physi#al body o the man" who has o&er#ome both his mind and senses" renoun#ed all obje#ts o worldly enjoyment" and a#hie&ed total reedom rom desire" that seems to be engaged in a#tion" whereas" in truth" he does nothing" and that is why he does not in#ur sin! 1e is per e#t and so he is eman#ipated rom the #y#le o birth and death! **! HContented with what #omes to him unsought" he who is indi erent to happiness and sorrow" .ternal en&ironment! %n su#h a state o total restraint o the mind" when e&en the restrained mind is dissol&ed" the worshipper merges into the #hangeless" eternal 'od! This is yagya" the per orman#e o whi#h is a#tion! There ore" the true meaning o a#tion is HworshipOJ it means di&ine adoration and pra#ti#e o yog! And this is what is treated at length later in the #hapter under re&iew! So ar only a distin#tion has been made between a#tion and non$a#tion" the awareness o whi#h will guide the worshipper on to the right path and enable him to tread e e#ti&ely on it! 19! H<&en the learned #all that man a sage all o whose a#tions are ree rom desire and will" BbothC burnt to ashes by the ire o knowledge!II %t was said in the last &erse that with the a#Kuisition o the #apa#ity o per#ei&ing non$a#tion in a#tion" the man who is engaged in a#tion grows into a doer o per e#t a#tion in whi#h there is not e&en the slightest law! @ow it is added that restraint o desire and will is a &i#tory o the mind! So a#tion is something that ele&ates the mind abo&e desire and will! .

rishn adds: *.plained! *)! HSome yogis per orm yagya to oster di&ine impulses" whereas some other yogis o er the sa#ri i#e o yagya to Ba seer who isC the ire o 'od! II %n the last &erse .ree rom en&y" and e&en$minded in su##ess and ailure" is a man o eKuanimity" unensla&ed by a#tion e&en when he per orms it!J -hen a man is #ontented with whate&er #omes to him without being desired or asked or" indi erent to happiness and sorrow" and lo&e and animosity" ree rom any negati&e eeling" and abiding with eKuanimity in attainment and nonattainment" he is not ettered by a#tion e&en though he appears to be engaged in it! Sin#e the goal he had aimed at is now a#hie&ed and it will not e&er desert him" he is reed rom the terror o de eat! Gooking alike at a#hie&ement and non$ a#hie&ement this man a#ts" but without in atuation! And what he does is nothing other than yagya" the a#t o supreme sa#ri i#e! 2eiterating the #on#ept" .rishn portrayed the sa#ri i#e made by sages who ha&e made their abode in the Supreme Spirit! But he now depi#ts the yagya per ormed by worshippers who wish to be initiated into yog! These no&i#es undertake sin#ere per orman#e o yagya to gods to oster them" .! H-hen a man is ree rom atta#hment" his mind rests irmly in the knowledge o 'od" and when his a#tions are like the yagya made to 'od" he is truly eman#ipated and all his a#tions #ease to be!II Per orman#e o yagya itsel is a#tion and dire#t per#eption o 'od is knowledge! A#ting in the spirit o sa#ri i#e and dwelling in the knowledge a#hie&ed rom dire#t per#eption o 'od" all the a#tions o this liberated man who is de&oid o atta#hment and desire undergo a pro#ess o dissolution! @ow his a#tions are o no #onseKuen#e to the worshipper" be#ause 'od" the goal he had stri&en or" is no longer away rom him! @ow" what other ruit will grow rom a ruit/ There ore" su#h liberated menIs need o a#tion or themsel&es #omes to an end! 4et they a#t as messiahs" but e&en while doing this they remain untou#hed by what they do! .rishn raised a new Kuestion: -hat is yagya and how to per orm it in the due manner/ Therea ter he elu#idated the #hara#teristi# eatures o yagya" its origin" and the pro it that ensues rom it! So the #hara#teristi# eatures o yagya" were dwelt upon! But it is only now that the meaning o yagya is e.rishn a##ounts or this in the ollowing &erse : *8! HSin#e both the dedi#ation and the oblation itsel are 'od" and it is the 'odlike tea#her who o ers the oblation to the ire whi#h is also 'od" the attainment" too" o the man whose mind is set on 'odlike a#tion is 'od himsel !J The eman#ipated manIs yagya is 'od" what he o ers as oblation is 'od" and the sa#red ire to whi#h the sa#ri i#e is made is also 'od! That is to say that what is o ered by the 'odlike worshipper to the sa#red ire that is an embodiment o 'od is also 'od himsel ! That whi#h is worthy o being se#ured by the man whose a#tions ha&e been dissol&ed and stilled by 'odIs lo&ing tou#h is also 'od! So this man does nothingO he only a#ts or the good o others! These are attributes o the realiMed sage who has rea#hed the stage o inal attainment! But what is the nature o yagya that is per ormed by worshippers who ha&e just set out on the Kuest / .!9C Anything apart rom this that is done by mortals is only bondage! But a#tion in the true sense pro&ides reedom rom etters o the world! So Arjun was told to rid himsel o atta#hment and a#t in the spirit o renun#iation or the a##omplishment o yagya! %n doing so" howe&er" 4ogeshwar .horted Arjun in the last #hapter to per orm the ordained a#tion! <laborating on what this ordained a#tion is" he said that it is per orman#e o yagya! B.rishn e.

that is" they strengthen and augment di&ine impulses in the heart! 1ere it is use ul to remember how Brahma had dire#ted mankind to oster gods by yagya! The more &irtues there are #ulti&ated and garnered in the heart" the more the worshipper ad&an#es towards the ultimate e.#ellen#e until he at last attains it! The no&i#e worshipperIs yagya is thus aimed at strengthening the or#es o righteousness in his heart! A detailed a##ount o the di&ine treasure o righteousness is gi&en in the irst three &erses o Chapter 1:! 2ighteous impulses lie dormant in all o us and it is an important duty to #herish and wake them up! Pointing this out" 4ogeshwar .ing o 7eath in the .rishn urther adds that in the human body he is the adhiyagya or that in whom the oblation is #onsumed! .rishn and attain to his eternal being" be#ause righteousness brings the ultimate good! 0n the #ontrary" there are the demonia#al" de&ilish or#es whi#h lead the soul to rebirth in low and in erior ormsO %t is these negati&e impulses that are o ered as oblation to ire! This is yagya and also its in#eption! 0ther yogis per orm yagya by o ering sa#ri i#e to the a##omplished tea#her in his heart$the sa#red ire that is an embodiment o 'od! .athopanishad as most beauti ul to behold and su#h indeed as is not meant or mortals! 1ere we ha&e the ire o the senses! Aust as obje#ts put into ire are burnt out" sensual ormsZ sight" taste" smell" tou#h" and sound$are bere t o their power to distra#t the worshipper when they are trans ormed and shaped in a##ordan#e with the reKuirements o his goal! 1a&ing no longer any interest in sense$per#eptions" the worshipper does not now assimilate them! -ords like HotherJ Bapare and anyeC in the &erses under dis#ussion represent di erent states o the same worshipper! They are the &arying" high and low" states o mind o the same worshipper rather than di erent orms o yagya! .rishn too was a yogi and an a##omplished tea#her! These other yogi o er oblations to the 'odlike tea#her who also annihilates e&ils like ire! They per orm sa#ri i#es aimed at this a##omplished tea#her who is also an embodiment o sa#ri i#e! %n brie " they #on#entrate their minds on the orm o the a##omplished tea#her" a realiMed sage! *:! H-hile some o er their hearing and other senses as sa#ri i#e to the ire o sel $restraint" others o er spee#h and other sense obje#ts to the ire o the senses!II 4et other yogi o er all their senses o a#tion$ear" eye" skin" tongue" and nose$to the ire o sel $ #ontrol" that is" they subdue their senses by withdrawing them rom their obje#ts! There is no real ire in this #ase! As e&erything #ast into ire is redu#ed to ashes" e&en so the ire o restraint destroys the outward looking senses! There are then yogi who o er all their senses o per#eption" sound" tou#h" orm" taste" and smell" to the ire o sensesO they sublimate their desires and thus turn them into e e#ti&e means or a#hie&ement o the supreme goal! A ter all" the worshipper has to #arry on his task in this world itsel " assaulted all the while by good as well e&il utteran#es o people around him! @o sooner than he hears words that arouse passion" howe&er" he sublimates them into the eeling o renun#iation and thus burns them in the ire o the senses! %t happened so on#e with Arjun himsel ! 1e was engaged in #ontemplation when all o a sudden his ears were thrilled by lilting melody! -hen he looked up he saw >r&ashiU)1V" the" hea&enly #ourtesan" standing be ore him! All the other men were enthralled by her sensual #harm" but Arjun saw her with ilial sentiment as mother! The &oluptuous musi# thus grew aint in his mind and was buried in his senses! U)1V0ne o the #elestial maidens" des#ribed by the .rishn tells Arjun not to grie&e be#ause he is endowed with these godly merits! -ith them he will dwell in .

plains yagya : *8! HAust as many per orm yagya by making material gi ts in ser&i#e o the world" some other men per orm yagya through physi#al morti i#ation" some per orm the sa#ri i#e o yog" and yet others who pra#tise se&ere austerities per orm yagya through the study o s#riptures!II There are many who make sa#ri i#e o wealth! They #ontribute ri#hes to the ser&i#e o saints! .er#ise! -hen one dwells in the 'od who had to be realiMed" nothing else remains to be a#hie&ed! 4ogeshwar .rishn has so ar spoken o " there are a gradual ostering o pious impulses" restraint o the working o senses" and parrying o o sensual per#eptions through a modi i#ation o their intent! %n a still higher state than this" yogi o er as oblation the un#tions o all senses and operations o li e$breaths to the ire o yog that is lit up by knowledge o 'od! -hen restraint is integrated with the Sel and the operations o breath and senses are stilled" the #urrent whi#h stimulates passions and the #urrent whi#h propels one towards 'od merge into the Sel ! The out#ome o yagya then emerges as 'od$realiMation" the #ulmination o this spiritual e.*9! H4et other yogi o er the un#tions o their senses and operations o their li e$breaths to the ire o yog Bsel $#ontrolC kindled by knowledge!II %n the yagya .rishn a##epts whate&er gi ts are o ered to him with de&otion and he is a bene a#tor o those who make these gi ts! This is the yagya o wealth or ri#hes! To ser&e e&ery man" to bring those who ha&e strayed ba#k to the right path" by #ontributing wealth to the #ause is the sa#ri i#e o ri#hes! These sa#ri i#es ha&e the #apability to nulli y the natural sanskars! Some men morti y their senses through penan#es or the obser&an#e o their dharm! %n other words" their sa#ri i#e" made a##ording to their inherent properties" is penan#e$humiliation o the body" and it belongs to the stage between the lowest and highest le&els o yagya! -anting in adeKuate knowledge o the path that leads to 'od" the Shudr worshipper who is just setting out on the way o worship undergoes penan#e by rendering ser&i#e" the ?aishya by a#Kuisition o di&ine ri#hes" the .rishn now points out what is done or this yagya o .shatriya by demolishing passion and anger" and the Brahmin with his ability to be united with 'od! All o them ha&e to toil alike! %n truth yagya is one and there are only its lower and higher stages go&erned by innate properties! (y noble tea#her" the re&ered (aharaj Ai" used to say" HTo trim the mind along with the body and senses in keeping with the goal" is penan#e! They tend to digress rom the goal but ha&e to be pulled ba#k and applied to it!J There are many who pra#tise the yagya o yog! 4og is the joining o the Soul" wandering amidst nature" with 'od who is beyond nature! A #lear de inition o yog is ound in the twenty$third &erse o Chapter :! >sually" the meeting o two obje#ts is yog! But is it yog i a pen meets paper or a dish meets a table! 0 #ourse not" be#ause both are made o the same i&e elements: they are one" not two! @ature and the Sel are two entities" distin#t rom ea#h other! There is yog when the nature$based Soul meets the identi#al 'od" and when nature is dissol&ed in the Soul! This is the true yog! So there are many who resort to a stri#t pra#ti#e o restraint be#ause it is #ondu#i&e to this union! The pra#ti#ers o the yog o sa#ri i#e ByagyaC and they who are gi&en to se&ere austerities keep in &iew their own Sel and per orm the yagya o knowledge! 1ere" non&iolent but se&ere austerities su#h as restraint" religious obser&an#e" the appropriate posture o sitting" serenity o breath" withholding o the mind along with the physi#al organs" retention" meditation and per e#t absorption o thought in the Supreme Spirit" are indi#ated as the eight old eatures o yog! There are many who undertake Sel $study be#ause they aim at Sel $knowledge! 2eading books is but the irst step to Sel $knowledge" or in the true sense it is deri&ed only rom #ontemplation o the Sel whi#h brings about attainment o 'od" and the inal out#ome o whi#h is knowledge or intuiti&e per#eption! .rishn again e.

haled breath" while yet others pra#tise serenity o breath by regulating their in#oming and outgoing breath!J (editators on the Sel " sa#ri i#e the &ital air to apan and similarly apan to pran! 'oing e&en higher than this" other yogi restrain all li e$winds and take re uge in the regulation o breath BpranayamC! That whi#h .halations! @on$assimilation o any desire rom an e.ternal world! So when both pran and apan are properly balan#ed" breath is regulated! This is pranayam" the serenity o breath! This is the state in whi#h the mind is supreme" or restraint o breath is the same as restraint o mind! <&ery a##omplished sage has taken up this subje#t and there is mention o it in the ?ed B2ig" 1!1:8!8) and Athar&" 9!1+!*9C! This is what the re&ered (aharaj Ai also used to say! A##ording to him" the one and only name o god is re#ited at our le&els: baikhari" madhyama" pashyanti" and para! Baikhari is that whi#h is mani est and audible! The name is pronoun#ed in su#h a way that we as well as other men sitting around us may hear it! (adhyama is muttering the name at a medium pit#h" so that the worshipper alone" but not e&en the man sitting beside" may hear it! This arti#ulation is made within the throat! There is thus the gradual generation o an unbroken stream o harmony! -hen worship is yet more re ined" the stage is rea#hed when the worshipper de&elops the #apa#ity to &isualiMe the name! A ter this the name is not re#ited" be#ause it has now be#ome an integral part o the li e$breath! The mind stands as an onlooker and just &iews what the breath shapes! -hen does it #ome in/ And when does it go out/ And what does it say/ Sages o per#eption tell us that it arti#ulates nothing e.ternal sour#e is the o ering o pran as oblation" whereas suppression o all inner desires is the sa#ri i#e o apan" so that there is generation o neither internal desire nor grie be#ause o thoughts o the e.rishn #alls pran$apan" (ahatma Buddh has named anapan! This is what he has also des#ribed as shwas$prashwas Binhaling and e.knowledge or #ontemplation o the Sel ! *9! HAs some o er their e.perien#e that along with breath we also imbibe desires rom the surrounding en&ironment and" similarly" transmit wa&es o inner pious as well as impious thoughts with our e.halation to inhalation" others o er their inhaled breath to the e.halations in Anapan Sad! A ter all" what does the 4ogeshwar really intend to say/ %n truth" .#ept the name! @ow the worshipper does not e&en re#ite the nameO he just listens to the melody o the name arising rom his breath! 1e just wat#hes his breath and that is why this stage o breath$#ontrol is #alled pashyanti! At the stage o pashyanti" the mind is set up as a witness$an onlooker! But e&en this is not needed when there is yet urther re inement! % the desired name is just imprinted on memory" its melody will be heard spontaneously! There is no need o re#itation now" or the name rings in the mind by itsel ! The worshipper does not re#ite any longer and neither does he ha&e to #ompel the mind to hear the name" and yet the re#itation goes on! This is the stage o ajapa" o the unre#ited! %t will be a mistake to think" howe&er" that this stage is rea#hed without #ommen#ing the pro#ess o re#itation! % it has not been initiatedO there will be nothing like ajapa! Ajapa means that re#itation whi#h does not desert us e&en though we do not re#ite! % only memory o the name is irmly setup in the mind" re#itation begins to low through it like a perennial stream! This spontaneous re#itation is named ajapa and this is the re#itation by trans#endental arti#ulation Bpar&aniC! %t takes one to 'od who is the essen#e beyond nature! There is no &ariation in spee#h a ter this" or a ter pro&iding a &iew o 'od it is dissol&ed in him! This is why it is #alled para! %n the Kuoted &erse" .halingC! Pran is the breath that is inhaled" whereas apan is the breath whi#h mo&es out! Sages ha&e ound by e.rishn has only told Arjun to wat#h his breath" whereas later he himsel will stress the importan#e o intoning 0(! 'autam Buddh too has dwelt upon inhalations and e.

rishn tells Arjun that he should know that all these yagya ha&e arisen rom a#tion! This is what he has said be ore" too! B.rishn speaks only o pran$apan rather than telling Arjun to Hre#ite the name!J This is so be#ause there is no need to tell him this! % he says it" the worshipper will go astray and begin to grope about in the dark alleys o neither le&els! (ahatma Buddh" my noble 'odlike tea#her" and all those who ha&e trodden this path say the same thing! Baikhari and madhyama are the portals by whi#h we enter into the sphere o re#itation! %t is pashyanti that pro&ides a##ess into the name! The name begins to low in an unbroken stream in para" and the internal" spontaneous" intoning o the name ne&er abandons the worshipper a ter this! The mind is linked with breath! That is the state o &i#tory o the mind when the eye is set on the breath" when the name is in#orporated into breath" and no desire o the e.+! H4et others who subsist on stri#tly regulated breath and o er their breath to breath" and li e to li e" are all knowers o yagya" and the sins o all who ha&e known yagya are destroyed!II They who partake o restri#ted ood o er as oblation their breath to breath$li e to li e! (y noble tea#her" the re&ered (aharaj Ai" used to say that the ood" posture o sitting" and sleep o a yogi should be steady! 2egulation o ood and pleasure is a ne#essity! (any yogi who obser&e su#h dis#ipline renoun#e their breath to breath" #on#entrating on inhalations and paying no heed to e.uru" the yogi who ha&e tasted the ne#tar lowing rom yagya attain to the eternal supreme 'od" but how #an the ne.rishn" how #an the ne.perien#e o this is wisdom! The one who eeds on it be#omes one with the eternal 'od! So yagya is something whi#h with its #ompletion unites the worshipper with 'od! A##ording to .! 18C 1e has just pointed out that all those" whose sins ha&e been wiped out by yagya" are the real knowers o yagya! And now he tells Arjun that he will be reed rom the bonds o the world i he knows that yagya arises rom a#tion! 1ere the 4ogeshwar has #learly stated the meaning o a#tion! That #ondu#t is a#tion by whi#h yagya is a##omplished! @ow" there is no harm in engaging oursel&es in trade" ser&i#e" and politi#s i in doing them we #an earn di&ine ri#hes" #ontemplate an a##omplished tea#her" restrain the senses" o er the .ternal world #an enter into the worshipper! -ith this the inal out#ome o yagya emerges! .t world bring happiness to men bere t o yagya when e&en the mortal" human birth is beyond their rea#h/ %t is their ine&itable lot to be born in lower orms and nothing better than them! So the obser&an#e o yagya is a ne#essity! .rishn now speaks o the out#ome o yagya! .t li e o men bere t o yagya be happy when e&en their li e in this world is miserable/J -hat yagya generates$what results rom it" is ne#tar the substan#e o immortality! A dire#t e.1! H0 the best o .*! H(any su#h yagya are laid down by the ?ed but they all germinate and grow rom the ordained a#tion" and per orming their &arious steps you will be ree rom worldly bondage!II There are se&eral steps o yagya elaborated by the ?ed$'odIs own words! A ter realiMation" 'od assumes the body o a##omplished sages! The minds o men who ha&e be#ome one with 'od are then mere instruments! %t is 'od who speaks through them! So it is in his &oi#e that these yagya ha&e been enun#iated! .beginning with baikhari" then progressing on to madhyama" and going e&en urther than this" at the stage o pashyanti" one attains #ontrol o&er breath! At this stage re#itation is integrated with breath! And what is there to re#ite now when the worshipper has just to wat#h his breath/ %t is or this reason that .halations! -ith ea#h in#oming breath they hear 0(! Thus men whose sins ha&e been destroyed by yagya are men o true knowledge! .

tension o mind! %n .rishn has this to say about it: .rishnIs words the transient world is #onKuered right here" Hupon this bank and shoal o time"J by men who ha&e a#hie&ed e&en$ mindedness! But what is the relation between su#h eKuanimity o mind and subjugation o the world/ % the world itsel is #onKuered" where does one halt/ A##ording to .halations" and regulate the &ital winds o li e! But we know that it is not so! 4agya is the only e.rishn 'od is lawless and impartial" and una e#ted by passionO and so is the mind o the man who has se#ured knowledge! So the two be#ome one! %n brie " the world is an e..rishn has said #ategori#ally that the ordained a#tion is only one" and he has told Arjun to do it! The per orman#e o yagya is a#tion! And yagya is sa#ri i#e o breath" restraint o the senses" #ontemplation o the Supreme Spirit$the a##omplished tea#her$who symboliMes yagya" and inally" regulation and serenity o breath! This is the stage o mindIs #onKuest! The world is nothing but an e.!HSa#ri i#e through wisdom is" 0 Parantap" in e&ery way superior to sa#ri i#es made with material obje#ts" be#ause B0 ParthC all a#tion #eases in knowledge" their #ulmination!J The yagya o wisdom" made by means o austerity" #ontinen#e" aith" and knowledge" whi#h brings about a dire#t per#eption o 'od" is the most propitious! All a#tions are ully dissol&ed in this knowledge! .oblation o outgoing breath to the in#oming breath" sa#ri i#e inhalations to e.panded orm o the mind! So the mutable world is the obje#t that has to be o ered as a sa#ri i#e! -hen the mind is per e#tly #ontrolled" there is also per e#t #ontrol o&er the world! The out#ome o yagya appears #learly when the mind is ully restrained! The ne#tar o knowledge that is generated by yagya takes the man who has tasted it to the immortal 'od! This is witnessed by all sages who ha&e realiMed 'od! %t is not that worshippers o di erent s#hools per orm yagya in di erent ways! The di erent orms #ited in the 'eeta are only the higher and lower states o the same worship! That by whi#h this yagya begins to be done is a#tion! There is not a single &erse in the entire 'eeta whi#h de ends or appro&es o worldly enterprise as a way to the realiMation o 'od! >sually" or the per orman#e o yagya people build an altar" light a ire on it and" intoning swaha" #ast barley grains and oil seeds into the sa#red ire! %s this" we may ask" not yagya/ .nowledge is thus the #rowning point o yagya! Then#e orth there is neither any pro it in the doing o a#tion nor any loss in abstaining rom it! %n the same way there are yagya that are per ormed with material obje#ts" but they are insigni i#ant in #omparison with the yagya o knowledge whi#h enables a man to ha&e dire#t per#eption o 'odU)*V! <&en i we sa#ri i#e millions" build hundreds o altars or the sa#red ire" .er#ise that transports one to 'od the &ery moment it is #omplete! 7o any other work you like i it takes you to 'od in the same way! %n a#t" all these orms o yagya are but internal pro#esses o #ontemplation$ orms o worship whi#h make 'od mani est and known! 4agya is the spe#ial ordained mode that helps the worshipper to tra&erse the path that leads to 'od! That by whi#h this yagya is a##omplished" regulation and serenity o breath" is a#tion! The true meaning o Ha#tionJ is there ore HworshipJ! %t is usually said that whate&er is done in the world is a#tion! -ork without desire or sel ish interest is the -ay o Sel less A#tion! Some eel that it is a#tion i they sell imported abri# or greater pro it! They eel they are men o a#tion! 6or others" dealing in indigenous goods to ser&e the #ountry is the -ay o Sel less A#tion! % one a#ts with dedi#ation or trades without thinking o pro it and loss" that is the -ay o Sel less A#tion! 6ighting a war or #ontesting an ele#tion without thought o winning and losing makes one a doer o sel less a#tion! But these deeds #annot bring sal&ation! .

:! H<&en i you are the most heinous sinner" the ark o knowledge will #arry you sa ely a#ross all e&ils!II -e should not make the error o #on#luding rom this that we will know sal&ation e&en with #ommitting more and yet more sin! .rishn has gone and % donIt know to whom to turn now or guidan#e! That is why .9! HAs blaMing ire turns uel to ashes" so &erily 0 Arjun" the ire o knowledge redu#es all a#tion to ashes!II 1ere we ha&e a portrayal" not o an introdu#tion to knowledge through whi#h one approa#hes yagya" but o the #ulmination o knowledge or per#eption o 'od" in whi#h there is irst the .rishn tells Arjun #ategori#ally that he should approa#h seers who will instru#t him in true knowledge! .ternal" what need was there o a seer/ %snIt Arjun standing dire#tly be ore the Gord/ Then why does .#ontribute money to good #auses" and in&est money in the ser&i#e o sages and saints" this yagya is mu#h in erior to the sa#ri i#e o knowledge! .rishn rather intends to say by this that we should not be under the mistaken impression that we are su#h great sinners that there #annot be sal&ation or us! So this is .rishn ask him to go to a seer/ %n truth" the meaning o .8! H0btain that knowledge B rom sagesC through re&eren#e" inKuiry and inno#ent soli#itation" and the sages who are aware o reality will initiate you into it!II So Arjun is ad&ised to approa#h seers with re&eren#e" sel $surrender" and humility" to be instru#ted in true knowledge through de&oted ser&i#e and guileless #uriosity! These seers will enlighten him on it! The ability to a#Kuire this knowledge #omes only with a wholly dedi#ated ser&i#e! They are seers who enable us to ha&e dire#t per#eption o 'od! They know the mode o yagya and they will tea#h it to Arjun! 1ad the war been e.tension o the same Sel e&erywhere" and only then #an he be#ome one with 'od! Thus the means o attaining to that 'od is the sage who has per#ei&ed reality! .)! H.nowing whi#h" 0 son o Pandu" you will ne&er again be a prey like this to atta#hment" and eKuipped with this knowledge you will see all beings within yoursel and then within me!II A ter a#Kuiring this knowledge rom sages Arjun will be rid o all atta#hment! Possessed o this knowledge he will per#ei&e all beings in his Sel " that is" he will see the e.rishnIs message o hope and #ourage to Arjun and to e&erybody: that despite being the doer o sins greater than the sins o all sinners he will sail a#ross sins su##ess ully" by the ark o knowledge a#Kuired rom seers! Thus$ .rishnIs pronoun#ement is that it #an be had rom only one sour#e" namely" the sage who has known the reality! U)*VThe sage o Pippalad says" in the Prashn >panishad" that they who desire #hildren and are gi&en to rites" #onsidering them the highest a##omplishment" attain to the world o the (oon B2ayiC and are born again on earth" but they who are de&oted to the worship o the Sel " by means o austerity" #ontinen#e" aith" and knowledge" go by the northern path and attain the world o the Sun! BPranC .rishn who was a yogi$indeed a 4ogeshwar$is that today the worshipper is with him" but he may be #on used in uture when he is no longer present to guide him! HAh meF HArjun will say" H.rishn has just told us" that real yagya is restraint o the &ital winds o li e" subduing o the senses" and #ontrol o the mind! 6rom where #an we learn its mode/ 6rom temples" mosKues or #hur#hes/ Shall we get it by going on pilgrimage to holy pla#es or by dipping oursel&es in sa#red ri&ers/ .

9! QQThe worshipper o true aith who has subdued his senses attains to this knowledge and at the &ery moment Bo attainmentC he is rewarded with the benedi#tion o supreme pea#e!J 6or realiMation o 'od one needs to possess aith" determination" and restraint o the senses! % there is no intensely elt #uriosity or the knowledge o 'od" e&en taking re uge in a seer will not bring it! Also" mere aith is not enough! The worshipperIs e ort may be eeble! There ore" the determination to pro#eed resolutely along the pres#ribed way is a ne#essity! Along with this it is also ne#essary to restrain the senses! 2ealiMation o the Supreme 'od will not #ome easily to one who is not ree rom desire! So only a man who has aith" enthusiasm or a#tion" and restraint o the senses #an ha&e this knowledge! And the &ery moment this knowledge dawns upon him" he is blessed with the ultimate pea#e" be#ause a ter this there is le t nothing more to stri&e or! A ter this he will ne&er know anything other than pea#e! But" 8+! H6or a skepti#" bere t o aith and knowledge" who strays rom the path o righteousness" there is happiness neither in this world nor in the ne.ternally but within his heart$within his Sel ! -hat is the reKuired ability or this knowledge/ %n the words o the 4ogeshwar"$ .destru#tion o all unrighteous in#linations and in whi#h then e&en the a#t o meditation is dissol&ed! The one who had to be attained to has been attained! @ow who is there to look or by urther meditation/ The sage with the wisdom that arises rom per#eption o 'od brings his a#tions to an end! But where does this per#eption o 'od o##ur/ %s it an e.tO he loses both the worlds!J 6or the man who is ignorant o the way o yagya$ or the doubting man who is de&oid o aith and who strays rom the path o good" there is no happiness" no ne.rishn inally says: 8*! HSo" 0 Bharat" dwell in yog and stand up to #ut down this irresolution that has entered into your heart be#ause o ignoran#e with the steel o knowledge!II Arjun has to ight! But the enemy$irresolution$is within his own heart" not outside! -hen we pro#eed on the way o de&otion and #ontemplation" it is but natural that eelings o doubt and passion will arise as obsta#les be ore us! These enemies laun#h a ear ul assault! To ight them and o&er#ome them" through the destru#tion o un#ertainties by the pra#ti#e o the ordained yagya" is the war that Arjun has to wage" and the result o this war or him will be absolute pea#e and &i#tory a ter whi#h there is no possibility o de eat! .t li e in human orm" and no 'od! So i there are any doubts in the worshipper" he should go to a seer and resol&e them" or else he will ne&er know the reality! So who is blessed with knowledge/ 81! H0 7hananjay" a#tion #annot bind the man who relies on 'od and who has surrendered all his a#tions to him by the pra#ti#e o karm$yog and all whose doubts ha&e been put to rest by knowledge!II A#tion #annot ensla&e the man whose deeds are dissol&ed in 'od by the pra#ti#e o yog" whose doubts ha&e been resol&ed by per#eption" and who is united with 'od! A#tion will be brought to an end only by yog! 0nly knowledge will destroy doubts! So .8! H7oubtlessly nothing in the world is more puri ying than this knowledge and your heart will realiMe it spontaneously when you ha&e attained to per e#tion on the -ay o A#tion!J @othing in this world puri ies as this knowledge does! And this knowledge will be mani est to the doer alone" not to anyone else" when his pra#ti#e o yog has rea#hed maturity" not at its in#eption" not in the middle" not e.ternal or internal phenomenon/ .

rishnIs utteran#e to ?i&aswat gi&es rise to a hankering or a#hie&ing it and yog is then trans ormed into a#tion! The point in hand needs urther elaboration! ?i&aswat" (anu" and %kshwaku are symboli# primogenitors o mankind! ?i&aswat represents the unenlightened primiti&e man without spiritual awakening! %t is a sage who sows the seeds o de&otion in this man! There then #omes into being a desire or 'od that arises in the mind whi#h is (anu in mi#ro#osm! The mind trans orms the aspiration into an a#ute #ra&ing whi#h is embodied as %kshwaku" and the pro#ess o #hanging it into pra#ti#e is speeded up! A ter ha&ing gone through the irst two stages" when the worshipper is endowed with di&ine impulses" the yearning or 'od enters upon the third stage when yog be#omes known and begins to mani est its glory! This is indeed a stage raught with risk" or yog is now on the brink o destru#tion! But they who are lo&ed de&otees and" dear riends are pro&ided with su##our by sages like .rishn has told Arjun that his mani est orm #an be &iewed only by seers" a ter whi#h they are released rom birth and death! 1e has urther e.rishn has then told us the nature o this yagya and that the inal out#ome o this e.plained the mode o 'odIs mani estation: o how it is an e&ent that o##urs within the heart o a de&oted yogi and #ertainly ne&er e.aliyug Bpredominan#e o or#es o darknessC brings about the ad&ent o 'od" but only i there is earnest de&otion! But no&i#e worshippers are unable to know whether 'od is speaking to them or whether the signs #oming to them are de&oid o any purpose! -hose &oi#e do we hear rom the hea&ens/ (y noble tea#her used to tell us that when 'od showers his gra#e and when he turns within the Sel into a #harioteer" he speaks and pro&ides support rom e&ery #olumn" e&ery lea " &erily rom emptiness itsel " and rom e&ery #orner! -hen with #onstant re inement there is awareness o the essen#e that is 'od" only then" by eeling his presen#e as i by tou#h" does the worshipper know the reality! So .rishn is! This attainment is assured i yagya is per ormed! .YYYYYY At the outset o the #hapter" .rishn points out that" although unmani est" imperishable" birthless" and per&ading all beings" he yet mani ests himsel by atm$maya and by subduing by his yog his nature with its three properties! -hat then does he do a ter mani esting himsel / Sin#e the beginning he has undergone one in#arnation a ter another to prote#t that whi#h is it or a##omplishment" as well as to destroy or#es whi#h gi&e rise to e&ils and to strengthen the 'odlike dharm! 1is birth and a#ts are o a metaphysi#al nature and only a seer #an per#ei&e them! The state o .presses himsel through breath! H%mparting the knowledge o yagya to the SunJ stands or awakening o the di&ine li e that lies dormant and unper#ei&ed in e&ery human heart! Transmitted to breath this light is hallowed into a sa#red dis#ipline! %n due #ourse it enters the mind as a resol&e! 2ealiMation o the signi i#an#e o .rishn or" in other words" one who is birthless and unmani est! A realiMed sage too is birthless and unmani est! 1is body is but an abode in whi#h he dwells! %t is 'od himsel who speaks through his &oi#e! %t is by some su#h sage that yog is imparted! <&en a glan#e o su#h a sage irradiates oneIs li e$breath with the e ulgen#e o Sel $realiMation! Possessing the light it sends orth" the sun symboliMes the e&er$luminous 'od who resides in" as well as" e.rishn has said that a#tion does not bind him" and just so they who ha&e attained to the same state are not bound by a#tion! %t was with realiMation o this truth that earlier men desiring sal&ation set out on the path o a#tion to rea#h that state" and the man who has known what .rishn says that he had imparted knowledge o yog to ?i&aswat in the beginning! ?i&aswat taught it to (anu and (anu to %kshwaku" and thus the knowledge e&ol&ed to the stage o rajas! The tea#her who had imparted this knowledge was .er#ise is realiMation o the highest reality$o the ultimate tranKuility! But where to go in order .rishn! -hen Arjun re ers to his re#ent birth" .rishn knows rom his ele&ated position" and Arjun" too" desiring sal&ation" will be what .ternally! .

arma$Spashtikaran orJ QQ<lu#idation o the 7eed o 4agyaII! Thus #on#ludes Swami AdgadanandIs e.rishn and Arjun" entitled: H4agya .position o the 6ourth Chapter o the Shreemad Bhagwad 'eeta in QQ4atharth 'eetaII 1A2% 0( TAT SAT YYYYYY @ote: The te.nowledge o the Supreme Spirit" the S#ien#e o 4og" and the 7ialogue between .rishn has ad&ised Arjun to approa#h sages and win them o&er with re&eren#e" humble inKuiry" and guileless soli#itation! 1e has also said unambiguously that this knowledge he #an a#Kuire only by his own a#tion rather than through the #ondu#t or a#tion o others! Also" it will #ome to him when his yog is in an a##omplished stage rather than at the outset! Per#eption o knowledge will be within the sphere o heart" not outside! And it #omes only to those who are dedi#ated" determined" in #ontrol o their senses" and ree rom all doubt! So inally Arjun is ad&ised to se&er the irresolution in his heart with the sword o renun#iation! Thus war is within the heart! The war o the 'eeta is Kuite un#on#erned with any e.t o the Book" 4atharth 'eeta is a&ailable in &arious %nternational B<nglish" 2ussian" 6ren#h" 'erman" Spanish" Chinese" %talian" @orwegian" 7ut#h" Portuguese" Arabi#" Aapanese" PersianC and %ndian languages B1indi" Bengali" Assamese" 'ujarati" (arathi" Tamil" Telugu" (alayalam" .rishn has thus mainly elaborated and e.to know the way o knowledge/ .plained the nature and orm o yagya" and added that the deed o a##omplishing it is a#tion! Thus #on#ludes the 6ourth Chapter" in the >panishad o the Shreemad Bhagwad 'eeta" on the .annada" 0riya" Sindhi" Sanskrit" @epali" Punjabi and >rduC and the same #ould be downloaded rom http:PPwww!yatharthgeeta!#omP! P2<6AC< 06 C1APT<2 %@ A>7%0 CASS<TT<S The most &enerable Bhagwan (aha&ir" the ounder o the Aain religion" as well as his #ontemporary Bhagwan Buddh" both o whom were #ompletely 'od$realiMed" ea#h in their separate tea#hings re le#ted the essential message o the 'eeta to the people in olk languages! HThe Soul alone is the truth" and Sel $realiMation may be attained with total restraining o the mind and sensesI! This is the essential message #on&eyed by the 'eeta! -hen Gord Buddh stated that the same essen#e alone is uni&ersal and eternal" he rein or#ed this essential tea#hing o the 'eeta! @ot only su#h a tea#hing rom Gord Buddh" but whate&er essen#e has been pro essed as uni&ersal tea#hings in the name o religion" or spirituality su#h as 0ne >ni&ersal 'od" Prayer" 2epentan#e" Penan#e and so on" are all tea#hings ound to be #ontained within the 'eeta itsel " the original seed s#ripture o mankind! 1ere" then" in 4AT1A2T1 '<<TA" these same lessons" #oming straight rom the spoken words o Swami Shree Adgadanand" are being presented to the world at large in the orm o audio #assettes" so that the whole human ra#e #an bene it rom this .ternal #on li#t! %n this #hapter" .

uni&ersal wisdom! @ote: The audio o the Book" 4atharth 'eeta is a&ailable in &arious %nternational B<nglish" 'ermanC and %ndian languages B1indi" Bengali" 'ujarati" (arathi" Tamil" TeluguC and the same #ould be downloaded rom http:PPwww!yatharthgeeta!#omP! .

rishn has e.! H1e" 0 the mighty$armed BArjunC" who en&ies none and desires nothing is it to be regarded as a true sanyasi and" liberated rom the #on li#ts o passion and repugnan#e" he breaks away rom worldly bondage!J The one who is ree alike rom lo&e and animosity is a sanyasi" a man o renun#iation" irrespe#ti&e o whether he has #hosen the -ay o .nowledge through 2enun#iation and then he has spoken appro&ingly o a#tion done with a sel less attitude! So Arjun now wishes to be enlightened on the spe#i i# way whi#h is in .plains: .nowledge and the -ay o Sel less A#tion as identi#al" be#ause the liberation attained by knowledge is also a#hie&ed by sel less a#tion!II The goal whi#h is rea#hed by the worshipper o knowledge and dis#rimination is also a#hie&ed by the doer o sel less a#tion! So he knows the truth who regards the two ways as similar rom the point o &iew o #onseKuen#e! @ow" when the two ways #on&erge at the same point" why does .rishn responds to ArjunIs submission thus: *! HThe Gord said" QBoth renun#iation and sel less a#tion a#hie&e sal&ation" but o the two the -ay o Sel less A#tion is the better be#ause it is easier to pra#tise!III % both the ways are eKually e e#ti&e in bringing about the inal absolution" why is the -ay o Sel less A#tion des#ribed as superior/ This is what .nowledge is superior/J 1e ound the -ay o .rishn pronoun#e one pre erable to the other/ 1e e.rishnIs well #onsidered &iew more #ondu#i&e to his well$being! % we are told two ways or going to a #ertain pla#e" it is but proper to inKuire whi#h one o the two is more #on&enient! % we do not raise this Kuestion" the impli#ation is that we do not ha&e to go anywhere! 4ogeshwar .C1APT<2 ): T1< S>P2<(< '07: <@A04<2 06 4A'4A %n Chapter .nowledge and the -ay o Sel less A#tion" or he who dwells well in any one o the two attains to 'od!J 0nly they who know but inadeKuately o spiritual li e ind the two ways di&ergent" be#ause the inal out#ome o both is the same" namely" attainment o 'od! )! QQThat man per#ei&es reality who regards the -ay o .nowledge or the -ay o Sel less A#tion! <man#ipated rom both atta#hment and repugnan#e" he is happily released rom the great ear o repeated births! 8! H%t is the ignorant rather than men o wisdom who make a distin#tion between the -ay o .tolled a#tion by the -ay o .nowledge easier to pra#tise" or this way assures as hea&enly li e in the e&ent o de eat and the state o ultimate glory in that o &i#tory! So there is pro it in both su##ess and ailure! But by now he understands well that a#tion is a prereKuisite o both the ways! 4ogeshwar ." Arjun said" HGordF -hy do you #ast me into dread ul a#ts when you belie&e that the -ay o .rishn" both the -ay o knowledge through 2enun#iation and then the -ay o Sel less A#tionO so now tell me whi#h one o the two is de#idedly more propitious!I II .rishn has to say about it! .rishn has also urged him to rid him$sel o doubts and take re uge in a seer" be#ause he is the only sour#e o the awareness he seeks! 1owe&er" be ore he #hooses one o the two ways" Arjun makes a humble submission! 1! QQArjun said" Q4ou ha&e so ar #ommended" 0 .

rishn now says that the a#hie&ement o renun#iation" o the ultimate #essation o good as well as e&il a#tions" is impossible without sel less a#tion! There is no way by whi#h we may sit idly" just telling oursel&es: H% am 'od" pure and wise! 6or me there is no a#tion and no bondage! <&en i % may appear as parti#ipating in e&il" it is really only my senses un#tioning a##ording to their nature!J There is no su#h hypo#risy in .rishnIs words! <&en he" the 4ogeshwar" #annot" without the reKuired a#tion" bestow the ultimate state upon a belo&ed riend like Arjun! % he were able to do this" there would be no need or the 'eeta! A#tion has to be a##omplished! The stage o renun#iation #an be a#hie&ed only through a#tion and the one who does it soon realiMes 'od! .amination pri&ately" the other is like one who is enrolled in a s#hool or #ollege! Both o them ha&e an a##omplished tea#her to master the same #ourse" take the same test" and e&en the #erti i#ate to be awarded to them is the same! 0nly their attitudes to their task are di erent! Sometime ba#k" saying that passion and anger are ormidable enemies" .rishn now speaks about the #hara#teristi# marks o the man who is blessed with sel less a#tion! 9! HThe doer" who is in per e#t #ontrol o his body through a #onKuest o his senses" pure at heart and single$mindedly de&oted to the 'od o all beings" is untainted by a#tion e&en though he is engaged in it!II That man is possessed o yog" o sel less a#tion" who has #onKuered the body" whose senses are subdued" whose thoughts and eelings are spotlessly #lean" and who has realiMed his identity with 'od" the Spirit o all beings! 1e remains unblemished e&en though he is in&ol&ed in a#tion" be#ause his deeds are aimed at garnering seeds o the highest good or those who lag behind! 1e is untainted be#ause he dwells in the essen#e that is 'od" the ountain head o the &itality o all beings! There is nothing or him herea ter or whi#h he should Kuest! At the same time" there #an be no at$atta#hment to what he has le t behind" be#ause they ha&e all paled into insigni i#an#e! So he is not engul ed by his deeds! Thus we ha&e here a pi#ture o the ultimate stage o the .rishn prompted Arjun to #on#entrate his mind on him and ight" dedi#ating all his a#tions to him and in total reedom rom atta#hment and grie ! To per orm a deed with a sense o surrender to the worshipped 'od is the -ay o Sel less A#tion! So the a#tion in the two ways is the same and so is the inal out#ome! Stressing the same" .:! HBut" 0 the mighty$armed" renun#iation is well highly impossible to a#hie&e without sel less a#tion" but the one whose mind is set on 'od is soon united with him!J The gi&ing up o all that we ha&e is most pain ul without sel $less a#tion! %t is indeed impossible i sel less a#tion has not been initiated at all! There ore" the sage who re le#ts on the identi#al 'od" and whose mind and senses are stilled" soon attains to that 'od by the per orman#e o sel less a#tion! %t is but e&ident that sel less a#tion has also to be pra#tised on the -ay o .nowledge" be#ause the reKuisite a#tion or both the ways is the same! This is the a#t o yagya" whi#h pre#isely means Hworship!J The di eren#e between the two ways is only a matter o the worshipperIs attitude! -hereas one de&otes himsel to the deed a ter a thorough appraisal o his own ability and with sel $dependen#e" the other$the doer o sel less a#tion$engages in the task with total relian#e upon the adored 'od! So" whereas the ormer is like a student who studies or an e.nowledge! .rishn urged Arjun to kill them! Arjun ound it most pain ul! .rishn thereupon told him that beyond the body there are the senses" beyond the senses there is the mind" beyond the mind there is the intelle#t" and beyond all these there is the Sel " the power at whose behest he is dri&en to all his a#tions! To a#t with a #lear understanding o oneIs own strength and with dependen#e on oneIs own ability is the -ay o .

and body" and a#t or inner puri i#ation!J A sage abandons all desires o his senses" mind" intelle#t" and body" and pra#tises sel less a#tion or inner san#tity! 7oes that mean that the Sel is tainted with impurities e&en a ter he has merged into 'od/ %t #annot be so be#ause a ter this dissolution the Sel be#omes one with all beingsO he sees his own e.rishn e.tension in all beings! So he a#ts" not or himsel " but or the puri i#ation and guidan#e o other beings! 1e a#ts with his mind" intelle#t and physi#al organs" but his Sel is in a state o a#tionlessness and #onstant pea#e! 1e appears to be a#ti&e outwardly" but inside him there is only endless tranKuility! The rope #annot bind any longer be#ause it is burnt out and what remains is only the impression o its twist! 1*! HThe sage who sa#ri i#es the ruits o his a#tion to 'od attains to his state o sublime repose" but the man who desires rewards o a#tion is #hained by desire!II The man who is blessed with the inal out#ome o sel less a#tion and who dwells in 'od$the root o all beings" and who has orsaken desire or the ruits o a#tion be#ause the 'od who was the goal o his a#tion is no longer distant rom him" a#hie&es the state o sublime pea#e beyond whi#h there is no greater pea#e and beyond whi#h he will ne&er again know restlessness! But the way$ arer" who is still on his way and atta#hed Bhe has to be atta#hed be#ause the H ruitJ o his a#tion" 'od" is still unattainedC to the #onseKuen#e o his a#tion" is ettered by it! So desires #ontinue to arise until the moment o attainment" and the worshipper has to be on his guard right till that point! (y most re&ered tea#her" (aharaj Ai" used to say" H(ark me" maya pre&ails i we .perien#e" o the man to whom 'od is &isibly present that he does absolutely nothing! 2ather than being a mere an#y" it is a irm #on&i#tion he has arri&ed at through the per orman#e o a#tion! A ter ha&ing known this he #annot but be$li&e that whate&er he appears to be doing is really the operation o his senses a##ording to their natural properties! And" when there is nothing higher than 'od whom he has apprehended" what greater joy #an he aspire to ha&e by tou#hing any other obje#t or being/ 1ad there been something better beyond" there must ha&e been atta#hment! But a ter the attainment o 'od there is no urther goal to stri&e or! And neither is there anything le t behind or him to renoun#e! So the man endowed with attainment is un$immersed in a#tion! This thought is now illustrated by an e.worshipper who has a#hie&ed sel less a#tion! .ample! 1+! HThe man who a#ts" dedi#ating all his a#tions to 'od and abandoning all atta#hment" is untou#hed by sin as a lotus lea is untou#hed by water!II The lotus grows in mud" but its lea loats abo&e the water! 2ipples pass o&er it night and day" but i you look at the lea it is always dry! @ot a drop o water #lings to it! So the lotus growing in mud and water is yet unsullied by them! Aust so" the man" all o whose a#tions are merged into 'od Bthis dissolution o##urs only with per#eption" not be oreC" and who a#ts with total deta#hment be#ause there is nothing beyond to be desired" is una e#ted by a#tion! 4et he is busy with the per orman#e o a#tion or the guidan#e and good o the ones who are behind him! This is the point that is stressed in the ollowing &erse! 11! HSages gi&e up the atta#hment o their senses" mind" in$tele.plains again why this man" blessed with yog" remains unatta#hed to a#tion! 8$9! QQThe man who per#ei&es" in whate&er he is doing" whether hearing" tou#hing" smelling" eating" walking" sleeping" breathing" gi&ing up or seiMing" and opening or #losing his eyes" that only his senses are a#ting a##ording to their properties and that he himsel is a non$doer" is indeed the one with true knowledge!II %t is a belie " or rather e.

V be#ause he neither a#ts him$sel nor makes others a#t!II The man who is in per e#t #ontrol o himsel and dwells" be$yond his body" mind" intelle#t" and material nature" in his own Sel $this man o restraint undoubtedly neither a#ts nor is a #ause o a#tion! <&en prompting the men le t behind to a#t does not a e#t his serenity! This man who has realiMed his Sel and abides in him" and who has subdued all his organs whi#h pro&ide him with obje#ts o physi#al pleasure" dwells in the ultimate bliss that is 'od! %n truth" thus" he neither a#ts nor e e#ts any undertaking o a#tion! U).VThe human body" is des#ribed as the #ity o nine gates" su#h as mouth" ears" eyes et#! The same idea is stated di erently when .tent to whi#h his natural disposition is &irtuous or &itiated $ di&ine or de&ilish! People usually say that it is 'od who does or gets things done" and we are mere instruments! %t is he who makes us do well or ill! But .! HThe man who is in per e#t #ontrol o his heart and mind" and a#ts a##ordingly " dwells bliss ully in the abode o his body with its nine aperturesU).are e&en in the least remo&ed rom 'od and he is remo&ed rom us!J <&en i the attain$mint is to be tomorrow" today the worshipper is at best only an ignorant man! So the Kuesting worshipper ought not to be #areless! Get us see what is urther said about this! 1.rishn maintains that 'od neither a#ts nor prompts a#tion" and that he also does not produ#e a&ourable or un a&ourable #ir#um$stan#es! (en a#t by themsel&es a##ording to the #ompulsions o their inborn nature! They are impelled to a#t by the ine&itability o their inherent traitsO it is not 'od who a#ts! Then why do people say that e&erything is done by 'od/ .rishn dwells upon the problem! 1)! HThe all$per&ading 'od" the 'lorious 0ne" a##epts neither menIs sin ul a#ts nor atta#hment be#ause their know$edge is en&eloped by ignoran#e BmayaC!JU)8V The one who has been named 'od is now des#ribed as the 'lorious 0ne be#ause he is embellished with sublime glory! That 'od" all power ul and radiant" a##epts neither our sins nor our righteous a#tions! But people yet say that he does e&erything" be$#ause their knowledge is #louded with ignoran#e! As yet the men who speak so are only mortal beings" en#losed within bodies! Subje#t to delusion they #an say anything! So .t$&erse is again related to the same problem! 18! H'od #reates neither a#tion nor the #apa#ity or a#tion" and not e&en the asso#iation o a#tion with its ruits" but at the same time" &italiMed by his spirit" it is nature that a#ts!II 'od makes neither the power o beings to a#t nor a#tions" nor does he de#ide the ruits o a#tion" and all obje#ts and beings a#t only under the pressure o innate natural properties! 0ne a#ts a#$ #ording to the three properties" tamas" rajas and sattwa! @ature is &ast" but it a e#ts a man only to the e.rishn now elu#idates the un#tion o knowledge! U)8V%shwar is the 'od asso#iated with the power #alled maya" the power to e&ol&e as the .rishn says that 'od" too" neither a#ts nor gets any a#tion a##omplished! The a##omplished tea#her" 'od" the adored one" the realiMed sage" an enlightened guru" and the endowed one$are all synonymous! @o 'od de$sends rom hea&en to a##omplish anything! -hen he un#tions" he operates through these Sel $abiding" re&erent" and lo&ing Souls! The body is a mere dwelling pla#e or su#h a Soul! So the a#tion o the Supreme Sel is the same as that o the indi&idual Sel " be$#ause he a#ts through him! So" in truth" the Sel who has be#ome one with 'od does nothing e&en while he is engaged in a#tion! The ne.

iom that e&erything has at least two stages" the highest$the ultimate stage$and the initial$the lowest stage! The lowest stage o .ed not on the skin" on the e.rishn said earlier that ignorant minds are dri&en with dissensions" be#ause o whi#h they de&ise an endless &ariety o deeds! The eighteenth &erse suggests that there are two kinds o sages! 6irst" there are sages whose knowledge is per e#t! Se#ondly" there are sages who are possessed o re&erent knowledge! Get us linger or a moment to see how they are di erent! %t is an a.nowledge is not garrulousness or being argumentati&e! The man who is endowed with this knowledge attains to sal&ation and is liberated rom physi#al ties! %t is su#h men who are #alled pandit" men o pro ound learning and wisdom! 0nly a man who has a#hie&ed this ultimate state deser&es the name o pandit! 18! HSages who look e&enly at a Brahmin" a #ow" an elephant" a dog" and e&en the most despi#able o men are blessed with the highest degree o knowledge!J They are realiMed sages whose sins ha&e been destroyed by knowledge and who ha&e a#hie&ed the state in whi#h there is no urther birth! And su#h men regard all #reatures impartially" making no distin#tion between a dis#erning Brahmin and an out#ast" or between a dog and an elephant! %n their eyes there is neither any spe#ial merit in the wise and learned Brahmin nor any spe#ial de$merit in the ostra#iMed man! 6or him neither is a #ow holy nor a dog unholy! 1e does not ind any spe#ial greatness about a massi&e elephant! Su#h men o knowledge are impartial o &iew and eKual minded! Their eyes are i.t birth$whose mind and intelle#t are ree rom delusion" who dwell with a single mind in 'od and put themsel&es at his mer#y" and who are reed rom all sin by knowledge!II That state is knowledge in whi#h a man dedi#ates himsel wholly to 'od and is dependent on him" with a mind and an intelle#t shaped a##ordingly" and o&er lowing with his essen#e! .ternal orm" but on the Soul$the inner essen#e! The di eren#e is only this: men who know and are re&erent to the Sel are #lose to 'od" whereas others straggle behind! Some ha&e gone a stage ahead" while some are yet lingering behind! (en o knowledge are #ons#ious that the body is but an apparel! So they look at the embodied Soul and atta#h no signi i#an#e to the outward orm! They do not dis#riminate! .rishn was a #owherd and he had tended #ows! So he should ha&e spoken o this #reature in re&erential terms! But he has done nothing like that and he #on#edes no pla#e to the #ow in dharm! 1e has only admitted that like other beings she" too has a Soul! -hat$e&er be the e#onomi# importan#e o #ows" their religious ele&ation is just an in&ention o the ignorant with ensla&ed minds! .empiri#al uni&erse" or with uni&ersal ignoran#eO the indi&idual man is 'od asso#iated with indi&idual ignoran#e! The distin#tion between 'od and man is that 'od #ontrols maya" but man is #ontrolled by it! C ! The >panishad (andukya! 1:! HBut the knowledge o one whose ignoran#e has been dispelled by Sel $per#eption shines like the sun and renders 'od brilliantly &isible! II The mind" whose darkness has been pier#ed through by knowledge o the Sel and whi#h has thus a#Kuired true wisdom" is lit up as i with the light o the sun and 'od is #learly mani ested to it! This does not by any means imply that 'od is some kind o darkness" or he is truly the sour#e o all light! 1e is the ountain o all light" but his light$it appears$is not or us be#ause it is not seen by us! -hen darkness is swept away by per#eption o the Sel $like the Sel " like the sun" the resulting knowledge absorbs his brightness within itsel ! A ter this there is no longer any darkness! 1ere is what .rishn has to say about the nature o this knowledge: 19! HThose men attain sal&ation$a ter whi#h there is no ne.

unti" men o wisdom do not desire them!J @ot only the skin" but all senses eel the sensation o tou#h #onta#t! Seeing is the tou#h o the eye as hearing is the tou#h o the ear! Although seeming pleasant to e.rishn then enlightens him on the e&il that is embodied by atta#hment to these pleasures! .tension o the mind! .perien#e" all the enjoyment arising orm these #onta#ts o senses with their obje#ts only leads to miserable births! (oreo&er" these sensual grati i#ations are also transient and destru#tible! So Arjun is told that men o dis#rimination are not entangled in them! .rishnIs &iew" sin#e 'od is imma#ulate and impartial" the minds o sages who ha&e known 1im are also reed rom all blemishes and ineKualities! The sage be#omes one with 'od! This is the ultimate birthless state and it is a#Kuired when the ability to o&er#ome the enemy" the world o appearan#es" is ully de&eloped! This ability is there when the mind is #ontrolled and when one has a#hie&ed the state o eKuality" or the world o appearan#es" is but an e.worship is the one at whi#h it is #ommen#ed" when it is taken up with dis#ernment" deta#hment" and dedi#ation" while the highest stage is that at whi#h the inal out#ome o the a#t o worship is about to emerge! The same is true o the Brahmin #lass$the state o sattwa" when there is the ad&ent o properties that pro&ide a##ess to the Supreme Spirit and there is the presen#e o knowledge and a re&erential attitude! At this stage all the a#ulties that take one to 'od are spontaneously a#ti&e within$#ontrol o mind" restraint o senses" beginning o the pro#ess o intuition$dire#t per#eption" steady #ontemplation" #on#entration" and abstra#t meditation! This is the lowest stage o the state that is named Brahmin! %ts highest stage is rea#hed when with gradual per e#tion the Sel at last stands a#e to a#e with 'od and is dissol&ed in him! @ow that whi#h had to be known is per e#tly known! The sage who has a#hie&ed this is the one with per e#t knowledge! This sage" who is now beyond rebirth" looks eKually at #reatures" be#ause his eyes are turned within to see the enshrined Sel ! So .ternal world attains to the eli#ity o 'od! 1is Sel is united with 'od and the resulting happiness is there ore eternal! But this happiness #omes only to him who is unatta#hed to pleasures! **! HSin#e the pleasures arising rom the asso#iation o senses with their obje#ts are a #ause o grie and are transitory" 0 son o .rishn then speaks o the distin#ti&e marks o the sage who has known 'od and merged into him: *+! HThat eKual$minded man dwells in 'od who is neither delighted by what others lo&e nor o ended by what others s#orn" who is ree rom doubt" and who has per#ei&ed 1imII Su#h a man trans#ends eelings o lo&e and hatred! 1e does not go wild with joy when he gets something whi#h is #herished and admired by others! %n the same way" he is also not repelled by what others ind distaste ul! -ith su#h a #onstant mind" ree rom doubt" and endowed with knowledge o the di&ine Sel " he always dwells in 'od! %n other words" he is a man o attainment" and$ *1! HThat man be#omes one with 'od and enjoys eternal bliss who is single$mindedly dedi#ated to him and whose heart is ree rom desire or worldly joys!J The man who has renoun#ed desire or the pleasure o obje#ts o the e.rishn now des#ribes what is the ultimate lot o this sage: 19! HThey who a#hie&e the state o eKuality #onKuer the whole world within the mortal li e itsel " be#ause they rest in 'od who is also unblemished and impartial!II Sages with per e#tly poised minds are reed rom material nature during their worldly li e itsel ! But what is the relation between an e&en mind and #onKuest o nature/ -hen the world itsel is annihilated" what is the position o the Sel / %n .

rishn also says that the man who su##eeds in o&er#oming his passion and anger in this li e itsel is the doer o sel less a#tion in this world" and he is blessed with e&erlasting happiness! Passion and anger" attra#tion and repulsion" desire or the tou#hing o obje#ts by the senses" are our mortal enemies whom we ha&e to &anKuish and destroy! .ed on sal&ation!J .*.rishn re&erts to the ne#essity o #ontemplating the in#oming and outgoing breath or the realiMation o this sageIs state! %n Chapter 8" he told us o o ering pran to apan" o sa#ri i#ing apan to pran" and o the regulation o both the li e winds while gi&ing his a##ount o the pro#ess o yagya! The same subje#t is taken up again at the end o the present #hapter! *9$*8! HThat sage is liberated or e&er who shuts out o his mind all obje#ts o sensual pleasure" keeps his eyes #entered between the two brows" regulates his pran and apan" #onKuers his senses" mind and intelle#t" and whose mind is i.abir intends to #on$&ey when he #ounsels his dis#iples to pla#e their hope in this li e! The assuran#e that sal&ation #omes a ter death is alse and gi&en only by unworthy and sel ish tea#hers! .rishn thus repeatedly stresses the distin#ti&e eatures o the #hara#ter and li e o doers o sel less a#tion in order to moti&ate and en#ourage Arjun and" through him" all his other dis#iples! The Kuestion is now almost resol&ed! To #on#lude his argument" how$e&er" .! HThat man in this world is a true and blessed yogi who" e&en be ore the death o his mortal body" a#Kuires the ability to withstand the onslaughts o passion and anger" and #onKuers them or e&er!II 1e is the real man BnaraXnaWramanC$one who is not gi&en to physi#al dallian#e! <&en while he is li&ing in the mortal body" he is #apable o a#ing the ier#e urges o passion and anger" and o destroying them! 1e has a#hie&ed sel less a#tion in the world and he is happy! 1e has won the happiness o identity with 'od in whi#h there is no grie ! A##ording to di&ine ordinan#e" this happiness is a#Kuired in this mortal" worldly li e itsel and not a ter the death o the physi#al body! This is what Sant .rishn again dwells upon the nature o the doer o sel less a#tion! *8! HThe man who knows his Sel and whose happiness and pea#e lie within merges into 'od" and he attains to the inal beatitude that lies in him!J The man" who is joyous within" at pea#e within" and illumined within by his per#eption o the Sel and the identi#al >ni&ersal Spirit" is a realiMed sage who is united with 'od and who attains to his ine able state! %n other words" there is irst destru#tion o per&ersions$alien impulses su#h as atta#hment and a&ersion" then the emergen#e o per#eption" and inally submersion in the all per&ading o#ean o inal beatitude! *)! HThey attain to the eternal pea#e o 'od whose sins ha&e been destroyed by per#eption and whose doubts are re$sol&ed" and who are single$mindedly #on#erned with the good o all beings!II 1e is a man o attainment whose sins ha&e been dispelled by his &ision o 'od" whose doubts ha&e been done away with" and who is wholeheartedly de&oted to the ser&i#e o all mankind! 0nly a man o this ele&ated state #an help others" or how #an he who is allen in a dit#h himsel help others to get out/ So #ompassion appears as a natural attribute o realiMed sages and they" with their spiritual per#eption and #onKuest o the senses" realiMe the pea#e that #omes with the inal dissolution in 'od! *:! H(en who are ree rom passion and wrath" who ha&e #onKuered their mind" and who ha&e had a dire#t per#eption o 'od" see the all$tranKuil Supreme Sel where&er they look!II .

rishn is! YYYYY At the beginning o the #hapter Arjun raised a Kuestion about .rishn and realiMes him as soon as he is blessed with this knowledge! This is named pea#eO and the one who a#hie&es it be#omes 'od o gods just as .ternal pleasure ha&e already been shut outO now there will not e&en arise inner desires! Contemplation then stands steady and straight like a stream o oil! A stream o oil does not des#end like water" drop by dropO it #omes down in a #onstant" unbroken line! Similar to this is the motion o the breath o a sage o attainment! So the man" who has balan#ed his pran and apan" #onKuered his senses" mind and intelle#t" reed himsel rom desire" and ear and anger" per e#ted #ontemplati&e dis#ipline" and taken re uge in sal&ation" is e&er$liberated! .rishnIs #onsidered judgement" is doubtlessly superior! .rishnIs alternate praise o the -ay o Sel less A#tion and the -ay o .rishn says that he is the enjoyer o the worshipperIs yagya o inhaled and e.rishn! Gike .ternal sour#es! Thoughts o e.rishn reminds Arjun o the &ital need o e.rishn$'od o the gods o all worlds$is the re#ipient and enjoyer o the o erings o all yagya and penan#es" and that he is the sel less well$wisher o all beings$knowing all this he a#hie&es the ultimate repose! ..eeping the eyes aligned with the ridge o the nose$we must be #are ul that we do not start wat#hing the nose$and balan#ing pran against apan and keeping the eyes steadily i.ed steadily between the two brows! .rishn told him that there is ultimate good in both! %n both the worshipper has to per orm the ordained a#t o yagya" but the -ay o Sel less A#tion is yet superior! -ithout su#h a#tion there is no end o desire" and o good and e&il deeds! 2enun#iation is the name" not o a means" but o the goal itsel ! The man o renun#iation is a doer o sel less a#tion" a yogi! 'odliness is his mark! 1e neither a#ts nor makes others a#t" and all beings are engaged in a#tion only under the pressure o nature! 1e is the seer$the pandit$be#ause he knows 'od! 'od B.perien#es as an out#ome o yagya" that is" with the attainment o this repose he is trans ormed into a sage like .rishn inally dis#ourses upon where this sage goes a ter liberation and what he a#hie&es! *9! H.haled breath as well as o austerities! 1e is the one in whom yagya and penan#es are at last dissol&ed and so their doer #omes to 1im" the ultimate serenity that results rom the #ompletion o yagya! The worshipper" liberated rom desire by sel less a#tion" knows .nowledge through 2enun#iation! 1e wished to know that whi#h" a##ording to .nowing the truth that it is % who enjoy the o erings o yagya and penan#es" that % am 'od o all the worlds" and that l am the sel less bene a#tor o all beings" he attains to inal tranKuility!J This liberated man" who knows that .ed all the while" we should dire#t the &ision o mind" the Soul" to the breath and let him wat#h it: when does the breath go in" how long is it held$i it is held in or only hal a se#ond" we should not try to prolong it by or#e" and how long does it stay out/ %t is hardly ne#essary to say that the name in the breath will ring audibly! Thus when the &ision o mind learns to #on#entrate steadily on the in$haled and e.ternal obje#ts as well as o keeping the eyes i.rishnC is known as an out#ome o yagya! 1e is the one into whom breath$re#itation" yagya" and puri i#atory rites all merge! 1e is the tranKuility whi#h the worship$per e.haled breath" breathing will gradually be#ome #onstant" irm" and balan#ed! There will be then neither generation o inner desires nor assaults on the mind and heart by desires rom e.#luding rom the mind all thoughts o e.rishn and other seers" he also be#omes 'od o gods be#ause he is now one with 'od! That the #oming about o this attainment may take a number o births is a di erent matter! Chapter ) has thus elu#idated the .eeping the eyes between the brows does not simply mean #on#entrating them at something! %t is rather that while the worshipper is sitting ere#t" his eyes should be pointed ahead in a straight line rom the midpoint between the browsO they should not wander about restlessly and look right and le t! .

t into the orm o audio #assettes has been done by the #ourtesy o Sri Aitenbhai! @ote: The audio o the Book" 4atharth 'eeta is a&ailable in &arious %nternational B<nglish" 'ermanC and %ndian languages B1indi" Bengali" 'ujarati" (arathi" Tamil" TeluguC and the same #ould be downloaded rom http:PPwww!yatharthgeeta!#omP! .t o the Book" 4atharth 'eeta is a&ailable in &arious %nternational B<nglish" 2ussian" 6ren#h" 'erman" Spanish" Chinese" %talian" @orwegian" 7ut#h" Portuguese" Arabi#" Aapanese" PersianC and %ndian languages B1indi" Bengali" Assamese" 'ujarati" (arathi" Tamil" Telugu" (alayalam" .rishn to Arjun in the '<<TA! As su#h the '<<TA is indisputably a spiritual te.rishn and Arjun" entitled : QQ4agya Bhokta (ahapurushasth (aheshwarah" or QQThe Supreme 'od$ enjoyer o 4agyaII Thus #on#ludes Swami AdgadanandIs e.uniKue and amaMing point that the power that dwells within the sage a ter his realiMation o 'od is no other than the spirit o the Supreme Gord $ o the 'od who is the enjoyer o the o erings o all yagya and penan#es! Thus #on#ludes the 6i th Chapter in the >panishad o the Shreemad Bhagwad 'eeta" on the .tbook or the entire human ra#e! By presenting the essen#e o 4AT1A2T1 '<<TA" Swami Adgadanandji has made an in&aluable #ontribution to all o mankind! The trans ormation o this te.ander the 'reat to bring ba#k with him rom %ndia" a #ountry that was well$known or its spiritual masters" a #opy o the Shreemad Bhagwad '<<TA as the guru$like embodiment o the spiritual knowledge o the a##omplished sages! The essential #on#ept o one single 'od as the >ltimate 2eality taught in the '<<TA" has been propagated in di erent languages at di erent times around the world by su#h Hgreat masters as (oses" Aesus and numerous Su i Saints also! 7ue to language and #ultural di eren#es" it #an appear that the tea#hings o great masters are di erentiated$ but indeed" their essen#e is identi#al to the wisdom #on&eyed by .position o the 6i th Chapter o the Shreemad Bhagwad 'eeta in QQ4atharth 'eetaII 1A2% 0( TAT SAT YYYYY @ote: The te.annada" 0riya" Sindhi" Sanskrit" @epali" Punjabi and >rduC and the same #ould be downloaded rom http:PPwww!yatharthgeeta!#omP! P2<6AC< 06 C1APT<2 %@ A>7%0 CASS<TT<S Among the olktales o %ndia" there is a story that Aristotle$ one o the great 'reek philosopher and men o wisdom like So#rates had instru#ted Ale.nowledge o the Supreme Spirit" the S#ien#e o 4og" and the 7ialogue between .

C1APT<2 :: T1< 40' 06 (<7%TAT%0@ -hene&er there is rank growth" in the name o dharm" o too many #ustoms and pra#ti#es" o orms o worship and prayer" and o s#hools and se#ts" some great Soul appears" makes his ad&ent to demolish them" and to install and strengthen the one and only 'od" as also to broaden the path o a#tion that leads to him! The pra#ti#e o renoun#ing a#tion and thus o being known or wisdom were also all too pre&alent in the age o .rishn replied that both were eKually propitious! Both the ways take one to the same goal and yet the -ay o Sel less A#tion is superior to that o .rishn urther speaks about this: *! H2emember" 0 Arjun" that yog Bsel less a#tionC is the same as renun#iation BknowledgeC" or .plains why he a irms" or the ourth time" at the beginning o this #hapter" that a#tion is an essential" ine&itable reKuirement o the -ays o both .nowledge: the pre#ept that he should wage war! The -ay o .rishn why" when he thought the -ay o .nowledge does not imply ina#ti&ity! -hile it is true that the initial urge #omes rom an a##omplished tea#her himsel " the ollower o knowledge has to engage in a#tion a ter sel $appraisal and due judgement o the pros and #ons" and o his strength! 6ighting is thus una&oidable on the -ay o .rishn that he had imparted both the ways" but a##ording to the pro&isions o neither o them is it allowed to go along without the per orman#e o a#tion! A man does not a#hie&e the state o a#tionlessness by just not #ommen#ing work" nor does he attain to ultimate liberation by abandoning an undertaken enterprise! The ordained pro#ess o yagya has to be a##omplished or both the ways! So Arjun was well a#Kuainted with the truth that" whether he pre ers the -ay o .nowing this" he should ight! .rishn! That e.rishn insists that only that man has made true renun#iation or a#hie&ed yog who engages in the one a#tion that is worthy o doing with absolutely no desire or any rewards! @o one be#omes a sanyasi or a yogi by just desisting rom the ordained a#tion! There are many kinds o work" but out o them the a#tion whi#h is it to be undertaken and whi#h is ordained is only one! And this one a#tion is yagya whi#h means Hworship"J the one means or the attainment o 'od! The pra#ti#e o it is a#tionO and the man who does it is a sanyasi and a yogi! % a man has just stopped lighting ire or tells himsel #ompla#ently that he has no use or a#tion be#ause he possesses Sel $knowledge" he is neither a sanyasi nor a doer o sel less a#tion! .nowledge and Sel less A#tion! 1e told Arjun in Chapter * that there was no more propitious a way or a ." Arjun asked .nowledge superior to that o Sel less A#tion" he was prompting him to sin ul a#ts! %n the pre&ailing #ir#umstan#e he ound the -ay o Sel less A#tion more haMardous! Thereupon he was told by .rishn in Chapter ) whi#h o the two ways was better rom the point o &iew o out#omeO And whi#h was more #on&enient/ .isten#e" while &i#tory will bring him ultimate bliss! .nowledge! %n Chapter .nowledge" be#ause no one #an gain yog without a#Kuitting himsel o sel less a#tion! The reKuired a#tion is the same in both #ases! There is thus now no ambiguity about the a#t that one #annot be either an as#eti# or yogi without per orming the appointed task! The only di eren#e is between the attitudes o the way arers who tread along the two ways! 1! QQThe Gord said" QThe man who per orms the ordained task without desiring its ruits" rather than the one who just gi&es up BlightingC the sa#red ire or a#tion" is a sanyasi and a yogi!III .nowledge or the -ay o Sel less A#tion" he has to a#t! 4et he again asked .rishn urther pointed out to him that he had imparted this pre#ept to him in regard to the -ay o .shatriy than to ight! % he loses the war" he will be rewarded with godly e.

rishn then speaks about the pro it that a##rues rom the attainment o yog: )! HSin#e the Soul enshrined in a man is his riend as well as oe" it is binding on a man to li t himsel by his own e ort rather than degrade himsel !II %t is manIs duty to work or the sal&ation o his Soul! 1e must not tempt him to damnation" or the embodied Soul is both his riend and enemy! Get us now see" in .rishnIs words" when the Sel is a riend and when an ad&ersary! :! HThe Sel is a riend to the man who has o&er#ome his mind and senses" but he is an enemy to one who has ailed to do so!II To the man who has &anKuished his mind and senses" the Soul within is a riend" but to the man who has not subdued his mind and senses" he is an enemy! %n the i th and si.rishn it is by no means so! .no man #an be a yogi without a total reje#tion o desire!J -hat we know as renun#iation is also yog" or no man #an be a yogi without gi&ing up all his desires! %n other words" sa#ri i#e o desire is essential or men who ha&e #hosen either o the ways! Super i#ially it appears so easy" or all that we need to do in order to be#ome a yogi$ sanyasi is to #laim that we are ree rom desire! But a##ording to .rishn thus insists repeatedly that a man should redeem his Sel by his own e ort! 1e must not degrade him" be#ause the Sel is a riend! Besides him" besides the Sel " there is neither any riend nor any enemy! %t is so be#ause" i a man has restrained his mind and senses" his Soul a#ts as a riend and brings him the highest good! But" i a manIs mind and senses are not restrained" his Soul turns into an enemy that drags him to re$ birth in lower orms o li e and to endless misery! (en are ond o saying" H% am Soul!J So there is nothing or us to worry about! -e #ite e&iden#e rom the 'eeta itsel ! %snIt it said there" we ask" that weapons #annot pier#e and ire #annot burn and wind #annot wither the Sel / 1e" the deathless" immutable and uni&ersal" is there ore me! Belie&ing so" we pay little heed to the warning in the 'eeta that this Soul within us #an also des#end to an in erior" degraded le&el! 6ortunately" howe&er" he #an also be sa&ed and ele&atedO and .rishn has made known to Arjun the a#tion whi#h is worthy o being done and whi#h leads the Soul to absolution! The ollowing &erse indi#ates the Kualities o a benign" riendly Sel ! .th &erses .! H-hereas sel less a#tion is the means or the #ontemplati&e man who wishes to a#hie&e yog" a total absen#e o will is the means or one who has attained to it!J Per orman#e o a#tion to a#hie&e yog is the way or the re le#ti&e man who aspires to sel less a#tion! But when repeated pra#ti#e o the deed gradually brings one to the stage at whi#h the inal out#ome o sel less a#tion emerges" absen#e o all desire is the means! 0ne is not rid o desire be ore this stageO and$ 8! HA man is said to ha&e a#hie&ed yog when he is unatta#hed to both sensual pleasure and a#tion!J This is the stage when a man is not gi&en to sensual pleasure" nor to a#tion! -hen the #ulmination o yog is on#e rea#hed" who is there beyond to stri&e and look or/ So there is no longer any need o e&en the pres#ribed task o worship and" there ore" o atta#hment to a#tion! This is the point when atta#hments are #ompletely broken! This is renun#iation$BsanyasCO and this is also a#hie&ement o yog! -hile a worshipper is still on his way and has not yet arri&ed at this point" there is nothing like renun#iation! .

rishn has portrayed in &erses 9$1* in Chapter )! Per#eption o 'od and the #onseKuent enlightenment are knowledge! The worshipper is but gro&elling in the mire o ignoran#e i there is e&en the slightest distan#e between him and the adored 'od and the desire to know him remains un ul illed! -hat is #alled Hintuiti&eJ knowledge B&igyanCU))V here is knowledge o 'odIs un#tioning through things" a#ts" and relations Bthe mani est uni&erseC whi#h re&eal how he is all$per&ading" how he prompts" how he guides innumerable Souls simultaneously" and how he is knower o all times$past" present" and uture! 1e begins to guide rom the &ery moment when he makes his ad&ent in a heart as the re&ered one" but the worshipper is unable to know this at the initial stage! %t is only when he has rea#hed the #ulmination o his #ontemplati&e e.ternal deeds! The only di eren#e he" there ore" sees between di&erse beings is that while some ha&e as#ended to higher steps and gotten #lose to the state o purity" others ha&e lagged behind and are still lingering on the lower steps! All the same" he sees the #apa#ity or sal&ation in all! %n the ne.rishn adds: U))VAn apparently di erent interpretation o the word will be ound in #hapter 9! 9! HThat man is indeed superior who &iew all with an eKual mind: riends and oes" the antagonisti#" indi erent" neutral or jealous" kinsmen" and the righteous as well as sinners!II A ter per#eptions o 'od" a sage is both eKual and e&en$minded! .tri#ably in the heart o the man who rests in his own Sel and rea#ts e&enly to the dualities o nature su#h as heat and #old" pain and pleasure" and honour and humiliation! Per e#t repose lows through one who has #onKuered the mind along with the senses! This is the stage when the Soul is liberated! 8! HThe yogi" whose mind is Kuen#hed with knowledge$both di&ine and intuiti&e" whose de&otion is steady and #onstant" who has #onKuered his senses well" and who makes no distin#tion between obje#ts ostensibly as di erent as earth" ro#k" and gold" is said to ha&e realiMed 'od!II The yogi who has a#hie&ed this state is said to be endowed with yog! 1e has rea#hed the #rowning point o yog whi#h 4ogeshwar .rishn said in the last #hapter that sages who are blessed with knowledge and dis#rimination regard with an impartial eye a Brahmin" an out#ast" and animals so di&erse as a #ow" a dog" and an elephant! The &erse under dis#ussion #omplements what was said be ore! That man is doubtlessly a man o e.#ellen#e who looks eKually at all kinds o people" rom the highest to the lowest" rom the most &irtuous to the most wi#ked" and rom the most lo&ing to the most mali#ious" irrespe#ti&e o their eelings or him! 1e looks at the #ourse o Souls within them rather than at their e.er#ise that he gains ull awareness o 'odIs ways! This is &igyan! The heart o the man who is a##omplished in yog is satiated with this a#hie&ement #ombined with his knowledge o 'od and a##urate insight! Continuing with his a##ount o this adept in yog" .t i&e &erses" .9! H'od is e&er and inseparably present in the serene heart o the Sel $abiding man who is unmo&ed by the #ontradi#tions o heat and #old" happiness and sorrow" and ame and in ame!II 'od dwells ine. .rishn des#ribes how a man #omes to the possession o yog" how he pra#tises yagya" the nature o the pla#e where the deed is per ormed" the seat and the posture o the worshipper" the laws whi#h regulate his ood and re#reation" and sleep and wake ulness" and the Kuality o e ort reKuired or the a##omplishment o yog! The 4ogeshwar has done this" so that we too are enabled to per orm the appointed deed o yagya by ollowing his pre#epts! A brie re&iew o the rele&ant points is ne#essary at this point! 4agya was named in Chapter .

and .ush: a kind o grass #onsidered holy and orming an essential reKuirement o 1indu religious #eremonies! 1*! H1e should then sit on it and pra#tise yog" #on#entrating his mind and restraining the senses" or sel $puri i#ation!J @e.t" then" the posture o sitting Ba##ording to the pro&ision" meditation is done in a sitting postureC $ the manner in whi#h the worshipper should sit while engaged in #ontemplation$is taken up! 1.er#ise! 11! HAt a #lean spot he should de&ise a seat o kush$grassU):V or deer$skin #o&ered with a pie#e o #loth" whi#h is neither too high nor too low!II Cleanliness o pla#e is a Kuestion o sweeping and wiping it to keep it neat and tidy! %n su#h a #lean pla#e" the worshipper should make or himsel a seat o grass or deer$skin" on top o whi#h there is spread a #o&er o abri# su#h as silk" or o wool! 1owe&er" the seat may also be just a simple wooden board! But whate&er it is" it should be irm" and neither too high nor too low! The intent behind all this is that something should be spread on the ground to #o&er itO it may be anything$skin" a mat" a pie#e o any kind o #loth" or e&en a wooden plank! %t is important that the seat is not shaky! Again" it should be neither too high rom the ground nor too low! (y re&ered tea#her" (aharaj Ai" used to sit on an about i&e$in#h high seat! 0n#e it so happened that some de&otees got him a marble seat that was about a oot high! (aharaj Ai sat on it only on#e and said" H@o" this is too high! A sadhu should not sit too high! %t only makes them &ain! That does not mean" though" that they should sit too low either" or that gi&es rise to a sense o in eriority$o #ontempt or onesel !J So he had the marble seat put away in the orest! (aharaj Ai ne&er went there" and neither does anybody else now! That really was an e.rishn said that yagya is the ordained a#tion! %n Chapter 8" then" he elaborated the nature o yagya in whi#h the outgoing breath is sa#ri i#ed to the in#oming breath" the in#oming breath o ered as oblation to the outgoing breath" and the mind is restrained through serenity o the &ital li e$winds! The pre#ise meaning o yagya is" as we ha&e seen" Hworship"J the deed that enables the worshipper to tra&erse the path to the adored 'od! .er#ise in a pra#ti#al lesson by the great man! So the seat o a worshipper should not be too high! % it is too high" &anity will o&ertake him e&en be ore he #ommen#es the task o di&ine adoration! A ter thus #leaning a spot and making a irm and reasonably ele&ated seat on it"$ U):V.rishn has also dwelt upon it in Chapter )! But matters su#h as the seat o the worshipper" the pla#e o worship" the posture o the worshipper" and the manner o worship ha&e not yet been tou#hed upon! %t is only now that these subje#ts are taken up! 1+! HThe yogi" engaged in sel $#onKuest" should de&ote himsel to the pra#ti#e o yog in loneliness in a se#luded pla#e" #ontrolling his mind" body and senses" and rid o desire and a#Kuisiti&eness!II Being all alone in a pla#e where there are no distra#tions" restraint o mind" body" and senses" and a #omplete reje#tion o atta#hments are all essential or a man who is engaged in the task o Sel $realiMation! The ollowing &erse #ontains an a##ount o the pla#e and the seat whi#h are #ondu#i&e to the e.! H1olding his body" head" and ne#k irmly ere#t" his eyes should #on#entrate on the tip o the nose" looking neither right nor le t!II %n the #ourse o meditation" the worshipper should keep his body" ne#k" and head straight" .

t two &erses" .ual urge but all the other physi#al urges also #ease! So dwelling in #ondu#t that will take him to 'od" ree rom ear" in a state o repose" and with a restrained mind" the de&oted worshipper should surrender himsel totally to an a##omplished tea#her! But what is the out#ome o all this/ 1)! HThe yogi with a restrained mind who thus meditates on me in#essantly at last attains to the sublime pea#e that dwells in me!J The yogi who thus always re le#ts on .rishn" an ideal" a##omplished tea#her and dwells in 'od" with a #ontrolled mind a#hie&es his sublime pea#e! So Arjun is told to #onstantly de&ote himsel to the task! The treatment o the subje#t is now almost #omplete! %n the ne.#luded in order to #on#entrate the mind on #ontemplation o 'od" on the in#oming and the outgoing breath" and on meditation! There are no e.alted (aharaj Ai used to tell us that a yogi should sleep or our hours and be #onstantly engaged in meditation! 1owe&er" men who #urb their sleep by or#e soon lose their sanity! Along with all these" there should also be .ternal memories when the mind rests on 'od! So long as these memories last" the absorption in 'od is in#omplete! Currents o de&iation low through the mind" not through the body! -hen the mind is wholly o##upied with its adoration o 'od" not only does the se.steady" and unmo&ing" like a #olumn o wood as it were! Sitting ere#t and irm like this" he should keep his eyes i.ed on the tip o his nose! 2ather than meaning that he should wat#h the tip o the nose" the dire#ti&e is that the eyes should look straight in line with the nose! The tenden#y o eyes o restlessly litting here and there must be #urbed! Gooking straight in line with the nose" the worshipper should sit unmo&ing" and$ 18! HAbiding in #ontinen#e" earless" serene at heart" alert and restrained in mind" he should surrender himsel irmly to me!J -hat a#tually does #ontinen#e Bbrahm#harya &ratC$#eliba#y$mean/ People usually say that it is restraint o the se.ertion and one alls prey to illness! 1ow mu#h a man sleeps or remains awake is determined by age" ood" and habit! The most e.rishn then points out the importan#e o physi#al dis#ipline" regulated ood" and re#reation or the worshipper who aims at the #onKuest o ultimate bliss! 1:! HThis yog" 0 Arjun" is neither a#hie&ed by one who eats too mu#h or too little" nor by one who sleeps too mu#h or too little!II (oderation in ood and sleep are ne#essary or a man who wishes to be a yogi! @ow" i the man who eats and sleeps immoderately #annot a#hie&e yog" who #an/ 19! H4og" the destroyer o all grie " is a#hie&ed only by those who regulate their ood and re#reation" who stri&e a##ording to their #apa#ity" and who sleep in moderation!J % a man eats too mu#h" he is o&ertaken by lethargy" sleep" and negligen#e! And the a#t o meditation is simply not possible in su#h a #ondition! 0n the #ontrary" asting will weaken the body and there will not be enough strength to e&en sit straight and irm! A##ording to my re&ered tea#her" one should eat a little less than oneIs need! 2e#reation" as understood here" is walking a##ording to the a&ailable spa#e! Some physi#al e.perien#e o sages that su#h restraint is impossible so long as the mind is asso#iated with obje#ts" sights" tou#h" and sounds whi#h in lame the urge! A true #elibate Bbrahm#hariC is rather one who is engaged in the task o realiMing 'od BBrahmC! The brahm#hari is a man o Brahm$like #ondu#t: a doer o the appointed task o yagya that leads men to attainment and ultimate dissolution in the eternal" immutable 'od! -hile doing it" the e.er#ise is a ne#essityO #ir#ulation is slowed down in the absen#e o su#h e.ternal sensations o tou#h and o all su#h #onta#ts o the mind and other senses ha&e to be e.ual urge! But it has been the e.

perien#e the embodied Soul is endowed with all the trans#endental Kualities o 'od! And it is or this reason that the worshipper now li&es happily and #ontented in his own Sel ! This Sel is what he really is! This is the point o #rowning glory or him! The idea is urther de&eloped in the ne.ist" we #annot possess the Sel ! But when the mind is restrained and then dissol&ed by dire#t per#eption" the &ery ne.rishn emphasiMes again: 18! HA man is said to be endowed with yog when" restrained by the pra#ti#e o sel less a#tion and #ontented with Sel " his mind is reed rom all desires!II Thus" when dis#iplined by the pra#ti#e o sel less a#tion" the mind o a man is irmly #entered on 'od and is indeed dissol&ed in him" and when there remains no desire" the worshipper is said to ha&e attained to yog! Get us now see what a well$restrained mind is! 19! HAn analogy is BusuallyC drawn between the lamp whose lame does not li#ker be#ause there is no wind and the ully restrained mind o a yogi engaged in #ontemplation o 'od!II -hen a lamp is kept where there is not a whi o air" its wi#k burns steadily and the lame goes straight up$it does not tremble! So it is used as a simile or the subdued mind o a yogi who has #ompletely gi&en himsel up to 'od! 1owe&er" the lamp is just an illustration! The kind o lamp that is spoken o here is now going almost out o use! So let us take yet another e.t &erse! *1! HA ter knowing 'od" he Bthe yogiC dwells or e&er and unwa&ering in the state in whi#h he is blessed with the eternal" sense$trans#ending joy that #an be elt only by a re ined and subtle intelle#tO andE II Su#h is the state a ter attainment in whi#h the worshipper li&es or e&er and rom whi#h he ne&er strays! (oreo&er"$ **! H%n this state" in whi#h he belie&es that there #an be no greater good than the ultimate pea#e he has ound in 'od" he is unshaken by e&en the direst o all grie !II A ter he is on#e blessed with 'odIs trans#endental pea#e" settled irmly in the state o his .er#ise" there #an be no restraint o the mind! So when the intelle#t" the re ined mind that has been #urbed by yog" also #eases to be be#ause it is absorbed in 'od" the worshipper per#ei&es him through his Sel and abides with #ontented happiness in his own Sel ! 1e apprehends 'od" but he dwells #ontented in his Soul! %n the moment o attainment he sees 'od" a#e to a#e as it were" but the &ery ne.t moment he inds his own Sel o&er lowing with the eternal glories o that 'od! 'od is immortal" #onstant" unmani est" and &italO and now the worshipperIs soul too is imbued with these di&ine attributes! True" but now it is also beyond thought! So long as desire and its urges e.t moment a ter the &isionary e.ample! -hen an in#ense$ sti#k is burnt" its smoke rises straight up i it is undisturbed by wind! But this" again" is no more than an analogy between smoke and the mind o a yogi! True that the mind has been #onKuered and restrained" but it is still there! -hat spiritual splendour is realiMed when the restrained mind too is dissol&ed/ *+! H%n the state in whi#h e&en the yog$restrained mind is dissol&ed by a dire#t per#eption o 'od" he Bthe worshipperC rests #ontented in his Sel !II This state is a#hie&ed only by a #onstant and long pra#ti#e o yog! %n the absen#e o su#h e.#ludes all thoughts o e.su i#ient e ort or the a##omplishment o the undertaken task" or without this the a#t o worship #annot be #arried out well! 1e su##eeds in a#hie&ing yog who e.ternal obje#ts rom his mind and who is #onstantly engaged in meditation! This is what .

realiMation" the yogi %s reed rom all grie " and now e&en the most pain ul sorrow #annot a e#t him! %t is so be#ause the mind" that eels" is now itsel dissol&ed! So$ *.#ept 'od and" thus step by step" he should pro#eed towards the attainment o inal liberation!II The inal dissolution in 'od #omes only gradually with the pra#ti#e o yog! -hen the mind is ully under #ontrol" the Sel is united with the Supreme Spirit! 1owe&er" at the beginning" when the worshipper has just set out on the path" he has to #on#entrate his mind patiently on" and think o nothing else e.rishn speaks o now! *:! H7oing away with the #auses that make the in#onstant and i#kle wander among worldly obje#ts" he should de&ote his mind to 'od alone!II Stri#tly keeping out all allurements that tempt the #hangeable and restless mind to asso#iate with worldly obje#ts" the worshipper should try repeatedly to #on ine it to the Sel ! %t is o ten #ontended that the mind should be let ree to go where&er it tends to go! A ter all" where else #an it go e.#ept to nature" whi#h is also a #reation o 'od/ So i it roams amidst nature" it is not transgressing the bounds o 'od! But a##ording to .perien#es the eternal bliss o realiMation!J .rishn this is a mis#on#eption! There is no room or su#h belie s in the 'eeta! %t is .! H%t is a duty to pra#tise this yog" untou#hed by miseries o the world" with &igour and determination" and without a sense o ennui!J That whi#h is eKually ree rom worldly attra#tion and repulsion is named yog! 4og is e.perien#ing the inal beatitude! Attainment o the ultimate essen#e" that is 'od" is yog! <ngaging in this yog without a sense o monotony or boredom BennuiC and with resolution" is a sa#red obligation! 1e who is patiently engaged in sel less a#tion is the one who su##eeds in a#hie&ing yog! *8! HAbandoning all desire" lust" and atta#hment" and pulling in by an e.#ept" 'od! The way o this spiritual enterprise is that attainment #omes only with #onstant appli#ation! But at the outset" the mind is restless and re uses to stay at one point! This is what 4ogeshwar .rishnIs injun#tion that the &ery organs through whi#h the mind strays here and there should be #urbed in order to de&ote it solely to 'od! 2estraint o mind is possible! But what is the #onseKuen#e o this restraint/ *9! HThe most sublime happiness is the lot o the yogi whose mind is at pea#e" who is ree rom e&il" whose passion and moral blindness ha&e been dispelled" and who has be#ome one with 'od!II @othing is superior to the happiness that #omes to this yogi" or this is the happiness that results rom identity with 'odO and this ultimate bliss #omes only to that man who is per e#tly at pea#e in his heart and mind" ree rom sin" and whose property o passion and moral blindness has been subdued! The same idea is stressed again! *8! HThus #onstantly dedi#ating his Sel to 'od" the imma#ulate yogi e.er#ise o the mind the numerous senses rom all sides" $II %t is manIs duty to sa#ri i#e all the desires that arise rom will along with atta#hment and worldly pleasure and restrain well with his mind" the senses rom straying here and there! And a ter ha&ing done this"$ *)! H1is intelle#t should also rein in the mind irmly and make it #ontemplate nothing e.

.8! H6or l ind restraining the mind as di i#ult as restraining the wind" be#ause it is BeKuallyC restless" turbulent" and mighty!II .pounded to me as eKuanimity!II Arjun eels helpless! -ith his i#kle and in#onstant mind" he #an oresee no prospe#t o a steady and #onstant adheren#e to the Path o .#ept 'od le t or him! -hate&er mantle o ignoran#e #o&ered him is now dissol&ed! So whate&er he does" he does with the thought o 'od! .! HArjun said" ISin#e the mind is so restless" % #annot see" 0 (adhusudan" that it #an dwell steadily and long in the -ay o .perien#e the blessedness o tou#hing 'od and merging into him! So worship is a ne#essity! *9! QQThe worshipper" whose Sel has a#hie&ed the state o yog and who sees all with an eKual eye" beholds his own Sel in all beings and all beings in his Sel !J 4og brings about the state in whi#h the e&en$minded worshipper sees the e.rishn #on#luded his dis#ourse on the #onseKuen#es o per e#t mental restraint than Arjun e.#ellen#e in his dis#ipline! But no sooner has .rishn has represented to him as the #apa#ity to &iew all things eKually! .nowledge whi#h you ha&e e.+! H6rom the man" who sees me as the Soul in all beings and all beings in me B?asude&CU)9V" % am not hidden and he is not hidden rom me!J 'od is mani est to the man who sees 1im in all beings Bthat all beings are imbued with his SpiritC and all beings as abiding in 1im! 'od also knows his worshipper in the same way! This is the dire#t en#ounter between the yogi and his prompter! This is the eeling o kinship between 'od and man" and sal&ation in this #ase arises rom the eeling o oneness that brings the worshipper intimately #lose to his adored 'od! U)9VAny des#endant o ?asude&" spe#ially .isten#e o all beings in his own Soul! The ad&antage o the per#eption o this unity o all beings is the burden o the ne.nowledge whi#h .t &erse! .1! HThe e&en$minded yogi Bwho has known the unity o the indi&idual Soul and the Supreme SpiritC who adores me B?asude&C" the Soul in all beings" abides in me no matter whate&er he does!II The yogi who realiMes the unity o the indi&idual Soul and the Supreme Spirit has risen abo&e plurality and known the unity that binds the whole uni&erse! -ith this uni ied &ision he #ontemplates 'od and none else" or there is no one e.rishn! .presses a resh misgi&ing! .*! HThe worshipper" 0 Arjun" who per#ei&es all things as identi#al and regards happiness and sorrow as identi#al" is thought to be the most a##omplished yogi!J The man who realiMes that this Sel is also the Sel o all other #reatures" who makes no di eren#e between himsel and others" and or whom joy and grie are the same" is the one or whom there are no longer any distin#tions nor dis#riminations! So" he is rightly regarded as a yogi who has attained to the highest e.The emphasis here is on sinlessness and #ontinuous de&otion! The yogi needs to possess these Kualities be ore he #an e.tension o his Soul in all beings and the e.

rishn says"Z .rishn" are the most #apable o ully resol&ing this doubt o mine be#ause % #annot think o anyone else who #an do it!II The ardour o ArjunIs aith is remarkable! 1e is #on&in#ed that only .rishn tells him" it is restrained by #onstant e ort and gi&ing up o all desire! 2epeated endea&our to keep the mind steadily i.9! H4ou" 0 .ed on the obje#t to whi#h it should be dedi#ated is meditation BabhyasC" whereas renun#iation is the sa#ri i#e o desire or or atta#hment to" all seen as well as heard sense$obje#ts" whi#h in#lude pleasures o the world and also the promised joys o hea&en! So" although it is di i#ult to #urb the mind" it #an be subdued by #onstant meditation and renun#iation! There ore"Z .unti" by perse&eran#e o e ort and renun#iation!J Arjun is Hmighty$armedJ be#ause he is #apable o great a##omplishment! The mind is indeed restless and most di i#ult to subdue" but as .9! HArjun said" Q-hat is the end" 0 .The mind is so i#kle and restless Bby nature it is something that #hurns and agitatesC" obstinate" and power ul! So Arjun is apprehensi&e that trying to restrain it is going to pro&e as utile as tying up the wind! Che#king the mind is" there ore" as well nigh impossible as #he#king a storm! At this .rishn begins to resol&e his de&out pupilIs misgi&ings! .rishn #an dispel his doubts! @o one else #an do it! So the a##omplished tea#her .)! QQThe Gord said" QThe mind is" 0 the mighty$armed" doubtlessly i#kle and hard to restrain" but it is dis#iplined" 0 son o .rishn" o the a#Kuies#ent worshipper whose in#onstant mind has strayed rom sel less a#tion and who has" there ore" been depri&ed o per#eption whi#h is the inal out#ome o yog/III @ot all worshippers are rewarded with su##ess in their attempt to a#hie&e yog" although this does not mean that they ha&e no aith in it! The pra#ti#e o yog is o ten disrupted by the restless mind! But what happens to men who wished to be yogis but did not su##eed be#ause o their i#kle minds/ .:! J%t is my irm #on&i#tion that while the attainment o yog is most di i#ult or a man who ails to restrain his mind" it is easy or him who is his own master and a#ti&e in the per orman#e o the reKuired a#tion!II The a#hie&ement o yog is not really so di i#ult as Arjun has assumed! %t is di i#ult" indeed impossible" or the man with an unrestrained mind! But it is within the rea#h o one who has dis#iplined his thoughts and eelings" and is enterprising! So" Arjun should not abandon his endea&our or yog just be#ause o his ear that it is something impossible to a#hie&e! 4et" he responds rather despairingly to the en#ouragement as we may see rom his ne.t Kuestion! .8! H%s it" 0 the mighty$armed" that this deluded man with no ha&en to turn to is destroyed like s#attered #louds" depri&ed o both Sel $realiMation and worldly pleasures/J %s this man truly like s#attered pat#hes o #louds be#ause his mind is di&ided and he is #on used/ % a small pat#h o #loud appears in the sky" it #an neither pre#ipitate rain nor join other #louds" and within moments the wind destroys it! ?ery mu#h similar to this puny" isolated #loud appears the passi&e and unperse&ering man who begins with an enterprise and then dis#ontinues his e orts! Arjun wishes to be enlightened on what inally happens to su#h a man! %s he destroyed/ % so he has missed both Sel $realiMation and worldly enjoyment! But what is his inal end/ .

abir" Tulsidas" 2aidas" ?almiki and others like them who" though not born in the houses o noble and a luent men" were admitted as pupils to the amilies o yogi! A birth in whi#h the merits BsanskarC inherited rom a pre&ious li e are urther re ined by asso#iation with an a##omplished tea#her" a realiMed sage" is indeed the most rare! Being born to the yogi does not mean being born as their physi#al o spring! -ell might #hildren be born to a yogi be ore he had gi&en up home and regard him" out o atta#hment" as ather" but in truth a sage has no one whom he #an regard as his amily! 0ne hundred times the #on#ern he has or his own #hildren is the #on#ern he has or his aith ul and obedient pupils! They" the pupils" are his real Children! A##omplished tea#hers do not admit pupils who are not endowed with the reKuisite sanskar! % my re&ered tea#her" (aharaj ji" were in#lined to #on&erting people into sadhus" he #ould ha&e had thousands o disen#hanted men as his pupils" but he sent all the suppli#ants ba#k home" paying are to some o them" by intimating and writing letters to amilies in other #ases" and sometimes by persuasion! 1e had inauspi#ious omens i some o the #ontenders were adamant on being admitted as pupils! An inner &oi#e #autioned him that they were wanting in the Kualities that make a sadhu and so he reje#ted them! Smarting under unbearable disappointment" a #ouple o the suppli#ants e&en resorted to the e.rishn tells him that the man who de&iates rom yog" be#ause o his mindIs i#kleness" is not destroyed in this world or in the ne. that the man who has allen rom yog enjoys in the worlds o the &irtuous satis a#tion o the same desires or sensual pleasure by whi#h his restless mind was lured away rom the appointed way in the mortal worldF But this is 'odIs synopti# way o pro&iding him a glimpse o all he wanted" a ter whi#h he is reborn in the house o a noble man$a man o righteous #ondu#t Bor a man o ortuneC! 8*! H0r he is admitted to the amily BkulC o dis#erning yogi and su#h a birth is truly the most rare in the world!J % the de&iating Soul is not reborn in the house o a &irtuous or a luent man" he is granted a birth whi#h pro&ides him admission to the amily o a yogi! %n the households o noble men" righteous in luen#es are imbibed right rom #hildhood! But" i not reborn in su#h houses" he gains admission not to the house o a yogi but to his kul as one o his pupils! Su#h were men like .8+! HThe Gord said" QThis man" 0 Parth" is destroyed neither in this world nor in the ne.t! This is so be#ause a doer o good deeds" o 'od$related deeds" is ne&er damned! 1owe&er" what is his destiny/ U)8VThe Sanskrit eKui&alent used here is tatah" whi#h is a term o lo&e and endearment! 81! HThe righteous man who de&iates rom the path o yog a#hie&es #elestial merits and pleasures or #ountless years a ter whi#h he is reborn in the house o a &irtuous and noble man Bor ortunate and thri&ing manC!J -hat a parado.#ept that he would ha&e persisted as a sinner/J The re&ered (aharaj Ai was a man o great #ompassion and yet he did not a##ept unworthy pupils! 1e admitted in all only about hal a doMen pupils about whom he had been told .treme step o taking their own li e! @otwithstanding all this" (aharaj Ai would not admit pupils he did not ind spiritually eKuipped to re#ei&e and pro it by his tea#hing! A ter learning o the sui#ide by one whom he had reje#ted" he said" H% knew he was terribly alarmed" but % did not know he would kill himsel ! 1ad % known this" % would ha&e taken him" or what greater harm #ould ha&e been in that e.t be#ause" my brotherU)8V" one who per orms good deeds ne&er #omes to grie !III Arjun is addressed as HParthJ be#ause" as we ha&e already seen" he has turned his mortal body itsel into a #hariot to pro#eed to his goal! And now .

rishnIs pronoun#ement! 8:! HSin#e yogi is superior to men who do penan#e" or men who ollow the path o dis#rimination" or men who desire the ruits o a#tion" 0 .! H1e naturally bears with him into his new birth the noble impressions BsanskarC o yog rom his pre&ious e.isten#e" and by dint o this he stri&es well or per e#tion Bthat #omes rom the realiMation o 'odC!II The merits he had earned in his pre&ious body are spontaneously restored to him in his new birth" by &irtue o whi#h he sets out to a#hie&e the ultimate e.rishnIs inal #ounsel to Arjun is that he should be a yogi! This ne#essitates an appraisal o what all these types are: $ The ASC<T%C is one who pra#tises se&ere austerities and morti i#ation o the body" mind" and .rishn also said be ore that the seed o this yog is ne&er annihilated! % we just take a #ouple o steps" the merits earned rom them are ne&er destroyed! A man o true aith #an embark upon the ordained a#tion in e&ery #ir#umstan#e o worldly li e! -hether you are a woman or a man" o whate&er ra#e or #ulture" i you are simply a human being" the 'eeta is or you! The 'eeta is or all mankind$ or the man de&oted to his amily and the sanyasi" the edu#ated and the unlettered" and or e&eryone! %t is not only or that uniKue #reature #alled a hermit BsadhuC! This indeed is Gord .by his inner &oi#e: HToday you are going to meet one who has allen rom yog! 1e has been groping about or se&eral births! This is his name and this is how he looks! A##ept him when he #omes" impart the knowledge o 'od to him" and support him in his journey along the path!J So he a##epted only these #hosen ew! That his intuitions were #orre#t may be seen rom the a#t that rom among his #hosen dis#iples we ha&e now a sage li&ing at 7harkundi" another one at Ansuiya" and two or three others who are engaged in the ser&i#e o mankind elsewhere! They are all men who were admitted as pupils to the amily o an a##omplished tea#her! To be blessed with a birth whi#h pro&ides su#h opportunity is indeed a most rare e&ent! 8.#ellen#e" that is 'od! 88! HAlthough he is lured by obje#ts o sense" the merits o his pre&ious li e indeed draw him towards 'od and his aspiration or yog enables him to go beyond the material rewards promised by the ?ed!II % he is born in a noble or thri&ing household and is subje#t to the in luen#e o sense$obje#ts" the tra#es o &irtuous deeds inherited rom his pre&ious li e yet draw him to the way that leads to 'od" and e&en with inadeKuate endea&our" he is enabled to rise abo&e the ruits mentioned by ?edi# #ompositions and attain to the state o sal&ation! This is the way o a#hie&ing the ultimate liberation! But this #annot be within a single li e! 8)! HThe yogi" who has puri ied his heart and mind through se&eral births by intense meditation and thus rid himsel o all sins" attains to the ultimate state o realiMing 'od!II 0nly an endea&our made o&er a number o li&es e e#ts this ultimate a##omplishment! The yogi who pra#tises diligent meditation is well rid o all kinds o impiety and then attains to the inal beatitude! This is the way o attainment! Setting out on the path o yog with but a eeble e ort and initiated into it when the mind is yet restless" he is admitted to the amily o an a##omplished tea#her and" with the undertaking o meditation in li e a ter li e" he at last arri&es at the point #alled sal&ation$the state in whi#h the Soul is merged into 'od! .urunandan" you should be a doer o sel less a#tion!J A yogi" doer o sel less a#tion" surpasses all as#eti#s" men o knowledge as well as those o a#tion! So .

rishn in the #hapter are about this! 89! HAmong all yogi % think that one the best who is dedi#ated to me and who" abiding in the Sel " always adores me!II .rishn regards" among all yogi$doers o sel less a#tion" that one as the best who" immersed in his eeling o de&otion" always adores him! -orship is not a matter o display or e.hibition! So#iety may appro&e o su#h display" but 'od is o ended! -orship is a se#ret" pri&ate a#ti&ity" and it is undertaken within the heart! The as#ent and des#ent o worship are e&ents that belong to the innermost seats o thought and eeling! YYYYYY 4ogeshwar .@0-G<7'<" ollower o the -ay o .nowledge is aware o the means o yog and also o his own strength! 1e holds himsel responsible or whate&er he does! And the yogi" the doer o sel less a#tion" has #ast himsel at the mer#y o his adored 'od" and it is 'od who will prote#t and help him! Both o these tread well on the path o spiritual sal&ation! But the way on whi#h the sa ety o the worshipper is looked a ter by 'od is the superior o the two! %t is a#knowledged by .senses to shape the yog whi#h has not yet started lowing through him like an unimpeded #urrent! $ The 70<2 is one who is engaged in the ordained task a ter knowing it" but who applies himsel to it without either making an appraisal o his own strength or a sense o dedi#ation! 1e is just engaged in the #arrying out o an enterprise! $ The (A@ 06 .rishn! So the yogi is the most superior o men and Arjun ought to be a yogi! 1e should engage in the task o per orming yog with a sense o #omplete resignation! The yogi is superior" but e&en better is that yogi who dwells in 'od through his Sel ! The last words o .nowledge" is engaged in the per orman#e o the deed o yagya only a ter gaining a ull understanding o the pro#ess rom a noble mentor" an a##omplished tea#her" as well as with a #lear appraisal and judgement o his own strengthO he holds himsel responsible or both pro it and loss in the undertaking! $ The 40'%" doer o sel less a#tion" per orms the same pres#ribed task o meditation with a sense o total surrender to the adored oneO the responsibility or the su##ess o his yog is borne by 'od and the 4ogeshwar! <&en when there are prospe#ts o ailure he has no ear" be#ause the 'od" whom he #ra&es or" has taken upon himsel the task o supporting and upholding him! All the our types o a#tion are noble as su#h! But the as#eti#" the man o penan#e" is still engaged in eKuipping himsel or yog! The doer" the man o a#tion" engages in a#tion just be#ause he knows that it has to be undertaken! These two may ail" be#ause they ha&e neither a sense o dedi#ation nor a proper dis#ernment o their assets and liabilities! But the ollower o the -ay o .rishn says at the beginning o the #hapter that the man who per orms the ordained" worthwhile task is a sanyasi! The yogi is also a doer o the same a#tion! 0ne does not be#ome a yogi or a sanyasi just by gi&ing up lighting o ire or undertaking o a#tion! @o one #an be a sanyasi or yogi without sa#ri i#ing desires! -e are not rid o will just by #laiming that we do not ha&e it! The man who wishes to possess yog should do what ought to be done" or reedom rom desires #omes only by a repeated and #onstant undertaking o this a#tion and ne&er be ore it! 2enun#iation is #omplete absen#e o desire! The 4ogeshwar has then pointed out that the Soul #an be damned as well as sa&ed! To the man .

rishn has #hie ly stressed the importan#e o meditation or the attainment o yog! Thus #on#ludes the Si.rishn" he should a##omplish yog within his heart and mind! Thus in the #hapter .rishn has then des#ribed the yogiIs way o li e! About the pla#e where yagya is per ormed" and the seat and posture o the worshipper" he has said that the pla#e should be #lean and se#luded" and the seat made o abri#" deer skin or a mat o kush$grass! 1e has stressed the importan#e o moderation" a##ording to the nature o the undertaken task" in endea&our" ood" re#reation" sleeping" and waking! 1e has #ompared the restrained mind o a yogi to the steady lame o a lamp in a pla#e where there is no wind! Progressing e&en urther than this" the #lima.annada" 0riya" Sindhi" Sanskrit" @epali" Punjabi and >rduC and the same #ould be downloaded rom http:PPwww!yatharthgeeta!#omP! P2<6AC< 06 C1APT<2 %@ A>7%0 CASS<TT<S <&ery religion all o&er the world" #an be seen as the distant e#ho o the Shreemad Bhagwad 'eeta! By listening to the lessons #on&eyed by Swami Shree Adgadanandji in the Q4AT1A2T1 '<<TAI" Sri Aitenbhai" who was born in the Aain religion" de#ided that those lessons must be made popular through audio #assettes! Su#h a de#ision #ame out o a realiMation that the essen#e o the '<<TAIS tea#hings has ound its pla#e within the lessons throughout history taught by a##omplished tea#hers su#h as (aha&ir" 'autam Buddh" @anak" .who has #onKuered his mind and senses" his Sel is a riend who brings the ultimate good! But to the man who has ailed to restrain his mind and senses" the same Sel is an enemy and his mali#ious #ondu#t #auses grie ! %t is" there ore" an obligation" a sa#red trust" that men a#t to upli t their Soul rather than degrade him! .th Chapter o the Shreemad Bhagwad 'eeta in H4atharth 'eetaJ! 1A2% 0( TAT SAT YYYYYY @ote: The te.abir and others! These #assettes o the 'eeta are being presented or Sel $realisation or seekers e&erywhere! .rishn admits that restraint o the mind is the most arduous" but he also assures that it is possible! Control o mind is a#hie&ed by pra#ti#e and sa#ri i#e o desires! <&en the man whose endea&our is inadeKuate rea#hes" by #onstant meditation #arried out o&er a number o li&es" the point whi#h is known as the ultimate state$the state o union with 'od! The per e#t yogi is superior to all$as#eti#s" men o knowledge" and those who are just engaged in a business! So Arjun should be a yogi! -ith true dedi#ation to .nowledge o the Supreme Spirit" the S#ien#e o 4og" and the 7ialogue between .th Chapter in the >panishad o the Shreemad Bhagwad 'eeta" on the .position o the Si.t o the Book" 4atharth 'eeta is a&ailable in &arious %nternational B<nglish" 2ussian" 6ren#h" 'erman" Spanish" Chinese" %talian" @orwegian" 7ut#h" Portuguese" Arabi#" Aapanese" PersianC and %ndian languages B1indi" Bengali" Assamese" 'ujarati" (arathi" Tamil" Telugu" (alayalam" .rishn and Arjun" entitled:HAbhyas 4ogJ or HThe yog o (editation!J Thus #on#ludes Swami AdgadanandIs e.$ the stage o ultimate bliss$is rea#hed when e&en the per e#tly restrained mind is dissol&ed! The eternal joy whi#h is ree rom all worldly atta#hment and repulsion is sal&ation! 4og is that whi#h unites one with this state! The yogi who attains this state a#hie&es an eKual &ision and looks eKually at all beings! 1e looks at the Soul in others just as he looks at his own Soul! And so he a#hie&es the ultimate pea#eT So yog is essential! -here&er the mind goes" it is our duty to pull it ba#k and restrain it! .

@ote: The audio o the Book" 4atharth 'eeta is a&ailable in &arious %nternational B<nglish" 'ermanC and %ndian languages B1indi" Bengali" 'ujarati" (arathi" Tamil" TeluguC and the same #ould be downloaded rom http:PPwww!yatharthgeeta!#omP! .

rishn will take up some other supplementary Kuestions" in the #onte.rishn tells Arjun that he is going to e.nowledge is the attainment" in the moment o a##omplishment" o the substan#e o immortality Bamrit$tattwaC that is generated by yagya! 7ire#t per#eption o the essen#e o 'od is knowledge! But the other knowledge" #alled &igyan" is the attainment by a realiMed sage o the ability to a#t simultaneously e&erywhere! %t is the knowledge o how 'od at the same time operates in all beings! %t is the knowledge o how he makes us undertake a#tion and o how he enables the Sel to tra&el a#ross the way to the identi#al Supreme Spirit! This way o 'od is &igyan! .nowledgeO o the nature o a#tion and yagya as well as the mode o the per orman#e and their #onseKuen#e" o the meaning o yog and its out#omeO and o di&ine mani estation and &arnsankar! The importan#e o waging war$o $a#tion or the wel are o mankind e&en by men who abide in 'od has been stressed at length! %n the @e.rishn now speaks the state in whi#h su#h knowledge is attainted to! 1! HThe Gord said" QGisten" 0 Parth" to how by taking re uge in me and pra#tising yog with de&otion" you shall know me beyond any doubt as the all$per e#t Soul in all beings!II The essential pre#ondition o this #omplete awareness o 'od should be #are ully noted! % Arjun wishes to ha&e su#h knowledge" he has to pra#tise yog with de&otion and by #asting himsel at 'odIs mer#y! But there are se&eral other aspe#ts o the problem whi#h .plain this knowledge to him ully" a ter knowing whi#h there will be nothing better in the world or him to know! True knowers are mu#h too ew! .rishn o ers to enlighten Arjun ully on the knowledge o 'od along with the knowledge that is here #alled H&igyanII BSee the interpretation o the word in Chapter :" in the e.position o the eighth &erseC! .! H1ardly does one man among thousands stri&e to know me and hardly does one among the thousands who stri&e or this know my essen#e!J 0nly rarely does a man endea&our to realiMe 'od and" among those who stri&e to do so" there is s#ar#ely a man who su##eeds in knowing his reality by dire#t per#eption! @ow" where is this total reality$the entire essen#e/ %s it stationary at one pla#e as a #orporal body$a lump o matter" or is it all per&ading/ .rishn now speaks o this! 8! H% am the #reator o all nature with its eight di&isions$earth" water" ire" wind" ether" mind" intelle#t" and ego!II .C1APT<2 9: %((AC>GAT< .@0-G<7'< The oregoing #hapters #ontain almost all the main issues that are brought up in the 'eeta! There has been an elaborate presentation o the -ay o Sel less A#tion and the -ay o .t #hapters .rishn is going to dwell upon" and he tells Arjun to listen #are ully to him so that all his doubts are resol&ed! The importan#e o per e#t knowledge o the many glories o 'od is stressed again! *! H1 shall ully tea#h you this knowledge as well as the all$per&asi&e a#tion that results rom realiMation o 'od B&igyanC" a ter whi#h there remains nothing better in the world to know!II .t o subje#ts that ha&e already been tou#hed upon" and whose resolution will be o assistan#e in the a#t o worship! %n the last &erse o Chapter :" the 4ogeshwar himsel laid the basis o a Kuestion by stating that the best yogi is one whose Sel abides in 'od! -hat does abiding irmly in 'od mean/ (any a yogi attain to 'od" but they eel something missing somewhere! -hen does that stage appear at whi#h there is not e&en the least imper e#tion/ -hen does per e#t knowledge o 'od #ome about/ .

now that all beings arise rom these two natures and that % am both the #reator and the end o whole world!II All beings spring rom these animate and inanimate natures! These are the two sour#es o all li e! 'od B.ists" but he is also the power that dissol&es nature a ter a sage has o&er#ome its limitations! But this is a matter o intuition! (en ha&e always been intrigued by these uni&ersal Kuestions o #reation and destru#tion" whi#h is sometimes #alled HdoomII! Almost all holy books o the world ha&e attempted to e.plain these phenomena in one way or another! Some o them insist that the end o the world is brought about by submersion under water" while a##ording to others the earth is annihilated be#ause the sun #omes too #lose to it and burns it! Some #all the e&ent the 7ay o 6inal Audgement" the day on whi#h 'od judges all beings" while others e.rishn" 'od" has arisen nature with all its #omponents! This nature with its eight parts is the lower nature! )! HThis nature" 0 the mighty$armed" is the lower" insensate nature" but against it there is my #ons#ious" li&ing nature whi#h animates the whole world!II The nature with eight parts is 'odIs lower nature" dull and insensible! But" along with this" there is his #ons#ious nature whi#h impregnates and gi&es li e to the whole world! But the indi&idual Soul too is HnatureII be#ause it is asso#iated with the other" lower nature! :! H.6rom .plain away the idea o doom as a re#urrent eatures or as dependent on a spe#i i# #ause! A##ording to .rishn$'od #ame down to earth or his pleasure$and dealing with his li e and pre#epts" the sage (rikanduIs son (arkandeya Ai has rendered an a##ount o the doom he #laims to ha&e seen with his own HeyesJ! 1e li&ed on the north o the 1imalayas" on the bank o the Pushpbhadr ri&er! U)9VThe re eren#e here is to (atsya$A&tar" the irst o the ten in#arnations o ?ishnu! 7uring the reign o the Se&enth (anu" the whole earth" whi#h had be#ome #orrupt" was swept away by a lood" and all li&ing beings perished e.#ept the pious (anu and the ele&en sages who were sa&ed by ?ishnu in the orm o a huge ish! The entire episode is" o #ourse" symboli#! U)9AV@ame o one o the eighteen Puran Brepositories o the 1indu mythologyC! %t has already been pointed out that" like the (ahabharat" these s#riptures are also as#ribed to (aharishi ?yas! A##ording to Chapter 8 and 9 o the twel th se#tion o Shreemad Bhagwat" the great sage Shaunak and some others told Sut Ai Ba pupil o ?yasC the (arkandeya Ai had a &ision o Balmukund Bin ant ?ishnuC on a Banyan$lea ! But the di i#ulty was that he belonged to their lineage and was born only sometime be ore themO and it was a a#t that the earth was ne&er submerged and destroyed a ter his birth! -ith all this" how was it possible that he had beheld destru#tion o the earth/ -hat kind o deluge was it/ Sut Ai told them that" pleased with his prayers" 'od had mani ested himsel to (arkandeya Ai" .perien#ed a doom in whi#h ele&en sages had sailed" by tying their boat to the in o a ish" to a towering peak o the 1imalayas and ound shelter thereU)9V! %n the sa#red #omposition #alled the Shreemad BhagwatU)9AV" whi#h is #ontemporaneous with .rishnC is the root o the whole uni&erse" both its #reator and destroyer! %t springs rom him and is also dissol&ed in him! 1e is the spring o nature as long as it e.rishn" howe&er" nature is without beginning and end! Changes there ha&e been" but it has ne&er been #ompletely destroyed! A##ording to %ndian mythology" (anu e.

pressible state o the total identity o Soul with 'od while the body yet is! This is something that #an be elt through a#tion alone! -hether it is you or me" we are &i#tims o delusion i we judge by the mind alone! This is what we are told now! 9! HThere is" 0 7hananjay" not e&en one obje#t other than me" and the whole world is linked up with me like the pearls o a ne#kla#e!J There is absolutely nothing else e.#ept 'od and the whole world is tied up with him! But it is possible to know this only when" as it was said in the irst &erse o the #hapter" one engages in yog with total resignation to 'od" and ne&er be ore this! Parti#ipation in yog is an indispensable ne#essity! 8! H0 Arjun" % am that whi#h makes water liKues#ent" the radian#e in the sun and the moon" the sa#red syllable 0(U:+V" the wordIs e#ho BShabdC U:1V in the ether" and % am also the manliness in men!J 'od is all these and all knowledgeO and the whole wisdom o the ?ed has been breathed orth rom himU:*V! 1e is also mu#h more! U:+VThe Syllable 0(" symbol o 'od" is di&ine to 1indus! U:1V.who had then e.nowledge o Sel and Supreme Spirit that is beyond the rea#h or power o words! U:*VThe Brihadaranyak >panishad : They Bthe ?edC are the breath o the <ternal! 9! H% am the ragran#e in the earth" the lame in ire" the Soul that animates all beings" and the penan#e o as#eti#s!J 'od per&ades the whole uni&erse" the earth" the ire" all #reatures and e&en the se&ere spiritual austerities that are pra#tised by as#eti#s! 1e dwells in e&ery atom! 1+! HSin#e % am also the intelle#t in wise men and the magni i#en#e o men o glory" know you" 0 Arjun" that % am the eternal ountainhead o all beings!J 'od is the seed rom whi#h all #reatures are born! (oreo&er$ 11! H% am" 0 the best o Bharat" the sel less power o the strong and %" too" am th aspiration or realiMation in all beings that is ne&er hostile to 'od!J .perien#e $ only a ter worship spread o&er years beyond re#koning! %t was a per#eption by his SoulO e&erything outside was the same as be ore! So doom" too" is an e&ent that is re&ealed by 'od within the heart o a yogi! -hen at the #ompletion o the pro#ess o worship" worldly in luen#es #ease to be and only 'od remains in the yogiIs mind$that is doom! This dissolution is not an e.halation! -hen his eyes opened at last" (arkandeya Ai ound him sel sa e on his seat in his hermitage! So whate&er he had seen was but a dream$ a &ision! %t is e&ident that the sage had this di&ine" trans#endental &ision$this intuiti&e e.ternal phenomenon! 6inal doom is the ine.pressed his wish to see 'odIs maya" dri&en by whi#h the Soul has to wander through endless births! 'od had granted his wish and one day" when the sage was sitting absorbed in #ontemplation" he saw towering" urious wa&es o the sea hurtling on to him rom all sides! Terrible ishes leapt rom the wa&es! 1e s#urried here and there to sa&e himsel ! The sky" the sun" the moon" hea&en itsel " and all the #onstellations were drowned in the lood! %n the meantime he saw a Banyan tree with an in ant on one o its lea&es! As the #hild breathed in" (arkandeya Ai was drawn inside him by the inrushing air" and there he dis#o&ered his hermitage along with the solar system and the whole uni&erse ali&e and inta#t! Soon a ter" he was #ast out with an e.

er#ise and some through the amassing o nu#lear weapons! But .rishn turns to worshippers! 1:! H6our kinds o de&otees" 0 the best o Bharat" worship me : the ones who desire material rewards" the distressed and those men o knowledge who aspire to know me!J .rishn a irms that he is the strength that is beyond all desire and atta#hment! This is true strength! 1e is also in all beings the aspiration that is propitious or dharm! 'od alone is the real dharm! The immortal Soul that holds all within himsel is dharm! And 'od is also that #ra&ing whi#h is not inimi#al to dharm! .rishn had prompted Arjun earlier to aspire to the realiMation o 'od! All desires are orbidden" but yearning or the attainment o 'od is essential be#ause we #annot be in#lined to worship in its absen#e! This hunger or 'od is also a gi t rom .'od is the righteous aspiration o the mighty and also their strength whi#h is ree rom all desire! 7oesnIt e&eryone in the world wish to be strong/ Some endea&our to a#hie&e it through physi#al e.rishn! 1*! HAnd know that although all the properties o nature Btamas" rajas and sattwaC ha&e arisen rom me" they neither dwell in me nor do % dwell in themJ All the properties o nature" ignoran#e" passion and &irtue are born rom 'od! 4et" howe&er" he is not in them and they are not in himO he is not absorbed in them and they #annot enter into him be#ause he is unatta#hed to and unsullied by them! 1e has to gain nothing rom nature or its properties" and so they #annot taint him! 7espite this" howe&er" as the bodyIs hunger and thirst are #aused by the Soul and yet the Soul is wholly un#on#erned with ood and water" e&en so although nature arises rom 'od" he is untou#hed by its properties and a#ti&ities! 1.! HSin#e the whole world is deluded by eelings resulting rom the operation o the three properties" it is unaware o my imperishable essen#e that is beyond them!J Blinded by eelings asso#iated with the operation o tamas" rajas and sattwa" men ail to per#ei&e the indestru#tible and the one reality that is 'od$Kuite beyond the properties o nature! So he #annot be known i there is e&en the slightest tra#e o these properties! So long as these properties en&elop the worshipperIs mind" his journey is in#omplete! 1e has still to go along" he is still on the way! 18! HThis di&ine three$propertied yog$maya o mine is most di i#ult to o&er#ome" but they who seek re uge in me get o&er the illusion and a#hie&e sal&ation!J 'odIs #elestial maya" the power rom whi#h the empiri#al uni&erse is e&ol&ed" is most di i#ult to #omprehend" but they who are always engaged in the worship o 'od na&igate sa ely a#ross it! The maya is #alled di&ine" but that does not mean that we should start burning in#ense sti#ks as a re&erent o ering to it! %t should ne&er be orgotten that it is something that we ha&e to &anKuish and get a#ross! 1)! HThe ignorant and unwise are the most despi#able o men and doers o wi#kedness" be#ause deluded by maya and ha&ing demonia#al Kualities they do not worship me!J They who #ontemplate and adore 'od know this! And yet there are many others who do not worship! (en with e&il propensities whose dis#rimination has been ra&ished by maya" the meanest amongst mankind who are immersed in lust and anger" do not worship 'od! %n the ollowing &erse .

rishn is e&erything! Su#h a sage is the most rare! 1e does not worship any e.rishn the most rare! So all men should .rishn" the worshipper endowed with knowledge is identi#al with him be#ause that dis#riminating worshipper dwells in him with the aith that he is his sublime goal! %n other words" he is 'od$he is within him! There is no separation between 'od and him! The same ideas is re$emphasiMed in the ne.rishn also des#ribes as a seer! 0nly su#h realiMed sages #an instru#t the human so#iety that is outside them! These seers" who ha&e dire#tly per#ei&ed reality" are a##ording to .The our kinds #o&er all worshippers! There are irst those who do the appointed task be#ause doing it will bring good ortune" they are the doers o sel ish a#tion! There are" then" men who de&ote themsel&es to 'od be#ause they wish to be liberated rom grie ! 4et other de&otees long to ha&e a dire#t per#eption o 'od! And" lastly" there are the wise men" the realiMed sages" who ha&e attained to the stage o rea#hing the supreme goal! (aterial wealth is the means that sustains the body as well as all its relations! So ri#hes and satis a#tion o desires are irst pro&ided by 'od! .t &erse : 19! HThe great Soul is indeed most rare who worships me with the knowledge" a#Kuired at the end o many births" that % B?asude&C am the only reality!J The enlightened sage" who is at last blessed with per#eption a ter meditating or many births" undertakes di&ine adoration with the #on&i#tion that .ternal entity #alled ?asude&" but rather eels the presen#e o 'od within his own Sel ! This is the man with dis#rimination whom .rishn says that he is the pro&ider o means" but his words suggest more than this! The really lasting wealth is made up o spiritual a#Kuisition! This is the real treasure! -hile a worshipper is busy toiling or material gains" 'od prompts him on towards spiritual a#hie&ements" be#ause he knows that spiritual merits are manIs real wealth and that his worshipper will not always be #ontented with material a#Kuisitions alone! So he also begins to bestow spiritual ri#hes on him! 'ranting pro it in the mortal world and support in the ne.rishn" our kinds o men are his de&oted adorers! But o all o them the worshippers with the wisdom that #omes rom per#eption is the most superior! The signi i#ant point is" howe&er" that this saga#ious man is a de&otee" too! Among all these kinds"$ 19! HTo the wise man o knowledge who worships me" the one 'od" with steady lo&e and de&otion" % am the dearest and so is he to me!J 0 all worshippers" they lo&e 'od most who ha&e been enlightened by per#eption and who there ore abide in him with single$minded de&otion! This eeling is re#ipro#ated" or 'od also lo&es this worshipper more than anyone else! This wise man #orresponds to 'odO and$ 18! HAlthough they are all generous be#ause they worship me with de&otion" the wise man o realiMation is$ % belie&e$identi#al with me" his supreme goal!J All the our kinds o worshippers are portrayed as generous! But what #harity ha&e they shown/ 7oes 'od bene it by a worshipperI s de&otion/ 7o they gi&e him something he does not ha&e/ 0b&iously" the answer to all these Kuestions is a #lear" HnoJ! %t is really 'od alone who is magnanimous! 1e is e&er ready to sa&e Souls rom degradation! So generosity is also a Kuality o those who wish that their Souls are not debased! -e ha&e thus a #ase here o mutual #harity! They are all" both 'od and his worshippers" generous! But" a##ording to .t world are both 'odIs burden! >nder no #ir#umstan#es does he lea&e the worshipper unre#ompensed! There are" then" worshippers with grie $laden hearts! There are also among worshippers o 'od men who wish to know him ully! (en who ha&e attained knowledge o 'od by per#eption also worship him! Thus" a##ording to .

rishn has to say on the Kuestion : *.t HgodsJ represent or#es o piety by whi#h the di&inity o 'od is se#ured! These godly impulses that ha&e to be ostered are the means or sal&ation and their twenty$ our attributes are enumerated in Chapter$1:! .rishn had e.worship 'od be#ause he is the gi&er o spiritual glory as well as pleasure! 4et people do not worship him! The parado.! HBut the rewards o these deluded men are inite be#ause they only attain to the gods they worship" whereas the man who worships me howsoe&er he does it $ realiMes me!J The priMes won by these ignorant men are destru#tible! They are impermanent be#ause they are worldly pleasures whi#h ha&e a beginning and an end! The pleasures that are with us today slip away rom us tomorrow! (en who worship other gods a#Kuire powers that are themsel&es perishable! The whole world" rom the le&el o di&inities to that o the lowest #reatures" is mutable and subje#t to death! 0n the #ontrary" the man who worships 'od attains to him and so to the ine able pea#e that des#ends on the Soul a ter he is united with 'od! 4ogeshwar . is a##ounted or in the ollowing &erse! *+! H7ri&en by the properties o their nature" they who all rom knowledge desire worldly pleasures and" in imitation o the pre&ailing #ustoms" worship other gods instead o the one single 'od!J Bere t o dis#ernment be#ause o their #ra&ing or sensual pleasures" ignorant men are unable to see that the enlightened sage" the a##omplished tea#her and 'od alone ha&e real worth! So" urged by their nature or rather by the merits BsanskarC they ha&e earned and stored through many li&es" they resort to #urrent #reed and pra#ti#es" and de&ote themsel&es to the worship o other gods! 1ere or irst time the 'eeta makes mention o other gods! *1! H%t is % who bestow steadiness on the aith o #o&etous worshippers a##ording to the nature o the gods they worship!J %t is 'od who imparts the Kuality o un lin#hing irmness to the de&otion o worshippers who adore other gods be#ause they wish or material rewards! %t is 'od who makes the aith in other gods steady! 1ad gods really e.horted Arjun earlier to oster gods" that is pious impulses" through the obser&an#e o yagya! 'ood ortune a##rues rom an in#reases and strengthening o these ri#hes! And ultimately" with gradual progress" there is the attainment o per#eption and supreme pea#e! %n this #onte.isted" this task would ha&e been a##omplished by these entities themsel&es! But sin#e they are only a myth" it is 'od who has to render the aith o worshippers in them irm and strong! **! HPossessing this strengthened aith" the worshipper de&otes himsel to his #hosen deity with de&otion and" through this undoubtedly a#hie&es the enjoyment o desired pleasures whi#h are also appointed by my laws!J Possessed o aith that is propped up by 'od" the desire$ ridden worshipper de&otes himsel with renewed &igour to the adoration o some unworthy gods" but surprisingly he too is rewarded with the desired satis a#tion! But this satis a#tion is also a gi t rom 'od! So 'od is also the bestower o enjoyment o worldly pleasures! (ean pleasure rather than di&ine bliss is the reward or those who worship other gods or satis a#tion o their desires! But in a way they are rewarded! So there seems apparently nothing wrong with this orm o worship! 1owe&er" this is what .

ternal orm! 4ogeshwar .V was de&ised" and truth was lost sight o ! .irshn says that he is hidden by his yog$maya and only they who ha&e se#ured yog #an know him! Sin#e he is not mani est to all" the ignorant and unwise man does not know him the birthless Bwho is not going to be born againC" eternal Bwho #annot be destroyedC" and unmani est Bwho is not going to be mani est againC! Arjun initially regarded .rishn was a yogi in the body o a man" &erily a 4ogeshwar" a Gord o 4og! The one who is a yogi himsel and has the ability to impart yog to others is #alled 4ogeshwar" an a##omplished tea#her! Adopting the right orm o worship" and with gradual re inement" sages also #ome to abide in that state! Although wearing the apparel o a human body" they at last abide in the ormless" unmani est 'od! But ignorant men yet regard them as ordinary human beings! 1ow #an they be 'od" these men think" when they were born just like them/ They are hardly to blame or this" or their deluded minds" where&er they look" see only the e.rishn will e&en go to the e.plains why they are unable to see the Spirit embodied within the physi#al body! *)! H1idden behind my yog$maya" % am not per#ei&ed by all and this ignorant man does not know me" the birthless and immutable 'od!J 6or an ordinary man" maya" the power by whi#h 'od e&ol&es the physi#al uni&erse" is like a thi#k s#reen behind whi#h 'od is #ompletely hidden! Beyond this yog$maya" or the pra#ti#e o yog" there is also another #urtain! %t is only by a #onstant and long pra#ti#e o yog that the worshipper rea#hes the #ulminating point o yog where the hidden 'od is per#ei&ed! 4ogeshwar .rishn now e.tent o a irmating that su#h worship is an impiety! B9!*.rishn as just another mortal! But a ter he is enlightened and his &ision is enlarged" he begins to plead and beg! By and large it is only too true that we are no better than blind men in the matter o re#ogniMing the unmani est Soul o sages and great men! *:! H% know" 0 Arjun" all beings that ha&e been Bor will beC in the past" present" and uture" but no one knows me Bwithout true de&otionC!J .VAn e. o the present #hapter! @aming other gods or the irst time here in the 'eeta" he has emphati#ally said that they do not e.C! *8! H-anting in wisdom and obli&ious o the reality that % am imma#ulate and beyond the riend and senses" men regard my mani estation as a physi#al in#arnation!J There is nothing like gods and the rewards" too their worship are ephemeral! All this notwithstanding" all men are not de&oted to 'od! This is so be#ause men who are bere t o dis#ernment are" as we ha&e seen in the last &erse" only inadeKuately aware o 'odIs per e#tion and magni i#en#e! %t is or this reasons that they deem the unmani est 'od as assuming a human orm! %n other words .rishn has attempted to re ute the mis#on#eption about gods and goddesses in &erses *+$*.ist! -hene&er aith de#lines or grows eeble" it is he who supports it and makes it irm" and it is also he who pro&ides rewards or this aith! But these rewards are inite and perishable! U:.pert o the se#tion o the ?ed whi#h is related to #eremonial a#ts and sa#ri i#ial rites! 6ruits are destroyed" gods are destroyed" and worshippers o these god are also destroyed! So only the ignorant who are la#king in dis#rimination worship other gods! Gater .The righteousness whi#h garners the san#tity o 'od within the worshipperIs heart is named HgodJ! %t was at the outset something internal" but with the passage o time people began to &isualiMe these Kualities in palpable orms! So idols were made" the karmkandU:.

rishn also know the Supreme Spirit that animates all beings" all gods and yagya! They" whose minds are absorbed in him" know the 'od in .rishn only through an a##omplished tea#her! 0ne who per orms the ordained task under the guidan#e o su#h a mentor a#Kuires mastery o spiritual #apa#ity as well as per e#t a#tion! This is also urther illustrated in the ollowing &erses! *9! H0nly they who stri&e or liberation rom the #y#le o birth and death by inding shelter under me su##eed in knowing 'od" spiritual wisdom and all a#tion!J .rishn" dwell in him and attain to him or e&er! %n &erses *:$*9" .plained in the ne.rishn is the root o all #reation! %t is he who has made both the radian#e o light and the &alour o men! 1e is the sel less manliness o the strong and he" too" is the sa#red aspiration o his de&otees! All desires are orbidden" but Arjun is told to #herish the desire to realiMe him! The emergen#e o this one worthwhile #ra&ing is also a blessing rom him! The desire to be united with 'od is the only desire that is in tune with the essen#e o dharm! .+! HThey who know me as the presiding Spirit in all beings BadhibhutC and gods Badhidai&C" and in yagya BadhiyagyaC" and whose minds are i.nowledge o 'od" o the kinship o the indi&idual and >ni&ersal Soul" and o all a#tions prepares a man spiritually to take re uge in 'od and seek the ultimate liberation! Along with this$ .t &erse : *9! HAll beings in the world all into ignoran#e" 0 Bharat" be#ause o the #ontradi#tions o atta#hment and repugnan#e" and o happiness and sorrow!J All men are &i#tims o delusion be#ause o the endless dualities o material nature and so ail to know god B.rishnC! 7oes it imply that no one will know him/ %n .ed on me" know me at the end!J (en who know .rishnIs words : *8! HBut they who worship me in e&ery way are sel lessly engaged in good deeds" ree rom sin and delusion" arising rom the #on li#ts o atta#hment and repulsion" and o irm intent!J 6reed rom e&il and #on li#ting passions" the doers o &irtuous a#tion whi#h bringsO the worldly li e$o birth and death$to a inal end" and whi#h has been &ariously des#ribed as worthy a#tion" ordained a#tion" and the deed o yagya" worship and adore him to a#hie&e redemption! 1ere it is e&ident beyond any doubt that the way to 'od$realiMation is a##ording to .-hy it is so is e.rishn has said that men do not know him be#ause they are ignorant! But they who aspire to be rid o delusion know him along with 'od" the embodiment o per e#tion" the identity between him and the indi&idual Soul as well as the material uni&erse" and per e#t a#tion in brie " the imma#ulate nature o the Spirit that dwells in all beings" gods and yagya! The sour#e o all this is a seer : one who has realiMed the truth! So it is not that this awareness is impossible to a#Kuire! But there is an appointed way by ollowing whi#h alone #an a man hope to possess this per e#t knowledge! YYYYY 4ogeshwar .rishn has said in this #hapter that they who surrender themsel&es to him and pra#tise sel less a#tion know him per e#tly! But hardly one among thousands endea&ours to know him and hardly one among those who try really knows him! The worshipper who has had a dire#t per#eption o him knows him not as a #orporal body$ a #lod o earth" but as the all$ per&ading Spirit! The eight old nature is his lower" insensate nature" but in using its depths there is the Spirit whi#h is his #ons#ious nature! All beings arise rom the asso#iation o these two natures! .

t lends itsel to better #on#entration and #omprehension! This is the essential purpose behind presenting the 4atharth 'eeta" the 'eeta in its True Perspe#ti&e" through audio #assettes! .position o the Se&enth Chapter o the Shreemad Bhagwad 'eeta in H4atharth 'eetaJ 1A2% 0( TAT SAT YYYYY @ote: The te.rishn and Arjun" entitled :HSamagr 'yan" or H%mma#ulate ..nowledge!II Thus #on#ludes Swami AdgadanandIs e.annada" 0riya" Sindhi" Sanskrit" @epali" Punjabi and >rduC and the same #ould be downloaded rom http:PPwww!yatharthgeeta!#omP! P2<6AC< 06 C1APT<2 %@ A>7%0 CASS<TT<S At the time when the 'eeta originated" thousands o years ago" mankind did not learn to identi y itsel through the separate" di erent religions" whi#h e&ol&ed subseKuently" but through su#h uni&ersally agreed upon sa#red s#ripture and holy books as the ?ed and the >panishad in %ndia! %n those days" there was only one spiritual treatise that was a#knowledged as #ontaining the essen#e o all >panishads" the S12<<(A7 B1A'-A7 '<<TA" literally translated" the HSong o 'odJ! %n this sense" the 'eeta is an essential treatise$ that is" one #ontaining the essen#e$ or gaining deli&eran#e and prosperity! -hen #ompared to reading s#ripture or learning" it is always more pro itable to listen to it! Be#ause o the #lear pronun#iation and intonation" listening to the spoken te.t o the Book" 4atharth 'eeta is a&ailable in &arious %nternational B<nglish" 2ussian" 6ren#h" 'erman" Spanish" Chinese" %talian" @orwegian" 7ut#h" Portuguese" Arabi#" Aapanese" PersianC and %ndian languages B1indi" Bengali" Assamese" 'ujarati" (arathi" Tamil" Telugu" (alayalam" .rishn! %n other words" it is only #ontemplation through a number o li&es that 'od #an be attained! But men who are a li#ted with atta#hment and a&ersion #an ne&er know him! 0n the other hand" they who per orm the ordained a#tion Bwhi#h is worshipC in a state o reedom rom the delusions o worldly attra#tion and repulsion" and who are diligently engaged in #ontemplation to be liberated rom mortality" know him per e#tly! They know him along with the all$ per&asi&e 'od" per e#t a#tion" adhyatm" adhidai&" and yagya! They dwell in him and remember him at the end" so that they ne&er lose his memory therea ter! The #hapter may thus be summed up as a dis#ourse on the per e#t knowledge o 'od" or what we may #all Himma#ulate knowledge!J Thus #on#ludes the Se&enth Chapter" in the >panishad o Shreemad Bhagwad 'eeta" on the .rishn has urther said that ignorant and unwise men do not worship him be#ause" hidden behind his yog$maya" he appears to them as just an ordinary mortal! %t is only by #ontinuous meditation that seekers #an pier#e through the pall o maya and know the unmani est essen#e o his physi#al in#arnation! 1e #annot be known without this! 1e has our kinds o de&otees" #o&eters o rewards" the distressed men who desire to know him and men o knowledge! The wise sage" who is at last blessed with per#eption a ter pra#tising meditation o&er the span o many births" be#omes one with .nowledge o the Supreme Spirit" the 7is#ipline o 4og" and the 7ialogue between .

By listening to these audio#assettes" e&en our #hildren #an bene it by absorbing the noble #ulture o the Supreme Being! The atmosphere surrounding ea#h o our own households shall re&erberate with the spiritual e#ho o the HBhagwad 'eetaJ" the HCelestial SongJ" like a sa#red gro&e! @ote: The audio o the Book" 4atharth 'eeta is a&ailable in &arious %nternational B<nglish" 'ermanC and %ndian languages B1indi" Bengali" 'ujarati" (arathi" Tamil" TeluguC and the same #ould be downloaded rom http:PPwww!yatharthgeeta!#omP! .

+ and their e.rishnIs own words Arjun raises a Kuestion : 1! HArjun said" <nlighten me" 0 Supreme Being" on the nature o Brahm" adhyatm" a#tion" adhibhoot and adhidai&!II The words adhyatm" a#tion" adhibhoot and adhidai& are all mysteries to Arjun and he wishes to be enlightened on them! *! H-ho is adhiyagya" 0 (adhusudan" and how is he enshrined in the body : and how does the man with a restrained mind know you at the end/II -ho is a adhiyagya and how is he within the body/ %t is e&ident that the doer o yagya is some Soul who is based in a human body! And" at last" how does a man with a ully #ontrolled mind know .position in Chapter 9!C So a#tion is that whi#h apprises us o them! (en who know them are aware" at the end" o .rishn at the end/ So there are se&en Kuestions in all and .rishn alone" and this knowledge is ne&er blotted out! 2epeating .C1APT<2 8: 40' -%T1 T1< %(P<2%S1ABG< '07 At the end o Chapter 9" .rishn was a yogi" the enjoyer o all oblations! And all yagya are at last absorbed in him! That is the moment o realiMation o the Supreme Soul! Si.rishn pro#eeds to answer them in that order! .rishn had spoken o earlier as known to yogi! A#tion is now #omplete and hen#e orth there is no urther need o it! A#tion is per e#ted when the desires o beings whi#h #reate sanskar that are propitious as well as unpropitious are stilled! Beyond this there is not urther need o a#tion! So true a#tion is that whi#h brings an end to desires! Su#h a#tion" there ore" means worship and #ontemplation that are inherent in yagya! .rishn$is adhiyagya in the human body" the per ormer o all yagya! Thus 'od himsel " dwelling as the unmani est Soul in the body" is adhiyagya! .! HThe Gord said" QThe one who is imperishable is the Supreme Spirit BBrahmCO abiding in a body he is adhyatmO and the #essation o properties in beings whi#h produ#e something or the other is a#tion!II The one who is indestru#tible" who ne&er dies" is the Supreme Spirit! Steady de&otion to the Sel $ dominan#e o the Soul$is adhyatm! Be ore this stage e&eryone is ruled by maya" but when a man dwells irmly in 'od and so in his own Sel " he is in used with the sense o suprema#y o his Sel ! This is the #ulmination o adhyatm! The #easing$the dis#ontinuan#e$o the will o beings whi#h results in the #reation o both good and e&il is" on the other hand" the #rowning point o a#tion! This is the per e#t a#tion whi#h . o ArjunIs Kuestions ha&e now .! HAdhibhoot is all that is subje#t to birth and deathO the Supreme Spirit is adhidai&" and 0 the unparalleled among men BArjunC" % B?asude&C am the adhiyagya in the body!II >ntil the state o immortality is a#hie&ed" all the transient destru#tible desires are adhibhoot or in other words spheres o beings! They are the sour#e o the origin o beings! And the Supreme Spirit who is beyond nature is adhidai&" the #reator o all gods" that is righteous impulses$ the di&ine treasure that is inally dissol&ed in him! ?asude&$.rishn said that yogi who do pious deeds are released rom all sin and know the all$per&ading 'od! So a#tion is something that brings knowledge o the Supreme Spirit! They who do it know him B.rishnC along with the omnipresent 'od$the adhidai&" adhibhoot" adhiyagya" per e#t a#tion and Adhyatma BSee &erses *9$.

rishnIs assertion that the man who inally" that is when he has per e#t #ontrol o&er his mind and when e&en this mind is dissol&ed" se&ers his relationship with the body and departs rom it with remembran#e o him" surely a#hie&es total oneness with him! 7eath o the body is not the inal end" or the su##ession o bodies #ontinues e&en a ter death! %t is only when the last #rust o earned merits or demerits BsanskarC has disintegrated" and so also the restrained mind along with it" that the inal end #omes" and a ter that the Soul does not ha&e to assume a new body! But this is a pro#ess o a#tion and it #annot be rendered #omprehensible by just words! As long as the trans er rom one body to another" like a #hange o #lothes" persists" there is no real end o the physi#al person! But e&en while the body it yet ali&e" with #ontrol o the mind and dissolution o the restrained mind itsel " physi#al relationship are sundered! % this state were possible a ter the e&ent o death" e&en .rishn takes up the Kuestion o how he is known at the end and ne&er orgotten therea ter! )! HThe man who departs rom the body remembering me doubtlessly attains to me!II That a##ounts or .rishn #ould not be per e#t! 1e has said that only by worship #arried on through innumerable births does a sage gain identity with him! There is then not e&en the least distan#e between them! But his a#hie&ement is made during a physi#al li e! -hen the Soul does not ha&e to assume a new body that is the real end o the physi#al body! This is a portrayal o real death a ter whi#h there is no rebirth! At the other end there is physi#al death whi#h the word a##epts as death" but a ter whi#h the Soul has to be born again! .unti" to the slate with the thought o whi#h he departs rom the body be#ause o his #onstant preo##upation with that state!II A man a#hie&es what he bears in mind at the time o his death! 1ow &ery easy" we may be led to assume/ All that we ha&e to do is just remember 'od be ore dying a ter a li elong indulgen#e in pleasures! A##ording to .rishn has spoken o " reKuires the worshipper to be possessed o yog and a mind so well subdued that it ne&er strays rom 'od! % these #onditions are met and the worshipper then remembers #onstantly" he attains to the magni i#en#e o 'od! % the thought o other obje#ts #omes to mind" oneIs remembran#e is still imper e#t! @ow" when" it is so subtle that it has no .rishn now dwells upon this : :! HA man attains" 0 son o .been answered! At last" .rishn" howe&er" it is not like this at all! At the moment o his death a man #an remember only that whi#h he has thought o all his li e! So what is needed is li elong #ontemplation! %n the absen#e o this" there is no remembran#e at the moment o death o the ideal state whi#h has to be a#hie&ed! 9! HSo you will doubtless realiMe me i " with your mind and intelle#t dedi#ated to me" you always wage war!II 1ow are uninterrupted meditation and #ombat a##omplished simultaneously/ %t is perhaps the pra#ti#e o warriors : one goes on shooting arrows while at the same time intoning and yelling names o deities! But the true meaning o remembran#e Binternal re#itation o the nameC is something else and it is #lari ied by the 4ogeshwar in the ollowing &erse! 8! HPossessed o the yog o meditation and a restrained mind" 0 Parth" the man who is always absorbed in my thought attains to the sublime radian#e o 'od!I Contemplation o 'od and pra#tise o yog ha&e an identi#al meaning! The remembran#e" whi#h .

room or any other thought e,#ept 'od and does not #ountenan#e any other urges" how #an it be possible along with the a#t o waging war/ -hat kind o war is it/ -hen the mind is pulled ba#k rom all sides and #entered on the obje#t o worship" prompted by natural properties" eelings o atta#hment and anger" o lo&e and hatred appear as impediments in the way! -e try to remember and #on#entrate" but these eelings agitate the mind and do their utmost to or#e it away rom the desired memory! 0&er#oming these e,ternal impulses is ighting a warO and they #an be destroyed only by #ontinuous meditation! This is the war that the 'eeta portrays! the problem then broa#hed is o the obje#t o meditation and .rishn speaks o it! 9! HThe man who remembers 'od who is omnis#ient" without beginning and end" dwelling in the Soul that rules all beings the most subtle o the subtle" unmani est" pro&ider to all" beyond thought" imbued with the light o #ons#iousness" and Kuite beyond ignoran#eE II 'od is beyond thought and in#on#ei&able! So long as the mind e,ists" it urges sur&i&e and he is not seen! 1e is known only a ter the per e#tly restrained mind is itsel dissol&ed! %n the se&enth &erse .rishn spoke o the worshipperIs #ontemplation o him and now he speaks o the #ontemplation o 'od! So the instrument o meditation is some a##omplished Soul who is imbued with the awareness o reality! 1+! H-ith unwa&ering #on#entration" with his li e$breath irmly #entered between his brows by the strength o his yog" su#h a man attains to the e ulgent Supreme Being!II The worshipper who always meditates on 'od with a steady mind realiMes his magni i#en#e when his mind is dissol&ed by the strength o his yog$ by the strength rom undertaking o the ordained a#tion$ whi#h enables him to #entre the breath between the two brows so that there is neither inner agitation nor the ad&ent o any will rom an e,ternal sour#e! %n brie " the realiMation #omes in the state in whi#h all properties" sattwa" rajas and tamas" are per e#tly Kuiet" the &ision o mind remains ready on the sel and it is a#hie&ed by the worshipper who always keeps it in mind that yog is the appointed way o realiMation! This way is yog" whi#h .rishn has delineated at length in Chapters ) and :! 1e has just told Arjun" HAlways remember me!J As we ha&e seen" this is done by resting irmly on the pre#epts o yog! 0ne who a#hie&es this knows the magni i#en#e o 'od and be#omes one with him" and therea ter his memory is ne&er obliterated rom his mind! At this point the Kuestion o how 'od is per#ei&ed at the time o departing rom the body is resol&ed! Get us now see the supreme #ondition that should be the worshipperIs goal and to whi#h the dis#ourse on the 'eeta re&erts again and again! 11! H% shall tell you brie ly o the ultimate state whi#h knowers o the ?ed #all the imperishable" and whi#h is realiMed by men who aspire or it" a#t without desire" and pra#tise #ontinen#e!II As was obser&ed in the e,position o the ourteenth &erse o Chapter :" #ontinen#e is uninterrupted #on#entration on 'od through a reje#tion o ail e,ternal asso#iations rom the mind rather than a mere #urbing o the se,ual urge! Constant meditation is true #ontinen#e" or it is this that brings about per#eption o 'od and the inal absolution! Su#h an e,er#ise is the restraint o not one sense" but o all senses! (en who #an do this are true #elibates! -hat .rishn is going to tell Arjun about this dis#ipline is there ore something that is it to be #herished by all hearts! 1*! HShutting the doors o all the sense" that is restraining them rom desire or their obje#ts" #on ining his intelle#t within the Sel " i,ing his li e$breath within his mind" and absorbed in yog" E II The ne#essity o renun#iation o desire by a per e#t #ontrol o the senses is repeatedly stressed! The mind has to be #on ined within the Sel " not outside! -ith the mind so regulating the breath

that it is #entered between the two eyebrows and" o #ourse" engaged in the pra#ti#e o yog" or this is an essential prereKuisiteO$ 1;! H1e who departs rom the body intoning 0(" whi#h is 'od in word" and remembering me" attains to sal&ation! II The sage who dies with the knowledge that the imperishable 'od is the one reality a#hie&es the state o sublime bliss! .rishn is a yogi" a seer who has a#hie&ed awareness o the ultimate truth! As a realiMed sage" an a##omplished tea#her" he e,horts Arjun to re#ite 0(" symbol o 'od" and #ontemplate him! All great! Souls are known by the name o the entity to whi#h they attain and into whi#h they are inally assimilated! %t is or this reason that .rishn prompts Arjun to utter the name o 'od but remember his own B.rishnIsC orm! Get us note that he does not tell Arjun to re#ite his name! -ith the passage o time" though" .rishn was dei ied and men began to re#ite his nameO and they are rewarded but only a##ording to the nature o their dedi#ation! .rishn has told Arjun that it is he who both strengthens the de&otion o su#h worshippers and determines their rewards! But these rewards are destroyed along with their re#ipients! %t is use ul to remember how Gord Shi&" the initiator o yog" insisted on the re#itation o the syllable H2amJ that signi ies the omnipresent 'od who #an be e,perien#ed only as an inner &oi#e! Sant .abir is also said to ha&e #ommitted himsel to the #onstant re#itation o the two sounds represented by HraJ and HmJ! And .rishn here ad&o#ates the use ulness o 0(! 'od is known by innumerable names" but only that name whi#h prompts and #on irms aith in the one 'od is worthy o #onstant remembran#e and re#itation! -orshippers are rightly #autioned by .rishn that the name they re#ite time and again must not be one that might in#line or en#ourage them to belie&e in a multipli#ity o gods and goddesses who are nothing more than a bundle o myth! 0( is uniKue in the sense that it literally betokens that the supreme authority o 'od inheres in e&ery HmeJ! So seekers must desist rom wandering here and there to ind him outside themsel&es! The re&ered (aharaj Ai would o ten ad&ise his de&otees to keep in mind his orm while intoning some name like 0(" 2am or Shi& to &isualiMe him and" with him be ore the mindIs eye" to remember the identi#al god$the obje#t o their worship! %t is an a##omplished tea#her who is kept in &iew while meditating! -hether we hold on to a 2am" .rishn" or a hermit who is liberated rom ail desire and pleasure o the sense" or to any other being a##ording to our in#lination" we #an know them only by a#tual e,perien#e" a ter whi#h they dis#lose to us the way to some #ontemporary and a##omplished tea#her whose guidan#e we should slowly but surely ollow to #onKuer the material world! At the beginning" % too used to #ontemplate a huge image o .rishn" but this image was gradually erased rom my mind by the ad&ent o per#eption o my enlightened tea#her! @o&i#es utter the deityIs name" but hesitate to do so while #alling a sage in human orm! They are unable to dis#ard the bias o their inherited belie s! So they #all to mind some other alse god instead! But this pra#ti#e is" as we ha&e seen" orbidden by 4ogeshwar .rishn as impious! The proper way is to ind re uge in some realiMed sage" an a##omplished or enlightened tea#her" who has already gone through the e,perien#e! 6alla#ious dogmas are then destroyed and the worshipper is enabled to set upon real a#tion as his pious impulses and the #apa#ity to a#t a##ording to them are rendered su i#iently strong! So" a##ording to .rishn" the mind is restrained and ultimately dissol&ed by a simultaneous re#itation o 0( and remembran#e o his orm! This is the point at whi#h the a##umulated layers o sanskar$o the merits o a#tion$are dissol&ed and all the relationships o the body se&ered ore&er! A main is not rid o the body by just physi#al death!

18! HThe yogi who is irmly de&oted to me" and who #onstantly remembers me and is absorbed in me" realiMes me with ease! II .rishn is easily attained to by the worshipper who has no one e,#ept him in his mind" and who thinks steadily only o him and always remembers him! The pro it o this attainment is portrayed in the ne,t &erse! 1)! HA##omplished sages who ha&e attained to the ultimate state are no longer subje#t to transient rebirth whi#h is like a house o sorrows!II %t is only a ter attaining to the Supreme Spirit that man is not born again! .rishn then speaks o the sphere o rebirth! 1:! HAll the worlds rom Brahmlok downwards are" 0 Arjun" o a re#urrent #hara#ter" but" 0 son o .unti" the soul whi#h realiMes me is not born again! II The #on#eption o di erent worlds BlokC in sa#red books is an e,er#ise in the #reation o metaphor! There is no dark pit in the nether world in whi#h we are stung and tortured by &enomous #reatures #alled hell" nor is there a domain in the sky whi#h we #all hea&en! (an himsel is a god when he is imbued with pious instin#ts and he" too" is a demon when o&ertaken by impious impulses! .rishnIs own kinsmen su#h as .ans" Shishupal" and Banasur were #ursed with demonia#al temperament! 'ods" men" and sub$humans #onstitute the three metaphori#al worlds! .rishn insists that the Sel " #arrying with himsel the mind and the i&e senses" assumes new bodies a##ording to the sanskar earned o&er unnumerable li&es! 'ods" embodiments o &irtue" whom we #all immortal" are also subje#t to death! And there #an be no greater loss than the destru#tion o piety in this mortal world! -hat is the use o this godlike body i it works or the destru#tion o the earned righteousness/ All the worlds" rom the highest to the lowest" are worlds o su ering! (an alone #an shape the a#tion by whi#h he a#hie&es the supreme goal" a ter whi#h there is no re#urren#e o birth and death! By the ordained a#tion man #an be#ome 'od and e&en a#hie&e the position o Brahma himsel " the irst deity o the sa#red 1indu Trinity to whom is entrusted the task o #reation! And yet he will not be spared rom rebirth until" with restraint and dissolution o the mind" he per#ei&es 'od and merges into him! The >panishads re&eal the same truth! A##ording to the .athopanishad" the mortal human is #apable o being immortal and within this physi#al body and in this world itsel " he #an a#hie&e dire#t per#eption o the Supreme Spirit by the destru#tion o all atta#hments o the heart! %s Brahma" #reator o the world" himsel mortal/ .rishn said in Chapter ; that the mind o Prajapati Brahma is a mere tool and 'od is mani ested through him! %t is su#h great souls who ha&e de&ised yagya! But it is now re&ealed that e&en one who attains to the status o Brahma has to be reborn! A ter all" what does .rishn really intend to say/ %n truth" the realiMed sages" through whom 'od is mani ested" do not ha&e a Brahma$like mind" but they are addressed as Brahma be#ause they tea#h and do good! They are not Brahma in themsel&es" or their mind is at last dissol&ed" but their mind e,isting in the #ourse o worship be ore that stage is Brahma! This mind" #onstituted o ego" intelle#t" thought" and eeling" is truly &ast and Brahma$like! But the mind o an ordinary man is not Brahma! Brahma begins to be shaped rom the moment when the mind #ommen#es approa#hing the worshipped 'od! S#holars o great erudition ha&e as#ribed our stages to this pro#ess whi#h ha&e been pointed out

in Chapter ; BSee the e,position o tenth &erse in Chapter ;C % we re#all them" they are brahm&itt" brahmi&idwar" brahm&idwariyan" and brahm&idwarisht! Brahm&itt is the mind that is embellished with knowledge o the Supreme Spirit Bbrahm&idya! Brahm&idwar is that whi#h has a#hie&ed e,#ellen#e in su#h knowledge! 2ather than just a#hie&ing distin#tion in the knowledge o 'od" brahma&idwariyan is the mind that has turned into a medium or the dissemination o the knowledge and or guidan#e to others who wish to go along the way! Brahmawidwarisht represents that last stage in whi#h it is looded with #ons#iousness o the adored 'od! The mind has its e,isten#e until this stage" be#ause the 'od who irradiates it is yet remo&ed rom it! The worshipper is yet within the bounds o nature and" although in an ele&ated state" he is still subje#t to re#urrent birth and death! -hen the mind BBrahmaC dwells in #elestial radian#e" the whole being and its #urrent o thought are awake and alert! But they are un#ons#ious and inert when they are beset by spiritual ignoran#e! This is what has been des#ribed as brightness and darkness or day and night! These are but igurati&e renderings o di erent states o mind! <&en in this superior" Brahma$like state" blessed with knowledge o 'od and o&er lowing with his radian#e" the relentless su##ession o the day o spiritual knowledge Bwhi#h unites the Sel with the Supreme SpiritC and the night o ignoran#e" o light and darkness" persists! <&en at this stage maya is still in #ommand! -hen there is resplenden#e o knowledge" insensate beings #ome to #ons#iousness and they begin to see the supreme goal! 0n the other hand" when the mind is submerged in darkness" beings are in state o nes#ien#e Bthe la#k o knowledgeC! The mind #annot then as#ertain its position and the progress towards 'od #omes to a standstill! These states o knowledge and ignoran#e are BrahmaIs day and night! %n the light o day the numerous impulses o mind are lit up by 'odIs e ulgen#e" whereas in the night o ignoran#e the same impulses are buried under the impenetrable gloom o insensibility! 2ealiMation o the immutable" unmani est 'od" who is indestru#tible and mu#h beyond the unmani est mind" is e e#ted when the in#linations to both good and e&il" to knowledge and ignoran#e" are per e#tly hushed" and when all the #urrents o will the sensible as well as the insensible that disappear rom &iew in the darkness o night and emerge in the light o day are obliterated! An a##omplished Soul is one who has gone beyond these our stages o the mind! There is no mind within him be#ause it has turned into a mere instrument o 'od! 4et he appears to ha&e a mind be#ause he instru#ts others and prompts them with irmness! But" in truth" he is beyond the sway o the mindIs operation" be#ause he has now ound his pla#e in the ultimate unmani est reality and won reedom rom rebirth! But prior to this" when he is still in possession o his mind" he is Brahma and subje#t to rebirth! Casting light upon these matters" .rishn says: 19! H4ogi who know the reality o one day o Brahma whi#h is o the duration o a thousand ages ByugC and o one night whi#h is also eKual to a thousand ages know the essen#e o time!II %n the se&enteenth &erse" day and night are used as symbols o knowledge and ignoran#e! Brahma #omes into being when the mind is endowed with the knowledge o 'od Bbrahm&ittC" whereas the mind whi#h has a#hie&ed the state o brahm&idwarisht marks the #rowning point o Brahma! The mind whi#h is possessed o knowledge is BrahmaIs day! -hen knowledge a#ts upon the mind" the yogi makes his way towards 'od and the innumerable predile#tions o his mind are su used with his radian#e! 0n the other hand" when the night o ignoran#e pre&ails" the mind and heart are swamped with the #ontradi#tions o maya between mani old impulses! This is the urthest limit o light and darkness! Beyond this there is neither ignoran#e nor knowledge"

be#ause the inal essen#e that is 'od is now dire#tly known! Those yogis who know this essen#e know the reality o time! They know when the night o ignoran#e alls and when the day o knowledge dawns" and also the limits o the dominan#e o time$the point to whi#h it #an pursue us! The sages o yore des#ribed the inner realm as thought or sometimes as intelle#t! %n the #ourse o time" un#tions o the mind were di&ided into our #ategories whi#h #ame to be known as mind" intelle#t" thought and ego" although impulses are in a#t endless! %t is within the mind that there are the night o ignoran#e and also the day o knowledge! These are the days and nights o Brahma! %n the mortal world" whi#h is a orm o darkness" all beings lie in a state o insensibility! 2oaming about amidst nature" their mind ails to per#ei&e the radiant 'od! But they who pra#tise yog ha&e woken up rom the slumber o insensibility and begun to make their way towards 'od! A##ording to 'oswami Tulsidas in the 2am Charit (anas" his &ersion o the 2amayana" e&en the mind possessed o knowledge is degraded to the state o ignoran#e by e&il asso#iation! But it is re$imbued with light by &irtuous #ompany! This alternation o spiritual as#endan#y and de#line #ontinues till the moment o attainment! A ter realiMation o the ultimate goal" howe&er" there are no Brahma" no mind" no night" and no day! BrahmaIs day and night are just metaphors! There is neither a night nor a day o a thousand years" nor e&en a Brahma with our a#es! The brahm&itt" brahm&idwar" brahm&idwariyan" and brahm&idwarisht" our su##essi&e stages o mind" are his our a#es" and the our main di&isions o the mind are his our ages ByugC! 7ay and night abide in the tenden#ies and operations o the mind! (en who know this se#ret understand the mystery o time$ how ar it pursues us and who #an trans#end it! .rishn then goes on to e,plain the deeds that belong to day as also those that belong to night : what is done in the state o knowledge and that whi#h is done in the obs#urity o ignoran#e! 18! HAll mani est beings are born rom the subtle body o Brahma at the outset o his day and are also dissol&ed in the same unmani est body at the all o his night!II -ith the dawning o a day o BrahmaIs" that is" with the in#eption o knowledge" all beings #ome awake in their unmani est mind" and it is within the same subtle" unmani est mind that they lapse into un#ons#iousness! They are unable to see the Supreme Spirit" but they ha&e an e,isten#e! The mind" unmani est and in&isible" is the medium o both #ons#iousness and un#ons#iousness" o both knowledge and nes#ien#e Bthe la#k o knowledgeC! 19! HThe beings who thus wake up into #ons#iousness are #ompelled by nature to relapse into un#ons#iousness with the #oming o night and they are then" 0 Parth" reborn with the ad&ent o day!II As long as the mind persists" the su##ession o knowledge and ignoran#e goes on! So long as this #ontinues" the seeker is only a worshipper rather than an a##omplished sage! *+! HBut beyond the unmani est Brahma there is the eternal" unmani est 'od who is not destroyed e&en a ter the destru#tion o all beings!II 0n the one hand" the mind that is Brahma is imper#eptible! %t #annot be known by the senses! 0n the other" there is the eternal" unmani est Supreme Spirit who is not destroyed e&en with the destru#tion o physi#al beings" or o the in&isible Brahma BmindC whi#h gains #ons#iousness with the arising o knowledge and sinks into un#ons#iousness with the setting o knowledge into the darkness o ignoran#e! 'od e,ists e&en a ter the destru#tion o in#linations o the mind whi#h wake up in the light o day and all ba#k into insensibility in the darkness o night! These upward and downward motions o the mind #ease only a ter the attainment o 'od who is the ultimate

irshn says" HThis is my ultimate abode" a ter attaining whi#h one does not return to mortal li e and is not reborn!J So now he tells Arjun this way o a#hie&ing that eternal" unmani est state! **! HAnd" 0 Parth that 'od in whom all beings e.rishn then re&eals when e&en men o su#h de&otion are within the limits o rebirth and when they are beyond it! *.ing moon o the bright hal o a month" and the daMMlingly #lear sky o the time when the sun mo&es northwards" attain to 'od!II 6ire is a symbol o 'odIs radian#e as day is o knowledge! The bright hal o lunar month stands or purity! The si. months o the downward #ourse o the sun" the yogi who desires ruits o his a#tion attains to the dim light o the moonU:8V and is reborn a ter enjoying his rewards in hea&en!I That Soul is yet ar remo&ed rom 'od who departs rom the body when the sa#red ire o his yagya is smothered by smoke" when the night o ignoran#e pre&ails" when the moon is waning in the dark hal o a month" when gloom pre&ails on all sides and the outward looking mind is in ested with the si. &irtues o dis#rimination" renun#iation" restraint" tranKuility" #ourage and intelle#t are the si. months o the as#endant motion o the sun! The state o upward motion is the progress o the sun to the north o the eKuator! <nlightened by knowledge o the reality whi#h is Kuite beyond nature" sages attain to 'od and they are then not reborn! But what happen to the worshippers who do not realiMe this state o di&ine magni i#en#e in spite o their de&otion/ *)! H7ying during pre&alen#e o the darkness o a gloomy night" the dark hal o a lunar month" and the si.ist and who permeates the whole world is realiMed by steady de&otion!II Steady" unswer&ing de&otion means the a#t o remembering none else e.abode! -ith the realiMation o the Supreme Spirit" the mind is #oloured by him and be#omes what he is! This is the point when the mind is annihilated and in its pla#e only the eternal" unmani est 'od remains! *1! HThe unmani est and imperishable 'od who is said to be sal&ation and a ter realiMing whom one does not #ome ba#k to the world" is my ultimate abode!II That eternal unmani est state is immortal and that is #alled enlightenment Bor attainmentC o the supreme goal F .! HAnd" 0 the best o Bharat" % shall now enlighten you on the ways by whi#h" a ter gi&ing up their bodies" yogi arri&e at the state o birth$lessness as well as o rebirth!II 6reedom rom rebirth" as we are about to see" is a#hie&ed by those who dwell in the light o knowledge! *8! HThey who depart rom the body in the presen#e o bright lames" daylight" the sun" the wa.#ept 'od so as to be one with him! . &i#es o passion" wrath greed" delusion" &anity and mali#e and he is reborn! 7oes it mean" howe&er" that along with his body the worship" too" o this seeker is destroyed/ U:8VThe sage Pippalad says in the >panishad Prashn : 'od" the Gord o beings" made Pran" the primal energy Bmale prin#ipleC and 2ayi B emale prin#ipalC" the gi&er o orm! Pran" the primal energy" the sunO and 2ayi" the orm gi&ing substan#e" is the (oon! *:! HThe way o brightness Bthat leads to 'odC and the way o darkness that takes one to the a terworld Bthe world o (anes to whi#h departed an#estors ha&e goneC are the two eternal ways .

rishnC may be so known at the end that he is ne&er orgotten therea ter! 2eplying to these Kuestions" .rishn at the end o Chapter 9" Arjun puts orward se&en Kuestions! 1e wishes to know the nature o the Supreme Spirit" adhyatm" the per e#t a#tion" adhidai&" adhibhoot and adhiyagya" and how he B.rishn tells him that the one who is imperishable is 'od! The de&otion that se#ures realiMation o 'od is adhyatmO it is the knowledge that brings man under the domination o Sel by reeing him rom the suprema#y o maya! Shedding away the innate properties o nature whi#h produ#e good or e&il impressions BsanskarC$ the annihilation or destru#tion o these properties is the per e#tion o a#tion! There is no need o any urther a#tion a ter this! So true a#tion is something that destroys the &ery sour#e o the merits that are #alled sanskar! Transient" perishable desires are adhibhoot! %n other words" that whi#h is destroyed is the medium or the generation o all beings! The Supreme Spirit is adhidai& and in him is dissol&ed the treasure o di&inity! .nowing this se#ret" the yogi trans#ends the rewards o ?edi# study" sa#ri i#ial rites" penan#e" and #harity and so a#hie&es sal&ation!I By his #ontemplation o 'od" the ruit o yagya" the yogi who #omes to know the identi#al Supreme Spirit by dire#t per#eption rather than by just belie or assumption goes beyond the promised rewards" and is liberated or e&er! This dire#t per#eption o the Supreme Spirit is named ?ed that whi#h has been dire#tly re&ealed by 'od himsel ! So when that unmani est essen#e itsel is known" there remains nothing more to know! A ter this e&en the need or the ?ed is there ore done away with" or the knower is now no di erent rom him who had re&ealed it to their seer$#omposers! 4agya or the appointed task was a ne#essity earlier" but on#e the reality is known there remains nothing else to pray or! To subje#t the senses along with the mind to austerities is penan#e" but e&en that is unne#essary now! A total sel surrender" in thought" spee#h and a#tion" is #harity! And the auspi#ious ruit o all these is the attainment o 'od! And all these are now unne#essary be#ause the desired goal is no longer away rom the seeker! The yogi who has realiMed 'od trans#ends the rewards o all these &irtuous a#ts$ yagya" penan#e" #harity and others and a#hie&es absolution! YYYYY 6i&e main points ha&e been elaborated in the #hapter! At the beginning" made #urious by problem hinted at by .rishn is himsel adhiyagya in the body or all the sa#ri i#es o yagya are .in the world! 0ne who takes the irst a#hie&es birthlessness" whereas the treader on the se#ond is subje#t to repeated birth and death!II Both the ways" o light and darkness" o knowledge and ignoran#e" ha&e been ore&er! But the merits o worship are ne&er destroyed! The one who dies in the state o knowledge and brightness a#hie&es ultimate sal&ation" but the one who departs rom the body in the state o ignoran#e and obs#urity has to #ome ba#k and undergo yet another birth! And this su##ession o one birth a ter another goes on until there is per e#t lightO until that moment the seeker has to #arry on his worship! The problem is ully resol&ed at this point and .nowing the two ways well" the yogi is aware that his a#t o worship will not be destroyed e&en i he is reborn be#ause o dying in ignoran#e! Both the ways ha&e also been ore&er! So Arjun should at all time pra#tise yog and de&ote himsel to worship" or$ *8! H.rishn then dwells upon the means whi#h are essential or the attainment o inal liberation! *9! H4ou should always rest upon yog" 0 Parth" or the yogi who knows the reality o the two ways is ne&er de#ei&ed!II .

rishn" and adept in yog! 2e#iting the deityIs name while at the same time &isualiMing the known orm o a noble mentor" an a##omplished or enlightened tea#her" is the key to su##ess ul worship! %n the #hapter . old e.rishnC is known at the end! .rishn is re erring thus to the usual pra#ti#e o ighting and at the same time uttering the name o some deity/ 2emembran#e" as he de ines it" is in#essant #ontemplation o him without a thought o anything else! -hen remembran#e is so re ined and intent" who #an ight/ -hat war is possible with su#h intense absorption o the mind on a single obje#t! %n a#t" the real orm o the HwarJ that is the theme o the 'eeta emerges only when a worshipper is immersed in su#h total and unswer&ing #ontemplation! This is also the state in whi#h the obstru#ti&e properties o maya are #learly &isible! Passion" anger" atta#hment and a&ersion are our most terrible enemies! They obstru#t the worshipperIs memory and to o&er#ome them is to ight a war! The supreme goal is rea#hed only a ter the destru#tion o these enemies! So Arjun is #ounselled to re#ite the sa#red syllable o 0( but #ontemplate the orm o .rishn has also said earlier that e&en a partial a##omplishment o worship does no #ease until it has brought about liberation rom the great ear o li e and death! Both the ways are eternal and indestru#tible! The man who understands this is e&er steady and in repose! So Arjun is ad&ised to be a yogi" or yogi trans#end e&en the sa#red rewards o study o the ?ed" penan#e" yagya and #harity and so attain to ultimate liberation! At se&eral points in the #hapter there is a re eren#e to the supreme goal as the attainment o 'od" who is represented as unmani est" imperishable and eternal! .rishnIsC sublime" unmani est being and the steady de&otion to him ne&er #ome to an end! A man who is initiated into yog is pro&ided with two ways by whi#h he may pro#eed! 0n the irst o these two paths" blessed with the radian#e o per e#t knowledge" possessed o si.rishn would not be imma#ulate! -ere it so" he would not ha&e the knowledge that is gained rom the pra#ti#e o spiritual dis#ipline through a number o li&es! The real end #omes when e&en the wholly restrained mind #eases to be" a ter whi#h the pro#ess o assuming new bodies is dis#ontinued ore&er! The worshipper then merges into the Supreme Spirit and is not reborn therea ter! A##ording to .t birth" the imper e#t worshipper too #an rea#h the supreme goal! .rishn tells him that man who #ontemplate him alone and nothing else" and who depart rom the body thinking o him" know him by dire#t per#eption and be#ome one with what they ha&e per#ei&ed! Sin#e they ha&e always #ontemplated him" at the end also they attain to what they ha&e borne in mind at all time! %t is not that this attainment #omes a ter physi#al death! % per e#tion were to #ome only a ter physi#al death" .rishn remembran#e is the way to this realiMation! So Arjun should #onstantly keep him in mind and wage war! 1ow is it possible to do both at on#e / %s it that .rishn has also taken up the problem o rebirth and said that the whole world" rom Brahma himsel to the lowest o #reatures" repeats itsel ! But e&en a ter all o them are destroyed" his B.made to him! 1e is the agent who e e#ts the sa#ri i#es! And he is also the one in whom the sa#ri i#es are all dissol&ed! Adhiyagya is someone who li&es within the body" not out o it! ArjunIs last Kuestion is how he B.#ellen#e B&erse *8C" in a state o upward motion" and absolutely ree rom any blemish" the worshipper is assured o redemption! But i there is e&en the least imper e#tion about him or any tou#h o the gloom that pre&ails in the dark ortnight o a month" and he departs rom the body in su#h a state" he has to undergo yet another birth! 1owe&er" sin#e he has been a worshipper" instead o being or e&er enmeshed in the &i#ious web o birth and death" a ter his new birth he sets himsel anew to the task o #ompleting his una##omplished worship! Thus" ollowing the path o a#tion in his ne.

t o the Book" 4atharth 'eeta is a&ailable in &arious %nternational B<nglish" 2ussian" 6ren#h" 'erman" Spanish" Chinese" %talian" @orwegian" 7ut#h" Portuguese" Arabi#" Aapanese" PersianC and %ndian languages B1indi" Bengali" Assamese" 'ujarati" (arathi" Tamil" Telugu" (alayalam" .rishn and Arjun" entitled HAkshar Brahm 4ogJ" or H4og with the %mperishable 'od!J Thus #on#ludes Swami AdgadanandIs e.nowledge o the Supreme Spirit" the 7is#ipline o 4og" and the 7ialogue between .position o the <ighth Chapter o the Shreemad Bhagwad 'eeta in H4atharth 'eetaJ 1A2% 0( TAT SAT YYYYY @ote: The te.Thus #on#ludes the <ighth Chapter" in the >panishad o the Shreemad Bhagwad 'eeta" on the .annada" 0riya" Sindhi" Sanskrit" @epali" Punjabi and >rduC and the same #ould be downloaded rom http:PPwww!yatharthgeeta!#omP! P2<6AC< 06 C1APT<2 %@ A>7%0 CASS<TT<S That home where 'od is not being dis#ussed is a #emetery! %n todayIs world$ e&en though they do ha&e some in#lination towards Sel $realiMation in the Supreme Spirit" most people eel themsel&es unable to take time out to per orm worship and meditation! %n su#h a situation" i the message o the 'eeta #an rea#h out to e&ery nook and #orner o the world" it shall sow the seeds or uni&ersal well$being" pea#e" and prosperity! The di&ine words o 'od shall" through these #assettes" deli&er the di&ine message o 'od #ontained in the HBhagwad 'eetaJ" whi#h translates in <nglish as the HSong o 'odJ or the HSong CelestialJ! And this is the &ery essen#e o a worship ul oundation or the liberation and ultimate happiness o all beings @ote: The audio o the Book" 4atharth 'eeta is a&ailable in &arious %nternational B<nglish" 'ermanC and %ndian languages B1indi" Bengali" 'ujarati" (arathi" Tamil" TeluguC and the same #ould be downloaded rom http:PPwww!yatharthgeeta!#omP! .

#ellen#e" it is also mani estly ruit ul! The pro it rom it is so transparent! @o sooner does a man ha&e it than he is rewarded! %t is not the blind aith that we will be rewarded in the ne.t li e i we are &irtuous in this li e! Buttressed by awareness o its operation" this knowledge is indestru#tible and easy to a#t upon! U:)V0ne o the di erent meanings o the word >panishad! The knowledge #ontained in the >panishads is indeed se#ret be#ause traditionally it is imparted only to those who are spiritually ready to re#ei&e and pro it by it! 4ogeshwar .rishn means that he will illustrate it with the a#hie&ements o a great Soul o attainment: how he un#tions simultaneously at all pla#es" how he enlightens" and how as a #harioteer he always stands beside the Sel ! .rishn then went on to say in Chapter 9 that the doers o this a#tion know him along with the all$per&asi&e 'od" per e#t a#tion" adhyatm and adhidai&" as well as adhibhoot and adhiyagya! 1e urther added in Chapter 8 that this is sal&ation" whi#h is the supreme goal! %n the present #hapter he raises the Kuestion o the greatness o the Soul who is endowed with yog! Per&ading all" he is nonetheless yet unin&ol&ed! Although he a#ts" he is yet a non$doer! Besides illumining the nature and in luen#e o this a##omplished Soul" the #hapter also #ontains a warning against su#h hindran#es as other gods in the way o the pra#ti#e o yogO it also stresses the importan#e o inding shelter under a realiMed sage" an a##omplished tea#her" who is possessed o su#h a Soul! 1! HThe Gord said" Q% shall instru#t you well with analogy in this mysterious knowledge" 0 the sinless" a ter knowing whi#h you will be liberated rom this sorrow ul world!IJ By o ering to impart this knowledge with H&igyan"J .nowing this Arjun will be eman#ipated rom this world o misery where happiness is impermanent! *! HThis BknowledgeC is the monar#h o all learning as well as o all mysteries" most sa#red" doubtlessly propitious" easy to pra#tise" and indestru#tible!J Substantiated by illustration" this knowledge is the so&ereign o all learning! But HlearningJ here does not mean mastering a language or s#holarship in its usual sense! True learning is that whi#h enables the man who has a#Kuired it to go along 'odIs way until he has won sal&ation! % he gets entangled in the &anity o his a#hie&ements or in the material world while he is on the way" it is e&ident that his learning has ailed! 1is learning" then" is not knowledge but a &eil o ignoran#e! %t is only regal learning Braj&idyaC" spiritual enlightenment" whi#h is pro itable beyond any doubt! %t is the king o all Hse#ret tea#hingU:)VJ be#ause one #an approa#h it only a ter the pra#ti#e o yog is brought to per e#tion by the unra&eling o the knots o both knowledge and ignoran#e! 1oliest o the holy and blessed with e.rishn has told Arjun in Chapter * that the seed o yog ne&er perishes! Pra#tising it in e&en a small measure pro&ides liberation rom the great ear o repeated birth and death! %n Chapter :" Arjun reKuested the Gord to tell him the lot o the eeble worshipper who strays rom .C1APT<2 9: ST%22%@' T0 SP%2%T>AG <@G%'1T<@(<@T Till Chapter :" .rishn made a systemati# in&estigation o yog! %ts pre#ise meaning" as we ha&e seen" is the #ondu#t o yagya! 4agya represents that spe#ial orm o worship whi#h pro&ides a##ess to 'od" and in whi#h the whole animate and inanimate world is o ered as a sa#ri i#e! The immortal essen#e is known with restraint o mind and ultimate dissolution o the restrained mind itsel ! The one who partakes o what is generated by yagya at its #ompletion is a truly enlightened man" a realiMed sage and a##omplished tea#her who is united with the eternal 'od! This union" joining together o the indi&idual and the Cosmi# Soul" is named yog! The #ondu#t o yagya is #alled a#tion! .

rishn" but he is unblemished like the sky! The problem o the power o yog is now resol&ed! So .unti" attain to my nature and merge into it at the end o a #y#le BkalpC and % re#reate them at the beginning o another #y#le!J 1e reshapes beings with spe#ial #are at the beginning o a phase! They had e.rishn says that although the pra#ti#e o yog is easy and indestru#tible" aith is its indispensable reKuirement! .ists in an unmani est orm! Sin#e a##omplished sages are one with the unmani est 'od" they dis#ard their bodies and a#t in the same di&ine state! )! HAnd e&en all beings are not within me" and su#h is the power o my yog$maya that my Spirit" the #reator and preser&er o all beings" is not within them!J <&en all beings are not within .rishn means by saying that beings merge into his nature! .yog and is" there ore" depri&ed o the per#eption whi#h is its inal a#hie&ement! .t takes up the Kuestion o what the yogi does! 9! HAll beings" 0 son o .isted earlier" but they were misshapen! @ow he gi&es them a more re ined" more per e#t shape! They who were lying in a state o insensibility" he now renders #ons#ious! 1e also prompts beings to kalp in the other sense o the word! Besides H#y#le o timeJ" kalp also means a #hange or the better! %t is the beginning o a kalp when" es#aping rom demonia#al and negati&e impulses" a man #omes by the treasure o di&inityO and it #omes to a #lose with the worshipperIs be#oming one with 'od! A kalp #eases to be a ter its purpose is a#hie&ed! The #ommen#ement o worship is the beginning" while the #ulmination at whi#h the goal is per#ei&ed is its end$the point when the Soul" reed rom su#h eelings as atta#hment and repulsion whi#h e e#t the #reation o all beings who ha&e to be reborn" dwells in his identi#al" eternal orm! This is what .rishn then said that the primary need is to know the way o this a#tion ByogC a ter whi#h" i a man just takes a #ouple o steps on it" the merit earned by them is ne&er destroyed! 1e #arries this sanskar along with him to the ne.ists spreads through e&ery atom o the uni&erse and all beings ha&e their li e within him! But he is not in them be#ause he e.! H(en who ha&e no aith in this knowledge" 0 Parantap" do not attain to me and are doomed to roaming about the mortal world!J <&en the smallest bit o pra#ti#e o this dharm is ne&er destroyed" but the man whose mind is not ully #entered on the obje#t o his worship undergoes repeated birth and death instead o attaining to .rishn e.rishn #ites an instan#e to elu#idate the point: :! HBe it known to you that all beings dwell in me just as the great wind that roams e&erywhere always dwells in the sky!J The wind is always in the sky" but #annot taint and a e#t its brightness! Similarly" all beings are within .rishn ne.t li e and by &irtue o it per orms the same a#tion with e&ery birth! Thus pra#tising yog o&er many li&es" he at last arri&es at the state o sal&ation" the supreme goal! The same point is made again in the present #hapter when .rishn! @ow the 4ogeshwar speaks about 'odIs omnipresen#e: 8! HThe whole world is per&aded by me" the unmani est Supreme Being" and all beings dwell within my will but % am not in them!J The unmani est orm in whi#h .rishn" be#ause they are mortal and dependent on nature! But su#h is the greatness o his yog that although he #reates and sustains all beings" his Spirit is not in them! % am in the orm o the Sel not within those beings! This is the a#hie&ement o yog! .

rishn then throws urther light on the a##omplishment by su#h great Souls! 8! H% repeatedly shape all these beings" who are helplessly dependent on their innate properties" a##ording to their a#tion!II A##epting the way o li e whi#h is gi&en to himO .rishnIs innate property! %t is not made by him" but the kalp o the se&enth &erse" whi#h marks the #ommen#ement o the Supreme goal" is a #reation o the sage himsel ! %n this kalp he himsel is the doer who #reates with spe#ial #are" but in the other kalp" nature is the agent whi#h by mere re le#tion o its might #reates the state o transien#e in whi#h there is #hange o bodies" o time" and o ages! But although .rishn" they see only the body o the great Soul! 1ow then are they to know that he dwells in the being o the great 'od/ .rishn as human and there ore paltry! 1e dwells in the e.But what kind o HnatureJ #an belong to a sage who has annihilated all nature and be#ome one with 'od/ 7oes his nature still sur&i&e/ As .unti" my maya shapes this world o the animate and the inanimate " and the world re&ol&es like a wheel o re#urren#e or the a oresaid reason!J By &irtue o his spirit that permeates the whole world" this maya Bthe three$propertied nature" in both its eight old insensate and #ons#ious ormsC shapes the animate and inanimate world! This is the in erior kalp and it is be#ause o this that the world mo&es in its #y#le o birth and death$o #oming and going! This lowly kalp that nature brings about" mutable and destru#ti&e" is a##omplished by maya by &irtue o .rishn #ontinuously and with spe#ial #are ashions and re ashions all beings who dwell in their own nature and are dominated by the three properties: he prompts them to ad&an#e towards the state o his own Sel ! 7oes this mean" howe&er" that he also is bound by a#tion/ 9! H>natta#hed and disinterested in these a#ts" 0 7hananjay" % am not bound by a#tion!J A##ording to the ninth &erse o Chapter 8 a sageIs way o a#tion is unworldly! The ourth &erse o the present #hapter says that he works in an unmani est way! @ow .rishn/ That" too" is kalp! 1+! H%n asso#iation with me" 0 son o .rishn says the same thing here again: that he is not atta#hed to the a#tions he per orms imper#eptibly! Sin#e the union o his Soul with the Supreme Spirit has bestowed a state o deta#hment on him" he is no longer bound by a#tion! Sin#e he is now abiding in the &ery goal that is a#hie&ed by a#tion" he is not #ompelled to do it! So ar the Kuestion was o the relationship between a#ts o nature and the innate property$o the sageIs way o li e and a#tion! @ow what is that whi#h maya #reates by assuming the property that belongs to .rishn has said in the thirty$third &erse o Chapter ." all beings attain to their own nature! They a#t a##ording to their predominant propertyO and e&en the sage who has a#hie&ed knowledge by dire#t per#eption a#ts a##ording to his disposition! 1e works or the good o those who ha&e straggled! The #ondu#t$ the way o li e $ o the sage who dwells in the ultimate essen#e is his nature! 1e #ondu#ts himsel a##ording to the state o his being! At the end o kalp" men attain to this #ondu#t$this way o li e$o a##omplished tea#her" o realiMed sages! .rishn is so all$per&asi&e" the deluded do not yet know him! 11! QQThe deluded who do not know my ultimate being regard me in the human orm as but an in erior mortal!II The ignorant who do not know his identity with the Supreme Spirit" the 'od o all beings" regard .alted state o that Supreme Spirit who is the 'od o all beings" but ignorant men do not know it be#ause he is in mortal orm! They address him as a man! And they are hardly to blame! -hen they look at .

plained why they are unable to realiMe the truth! 1*! HThe ignorant are " like e&il spirits" a li#ted with the property o darkness and so their hopes and a#tions and knowledge are all utile!II The unaware are possessed o utile hope Bwhi#h #an ne&er be ul illedC" utile a#tion Bwhi#h bindsC" and utile knowledge Bwhi#h is really ignoran#eC! Gying in the #hasm o un#ons#iousness and #hara#teriMed by the gullible nature o de&ils and demons" by demonia#al nature" they belie&e .! HBut" 0 Parth" they who ha&e ound shelter in di&ine nature and know me as the eternal" imperishable sour#e o all beings" worship me with per e#t de&otion!II The sages who take re uge in pious impulses" the treasure o di&inity" and regard .%t is now e.rishn is himsel the doer o yagya! % the sage does not a#t as the #harioteer" the su##ess ul a##omplishment o yagya is impossible! %t is only by his guidan#e that the worshipper is able to know the stage o spiritual a##omplishment at whi#h he stands and the point on the way he has rea#hed! .nowledge a ter a due appraisal o their assets and liabilities as well as o their own strength! Some others worship him with a eeling o being identi#al with him$the eeling that they ha&e to be one with him by disso#iating themsel&es rom e&erything that is other than himO and they de&ote themsel&es to him with the total dedi#ation o the -ay o Sel less A#tion! Similarly" there are many other orms o worship! %n a#t" howe&er" these are all only the higher and lower phases o the same spiritual obser&an#e that is #alled yagya! 4agya begins with re&erent ser&i#e" but how is it per ormed/ By his own admission" 4ogeshwar .rishn then speaks about the per ormer o yagya! 1:!H% am the a#tion that is undertaken" the yagya" the ul illment o earlier resolutions" the healer" the sa#red prayer" the oblation as well as the sa#red ire" and % am also the sa#ri i#ial a#t o oblation!J .rishn by pra#tising the appointed -ay o 7is#rimination or .rishn as the primal sour#e o all beings" unmani est and eternal" always meditate upon him with de&otion only to him and without permitting the thought o anyone else into their mind! The ollowing &erse dwells upon the mode o this worship! 18! HAlways engaged in the re#ital o my name and &irtues" e&er$a#ti&e to realiMe me" and #onstantly o ering obeisan#e to me" de&otees with a irm determination worship me with undi&ided aith!J Abiding irmly in the obser&an#e o the a#t o de&otion" bowing low to .rishn to be but a man! 7emons and de&ils merely represent a property o the mind whi#h has nothing to do with any #aste or #lass! (en with su#h an in#lination are unable to know the reality o .rishn in homage and dwelling in him" men who know the truth endea&our to realiMe him and worship him with staun#h de&otion! They are #onstantly engaged in the a#t o remembran#e and re#ital" whi#h is nothing else than the yagya that has already been illumined! The same rite is here restated in brie ! 1)! H-hile some worship me by gyan$yagya as the all$ en#ompassing Supreme Spirit with the eeling that % am all" some worship me with a sense o identity" some with a sense o being separate rom me Bregarding me as master and themsel&es as ser&antsC" while yet others worship me in many a di erent ashion!J (en who are aware o reality worship .rishn" but sages know him and adore him! 1.

rishn is also the punishment that is meted out to them! ..rishn is the sal&ation that is the ultimate goal that e&eryone wishes to attain to! As the witness who stands as an onlooker and knows e&erything" he is the master o all beings! 1e is the imperishable primal #ause and he is also the doom Bdestru#tionC in whom all good and e&il are dissol&ed! 1e possesses all these glories! (oreo&er" 19! H% am the sun that burns" % draw the #louds and also make them rain" and" 0 Arjun" % am the drought o immortality as well as death" and % am also both substan#e and shadow!II 1e is the sun" the gi&er o light" and yet there are many who regard him as unreal! Su#h men are &i#tims o mortality and so .rishn who supports the whole world! 1e is the H atherJ who pro&ides" the HmotherJ who #on#ei&es and gi&es birth" and the HgrandsireJ who is the an#ient sour#e into whom all being also merge at last! 1e is worthy o being known as also the sa#red 0( whi#h may also be interpreted as the Sel Is resemblan#e to 'od BahamWakarah X 0mkarahC! That 0( B'odC is identi#al with him and so his Sel is it or knowing! 1e is also the agent o the three parts o the obser&an#e o yog: 2ig$adeKuate prayer" Sam$e&enness o mindO and 4ajur$ the ordained yagya or union with the Supreme Spirit! 18! H% am the supreme goal" the sustainer and Gord o all" the maker o good and e&il" the abode and shelter o all" the bene a#tor who wants nothing in return" the beginning and the end" the ountainhead as well as that in whom all beings are dissol&ed" and also the indestru#tible primal energy!II .rishn is also the oblation" or it is in him that the endless sanskar o the past is dissol&edO their ultimate resolution is pro&ided by him! 1e is also the remedy that #ures the malady o worldly misery! (en are rid o this ailment by attaining to him! 1e is also the sa#red in#antation that is o ered to the deity" or it is he who pro&ides the strength by whi#h the mind is #on#entrated on breath! Being the one who adds to the ardour o this deed" he is also the matter whi#h is o ered as oblation! 1e is also the sa#red ire" be#ause all desires o the mind are burnt out in his radiant lame! And he is also the sa#ri i#ial a#t o yagya! 1ere .rishn repeatedly speaks in the irst person: H% am E % amII The impli#ation o this is only that it is he who stands inseparably with the indi&idual Sel as an inspiration and leads the obser&an#e o yagya to su##ess ul #ompletion by #onstant appraisal! This is named &igyan! The most re&ered (aharaj Ai would repeatedly tell us that the a#t o de&otional adoration does not begin until the re&ered 'od appears as the #harioteer to restrain ea#h single breath! -e may #lose our eyes" engage in the a#t o pious adoration" and morti y the senses by se&ere austerities" but unless the desired 'od #omes down to the le&el at whi#h we are and stands inseparably and wat#h ul by the Sel " the essen#e o worship #annot be gained! This is why (aharaj Ai used to say" H% you but behold me" % shall gi&e you e&erything!J %t is the same as .rishnIs saying that he is the doer o all! 19! HAnd % too am the bearer and preser&er o the whole world as also the gi&er o rewards or a#tionO ather" mother and also the grandsireO the sa#red" imperishable 0( who is worthy o being knownO and all ?ed$2ig" Sam and 4ajur!J %t is .rishn is the doer$the agent! %n truth" the power behind the worshipper who always urges him on is that o the adored 'od! So the worshipperIs a##omplishment is only a gi t rom him! 1e is also the yagya whi#h is the appointed mode o worship! The man who tastes the ne#tar that is generated at the su##ess ul #ompletion o yagya is united with the eternal 'od! .

rishn" but they ha&e to undergo rebirth be#ause o their desires! So it is o the utmost importan#e that desire is thoroughly subdued! But what is the lot o those who are liberated rom all desire/ **! H% mysel prote#t the yog o men who abide in me with steady and unde&iating aith and who worship me sel lessly" #onstantly remembering me as 'od!J .a#tly is wrong with the worship o other gods i it is in a#t a worship o .isten#e through worshipping me by yagya" go to hea&en B%ndrlokC and enjoy godly pleasures as a reward or their &irtuous a#ts!II Although they pra#tise all the three parts o worship$prayer B2igC" eKual #ondu#t BSamC" and union B4ajurC" partake o the dim light o the moon B2ayi" the orm$gi&ing substan#eC" rid themsel&es o sin" and worship .rishn himsel and also a begetter o rewards/ .$*) o the present #hapter" 4ogeshwar .rishn who steadies and strengthens the aith o su#h worshippers in whate&er it is in#lined to" whether a Peepal tree" a pie#e o ro#k" some departed Spirit" or a goddess! 1e is also the pro&ider o their rewards! The ruits o de&otion are doubtlessly a#hie&ed by these worshippers" but the rewards they obtain are momentary and ephemeral! They are here today" but they will be #onsumed tomorrow a ter they ha&e been enjoyed! They wear out" whereas the rewards o the true worshippers o .*+! H(en who do pious deeds enjoined by the three ?ed" who ha&e tasted ne#tar and reed themsel&es rom sin" and who wish or hea&enly e.rishn by the pres#ribed mode o yagya" su#h men pray or the attainment o hea&en be#ause o whi#h they are rewarded with mortality and ha&e to be reborn! They worship him and also adopt the appointed mode" but they besee#h or hea&enly joys in return! So rewarded or their piety they go to the abode o %ndr B.rishn himsel bears the burden o the ardent worshipperIs progress along the path o yog! 1e takes upon himsel the responsibility or the prote#tion o his yog! 7espite this" howe&er" men are gi&en to worshipping other gods! *. o Chapter 9 that he irst told Arjun that deluded men whose wisdom is ra&ished by desires worship other gods" and that there truly e.rishn answers the Kuestion thus: *8! HThey ha&e to undergo rebirth be#ause they are ignorant o the reality that % am the enjoyer as well as the master o all yagya!II .rishn are ne&er destroyed! So it is only the ignorant who ha&e been robbed o their wisdom by desire that worship other gods! %n &erses *.! HAlthough e&en #o&etous de&otees indeed worship me in worshipping other gods" their worship is against the ordained pro&ision and there ore en&eloped by ignoran#e!J 4ogeshwar .rishn is thus also the pro&ider o these pleasures! *1 H-ith the gradual wearing out o the merits o their piety" they go ba#k to the mortal world a ter enjoying the pleasures o great hea&en O and it is thus that they who seek re uge in the desire$oriented a#tion pres#ribed by the three ?ed and #o&et joy are #ondemned to repeated death and birth!J The yagya they per orm as well as its three old means" prayer" e&enness o mind" and dedi#ation that unites" is the same" and they also seek re uge in .ing o 'ods in 1indu mythology like Neus in 'reek mythologyCand enjoy the #elestial pleasures o gods! .ist no su#h entities! %t is .rishn reiterates that they who adore other gods also really worship him" but their worship is improper be#ause this orm o de&otion is not ordained! There is no power like gods and to endea&our to realiMe them is" there ore" like stri&ing or the unreal! But what e.rishn has here or the se#ond time taken up the subje#t o other gods! %t was in &erses *+$*.

rishn per&ades all beings in an eKual way" but he has a spe#ial relationship with his wholly dedi#ated worshippers" or they li&e in him and he in them! This is the only kinship he knows! The worshipperIs mind and heart o&er low with .rishnIs presen#e and there is then no di eren#e between the one and the other! 7oes it mean" howe&er" that only the most ortunate are pri&ileged to undertake this a#t o di&ine adoration/ %n 4ogeshwar .rishn will bear the responsibility or guarding the sphere o ArjunIs yog i he per orms all his deeds" rom the humble a#t o eating to the morti i#ation o his mind and senses to shape them in a##ordan#e with the nature o his Kuest" with a sense o total resignation! *8! HPossessed thus o the yog o renun#iation by the sa#ri i#e o all your a#ts" you will be reed rom good as well as e&il ruits whi#h are the sha#kles o a#tion" and attain to me!II %n the abo&e three &erses" ..rishn has systemati#ally dealt with the means o a##omplishment and its out#ome! The three suggested ways are: irst" o ering o humble gi ts su#h as lea&es and lowers" ruit" and water with total de&otionO se#ondly" per orman#e o a#tion with a sense o dedi#ation" andO lastly" #omplete renun#iation in the spirit o sel $surrender! By pra#tising them Arjun will be doubtlessly reed rom the bonds o a#tion and by this liberation he will attain to the sublime state o .rishn! The terms HliberationJ and Ha#hie&ementJ as employed here #omplement ea#h other! .rishn o whate&er o ering is made to him by the ear nest and de&oted worshipper is the #ommen#ement o de&out re&eren#e! There ore"$ *9! H4ou should" 0 son o .rishn is so simple: *:! H% lo&ingly a##ept the o erings o lea&es" lowers" ruit" and water the sel less worshipper makes to me with true de&otion!J This lo&ing a##eptan#e by .rishn attain to him! Although yet in their mortal bodies" they truly be#ome him! That is the identity o the worshipper with the adored 'od! And su#h worshippers ne&er #ome to grie ! (oreo&er" e&en the mode o this worship o .istent" their worshippers just delude themsel&es with an#ies! They who pra#tise an#estor$worship are trapped in the abyss o the past! -orshippers o beings end up in mortal bodies! But they who are single$mindedly dedi#ated to .rishnIs words: .unti" dedi#ate to me whate&er you do" eat" o er as sa#ri i#e" gi&e as alms" and also your penan#e!II .rishn is the enjoyer o yagya be#ause whate&er is o ered as sa#ri i#e is dissol&ed in him! 1e is the blessedness that results rom yagya and also the master o the sa#red rite! But they who do not know this all rom gra#e! They are destroyed" sometimes #aught in the trap o worship o other gods and sometimes in the web o their own desires! >ntil they ha&e per#ei&ed the essen#e" they are depri&ed e&en o the e&erlasting ul illment o their desires! -hat ultimately be#omes o them is dis#losed in the ollowing &erse: *)! H(en who are de&oted to gods attain to gods" worshippers o an#estors attain to their an#estors" worshippers o beings attain to the state o beings" and my worshippers attain to me!J 2ather than really attaining to gods be#ause they are none.rishn then speaks about the pro it that will a##rue rom the worshipperIs attainment o his state! *9! HAlthough l abide e&enly in all beings and there is no one who is either dear or hate ul to me" worshippers who #ontemplate me with lo&ing de&otion abide in me and % in them!J .

! H%t hardly needs saying that sin#e pious Brahmin and royal sages BrajarshiC attain to sal&ation" you should also renoun#e this miserable" ephemeral" mortal body and always engage in my worship!II Get alone those men and women in the Brahmin and .t li e it is resumed rom the &ery point at whi#h it was dis#ontinued earlier and" beginning with what was done be ore" the worshipper presently attains to the most sublime pea#e! There ore" all men o &irtuous as well as o unrighteous #ondu#t and all others ha&e the right to #ontemplate and adore! (ore than this"$ .rishn saysR ..shatriya rajarshi stages" ultimate absolution is within the rea#h o de&otees in the stage o ?aishya" and Shudr as well! Brahmin is but a parti#ular stage o spiritual growth whi#h is blessed with all the &irtues that lead the indi&idual Soul to the Supreme Spirit! That whi#h in#orporates the merits o pea#e" humble besee#hing" per#eption" #ontemplation" and readiness to ollow the signs rom the worshipped 'od is the state o Brahmin! A .rishn is worthy o worship" he is it to be thought o as a sage! 1e is not yet a saint" but there is at the same time not e&en the least doubt o his be#oming one" or he has de&oted himsel to the task with real determination! So e&eryone" you and % all" whate&er be the #ir#umstan#e o our birth" are entitled to the a#t o worship! The only #ondition is that the worshipper is a human" be#ause man alone is #apable o true resol&e! 'eeta is meant or the upli tment o sinners" as .shatriya who has been ele&ated to a sage by his pious li e and austere de&otion is endowed with the spirit o a##omplishment" prowess" sense o authority" and a natural relu#tan#e to withdraw rom the undertaken enterprise! The yogi who ha&e arri&ed at this stage o yog" it is needless to say" surely su##eed in #ompleting their journey! So Arjun" too" should renoun#e this joyless and transient human body to de&ote himsel to .unti" you should know beyond any doubt that my worshipper is ne&er destroyed!J % engaged in de&otional #ontemplation" e&en a wi#ked man soon grows righteous" be#omes one with the almighty 'od" and realiMes the ultimate" imperishable repose! Arjun is told to keep it in mind that .rishnIs earnest de&otee is ne&er destroyed! <&en i the e ort somehow grows eeble" in the ne.rishn with a single$minded de&otion" belie&ing that no obje#t or god besides .rishn has spoken here o the our &arn$Brahmin" .rishnIs worship! %t is or the ourth time that .rishn points out in &erses 9$*1 o Chapter 1: that they who gi&e up sa#red pre#epts and only pray or namesake out o #on#eit are the most despi#able among men! They who make &ain prayers whi#h are but only nominally yagya are #ruel and sin ul! H?aishyaJ and HShudrJ stand or" as we ha&e seen" only di erent stages o the path that leads to 'od! -omen ha&e been sometimes honoured and sometimes denigrated" but they as well as ?aishya and Shudr ha&e an eKual right to the per orman#e o yog! So the tea#hing o 'eeta is or entire mankind" or all men" irrespe#ti&e o their #ondu#t and #ir#umstan#e o birth! %t instru#ts all o us without any dis#rimination in what is propitious! The 'eeta thus embodies a uni&ersal message! .1! HThus he shortly grows pious and a#hie&es eternal pea#e" and so" 0 son o ..*! HSin#e e&en women" ?aishya and Shudr" whose births are regarded as in erior " attain" 0 Parth" to the supreme goal by taking re uge in meE II Throwing light upon demonia#al nature" .+! H<&en i a man o the most depra&ed #ondu#t worships me in#essantly" he is worthy o being regarded as a saint be#ause he is a man o true resol&e!J % e&en a man o e&il deeds remembers and adores .shatriya" ?aishya" and Shudr! 1e has said in Chapter * that there is no more pro itable way than war or a .

rishn has also in the #hapter dis#oursed on the greatness o yog! 'etting away rom the raternity o grie is yog! That whi#h is #ompletely rid o both atta#hment and a&ersion to the world is yog! 4og is the name o union with the sublime essen#e that 'od is! Attainment to that 'od is the #ulmination o yog! Arjun has been told to keep in mind the authority o the sage who has been initiated into yog! Sin#e .rishn is su#h a yogi" although he is the #reator and sustainer o all beings" his Spirit %s not in them! 1e dwells in the identi#al Supreme Spirit and so he has .rishn has told him at the beginning o the #hapter that he would elaborate and demonstrate to him the mysterious knowledge o 'od" blessed with whi#h he would break with this world o misery" and a ter knowing whi#h there will remain nothing else or him to know! -ith this knowledge he will be liberated rom the bonds o the world! So this knowledge is the king o all learning! 2eal knowledge is that whi#h pro&ides a##ess to the Supreme Spirit and is surely propitious! %t is also Hse#ret tea#hingJ be#ause it re&eals the ins#rutable magni i#en#e o 'od! %t is transparently ruit ul" easy o pra#ti#e" and imperishable! % we su##eed in pra#tising e&en a little o it" it brings reedom rom the great ear o re#urrent birth and death! Pra#tised in e&en a small measure" the merit earned rom it is ne&er destroyed and by &irtue o it the doer su##eeds in inally arri&ing at the supreme goal! But there is a #ondition to this attainment! 2ather than a#hie&e the inal bliss" the man who is de&oid o aith gropes about in the &i#ious maMe o worldly li e! 4ogeshwar .shatriya and Brahmin worshippers are nearer to attainment than the ?aishya and Shudr! Sin#e e&en the latter are assured o the inal bliss" there is hardly any need to speak anything o the lot o worshippers who ha&e a#hie&ed a higher status! Also" the >panishad" o whi#h the 'eeta is an abstra#t" abound in allusions to women who were endowed with the sublime knowledge o 'od! <&en all the strenuous but utile attempts to #odi y the rights and prohibitions deri&ed rom the spiritually timid and #on&entional study o the part o ?ed known as the -ork #annot make us ignore the unambiguous "assertion by .shatriyaO and subseKuently added in Chapter .8! H% " taking re uge in and with a total de&otion o the Sel to me" you #ontemplate" remember with humble re&eren#e" and worship only me B?asude&C" you will attain to me!J 2emembering none e..rishn and restraining the mind rom ha&ing any thought that is not o him" irm de&otion" in#essant meditation and re#ital with humble re&eren#e" and a total absorption o the Soul in him" are the prereKuisite or Arjun as well as any other worshipperIs realiMing the immutable" eternal Supreme Spirit within him! YYYYY Addressing Arjun as a sinless de&otee" .shatriya #lass! And the same worshipper is ele&ated to the rank o a Brahmin when he is in used with the Kualities that unite the Soul with 'od! . that e&en dying or oneIs inherent dharm is more desirable! %n Chapter 8 he said that he is the #reator o the our &arn! %t is meant by this" as it has been repeatedly stressed" that he has di&ided a#tion into our phases on the basis o their innate properties! Per orman#e o yagya is the one appointed task and they who do it belong to our #ategories! At the point at whi#h a worshipper is initiated into the way" he is a Shudr be#ause o his inadeKuate knowledge! -hen he has de&eloped a partial #apa#ity or a##omplishment and a##umulated some spiritual wealth" the same worshipper turns into a ?aishya! As#ending yet higher and a#Kuiring the strength to #ar&e his way through the three properties o nature" he be#omes a worshipper o the .#ept .rishn that women as well as men #an also parti#ipate in the ordained a#tion o per orming the worship that is named yagya! So it is but proper that his last words to Arjun in the #hapter are words o en#ouragement or #arrying out the deed o worship with irm de&otion! .

rishn himsel is the #reator! %t is this yog$ maya that ashions the world and the properties o nature are dependent upon this power! The Kuality o doing good belongs to 'od alone! -hile there is no e.#ellen#e in nature whi#h is not perishable" it is the awareness o 'od in knowledge that stirs beings to stri&e towards his state o per e#tion! Thus there are two kinds o kalp! 0ne o them is the #y#le o #hange o obje#t" body" and time$ rendered by nature in #onjun#tion with .andJ o his 2am Charit (anas! So long as the property o ignoran#e and darkness BtamasC predominates and there is only as insigni i#ant presen#e o rajas" there are mali#e and #ontradi#tions all around! A man li&ing in this state may be said to belong to .rishn" he is unatta#hed to them! .rishn is the #reator who stirs beings to Sel $ impro&ement" the other #reator is the three$ propertied nature whi#h in asso#iation with him brings orth the world o the animate and the inanimate! This" too" is kalp that is #hara#teriMed by a #onstant #hange o bodies" o properties" and o time! 'oswami Tulsidas has represented the same as that athomless" dark pit o worldly li e in whi#h all beings lie in wi#kedness and terrible misery! @ature is di&ided into knowledge and ignoran#e! %gnoran#e is e&il and sorrow ul and" helplessly spurred by it" a being dwells like a prisoner! Thwarted by ignoran#e" he is hemmed in by time" a#tion" and the natural properties! 0pposed to it is the yog$maya" the maya o knowledge" o whi#h .ts tell us that a kalp is #ompleted only with the passing away o the our ages ByugC" a ter whi#h there is the phenomenon o total dissolution known as doom! This is" howe&er" a misrepresentation o the truth! 4ug also means Htwo!J 4ug$dharmBSee the e.rishn shapes and re ines beings with spe#ial #are at the beginning o kalp and at its #ompletion all these beings attain to his innate nature or" in other words" to the yog$endowed sageIs way o li e and unmani est e.rishn! But the other higher kalp" whi#h bestows re inement on the Soul" is ashioned by a##omplished sagesO it is they who instill #ons#iousness into the inert nature o beings! Commen#ement o worship is the beginning o this kalp" whereas the su##ess ul #ompletion o worship marks its #lose" with whi#h the malady o worldly misery is #ured and repla#ed by a total absorption in 'od! At this point the yogi attains to .position o &erse 8 in #hapter 8C persists so long as we are away rom the worshipped 'od and he is away rom us! 'oswami Tulsidas has re erred to this in the H>ttar .aliyug! 1e is unable to #ontemplate 'od and worship him! But there is a #hange o age" o yug" with the #ommen#ement o worship! @ow the property o rajas begins to grow" tamas is gradually weakened" and there emerge e&en some tra#es o sattwa in the worshipperIs disposition! This is the stage at whi#h he swings between happiness and ear" and with this the worshipper enters into the se#ond age o 7wapar! 'radually" then" as the property o sattwa grows plenti ul and only a little o rajas remains" the in#lination to the a#t o worship grows progressi&ely stronger! This is the third age" Treta" in whi#h the worshipper pra#tises renun#iation through the per orman#e o yagya! At this point there is in#ul#ated in him the #apa#ity or re#itation at the le&el o yagya" whose strength and weakness" rise and all" depend upon the #ontrol o breath! -hen only sattwa remains and all #on li#ts are o&er#ome" and along with this there is poise o mind" there is then the age o a#hie&ement$the domination o Satyug! At this stage the yogiIs knowledge is on the &erge o trans ormation into pra#ti#al e.perien#e be#ause he is now #lose to per e#tion! @ow he has the #apa#ity to spontaneously hold himsel in the state o meditation! .be#ome him! As the wind sweeping through the sky #annot sully its brightness" e&en so" although all beings are within .isten#e! Su#h a sage goes beyond the sway o nature a ter the moment o per#eption and yet" although #onstantly dwelling in his Sel " he works or the good o mankind! This is the sageIs way o li e and the #ondu#t o this way o li e is the nature o a sage! -hile .rishnIs way o li e as well as state! The sageIs way o li e a ter attainment is his nature! Sa#red te.

#eption to this! Although he dwells in the Supreme Being he has a human body" be#ause o whi#h the ignorant #ontemptuously address him as a tri&ial mortal! The hopes and a#tions and knowledge o su#h men are all utile! They are the ones who erroneously belie&e that they are doers o sel less a#tion just by saying that they are so" irrespe#ti&e o whate&er they do! These men o demonia#al in#lination are unable to re#ogniMe the reality o .rishn dwell dire#tly in him and assume his own being! .#ept him" and in whose a#t o worship there is not e&en the least law" is prote#ted by .rishn himsel " but this mode o worship is not ordained! They are unaware that he is the enjoyer o their yagya$ their sa#ri i#es and so" although they worship" they ail to realiMe him! They thus ail in their Kuest! They only su##eed in attaining to the an#ied orms o gods" beings" and an#estors" whereas men who are truly de&oted to .rishn! -hen he is #ompletely deta#hed" endowed with yog" and reed rom the bonds o a#tion" he will know sal&ation whi#h also is .rishn! But the yagya they a##omplish" the sa#ri i#es they make" the per ormer" and the aith$the remedy that #ures the malady o worldly e.#ellen#e! There are two ways o intense de&otion$o the one true a#tion! The irst is the yagya o knowledge" the way on whi#h the worshipper treads relying upon his own strength and a ter a #are ul re&iew o his #apa#ity! The other way is that on whi#h the worshipper &iews the relationship between 'od and himsel as akin to that between master and ser&ant" and in whi#h the pres#ribed a#tion is entered upon with a sense o surrender to the a##omplished tea#her! These are the two points o &iew with whi#h people worship .rishn was no e.rishn with per e#t #on#entration" with the eeling that there is nothing else to desire e.rishn himsel ! 1e is also the supreme goal that the worshipper aims at a#hie&ing at last! This yagya is per ormed by means o prayer" rituals" and pro#edures that are designed to bring about eKuanimity in the pra#titioner! There are worshippers" howe&er" who adopt these means but desire hea&en in return" and that is what .rishn! But they who ha&e a#Kuired the treasure o di&inity know and worship him! They always think o and remember his e.rishn bestows upon them! By the dint o their pious a#ts they dwell in the #elestial world o %ndr and enjoy it or long! But when the earned merit is gradually worn out" they ha&e to #ome ba#k to the mortal world and undergo re$birth! Their a#tion was right and yet they are #ondemned to re#urrent birth be#ause o their desire! So total liberation rom desire is a primary ne#essity! The yog o those who remember and #ontemplate .rishn has represented the a#t o yagya as easy to pra#ti#e! -hate&er his worshippers o er him" he a##epts! So Arjun is ad&ised to surrender all his de&otional a#ts to .rishn himsel ! All beings are his" but there is no one whom he lo&es and no one whom he abhors! 4et" howe&er" he dwells in his earnest de&otee and that de&otee in him! <&en the most wi#ked and sin ul man who worships him with total dedi#ation is worthy o being regarded as a saint" be#ause his steady .(en o dis#rimination understand the #hanges" the rise and all" o yug$dharm!! They gi&e up unrighteousness to restrain the mind and engage in piety! -hen the restrained mind" too" is dissol&ed" the kalp along with its di erent ages #omes to a #lose! A ter bringing about the union with per e#tion" the kalp also #eases! This is the HdoomJ in whi#h nature is dissol&ed in the Soul! A ter this" the sageIs way o li e is his innate Kuality$his nature! 4ogeshwar .rishn himsel ! 7espite all this" men worship other gods! %n a#t" in worshipping e&en other gods they worship .isten#e" are all .rishn has then told Arjun that ignorant men do not know him! They regard e&en him" the 'od o gods" as o no importan#e and as a mere mortal! This ironi# situation o being ignored by #ontemporaries has a#ed e&ery great sage! They ha&e e&en been #astigated and .

resol&e will soon unite him with the Supreme Spirit and bless him with eternal pea#e! A true de&otee o .rishn and Arjun" entitled : H2aj&idya AagritiJ or QQStirring to Spiritual <nlightenmentII Thus #on#ludes Swami AdgadanandIs" e.rishn and worship him with irm intentness! So there is absolutely no doubt about the ultimate sal&ation o those who ha&e rea#hed the stage o Brahmin and royal sages BrajarshiC who are well$endowed with &irtues that unite the Soul with 'od! Their inal absolution is assured beyond any doubt" and so Arjun too should always remember and be re&erent to .rishn is ne&er destroyed! -hether a Shudr" a depra&ed man" an aborigine" looked down on by the #on&entional #ulture" or one with whate&er name he is known by" or a man or a woman" or one who had demonia#al nature and lowly birth$they all attain to the supreme glory i they take re uge in .annada" 0riya" Sindhi" Sanskrit" @epali" Punjabi and >rduC and the same #ould be downloaded rom http:PPwww!yatharthgeeta!#omP! P2<6AC< 06 C1APT<2 %@ A>7%0 CASS<TT<S -e make sure that our #hildren are well edu#ated so that they shall be in#ul#ated with noble #ulture! People tend to belie&e that noble #ulture is that whi#h shall ensure a de#ent li&elihood and sol&e the problems o daily li&ing! ?ery ew" hardly anyone" has their attention turned towards 'od! (any people e&en ha&e su i#ient material wealth that they per#ei&e no need at all or #alling upon 'od Bas the noble Arjun did in the 'eeta to his riend and #harioteer" the a##omplished sage .rishn has dwelt upon the spiritual knowledge whi#h he himsel brings to the state o #ons#iousness! This is the so&ereign knowledge whi#h is" a ter it has been on#e awakened" doubtlessly propitious! Thus #on#ludes the @inth Chapter" in the >panishad o the Shreemad Bhagwad 'eeta" on the knowledge o the Supreme Spirit" the S#ien#e o 4og" and the 7ialogue between .position o the @inth Chapter o the Shreemad Bhagwad 'eeta in H4atharth 'eeta!J 1A2% 0( TAT SAT YYYYY @ote: The te.rishn! % he seeks shelter under him" he will attain to him and thus se#ure a state rom whi#h there is no going ba#k! Thus" in the present #hapter" .t o the Book" 4atharth 'eeta is a&ailable in &arious %nternational B<nglish" 2ussian" 6ren#h" 'erman" Spanish" Chinese" %talian" @orwegian" 7ut#h" Portuguese" Arabi#" Aapanese" PersianC and %ndian languages B1indi" Bengali" Assamese" 'ujarati" (arathi" Tamil" Telugu" (alayalam" .rishnC! %n the end" though" all material wealth and seeming se#urity is perishable! At the time o death" e&en though they were atta#hed to those things" people still ha&e to lea&e them behind! 'i&en this undisputed reality" the only path open to any o us is to understand during our li etime" while we are still in our body" the ways to mo&e towards the Supreme Being! This is the essential purpose that is being transmitted through these audio #assettes o 4atharth 'eeta! @ote: The audio o the Book" 4atharth 'eeta is a&ailable in &arious %nternational B<nglish" 'ermanC and %ndian languages B1indi" Bengali" 'ujarati" (arathi" Tamil" TeluguC and the same #ould be downloaded rom http:PPwww!yatharthgeeta!#omP! .

rishn re&ealed the mysterious and de initely propitious knowledge that is the monar#h o all knowledge! %n Chapter 1+" he again takes up the subje#t and asks Arjun to listen to him #are ully! But what is the need o repeating something that has already been elu#idated/ The seeker is in a#t imper e#t right till the moment o attainment! The abri# o nature wears thinner as he is more and more absorbed in his #ontemplation o 'od" and resh &isions appear be ore him one a ter the other! This is made possible through a sageIs $an a##omplished tea#herIs guidan#e! 1e does not and #annot know them by himsel ! %n the absen#e o su#h a dire#tion the worshipper will be depri&ed o the attainment o 'od! So long as he is e&en slightly remo&ed rom his ultimate goal" it is e&ident that a #rust o nature still endures and there is an apprehension o his slipping and stumbling! Arjun is a dis#iple who has #ome under .rishn: 8$)! HAll the mani old Kualities with whi#h beings are endowed: will" knowledge" reedom rom delusion" orgi&eness" truth" restraint o Senses and mind" happiness and unhappiness" #reation and destru#tion" ear and earlessness" as well as abstinen#e rom the desire to harm" eKuanimity o mind" #ontentment" penan#e" #harity" ame" and ignominy$are pro&ided by none but me!II 6irmness o purpose" knowledge" dedi#ation to the goal" suppression o the mind and senses" inner happiness" the pains o the spiritual way" awakening o 'od within the Sel " total dissolution at the moment o realiMation" ear o the dis#iplining power o 'od" earlessness o nature" #ondu#t that does not degrade" eKuanimity in whi#h there are no #on li#ts" #ontentment" penan#e in keeping with the needs o the goal" sel $abnegation" and putting up eKually with both honour and humiliation on 'odIs way$all these propensities are$o .rishnIs making! These are the Kualities that #hara#teriMe the way o di&ine #ontemplation! %n their absen#e there remains only the ill$gotten hoard o de&ilish instin#ts! HThe se&en great sagesU::V" the our who had been earlier than them" as well as (anu and others rom whom all mankind has sprung" ha&e all been shaped by the operation o my will!II U::VThe saints who are belie&ed to be the se&en stars o the #onstellation named >rsa (ajor .C1APT<2 1+: A@ ACC0>@T 06 '07IS 'G024 %n the last #hapter .rishn also de#lared earlier that sin#e his origin and a#tion are both #elestial" they #annot be seen by physi#al eyes! So his mani estation goes unnoti#ed e&en by men who ha&e rea#hed the spiritual le&el o gods and sages! 0n the other hand" howe&er"$ .rishnIs shelter! 1e has begged the 4ogeshwar to support him as he is his pupil who depends on him! So" or the sake o this earnest and submissi&e dis#iple .! HThe wise man among mortals" who knows my reality as the birthless" eternal" and supreme 'od o the entire world" is reed rom all sins!II The man who knows this is a man o true wisdom! %n other words" a #lear awareness o the omnipresent" eternal 'od is the knowledge that liberates one rom sin and rebirth! This a#hie&ement too is a gi t rom .rishn speaks again on what he has already dis#oursed on in Chapter 9! 1! QThe Gord said" QGisten again" 0 the mighty$armed" to the mysti# and #ompelling words % am about to speak be#ause o my #on#ern or the good o a belo&ed pupil!III *! H@either gods nor great sages know my origin" or % am the primal Sour#e rom whi#h all o them ha&e arisen!J .

rishn dwells upon how yogi #onstantly adore him! 9! QQThey who an#hor their minds on me" sa#ri i#e their breath to me" and are #ontented with speaking only o my greatness among themsel&es" always dwell in me!II (en who de&ote their minds to .rishnIs will! That is to say that they all arise rom the determination to realiMe him! <a#h o them #omplements the other! All these #omponents o the treasure o di&inity are .denote the se&en steps o yog! The se&en great sages or rather the se&en su##essi&e stages o yog$&irtuous aspiration" dis#rimination" re inement o spirit" in#lination to truth" disinterestedness" ad&an#ement on the spiritual path towards union with 'od and along with them the moulding o the our a#ulties o mind" intelle#t" thought and ego in a##ordan#e with the demands o yog" are all #reations o .rishnIs works! This treasure is dependent on the e&olution o the se&en steps o yog and without them it #annot be! 9! HThe one who knows the reality o my e.rishn blesses his de&otee with the knowledge that initiates him into yog! 11! QQTo e.#ellen#e o yog and the glories o .alted magni i#en#e and the might o my yog doubtless partakes o my nature by be#oming one with me through meditation!J The man who learns o the e.rishn alone without thinking o anything other than him and who dedi#ate themsel&es to him heart and soul are always #ons#ious o his ways! They are happy singing hymns o praise o his glories and always abide in him! 1+! H% bestow upon the de&otees" who always remember me and adore me with lo&e" that dis#ipline o yog by learning whi#h they attain to none but me!II So the awakening o yog in worshippers is also a gi t rom 'odO it depends upon his assuming the role o a #harioteer! The ollowing &erse points to the way by whi#h a sage and noble tea#her like .rishnIs behest that the entire world is spurred to a#tion! This implies that he is also the doer o whate&er yogi do in keeping with his nature! All the yogiIs endea&ours are thus only blessings rom him! 1ow it is so has been illuminated earlier! And now .rishn stands inseparably by the worshipperIs Sel as a #harioteer to destroy spiritual ignoran#e! -orship does not really #ommen#e until" through a sage who has known 'od" the Supreme Spirit himsel has not #ome awake in the worshipperIs Soul and taken upon himsel the task o guidan#e rom one instant to another as also o restraining and dis#iplining him" and es#orting him sa ely a#ross the in#ongruities o nature! At this stage 'od begins to #ommand rom all sides! But at the beginning" it is through an a##omplished sage that he speaks! % a seeker is not ortunate enough to ha&e su#h a sage as a tea#her" 'odIs &oi#e is only aintly audible to him! .tend my gra#e to them" % dwell in their innermost being and dispel the gloom o ignoran#e by the radian#e o knowledge!J .rishn by dire#t per#eption is united with him and abides in him! There is not e&en the least doubt about this! The steady" untrembling lame o a lamp where there is no wind is an apt illustration o the subdued mind o a yogi! HA&ikampenJ in the &erse re ers to su#h an analogy! 8! HAware o the reality that % am the sour#e o all #reation as also the moti&e that stirs it to e ort" and possessed o aith and de&otion" wise men remember and worship only me!II %t is at .

The #harioteer" whether he is the worshipped deity or a tea#her$ pre#eptor" or 'od himsel " is the same! -hen the #harioteer has awakened in the worshipperIs Sel " his di#tates are re#ei&ed in our ways! At irst there is the e,perien#e that is related to gross breath: o the in usion into it o a thought that was earlier not in it! -hen a worshipper sits in meditation" he is #on ronted with a number o Kuestions! -hen is his mind going to be truly absorbed/ To what e,tent is it already absorbed/ -hen does his mind desire to es#ape rom nature and when has it strayed rom the path/ The answers to these Kuestions are signalled e&ery moment by the adored 'od through physi#al re le,es! Twit#hing o limbs is an e,perien#e related to gross breath and it appears simultaneously at more than one point e&en within a moment! % the mind has de&iated" these signals are transmitted minute a ter minute! But these signals are re#ei&ed only i the de&otee holds on to the orm o the worshipped 'odlike tea#her with unde&iating irmness! 2e le, a#tions su#h as twit#hing o limbs are a mu#h too reKuent e,perien#e o ordinary beings be#ause o the #lash between their #ontradi#tory impulses" but these ha&e nothing to do whatsoe&er with the signs that are transmitted to worshippers who are wholly dedi#ated to the sublime obje#t o their worship! The other e,perien#e is #onne#ted with the awakening o breath in dreams! 0rdinary men dream a##ording to their desires" but when a worshipper #lea&es to 'od e&en dreams are trans ormed into di&ine instru#tions! 2ather than dreaming" yogi per#ei&e the a#t o be#oming! These two e,perien#es are both preliminary! Asso#iation with a sage who has known reality" ha&ing aith in him" and rendering him e&en a token ser&i#e su i#e to bring about these e,perien#es! But the two subseKuent e,perien#es o a worshipper are more subtle and dynami#" and they #an be had only through a#ti&e pra#ti#e$ only by really walking along the path! The third e,perien#e is that o awakening into pro ound sleep! All o us in the world a ter all" as it were" lie immersed in slumber! -e are but lying in a state o insensibility in the dark night o ignoran#e! And whate&er we do" day and night" is but a dream! Pro ound sleep here re ers to the #ondition that ollows a ter the stage when the memory o 'od lows through the worshipper so &ery like a perennial stream that his &ision o 'od is permanently i,ed in the mind! This is that serene and blessed mood in whi#h the worshipper is led gently on by his a e#tions" and in whi#h" while the physi#al breath is suspended and he is laid asleep in body" he be#omes Ha Gi&ing Soul!J This is the state o harmony and o deep joy in whi#h the worshipper is blessed with an insight into the &ery li e o things! %n su#h a #ondition the worshipped 'od transmits yet another signal" whi#h mani ests itsel in the orm o an image that is in #onsonan#e with the yogiIs pre&ailing mood and pro&ides the #orre#t dire#tion" thus a#Kuainting him with the past and the present! (y re&ered tea#her would Kuite o ten tell us that e&en like the surgeon who irst renders a patient un#ons#ious and then #ures him by the appli#ation o a suitable remedy" 'od$ when the lame o worship is strong and steady$imbues the de&otee with awareness o the state o his aith and worship to #ure his spiritual si#kness! The ourth and inal e,perien#e is o the spiritual awakening that leads to e&enness o breath! This is the state in whi#h the worshipper is on par with that 'od whose thought he has i,ed his mind on as on a tangible obje#t! This realiMation arises rom within the Sel and on#e this awakening has taken pla#e" at e&ery moment while sitting idly or up and a#ti&e" the worshipper pre$&isions o##urren#es that shall be and thus gains omnis#ien#e! This is the state" too" in whi#h there arises a sense o oneness with the embodied Sel ! This inal e,perien#e is generated when the darkness o ignoran#e is dissipated by the light o knowledge through the agen#y o a timeless and unmani est sage who has awakened in his Soul! Arjun then speaks to .rishn! 1*$1;! HArjun said" Q%t has been so said by e&en di&ine sagesU:9V su#h as @arad" Asit" the sage

7e&al" and the great saint ?yasU:8V that you are the radiant Being" supreme goal" and absolutely unblemished" be#ause all o them belie&e you to be the Supreme Spirit who is the prime&al" birthless" and all$per&asi&e 'od o all godsO and now you tell me the same!III H2adiant BeingJ and HbirthlessJ are synonyms or 'od and the inal state o per e#t bliss! Arjun irst re ers to sages o the past who said the same! And now e&en di&ine sages like @arad" Asit" 7e&al" ?yas" and .rishn himsel say it! The latter are all #ontemporaries o Arjun and he has the ad&antage o asso#iating with these sages! And they all as well as .rishn a irm what was de#lared by the sages o yore! So$ U:9V7ei ied saints su#h as Atri" Bhrigu" Pulastya" and Angiras! U:8V0ne o the #hiranji&is or deathless sages! 1e is belie&ed to be the #omplier o the ?ed in its present orm as also the author o (ahabharat" the eighteen Puran" the Brahm Sutr" and se&eral other works! 18! H% belie&e" 0 .esha&" all that you ha&e told me and whi#h" 0 Gord" is known to neither demons nor gods" to be true!II And$ 1)! H-hi#h" 0 Supreme Gord" 0 Creator and 'od o all beings" 0 'od o gods and master o the world" is known to you alone!II This truth whi#h is known to .rishn" the #reator o all beings and their 'od" is also made known to those Souls who are awakened and lit up by their #ons#iousness o him! So the knowledge o worshippers is really his knowledge! 1:! HSo you alone are #apable o enlightening me well on your glories by whi#h you per&ade and dwell in all the worlds!II There ore$ 19! H1ow should %" 0 4ogeshwar" know you by in#essant #ontemplation and in what orms" 0 Gord" should % worship you/J These Kuestions are agitating ArjunIs mind! 1ow should he know .rishn$a yogi" how should he meditate on him" and how should he remember him/ 18! HAnd" 0 Aanardan" tell me again the power o your yog and your e,alted magni i#en#e" or % am not yet sated by the honey o your utteran#es!II .rishn has stated brie ly at the beginning o this #hapter what Arjun wants to know again! Arjun begs him to elaborate the same again at greater length be#ause his #uriosity is not yet ully satis ied! (oreo&er" he also wishes to hear .rishnIs words just or the sake o listening to them! Su#h is the sweet #harm o the spee#h o 'od and o sages! @o wonder a##ording to 'oswami Tulsidas" one who is satiated with listening to the #hroni#le o 2am is bere t o sentiment! >ntil the worshipper has a##ess to the desired 'od" his thirst or the substan#e o immortality remains! % someone sits down on the way be ore the point o attainment with the eeling that he knows all" he has in a#t known nothing! %t is e&ident then that his progress is about to be obstru#ted! So it is the seekerIs duty that he holds on to dire#tions rom the adored 'od and turns them into pra#ti#e! 19! HThe Gord BthenC said" % shall now tell you o the power o my glories" or there is no end to

my di&erse mani estations!II A ter this he sets out to enumerate some outstanding instan#es o his numberless di&ine attributes! *+!H% am" 0 'udakesh" the Sel that dwells within all beings" as also their prime&al beginning" middle" and end!II *1 ! H% am ?ishnu among the twel&e sons o AditiU:9V" the sun among lights" the god (aree#hi among winds" and the so&ereign moon among planets!II Aditya and the other #elestial beings re erred to in the &erse were taken as symbols o #ertain inner attitudes in the time o .rishnO they are all dwellers in the sphere o the heart! U:9V7i&inity in general! @ame o the twel&e di&inities BsunsC whi#h are belie&ed to shine only at the destru#tion o the uni&erse! **! H% am also the Sam among the ?ed" %ndr among gods" the mind among senses" and the #ons#iousness in beings!J Among the ?ed" .rishn is the Sam ?ed" or it is he whose song begets the state o eKuanimity! 1e is the Gord %ndr among gods" and the mind among senses or he is known only through restraint o the mind! 1e is also the power that gi&es beings their sense o awareness! *;! H% am Shankar among 2udrU9+V " .uberU91V among demons and yakshU9*V " ire among ?asuU9;V" and the Sumeru among lo ty mountains!J .rishn is Shankar among 2udr! Shankar$Jshanka$arII$may be understood as the #ondition in whi#h there are no doubts and irresolution! %n a#t" H.uber"J H ire"J and HSumeruJ are all metaphors or the dis#ipline o yogO they are all yogi# terms! U9+VThe name o a group o gods" ele&en in number" be#ause they dwell within the ten senses and one mind" who are supposed to be in erior mani estations o Shi& or Shankar" the head o the group! U91V'od o wealth! U9*V7emi$gods" des#ribed as attendants o .uber! U9;VA #lass o eight deities who #onstitute the human body! *8! HBe it known to you" Parth" that % am among priests the Chie Priest Brihaspati" SkandU98V among martial #hie s" and the o#ean among seas!II Among priests" who keep wat#h o&er the intelle#t that is like a gateway to the human body" .rishn is Brihaspati" the di&ine tea#her o gods themsel&es" and so it is he who generates the treasure o di&inity! Among martial #ommanders he is .artikeya" renun#iation o a#tion by whi#h the destru#tion o animate and inanimate worlds" total dissolution" and the inal attainment o 'od are e e#ted! U98VAnother name o .artikeya! *)! H% am Bhrigu among the great saints BmaharshiC" 0( among words" the yagya o intoned prayers Bjap$yagyaC among yagya" and the 1imalaya among stationary obje#ts!

.rishn is BhriguU9)V among great sages! 1e is also 0(" symbol o the Supreme Spirit" among words! 1e is the jap$yagya among yagya! 4agya is the image o that spe#ial orm o worship that enables a worshipper to be united with 'od! %n summary" there ore" it is remembran#e o the Supreme Spirit and re#itation o his name! -hen a ter ha&ing #rossed the Stages o two kinds o spee#h" the audible and the muttered" the name rea#hes the stage o yagya" it is then re#ited by neither arti#ulated spee#h nor rom the throatO nor e&en in thoughtO it then in uses e&ery breath! There is then only a surging ahead un#easingly with the &ision o mind in 'od engra&ed on e&ery breath! The rise and all" as#ent and des#ent" o yagya" and its di erent stages depend upon breath! %t is something dynami#$a $matter o a#tion! Among stationary obje#ts" .rishn is the 1imalaya" #ool" e&en" and immo&able like the one 'od himsel ! At the time o doom" it is said" (anu was joined with a peak o that mountain! The immutable" e&en" and tranKuil 'od is ne&er destroyed! U9)V0ne o the patriar#hs #reated by the irst (anu! *:! % am Ashwath Bthe PeepalC among trees" @arad among di&ine sages" ChitrarathU9:V among 'andhar&U99V" and the sage .apilU98V among men o attainment!J .rishn is Ashwath" the holy peepal among trees! The world" whi#h is not e&en sure o li&ing until the symboli# tomorrow" is des#ribed as an in&erted Peepal tree B ig treeC whose root$'od$is abo&e and whose boughs$ nature$are spread below! This is not the ordinary Peepal tree that is #ommonly worshipped! And it is in this Sense that .rishn #alls himsel Peepal among trees! @arad Bnade randhrah is @aradC has" on the other hand" su#h a sharp awareness that he #an steadily hold on to the di&ine rhythm arising rom breath! Among 'andhar& .rishn is Chitrarath" or that uniKue state in whi#h the obje#t o #ontemplation begins to be dire#tly per#eptible to the worshipper! .apil is bodily mani estation! .rishn is that orm as well as both the state as well as the immersion in that orm" and also the di&ine message that is re#ei&ed rom it! U9:VThe name o a king o the 'andhar& : one o the si,teen sons o .ashyap by his wi e (uni! U99V7emi$gods regarded as musi#ians to gods! U98V@ame o the great sage who is belie&ed to ha&e ounded the Sankhya s#hool o philosophy! *9! H.now BalsoC that % am the ne#tar$born >#h#haishra& among horses" AirawatU99V among pa#hyderms" and king among men!J <&ery obje#t in the world is perishable and the Sel alone is indestru#tible! %t is thus that .rishn is >#h#haishra&" %ndrIs horse that is said to ha&e been #hurned out o the ne#tar that #ame rom the o#ean! A horse is a symbol o regulated motion! .rishn is the motion o the mind in its Kuest or the reality o the Sel ! 1e is also king among men! A great soul is in a#t a king" be#ause he wants or nothing! U99V%ndr3s elephant! *8! H% am ?ajrU8+V among weapons" .amdhenuU81V among #ows" .amde&U8*V or pro#reation" and ?asukiU8;V " the king o snakes! .rishn is the most ormidable among weapons! Among #ows he is .amdhenu! .amdhenu is not a #ow whi#h ser&es appetiMing deli#a#ies in pla#e o milk! Among sages it was ?ashisth who had .amdhenu! Symboli#ally" the word H#owJ stands or the senses! 2estraint o the senses is an attribute o the seeker who has learnt to grasp the obje#t o his worship! -hen he su##eeds in

moulding his senses in tune with 'od" his senses themsel&es be#ome a H.amdhenuJ or him! -ith this he attains to the stage when the attainment o 'od is by no means beyond rea#h! A seeker at this le&el inds nothing beyond his grasp! .rishn is also .amde& or reprodu#tion! 1owe&er" the birth he e e#ts is not the physi#al birth o a male or emale #hild! Su#h pro#reation" by both animate and inanimate beings" goes on day and night! <&en rats and ants reprodu#e themsel&es! But the generation o new li e by .rishn is the generation o new situations$#hange rom one #ir#umstan#e to another$by whi#h the inner propensities themsel&es are #hanged! Among snakes" .rishn is ?asuki" the #elebrated king o snakes who is said to be a son o .ashyapU88V! U8+VThunderbolt" the weapon o %ndr" said to ha&e been ormed out o the bones o the sage 7adhi#hi! U81VA hea&enly #ow yielding all desires! U8*VThe #upid o the 1indu mythology" the son o .rishn and 2ukmini! U8;V@ame o a #elebrated serpent" king o snakes" said to be a son o .ashyap! U88V%n the %ndian mythology he bears a &ery important share in the work o #reation and is there ore o ten #alled Prajapati! *9! H% am SheshnagU8)V among the nag BsnakesC" the god ?arunU8:V among beings o water" AryamaU89V among an#estors" and 4amrajU88V among rulers!II .rishn is the in inite or HShesh nag!J Sheshnag is in a#t no snake! There is a des#ription o its orm in the #omposition #alled Shreemad Bhagwat whi#h is #ontemporaneous with the 'eeta! A##ording to it" Sheshnag is an embodiment o 'odIs &aishna&i B?ishnuC power whi#h is stationed at a distan#e o thirty thousand yojanU89V rom the earth and on whose head the earth rests lightly like a grain o mustard! This is" in truth" a pi#ture o the or#e o gra&ity between obje#ts whi#h keeps the stars and planets in their respe#ti&e orbits! This or#e winds itsel around all o them and holds them like a snake! This is the in inite that holds the earth" too! .rishn says that he is that di&ine prin#iple! 1e is also ?arun" the king o amphibious beings" and Aryama among an#estors! @on$ &iolen#e" truth" deta#hment" #ontinen#e" and reedom rom doubt are the i&e yam" moral restraints and obser&an#es! HArahII represents the #utting o o the aberrations that appear in the way o their pra#ti#e! <limination o these e&ils brings to ul illment the merits o a#tion done in a pre&ious li e" whi#h then pro&ides liberation rom worldly bondage! Among rulers .rishn is 4amraj" guardian o the restraints #alled yam! U8)V@ame o a #elebrated serpent" said to ha&e one thousand heads" and represented as orming the #ou#h o ?ishnu and supporting the entire world! U8:V'od o the o#ean! U89VThe king o (anes Bdeparted an#estorsC! U88VThe 'od o death" regarded as a son o the Sun$god! U89VA measure o distan#e eKual to our kosas" or eight to nine miles! ;+! H% am PrahladU9+Vamong daitya BdemonsC" unit o time or re#koners" the lion BmrigendrC among beasts" and 'arudU91V among birds!II .rishn is Prahlad among demons! Prahlad Bpar W ahladC is joy or others! Go&e itsel is Prahlad! Attra#tion to 'od and the impatien#e to be one with him while one is yet dwelling with demonia#al instin#ts is a pro#ess that ultimately leads to per#eption! .rishn is the joyous lo&e o this union! 1e is also time among those who are gi&en to #ounting its units! This re#koning is

rishn is the knowledge that takes one rom this sla&ery o the material world into the state in whi#h the Sel is in supreme #ommand! This is the knowledge that is #alled adhyatm! 1e is also the inal &erdi#t that resol&es all disputes on the Supreme Spirit! -hat #omes beyond this is" it is needles to say" beyond arbitration! .rishn is that awareness! 1e is also the mighty #ro#odile among amphibian beings and the most sa#red 'anga among ri&ers! U9*VA name o the ri&er 'anges! .! H% am the &owel akarU9.rishn is also 'arud among eathered #reatures! 'arud is knowledge! -hen the awareness o 'od begins to grow" the worshipperIs mind itsel turns into a &ehi#le o the adored 'od! 0n the other hand" the same mind is like a HserpentJ Bsarp: an epithet o 'arudC when it is in ested with worldly desires" stinging and hurling Souls into the in erno o mortal births! 'arud is ?ishnuIs &ehi#le! -hen it is blessed with knowledge" the mind also turns into a &ehi#le on whi#h is borne the unmani est Spirit that permeates e&ery atom o the uni&erse! So .rishn is rather the progressi&e lengthening o time that is de&oted to the #ontemplation o 'od! 1e is the time o in#essant remembran#e o 'od not only in the hours o wake ulness but also in sleep! Among beasts he is mrigendra" the lion or king o beasts" a symbol o the yogi who also roams about and rules in the orest o yog! .VThe irst o three sounds #onstituting the sa#red syllable 0(! U98V6irst o the our prin#ipal kinds o #ompounds in whi#h two or more words are joined together whi#h" i not #ompounded" will stand in the same #ase and be #onne#ted by a #onjun#tion! .*! H% am" 0 Arjun " the beginning and end and also the middle o #reated beings" the mysti# knowledge o Sel among s#ien#es" and the inal arbiter among disputants!II Among bran#hes o learning ..really not o numbers and o di&isions o time! .1! H% am the wind among powers that re ine" 2am among armed warriors" the #ro#odile among ishes" and the sa#red Bhagirathi 'angaU9*V among ri&ers!II .V among the letters o the alphabet" dwandwaU98V among #ompounds" the eternal (ahakal amidst mutable time" and also the 'od who holds and sustains all!II Besides being the irst sound o the sa#red 0(" .rishn is the in&in#ible 2am among wielders o weapons! 2am denotes one who rejoi#es! 4ogi rejoi#e in knowledge! The signals re#ei&ed rom the 'od they worship are their sole pleasure! 2am symboliMes that dire#t per#eption and .rishn is knowledge o the Supreme Spirit Bas well as o the relation between the Supreme and the indi&idual SoulC! 1e is the knowledge that leads to the so&ereignty o the Sel ! 7ominated by maya" the &ast majority are dri&en by passion" mali#e" time" a#tion" disposition" and the three properties o nature! .isten#e as a Brahmin! U91VChie o eathered beings" represented as ?ishnu3s &ehi#le" ha&ing a white a#e" an aKuiline nose" red wings" and golden body! .rishn is the mind that holds and #arries the worshipped 'od within itsel ! U9+VA##ording to the Padm$Puran" son o the demon 1iranya$kashipu who yet retained the ardent de&otion to ?ishnu whi#h he had borne with him rom a pre&ious e.rishn is also the imperishable" immutable time! Time is always #hanging" but he is that state$that time$whi#h takes one to the eternal 'od! 1e is also the 0mnipresent Spirit B?irat SwarupC who per&ades and sustains all! U9.

teenth &erse o Chapter 1)" all beings BPurushC are o only two kinds" the perishable and the imperishable! All these bodies whi#h generate other beings and die are mortal! -hether male or emale" they are all Purush a##ording to .rishn! The other Purush is the imperishable Cosmi# Spirit who is per#ei&ed in the state when the mind has #eased to be! This is the reason why men and women eKually #an attain the supreme goal! The Kualities o &itality" memory" awareness" and so on pointed out in the thirty$ ourth &erse are all eminine in prin#iple! 7oes it mean that men ha&e no need o these Kualities/ %n truth" the animating prin#iple o the heartIs sphere is a eminine prin#iple! The Kualities enumerated in the &erse need to be in#ul#ated in all hearts" o men as mu#h as o women! U9)VBoth as wi e o one o the se&en gods and symbol o eminine Kualities" she is a mani estation o 'od3s splendour! .rishn! .:! H% am the de#eit o #heating gamblers" the glory o renowned men" the &i#tory o #onKuerors" the determination o the resol&ed" and the &irtue o the pious!II The idea o gambling in the &erse re ers to the undamental #hara#ter o nature! @ature itsel is a gambler and #heat! To orsake outward show and engage in the way o pri&ate adoration to es#ape rom the #ontradi#tions o nature is an a#t o Hde#eption!J But to #all it Hde#eptionJ is hardly appropriate" or su#h se#reti&eness is essential to the worshipperIs se#urity! %t is reKuired that the worshipper" although in possession o a heart that is lit up with knowledge" appear outwardly ignorant like a benumbed Bharat$ like one who is insane" blind" dea and dumb! ..rishn is also Agrahayan among months$the as#endant season o joy! 1e is the state o eli#ity that this month resembles! U9:VA ?edi# meter o twenty$ our syllables and also name o a most sa#red &erse re#ited by pious 1indus at morning and e&ening de&otion! U99VThe lunar month o Agrahayan whi#h #orresponds appro.rishn is the 'ayatri by whi#h the hapless worshipper surrenders himsel to 'od! This prayer is doubtlessly propitious" or by this the de&otee seeks re uge in .rishn is the Sam ?ed BBrihatsamC" the song that produ#es e&enness o mind! 1e is the spiritual awakening in these hymns! 1e" too" is 'ayatriU99V among &erses! The 'ayatri" it is important to realiMe" is a metri#al #omposition o sel $denying prayer rather than a spell or #harm" the re#itation o whi#h brings automati# sal&ation! A ter straying thri#e" throwing himsel at the mer#y o the desired 'od" the sage ?ishwamitr addressed him as the essen#e that permeates the earth" all the worlds" and the Sel " and entreated him to #on er wisdom on him and to inspire him so that he #ould know his reality! So" as it may be seen" 'ayatri is a prayer! The worshipper is not able to resol&e his doubts by his own intelligen#eO he does not know when he is right or in error! So .ts BShrutiCU98V that are it to be sung" .imately to @o&ember$ 7e#ember o the 'regorian #alendar! U98VThe part o the ?ed whi#h is known as Shruti: known by re&elation! U99VThe te.)! HAnd % am the Sam ?ed among s#riptural hymn" the 'ayatriU9:V among metri#al #ompositions" the as#endant AgrahayanU99Vamong months" and the spring among seasons!5 Among the sa#red ?edi# te.8! H% am the death that annihilates all" the root o the #reations to be" and .rishn will say in the si.eertiU9)V among women$the embodiment o the eminine Kualities o a##omplishing a#tion BkeertiC &itality" spee#h" memory" awareness BmedhaC" patien#e and orgi&eness!J As 4ogeshwar .t o the prayer is gi&en here or readers who may be interested in learning it : 0m Bhur Bhu&a S&aha Tat Sa&itur ?arenyam Bhargo 7e&asya 7heemahi 7hi 4o 4onah Pra#hodayat .

rishn is all these" .press the idea o per e#tion! Among poets he is >shn BShukrC who has in the ?ed the epithet ka&ya attributed to him" and who also has the wisdom to lead the Soul to 'od! U1++V@ame o tea#her o the asur BdemonsC who were restored to li e" i killed in battle" by the magi#al #harm o his words! .rishn #on#ludes his re&elation o the omnipresent thus: 8*! H0r" instead o knowing anything more" 0 Arjun" just remember that % am here and % bear the whole world with just a ra#tion o my power!II .rishn! This is what he is told now! 81! H.er#ise is rather aimed at enlightening men who are in#lined to the worship o other gods and goddesses as well as o obje#ts and #reatures su#h as trees" ri&ers" planets" and serpents" that they ha&e a#Kuitted themsel&es well o their duties to all these di&inities" obje#ts" and beings by just adoring .9! H% am ?asude& among the des#endants o ?rishni" 7hananjay among the Panda&" ?ed &yas among sages" and Shukra#haryaU1++V among poets!II .rishn is 7hananjay$the one who earns and stores the treasure o Sel $knowledge! 1e is ?yas among sages! 1e is the sage who has the ability to e.9! HAnd" 0 Arjun" % am also the seed rom whi#h all beings ha&e sprung up" be#ause there is nothing animate or inanimate whi#h is without my maya!J There is nothing" no being" in the whole world who is de&oid o .rishn be#ause he per&ades all! All beings resemble him and are #lose to him! 1e urther adds: 8+! H-hat % ha&e told you" 0 Parantap" is only a brie abstra#t o my #ountless glories!II So Arjun should regard whate&er is endowed with magni i#en#e" radian#e" and might as ha&ing #ome orth rom .rishn is the dynami# mind" and also the magni i#en#e and enlightenment o &irtuous men! .8! HAnd % am the oppression o tyrants" the wise #ondu#t o those who aspire to su##eed" silen#e among se#rets" and also the knowledge o enlightened men!J .rishnIs enumeration o his mani old glories by analogy does not imply that either Arjun or anyone o us should begin to adore the beings and obje#ts he has #ited or illustration! The e.rishn alone! ミミミミミ .Although he sees" he should show as i he knows nothingO although he hears" it should appear that he has heard nothing! The #anon o worship is that it should be pri&ate and se#ret! 0nly then #an he win in the gamble o nature! .now that whate&er is possessed o glory" beauty" and strength has arisen rom my own splendour!II .rishn is ?asude&" or the one who is e&erywhere" among the ?rishni ra#e! 1e is 7hananjay among the Panda&! Pandu B ather o the Panda&C is a symbol o pietyO he is the one in whom &irtue is awakened! 2ealiMation o the Sel is the only real and lasting wealth! .rishn is the &i#tory o winners and the resolution o men o enterprise! This was also said in the orty$ irst &erse o Chapter *! The determination reKuired or yog" its wisdom" and dire#tion are all one and the same! .

rishn has summariMed to Arjun eighty$one mani estations o his greatness! -hereas some o them illustrate the inner Kualities that are de&eloped by initiation into yog" others illumine the glories that are earned by so#ial a#hie&ements and a##omplishments! At the end" a ter all this" .rishn is imma#ulate" eternal" radiant" without a beginning" and per&ading e&ery atom o the uni&erse! This was witnessed to by great sages o earlier times and" e&en at ArjunIs time" di&ine sages like @arad" 7e&al" ?yas" and .rishn is known to neither gods nor demons! 0nly that de&otee knows him to whom he #hooses to make himsel known! 1e alone is #apable o instru#ting the worshipper in his mani old glories by whi#h he per&ades and dwells in them! So Arjun reKuests him to enlighten him at length on the signs o his greatness! This is #orre#t be#ause the worshipperIs impatient #uriosity to listen to his adored 'od should remain until the &ery moment o ul illment! Beyond this he #annot go be#ause he knows not what lies within the heart o 'od! Thereupon .rishn" and o whi#h the whole world is progeny$are his #reations! %n other words" all worship ul in#linations are shaped by him! They are generated by the gra#e o the a##omplished tea#her rather than by themsel&es! The man who has a dire#t per#eption o .rishn is the root o all #reation #ontemplate him with single$ mindedness are dedi#ated to him with mind" intelle#t" and Soul" e.rishn" the birthless" eternal" and supreme 'od o the world" by dire#t per#eption! All the Kualities that #onstitute the treasure o di&inity su#h as dis#ernment" knowledge" reedom rom delusion" restraint o the mind and senses" #ontentment" spiritual austerities" #harity" and glory$are .rishn and Arjun" entitled! .rishn has said" is known to neither gods nor saints" be#ause he is the primal sour#e rom whi#h all o them are born! They do not know him be#ause the uni&ersal state arising rom attainment o the unmani est 'od #an be e.At the beginning o the #hapter .rishnIs #reations! The se&en immortal sages or rather the se&en steps o yog and" pre#eding them" e&en the our inner a#ulties and in a##ordan#e with them the mind whi#h is sel e.rishn yet remains to be known" or the path leading to him is dynami# and #an be trodden only by really embarking on a#tion! Thus #on#ludes the Tenth Chapter" in the >panishad o the Shrimad Bhagwad 'eeta" on the .rishn told Arjun that he would instru#t him again in what he had also told him be ore be#ause he was most dear to him! 1e was going to repeat the instru#tion" or a noble tea#herIs #onstant guidan#e is a ne#essity till the &ery moment o attainment! 1is origin" .nowledge o the Supreme Spirit" the 7is#ipline o 4og" and the 7ialogue between .rishn himsel say the same! %t is also true that the essen#e o .rishnIs glories is doubtlessly worthy o merging into him with a sense o total identity! They who know that .#hange thoughts o his e.#ellen#e among themsel&es" and rejoi#e in him! 1e bestows upon the de&otees" whoe&er think o him and adore him" that dis#ipline o yog by learning whi#h they at last attain to him! 1e does so by dwelling in their innermost being and dispelling the darkness o spiritual ignoran#e by the light o knowledge! Arjun belie&es in the truth that .perien#ed only by those who ha&e arri&ed at the supreme goal! 1e is a man o knowledge who knows .rishn tells Arjun that instead o knowing about him in detail" he should just remember that whate&er in the three worlds is endowed with magni i#en#e and beauty has arisen rom his own radiant power! %n this #hapter .rishn has thus a#Kuainted Arjun with his mani old glories at an intelle#tual le&el so that his aith withdraws itsel rom all distra#tions and is irmly #entered on his destination! But e&en a ter listening to e&erything and #omprehending them with mu#h splitting o hair the essen#e o .istent" sel $#reator: all these attributes o dedi#ation and de&otion to .

ury! A##omplished sages are always put on pedestal" but no one #an attain the stage o a##omplishment simply by putting themsel&es on a pedestal or being put there by de&otees! That is the reason" that dharm has always been the ield o an authenti#ally realised sage" a true" a##omplished tea#her! The '<<TA" the HSong CelestialJ in Sir <dwin ArnoldIs translation" is undoubtedly a s#ripture! %t is the a#tual tea#hing o the Supreme Spirit as mani ested through the personage o 4ogeshwar Gord Sri .rishn" a realiMed sage and a##omplished tea#her! These eternal truths and the true essen#e o the same sa#red &erses o the timeless dialogue between the a##omplished tea#her" .rishn" and the de&oted and noble$ hearted spiritual seeker" Arjun" are being relayed to you in their pure orm and innate #larity through these audio #assettes o 4atharth 'eeta! @ote: The audio o the Book" 4atharth 'eeta is a&ailable in &arious %nternational B<nglish" 'ermanC and %ndian languages B1indi" Bengali" 'ujarati" (arathi" Tamil" TeluguC and the same #ould be downloaded rom http:PPwww!yatharthgeeta!#omP! .position o the Tenth Chapter o the Shreemad Bhagwad 'eeta in H4atharth 'eeta!J 1A2% 0( TATSAT YYYYY @ote: The te.it in this world" were all ormed in the name o some enlightened soul by some group o dedi#ated ollowers! The se#luded spots that the noble sage had #hosen or his meditation in the later years" ha&e now be#ome pilgrimage #entres" ashrams" monasteries" temples and #hur#hes" where in the name o those sages and or earning their li&ing" people engage themsel&es in &arious pra#ti#es" ranging rom simple li&elihood to e.treme lu.annada" 0riya" Sindhi" Sanskrit" @epali" Punjabi and >rduC and the same #ould be downloaded rom http:PPwww!yatharthgeeta!#omP! P2<6AC< 06 C1APT<2 %@ A>7%0 CASS<TT<S -hate&er religions and religious se#ts e.H?ibhooti ?arnan!J or QQAn A##ount o 'odsIs 'loryII Thus #on#ludes Swami AdgadanandIs e.t o the Book" 4atharth 'eeta is a&ailable in &arious %nternational B<nglish" 2ussian" 6ren#h" 'erman" Spanish" Chinese" %talian" @orwegian" 7ut#h" Portuguese" Arabi#" Aapanese" PersianC and %ndian languages B1indi" Bengali" Assamese" 'ujarati" (arathi" Tamil" Telugu" (alayalam" .

C1APT<2 11: 2<?<GAT%0@ 06 T1< 0(@%P2<S<@T %n the last #hapter .! H4ou are" 0 Gord" what you ha&e told me" but % wish" 0 Supreme Being" to ha&e a dire#t &ision o your orm in all its di&ine magni i#en#e!J @ot satis ied with what he has learnt only by hearing" he wishes to see it in a palpable orm! 8! HShow me" 0 Gord" your eternal orm i you #onsider" 0 4ogeshwar" that it is possible to see it!II .rishn! 1! HArjun said" QThe #ompassionate words with whi#h you ha&e instru#ted me in the se#ret and most e.rishn has told him" and yet$ .rishnIs words he was rid o all his delusions! At the same time" howe&er" as he admits in the present #hapter" he is #urious to know what .rishn does not obje#t to this reKuest be#ause Arjun is his de&oted pupil and belo&ed riend! So he readily grants his prayer and re&eals his #osmi# orm! )! HThe Gord said" QBehold" 0 Parth" my hundreds and thousands o &arious #elestial mani estations o di erent hues and orms!JI :!HSee in me" 0 Bharat" the sons o AditiU1+1V" the 2udr" the ?asuU1+*V " the Ashwin brothersU1+.rishn ga&e only a brie a##ount o his outstanding glories" but Arjun thought #ompla#ently that he had known enough! 1e" there ore" a&erred that a ter listening to .rishn has told him be ore in a more tangible orm! 1earing is as di erent rom seeing as the east is rom the west! -hen a seeker endea&ours towards his destination to see it with his own eyes" what he knows then may be Kuite di erent rom that whi#h he had &isualiMed! So when Arjun has a dire#t &ision o 'od" he begins to tremble with ear and beg or mer#y! 7oes an enlightened man know ear/ %s he le t with any urther #uriosity/ The a#t o the matter is that what is known at just the intelle#tual le&el is at best &ague and unde ined! At the same time" howe&er" it de initely prompts to a desire or true knowledge! So Arjun entreats .V" and the (arutU1+8V" as well as numerous other mar&ellous orms that ha&e not been seen be ore!J U1+1V2epresented in mythology as a mother o gods who are known as Aditya" twel&e in number" a ter her! U1+*VThe name o a #lass o deities" eight in number! U1+.VThe two physi#ians o gods and represented as twin sons o the Sun$god! U1+8V(arut is the god o wind but in the plural orm the word may be understood as meaning host o gods! 9! Q@ow" 0 'udakesh" see in my body at this one pla#e the whole animate and inanimate world" .alted knowledge ha&e dispelled my ignoran#e!JI -hat .rishn has told him o the relation between the Supreme Spirit and the indi&idual Soul has allayed his delusions and illed him with the light o knowledge! *! QQ6or % ha&e learnt rom you" 0 the lotus$eyed" not only a detailed a##ount o the origin and dissolution o beings" but also o your imperishable glory!II 1e ully belie&es the truth o what .

rishn noti#es ArjunIs predi#ament" stops abruptly" and says: 8! HBut sin#e you #annot see me with your physi#al eyes" % grant you di&ine &ision with whi#h you may behold my magni i#en#e and the might o my yog!II Arjun is blessed with spiritual &ision by .rishn" the 'od o gods" the many separate worlds together! ArjunIs &ision o all the worlds within .rishnIs gra#e! And" in an e.a#tly similar ashion" Sanjay" the #harioteer o 7hritrashtr" is also blessed with di&ine sight by 4ogeshwar ?yasI #ompassionU1+)V! U1+)VC ! Chapter %" in whi#h Sanjay" the epitome o sel $#ontrol" is represented as the medium through whi#h the blind 7hritrashtr sees and hears! The mind en&eloped by the pall o ignoran#e per#ei&es through one who has mastered the mind and the senses! There ore" what is &isible to Arjun is also seen in pre#isely the same orm by Sanjay" and by &irtue o sharing the &ision he also shares the good that a##rues rom it! 9! HSanjay said Bto 7hritrashtrC" QA ter speaking thus" 0 .ing" the Gord$the great master o yog$ re&ealed his supreme" omnipresent orm to Arjun!J The master o yog" a yogi himsel and #apable o bestowing yog upon others" is named 4ogeshwar! 1e is" similarly" 'od B1ariCU1+:V who seiMes and #arries away e&erything! % he only does away with grie and spares joy" grie will make a #omeba#k! So H1ariJ is one who destroys sins and has the power o #on erring his own orm on others! So he" who has been all the time be ore Arjun" now re&eals his all$per&ading" radiant being! U1+:VAn epithet o the Supreme Spirit" o ?ishnu and many other deities! The interpretation here re ers to the asso#iation o the sound o the word with har whi#h means taking away or depri&ing! 1+$11! HAnd BArjun beheld be ore himsel C the in inite" all$ per&ading 'od with numerous mouths and eyes" many wondrous mani estations" de#ked with &arious ornaments" #arrying many weapons in his hands" wearing #elestial garlands and apparel" anointed with hea&enly per umes" and endowed with all kinds o wonder!II The mar&ellous sight is also rendered per#eptible to 7hritrashtr" the blind king" the &ery image o ignoran#e" by Sanjay$the embodiment o restraint! 1*! H<&en the light o a thousand suns in the sky #ould hardly mat#h the radian#e o the omnipresent 'od!J 1.and whate&er else you desire to know!J Thus the Gord #ontinues to mani est his orm through three #onse#uti&e &erses" but the poor Arjun #annot see anything! 1e #an only rub his eyes in bewilderment! .! HPanduIs son BArjunC then saw in the body o .rishn is a sign o his a e#tionate de&otion whi#h arises rom &irtue! 18! QQThen o&erwhelmed by awe and with his hair standing on end" Arjun paid obeisan#e to the great 'od and spoke thus with olded hands!II .

tolling your name and glories with olded hands" and" repeatedly pronoun#ing benedi#tion" hosts o great .Arjun had also paid homage to .rishn! Su#h is his #elestial brightness that eyes are blinded i they try to see him! 1e is beyond #omprehension by the mind! 1owe&er" Arjun #an per#ei&e him be#ause he has #ompletely surrendered all his senses to him! And he is so awed by what he sees that he resorts to lattering panegyri#s" by praising some o .rishn earlier" but now a ter ha&ing seen his di&ine majesty he bows deeper! The re&eren#e he now eels or .rishnIs many Kualities! U1+9VA sharp" serrated" dis#$like weapon" belie&ed to be the #hie weapon o ?isnhu! 18! QQ% belie&e that you are Akshar" the imperishable 'od who is worthy o being known" the supreme goal o the Sel " the great ha&en o the world" keeper o eternal 7harm" and the uni&ersal Supreme Spirit!II These are also the Kualities o the Sel ! 1e too" is uni&ersal" eternal" unmani est and imperishable! The sage attains to the same state a ter his worship is brought to su##ess ul #ompletion! That is why the indi&idual Soul and the Supreme Spirit are said to be identi#al! 19! H% see you without beginning" end or middle" possessed o boundless might" innumerable hands" eyes like the sun and the moon" and a a#e as bright as ire" lighting up the world with your radian#e!II At irst .perien#ed be ore! 1)! HArjun said" Q% see in you" 0 Gord" all the gods" hosts o beings! Brahma on his lotus$seat" (ahade&" all the great sages" and mira#ulous serpents!III This is dire#t per#eption rather than a light o an#y" and su#h a #lear &ision is possible only when a 4ogeshwar grants eyes that #an see it! A #on#rete apprehension o reality su#h as this is a##essible only with the proper means! 1:! H0 Gord o all the worlds" % behold your many stoma#hs" mouths" and eyes as well as your in inite orms o all kinds" but" 0 the 0mnipresent" % #an see neither your end" your middle" nor your beginning!II 19! H% see you #rowned and armed with a ma#e and a #hakrU1+9V" luminous all o&er" like blaMing ire and the sun" daMMling" and immeasurable! -e ha&e here an all$embra#ing enumeration o the glories o .rishn re&eals his numerous orms" but now he appears as one and in inite! 1owe&er" what are we to make o ArjunIs statement that while one eye o 'od is like the sun" the other is like the moon/ -hat is reKuired is that these words should not be taken literally! %t is not that one eye o 'od is bright like the sun while the other is dim like the moon! The meaning o the statement is rather that both brightness su#h as that o the sun and serenity su#h as that o the moon emanate rom him: both the radian#e o knowledge and the #alm o tranKuility! The sun and the moon are symbols here! 'od shines upon the world like both the sun and the moon" and he is now seen by Arjun as in using the entire world with his daMMling radian#e! *+! HAnd" 0 Supreme Being" the whole spa#e between hea&en and earth is illed up by you and the three worlds are trembling with ear at the sight o your di&ine but terrible orm!J *1! H(ultitudes o gods are dissol&ing in you while a host o them are ear ully e.rishn is a mu#h pro ounder eeling than what he had e.

sages and men o attainment are singing sublime hymns in your praise!II **! HThe 2udr" sons o Aditi" ?asu" SadhyaU1+8V" sons o &ishwaU1+9V" the Ashwin" (arut" Agni and hordes o gandhar&" yaksh" demons and men o a#hie&ement" are all looking up at you with mar&el!J 'ods" Agni and multitudes o gandhar&" yaksh and demons are looking with wonder at the omnipresent orm o .rishn and Arjun are possessed o mighty arms! The one whose sphere o a#tion e.rishn" like others he is also awed by the in#omprehensible greatness o 'od! *8! H-hen % look at your enormous" daMMling orm that rea#hes right up to the sky" with its numerous mani estations" wide open mouth" and huge glowing eyes" 0 ?ishnu" my inmost soul trembles in ear" % am bere t o #ourage and pea#e o mind!II *)! HSin#e % ha&e lost my sense o dire#tion and joy by beholding your a#es with their rightening tusks and laming like the great #on lagration that is belie&ed to #onsume the world in the e&ent o doom" % entreat you" 0 'od o gods" to be mer#i ul and pa#i ied!J *:! HAnd % see 7hritrashtrIs sons along with many other kings" Bheeshm" 7rona#harya" .arn" e&en the #ommanders o our side and allE J *9! HBeings rushing wildly into your dread ul mouth with its terrible tusks" and some o them lying between your teeth with #rushed heads!II *8! H-arriors o the human world are linging themsel&es into your laming mouths just as numerous ri&ers plunge into the o#ean!J Currents o ri&ers are urious themsel&es and yet they rush into the o#ean! <&en so multitudes o warriors are rushing into the iery mouths o 'od! They are men o #ourage and &alour" but 'od is like the o#ean! 1uman strength is nothing against his might! The ollowing &erse illustrates why and how they hurl themsel&es into him! *9! HThey #ast themsel&es into your mouths or their destru#tion just as lying inse#ts ling themsel&es into the lame!J .+! H7e&ouring all the worlds with your laming mouths and li#king your lips" your intense lustre .! HGooking at your #olossus orm with its many mouths and eyes" hands" thighs and eet" stoma#hs and dread ul tusks" 0 the mighty$armed" all beings are stru#k with terror and so am %!J Both .rishn has said earlier that men with demonia#al nature and the &ulgar regard and address him as a petty mortal" whereas" although possessed o a human body" he really dwells in the supreme 'od! That is why gods" Agni and hosts o gandhar&" yaksh and demons are all looking up at him with amaMement! They are unable to see and grasp the reality! U1+8VA parti#ular #lass o #elestial beings or gods in general! U1+9VThe name o a parti#ular group o deities! *.rishn has a#hie&ed per e#tion in the ield and arri&ed at its urthest e.rishn! They are amaMed be#ause they are unable to #omprehend him! They do not in a#t ha&e the &ision with whi#h they #an &iew his essen#e! .tent" Arjun has been just initiated and is yet on his way! 1is destination is yet ar away! @ow when he looks at the uni&ersal orm o .tends beyond nature is Hmighty$armed!J -hereas .

rishn that he #ould not see how his be#oming an un#ontested ruler o a thri&ing and wealthy kingdom on the earth or e&en an %ndr$like lord o 'ods #ould wipe out the grie that was wearing out his senses! 1e did not want either o these i his grie was to persist e&en a ter his a#hie&ement o these rewards! 4ogeshwar .isten#e and" in #ase o &i#tory" with attainment o the Supreme Spirit! And now he says that the enemies ha&e already been slain by him and that Arjun has to a#t just as a pro..y to win both renown and rulership o a thri&ing realm! 7oes .rishn himsel getting up and saying that he has already annihilated his oes! Arjun has to do nothing more sa&e merely taking the #redit or this by making just a gesture o killing them! This again takes us ba#k to his essential nature! 1e is the image o a e#tionate de&otion" and 'od is e&er in#lined to help and support su#h lo&ing worshippers! 1e is a doer or them$their #harioteer! U11+VArjun is so #alled be#ause he #ould also shoot arrows with his le t hand! This is the third o##asion when the idea o HkingdomJ o##urs in the 'eeta! %nitially Arjun did not want to ight and he told .!HSo you should get up and earn renown and enjoy a thri&ing and a luent kingdom by &anKuishing your enemies" be#ause these warriors ha&e already been killed by me and you" 0 Sa&yasa#hinU11+V BArjunC" ha&e to be just the nominal agent o their destru#tion!J .is #onsuming the whole world by illing it with its radian#e!J This is #learly a portrayal o the dissolution o unrighteous properties in 'od a ter whi#h e&en the utility o the treasure o di&inity is dispensed with! 2ighteous properties" too" then merge into the same Sel ! Arjun sees the .rishn mean by this that he is going to bestow upon Arjun the &ery worldly rewards with whi#h he is so e&idently disillusioned$the rewards in whi#h he #annot see the end o his misery/ Su#h" howe&er" is not the #ase! The promised reward is the ultimate union with 'od that results rom a destru#tion o all #ontradi#tions o the material world! This is the only permanent attainment" whi#h is ne&er destroyed and whi#h is an out#ome o raj$yog" the highest orm o all yog! So .8! H7estroy" without any ear" 7rona#harya" Bheeshm" Aayadrath" .rishnIs mouth! So he pleads with him! .aura& warriors and then the warriors o his own army &anishing into .rishn is in his immense orm and what he intends to do! 1e does not yet ully understand the ways in whi#h 'od ul ils himsel ! Thereupon .rishn has said repeatedly that 'od neither a#ts himsel nor #auses others to a#t" and does not e&en de&ise #oin#iden#es! %t is only be#ause o their deluded minds that people belie&e that e&ery a#tion is e e#ted by 'od! But here we ha&e .*! HThe Gord said" Ql am the almighty time BkalC" now in#lined to and engaged in the destru#tion o worlds" and warriors o the opposing armies are going to die e&en without your killing them!I J 1e urther adds: .horts Arjun to$ .rishn then told him that in #ase o de eat in the war he would be rewarded with hea&enly e.rishn speaks to him! .rishn on#e more e.arn" and the many other warriors who ha&e already been killed by me" and ight be#ause you will doubtlessly &anKuish your oes!II .1! HSin#e % am ignorant o your nature" 0 Primal Being" and wish to know its reality" % pay my humble obeisan#e and pray you" 0 supreme 'od" to tell me who you are in this terrible orm!II Arjun wishes to know who .

esha&U111V and o&erwhelmed by eeling" Arjun thus spoke to .pli#itly in &erses 1.)! HSanjay B urtherC said Bto 7hritrashtrC"ITrembling with ear at hearing these words o .isten#eC! They who say that 'od is the sole doer are ignorant and de#ei&ed! -hat" then" is the e.9! HAs you are the wind" the god o death B4amrajC" ire" the rain$god B?arunC" the moon" the Gord o all #reation" and e&en the primal root o Brahma" % bow be ore you a thousand times and .planation or this #ontradi#tion/ The truth is that there is a di&iding line between nature and the Supreme Spirit! So long as the in luen#e o the obje#ts o nature is dominant" uni&ersal ignoran#e BmayaC is the moti&ating or#e! But" a ter a worshipper has trans#ended nature" he su##eeds in gaining admission to the sphere o a#tion o the adored 'od or" in other words" o the enlightened 'uru! Get us not orget that in the sense o Hmoti&ator"J an a##omplished tea#her the indi&idual Soul" the Supreme Soul" the obje#t o worship" and 'od are all synonymous! The dire#tions re#ei&ed by the worshipper all #ome rom 'od! A ter this stage" 'od or the a##omplished 'uru $arising rom the Soul o the worshipper himsel $is present in his heart like a #harioteer who guides him on the right path! The re&ered (aharaj Ai used to say" H(ark that the a#t o worship has not #ommen#ed adeKuately until the worshipper is aware o his Sel and 'od has #ome down to his le&el! 1en#e orth" whate&er he does is a gi t rom 'od! The worshipper then goes along the way only a##ording to 'odIs signals and dire#tions! The worshipperIs su##ess is a gra#e o 'od! %t is 'od who sees through the eyes o the worshipper" shows him the path" and so enables him at last to be#ome one with himsel !J This is what .horts Arjun to kill the enemies who ha&e already been destroyed by him! 7oesnIt this suggest that he is the doer" whereas he had said e.9! H-hat else #an they do" 0 'reat Soul" besides paying homage to you when you are" 0 'od o gods and primal energy o the uni&erse" the imperishable Supreme Spirit who is beyond all being and the non$being /J Arjun #an speak so be#ause he has had a dire#t &ision o the imperishable 'od! Aust a &iew or assumption at the intelle#tual le&el #annot lead one to realiMation o the indestru#tible Supreme Spirit! ArjunIs &ision o 'od is an inner" per#eption! .1ere" again" .rishn with olded hands and re&erent humbleness!I J Sanjay has seen e.a#tly what Arjun has seen! 7hritrashtr is blind" but e&en he #an see" hear" and understand #learly through restraint! U111VA name o ?ishnu B'odC! .e#uted: basis Bthe go&erning power under the auspi#es o whi#h something is doneC" the agent BmindC" the instruments or means Bsenses as well as dispositionC" e orts or e.8! H4ou" 0 in inite" are the primal 'od" eternal Spirit" the ultimate hea&en o the world" seer" worthy o realiMation" the supreme goal" and the all$per&ading!J .$1) o Chapter ) that 'od is a non$doer/ Apart rom this he will later assert that there are only i&e means by whi#h both good and e&il a#tions are e.ertions BdesiresC" and pro&iden#e Bwhi#h is determined by a#tions in pre&ious e.:! HArjun said" Q%t is but right" 0 1rishikesh" that men rejoi#e in singing praises o your name and glory" demons lee helter$skelter out o ear o your glory" and a##omplished sages bow to you in re&eren#e!I J .rishn e.rishn means when he tells Arjun to kill his enemies! Arjun will surely win" or 'od himsel is standing by him! .

rishn! Sentimental worshippers usually manage to in&ent some way or the other! -hile one o them is dismayed by #ontro&ersy o&er the propriety or otherwise o re#iting 0(" another one appeals to sages" and yet .rishnJ #ould he address his dark$skinned riend/ Should we #all a bla#k man white/ %s it sin to #all a spade a spade/ Calling .rishn alone is large$hearted enough to be indulgent to his aults! But what a ter all is his error/ By what other name than H.rishn a H4ada&"J too" #ould not be wrong" be#ause .e&en more!II So o&erwhelmed is Arjun by his aith and dedi#ation that e&en a ter paying obeisan#e again and again he is not #ontented! So he #ontinues with his tributes: 8+! HSin#e you possess" 0 the imperishable and almighty" in inite prowess and are the 'od who is omnipresent" you are honoured e&erywhere Bby allC!II Thus bowing repeatedly in obeisan#e" Arjun begs or orgi&eness or his errors: 81$8*! H% seek your orgi&eness" 0 the in inite" or all the indis#reet words % might ha&e spoken to you" or taking the undue liberty o addressing you as Q.! HSin#e no one in the three worlds #an e&en eKual you" who are ather o the animate and inanimate worlds" the greatest o all tea#hers" most &enerable" and o immense magni i#en#e" how #an anyone else be superior to you/J 88! HSo throwing mysel at your eet and bowing to you in the humblest homage" % besee#h you" 0 the most adorable 'od" to orgi&e my errors as a ather orgi&es his son" a riend his riend and a lo&ing husband his belo&ed wi e!J Arjun is #on&in#ed that .rishnJ is an o en#e! The way o meditation is essentially the one that .rishn also regards Arjun as an intimate riend! 0b&iously" howe&er" Arjun is abje#tly apologeti# be#ause he belie&es that his addressing .rishn as H.rishn has laid down! 1e #ounselled Arjun" in the thirteenth &erse o Chapter 8" to re#ite 0( and #ontemplate him! 0(" we remember" is a symbol o the imperishable 'od! Arjun was told to re#ite the sa#red syllable and &isualiMe .rishnIs orgi&eness or his mistakes be#ause o his #on&i#tion that he is indi erent to all o them: that he will orgi&e him be#ause he is ather o mankind" the noblest o tea#hers" and truly worthy o re&erent worship! 8.rishnI and Q4ada&I" or any disrespe#t % might ha&e inad&ertently shown you in the #ourse o ri&olous dallian#e or repose or while eating meals" 0 A#hyut Bin allibleC" or while we were together alone or with others" out o my eeling that you are my intimate riend and be#ause o #arelessness arising rom my ignoran#e o your true magni i#en#e!II Arjun has the #ourage to beg or .rishnIs image" or 0( whi#h stands or the unmani est Supreme Being is also a symbol o the sage a ter he has attained to the supreme goal o 'od$realiMation! -hen Arjun has a #lear &ision o .rishnIs true magni i#en#e" it strikes him that he is neither white nor bla#k" and not e&en a riend or a 4ada& O he is but a great Soul that has be#ome one and identi#al with the imperishable Supreme Spirit! %n the whole o the 'eeta .rishn had a 4ada& amily an#estry! @either was it an o en#e to #all him a H riend"J be#ause .rishn has" on i&e di erent o##asions" stressed the importan#e o re#iting 0(! % we ha&e to pray" let us re#ite 0( rather than the name o .

perien#e! -hen Arjun has su#h a &ision" he is o&erwhelmed at on#e by joy and dread" and his mind is shaken! So he entreats .#essi&e sentiment! % we ha&e a real eeling or .rishn also appends 2adhaU11*V to his name! True that they do all this out o de&otion" but their prayers are marked by e.rishnJ ails to materialiMe while we are meditating in a state o breath$#ontrol! 0ut o sheer emotion some men re#ite just the name o 2adha! %snIt it a #ommon pra#ti#e to latter the wi&es o unapproa#hable un#tionaries/ %t is hardly surprising then that many o us belie&e that we #an please 'od in the same way! So we e&en stop uttering H.#ellen#e o his skill o ar#hery and e&en thought himsel superior to .alted bodies! So study is imperati&e! U11*VThe name o a #elebrated gopi or #owherdess lo&ed by .rishnJ is an appellation rather than a name or re#ital in yagya! -hen Arjun begs or indulgen#e or his o en#es and pleads with him to re&ert to his usual benign orm" .rishn instead o the traditional 0(/J But 4ogeshwar .rishnJ and begin to re#ite just H2adha"J hoping that she will a#ilitate admittan#e to him! But how #an the poor 2adha do this when she hersel #ould not be united with .rishn/ So" instead o paying any heed to what others ha&e to say" let us re#ite only 0(! At the same time it must be admitted that 2adha should be our idealO we ha&e to dedi#ate oursel&es to 'od with the intensity o her de&otion to her lo&ed one! %t is essential that we be like her" pining away in separation rom .rishn both orgi&es him and a##edes to his reKuest! ArjunIs plea or mer#y is made in the ollowing &erse: 8)! HBe appeased" 0 the in inite and 'od o gods" and show me your mer#i ul orm" be#ause although % rejoi#e at beholding your wondrous Ball$per&adingC orm whi#h % had not &iewed be ore" my mind is also a li#ted with terror!II Till now 4ogeshwar .rishnJ be#ause that was his a#tual name! Similarly Kuite a number o worshippers re#ite the name o their tea#her$pre#eptor out o sentiment! But as it has already been shown" a ter realiMation a sage be#omes one with the unmani est 'od in whom he abides! So many dis#iples ask" H-hen we #ontemplate you why should we not" 0 tea#her" re#ite your name or that o .perien#e o a dire#t per#eption o 'od has in a#t a uniKue e e#t! <&en a ter a worshipper has heard and learnt e&erything in theory" it remains or him to gain an awareness o the reality by pra#ti#e and personal e.rishn! Arjun addressed his riend as H.rishnIs glories" he had e&idently begun to take himsel as a man o knowledge and wisdom! But one who is endowed with knowledge and wisdom in the true sense is beyond any ear! The e.another who is eager to Kui#kly ingratiate himsel with .rishn has appeared be ore Arjun in his omnipresent orm! Sin#e Arjun has not seen it e&er be ore" it is Kuite natural that he is illed at on#e with joy and dread! 1is mind is deeply agitated! <arlier" perhaps" Arjun had prided himsel on the e.pli#it here that a ter attainment a sage is possessed o the same name as that o the Supreme Spirit in whom he has merged! H.rishn! This lo&e is taken as a symbol o the union o the indi&idual Soul with the Supreme Spirit! An uninterrupted seKuen#e o the name H.rishn to resume his pla#id" #ompassionate orm! .rishn has made it Kuite e.rishn" we must obey his instru#tion! Although abiding in the unmani est" he is always present be ore us e&en i we are unable to see him be#ause o inadeKuate &ision! 1is &oi#e is with us" but we #annot hear it! There will be little pro it in our study o the 'eeta i we do not obey him" although one ad&antage o su#h a study is always there! The man who listens to and learns the 'eeta gains an awareness o knowledge and yagya" and so attains to more e.rishn in that respe#t! But a sight o the GordIs all$ per&asi&e immensity ills him with awe! A ter hearing in the last #hapter o .

rishn thus #om orted the rightened Arjun by mani esting to him his pla#id orm!I J )1! HBTherea terC Arjun said" Q0 Aanardan" % ha&e regained my #omposure and tranKuility Bo mindC by seeing this your most bene&olent human orm!I J Arjun had pleaded with the Gord to appear in his our$armed shape! But what does he see when .rishn as a human! 2ather than meaning that there was some our$armed .ternals and de&ote it to the desired 'od alone! 0nly by the ordained way #an one who approa#hes 'od with lo&e realiMe him! A##eding to ArjunIs entreaties" .#ept him is able to see his immense" all per&ading orm are true" the 'eeta has hardly any use or us! %n that #ase" then" the ability to per#ei&e 'od belongs to Arjun alone! 0n the other hand" howe&er" .rishn" the e.ternally but also internally! This is the our$armed orm! The H#on#h"J H#hakr"J Hma#e"J and HlotusJ borne by .rishn a##edes to his reKuest and appears in the desired orm/ -hat else but the human orm/ %n truth" the terms H our$armedJ and Hmany$armedJ are used or sages a ter they ha&e a#hie&ed the supreme goal! The two$armed sage$ tea#her is &ery mu#h with his lo&ing pupil" but someone rom elsewhere remembers" too" and the same sage then" awakened by the Spirit o that power" is trans ormed into the #harioteer who guides the seeker on to the right path! HArmJ is a symbol o a#tion! So our arms un#tion not only e.rishn is! 89! HThe Gord said" Q% ha&e #ompassionately re&ealed to you" 0 Arjun" by an e.er#ise o my power o yog" my resplendent" prime&al" in inite" omnipresent orm whi#h no one else has beheld be ore!I J 88! H0 the most distinguished o .uru" no one else besides you in this mortal world is #apable o seeing my in inite" uni&ersal orm" whi#h #an be known neither by study o the ?ed nor by per orman#e o yagya" nor e&en by #harity or &irtuous deeds" or rigorous spiritual austerities!J % the assertions made by .rishn also pointed out to him be ore that many sages in earlier times" who #on#entrated on him with a mind that was ree rom passion" ear" and wrath and who puri ied themsel&es by the penan#e o knowledge" had su##eeded in attaining to his orm! But now he surprisingly a irms that neither has anyone known his #osmi# mani estation in the past nor will anyone know it in the uture! -ho a ter all is this Arjun/ %s he not a #orporal rame like all o us/ As represented in the 'eeta" he is an embodiment o tender a e#tion! @o man de&oid o this eeling #ould see in the past and no man de&oid o this eeling #an see in the uture! This Kuality o lo&e reKuires a worshipper to draw his mind rom all e.pression H our armedJ is but a metaphor or the spe#ial mode o a#tion that sages a##omplish with their body as well as Soul! .rishnIs our arms are all symboli#" standing respe#ti&ely or an a irmation o the true goal B#on#hC" #ommen#ement o the #y#le o attainment B#hakrC" subduing o the sense Bma#eC" and #ompeten#e in a#tion that is unblemished and pure BlotusC! That is why Arjun &iews the our$armed .rishn now appears in his our$armed orm! 89!HBehold again my our$armed orm Bbearing a lotus" a #on#h" a ma#e" and my #hakrC" so that you are reed rom the #on usions and ears inspired by my terrible mani estation and think o me with Bnothing butC a e#tion!J )+! HSanjay urther said Bto 7hritrashtrC" QA ter thus speaking to Arjun" Gord ?asude& again re&ealed his earlier orm and the sage$like .rishn in the &erse abo&e as well as his assuran#e to Arjun that no one e.8:! HSin#e % long to see you" 0 the thousand$armed omnipresent 'od" as % beheld you earlier" wearing a #rown and armed with a ma#e and your #hakr" % pray you to resume your our$armed shape!J Get us see what this our$armed orm o .

rishn said a little while earlier that no one besides Arjun had seen him be ore and no one would e&er see him in the uture! But he now re&eals that by su#h single minded de&otion worshippers #an not only see him" but also realiMe him dire#tly and be#ome one with him! So Arjun is the name o su#h a wholly dedi#ated worshipper: the name o a state o mind and heart rather than o a person! All$absorbing lo&e itsel is Arjun! So 4ogeshwar .! H(y our$armed orm whi#h you ha&e seen is beyond knowing by either study o the ?ed or by penan#e or by #harity" and not e&en by muni i#en#e or per orman#e o yagya!J The one way by whi#h he may be per#ei&ed is dis#losed in the ollowing &erse: )8! H0 Arjun" a man o great penan#e" a worshipper #an know this orm o mine dire#tly" a#Kuire its essen#e" and e&en be#ome one with it by a total and unswer&ing dedi#ation!J The one way to attain to Supreme Spirit is per e#t intentness" the state in whi#h a worshipper remembers nothing besides the adored goal! As we ha&e seen in Chapter 9" e&en knowledge is inally trans ormed into total de&otion! .ternal war and physi#al bloodshed are simply out o the Kuestion! That is one more instan#e that the 'eeta is not about e.rishn states : ).rishn and o #omplete de&otion to him! The reKuired a#tion is impossible to a##omplish without total disinterestedness in worldly obje#ts and the ruits o a#tion Bsang&arjitahC! The last but not the least reKuirement is Hnir&airah sar&bhooteshuJ: absen#e o mali#e or ill$will towards all beings! 0nly a worshipper ul illing these our #onditions #an attain to .rishn is the most un#ommon and e&en gods yearn to see it! That is to say that it is not possible or all to re#ogniMe a sage or what he is! The most re&ered satsangi (aharajji" the a##omplished tea#her o my re&ered tea#her (aharajji was one su#h saint with a truly awakened Soul" but most o the people regarded him as a mad man! 0nly a &ery ew &irtuous men learnt rom hea&enly signs that he was a sage o noble a##omplishment! And only these men then grasped him with all their heart" attained to his metaphysi#al orm" and rea#hed the desired goal! This is what .rishn says at last: ))!HThis man" 0 Arjun" who a#ts only or my sake BmatkarmahC" rests on and is dedi#ated to me alone BmatparmahC" in #omplete deta#hment Bsang&arjitahC and reedom rom mali#e towards all beings Bnir&airah sar&bhooteshuC" knows and attains to me!II The our essential reKuirements o the e&olutionary dis#ipline by whi#h a man #an a#hie&e spiritual per e#tion or trans#enden#e Bo whi#h human li e is the meansC are indi#ated by the terms: Hmatkar mah"J Hmatparamah"J Hsang&arjitah"J and Hnir &airah sar&bhooteshu!J H(atkarmahJ means per orman#e o the ordained a#t$the a#t o yagya! H(arparamahJ is the ne#essity o the worshipperIs taking re uge in .rishn suggests when he tells Arjun that gods" who ha&e #ons#iously stored their hearts with the treasure o di&inity" hanker a ter a &iew o his H our$ armedJ orm! As to whether he #an be known by yagya" #harity or study o the ?ed" .ternal ighting! There is not one &erse in the poem that supports the idea o physi#al &iolen#e or killing! -hen we ha&e sa#ri i#ed oursel&es through yagya" remember only 'od and no one else" are #ompletely deta#hed rom both nature and the rewards o our a#tion" and when there is no malignity in us towards any being" with whom and or what shall we ight/ The our obser&an#es lead a worshipper to the stage at whi#h he stands entirely alone! % there is no one .)*! HThe Gord said" QThis orm o mine whi#h you ha&e seen is the most rare" be#ause e&en gods e&er pine or a &iew o it!I J This pla#id" bene&olent mani estation o .rishn! %t hardly needs saying that i the our ways urged by the last &erse o the #hapter are obser&ed" the resulting state is one in whi#h e.

rishn most humbly to orgi&e his wrongs whi#h are not truly wrongs! 1e thought he had o ended him by addressing him as H.rishn paused and blessed him with the di&ine &ision with whi#h he #ould behold his true greatness! And then Arjun saw 'od himsel be ore him! 1e had thus a dire#t and real per#eption o 'od! 0&erwhelmed by terror at what he saw" he began to entreat .rishn regards him as an intimate riend! These are all" in a#t" instan#es o the initial attitude o seekers towards great souls or whom the term HsageJ has been used in the rendering! Some o them address these sages a##ording to their appearan#e and shape! Some o them name them by their distinguishing attribute" while yet some others #onsider them eKuals! They ail to #omprehend the essen#e o sages! But when Arjun at last knows the true orm o .rishn readily showed his mer#y and resumed his pleasing and bene&olent orm in de eren#e to ArjunIs reKuest! 1e also spoke words o #om ort and en#ouragement to him! ArjunIs #alling his riend by the name o H.rishn told Arjun how at one moment and at one pla#e he #ould behold in him the whole animate as well as inanimate world" and also whate&er else he was #urious to know! U11.rishn went on through three &erses" rom ) to 9! But ArjunIs physi#al eyes #ould see none o the glories enumerated by the Gord! All the #elestial majesty o 'od was be ore his eyes" but they #ould only see .rishnJ is an o en#e! The problem was resol&ed as ar ba#k as Chapter 8 in whi#h .rishn gladly a##eded to his reKuest! A ter ha&ing assumed his uni&ersal orm" .er#ises or steps or attributes o yog" by mastering whi#h the seeker attains to the state o ultimate a##omplishment! This enumeration by .rishn" how #an anyone be his riend/ 0r his peer/ 1e is beyond rational #omprehension! A man #an know .rishn as a #ommon mortal! 2ealiMing this di i#ulty o Arjun" .V and sages who had been in yet earlier times" and Brahma and ?ishnu! ArjunIs noti#e was thus urther drawn to the all$per&ading majesty o 'od! Summing up his e.rishn had said earlier that he was all$per&ading" Arjun also wished to ha&e a dire#t &ision o his magni i#en#e! 1e reKuested the 4ogeshwar to show him his uni&ersal" imperishable orm i it was within the power o his mortal eyes to behold su#h a mani estation! As Arjun is his belo&ed riend and a most aith ul de&otee" .with him" who shall he ight/ A##ording to .hortations" .rishnJ was no o en#eO .ion! @either was addressing him as H4ada&J an indis#retion" be#ause he did belong to the line o 4adu&anshis! % Arjun #alled .rishn"J H4ada&"J and H riend!J As these were no wrongs" .rishn laid down the #anon that worshippers should re#ite 0(" the primal word or sound that represents the all$per&ading" pre$eminent" #hangeless 'od! 0( is the essen#e that pre&ails through the whole .V(aree#hi" Angiras" Pulastya" Pulah" .rishn a H riend"J that too was not wrong" or e&en .ratu" Atri and ?asishtha! The se&en sages" too" stand or the se&en e.rishn had a dark #omple.rishn" he realiMes that he is neither bla#k nor white" nor does he belong to any amily or is anyoneIs riend! -hen there is no one like .rishn told Arjun to behold in him #elestial beings like the se&en immortal sagesU11.rishn" Arjun has known him! This would not be possible i there were e&en the slightest tou#h o mali#e about him! So it is e&ident that the war waged by Arjun in the 'eeta is against ear ul enemies su#h as atta#hment and repulsion" in atuation and mali#e" and desire and anger" that rise up in the way o the worshipper when he engages in the task o single$minded #ontemplation a ter ha&ing a#hie&ed an attitude o deta#hment to worldly obje#ts as well as rewards! At the beginning o the #hapter Arjun admitted to .rishn that his delusions were wiped out by the kind words with whi#h he had re&ealed his mani old glories to him! 4et" sin#e .rishn only i the 4ogeshwar #hooses to re&eal himsel to him! That is the reason behind ArjunIs apologies! The problem raised in the #hapter is" as we ha&e seen" how we should re#ite his name i speaking H.

#ept him" to know him and his essen#e by dire#t per#eption and to be#ome one with him! % Arjun knows .uni&erse and whi#h is hidden within .ist or him" and when he is reed rom all malignant eelings" the idea o his ighting an e.rishn has pointed out the our old way" #omprising obser&an#e o yagya$the ordained a#tion" total dependen#e upon and de&otion to him" deta#hment orm worldly obje#ts and rewards" and" lastly" absen#e o male&olen#e towards all! So it is ob&ious that there #an be no physi#al war or bloodshed in the state o mind arri&ed at by ollowing this our old way! -hen a worshipper has dedi#ated all he has to 'od" remembers only him and no one else" is so irmly in #ontrol o his mind and senses that nature and its obje#ts #ease to e.rishn and Arjun" entitled H?ishwroop 7arshan 4ogII or QQ2e&elation o the 0mnipresentII Thus #on#ludes Swami AdgadanandIs e.rishn has told Arjun that no one besides him had seen this orm o his be ore and no one would be able to see it in the uture! % we were to take this literally" the 'eeta would appear utile! But .rishn! -orshippers were #ounselled to re#ite this sa#red syllable and #on#entrate on the orm o .rishn re&eals to him is the human orm! %n truth" the yogi who has attained to the omnipotent" eternal 'od li&es in his body in this world and a#ts outwardly with his two hands! But he is awake in his Soul and he also wakes up simultaneously in the Soul o de&otees who remember him rom anywhere to a#t as their guide$#harioteer! Arms are a symbol o a#tion and this is the signi i#an#e o the our$ armed orm! .rishn" it means that he is su#h a de&otee! A e#tion or the worshipped 'od is the distilled orm o de&otion! As 'oswami Tulsidas has said" one #annot ha&e 'od without lo&e! 'od has ne&er been realiMed and #an ne&er be realiMed by a worshipper who is la#king in this eeling! %n the absen#e o lo&e" no amount o yog or prayer or #harity or penan#e #an enable a man to attain to 'od! So the sentiment o lo&e is indispensable or inal attainment on the path o spiritual e&olution! %n the last &erse o the #hapter .rishn to show him his our$armed orm and .ternal war is simply impossible! To a#hie&e the supreme goal by #utting down the dread ul enemy that the world is with the sword o per e#t renun#iation is the only true &i#tory a ter whi#h there is no prospe#t o any de eat! Thus #on#ludes the <le&enth Chapter" in the >panishad o the Shreemad Bhagwad 'eeta" on the .rishn has resol&ed the problem by telling Arjun that it is easy or the worshipper" who is de&oted to him with single$minded aith and who remembers no one else e.rishnIs image and 0( are the keys to the su##ess o a worshipperIs prayer and meditation! Arjun then pleaded with .position o the <le&enth Chapter o the Shreemad Bhagwad 'eeta in Q4atharth 'eetaII 1A2% 0( TAT SAT YYYYY @ote: The te.nowledge o the Supreme Spirit" the 7is#ipline o 4og" and the 7ialogue between .t o the Book" 4atharth 'eeta is a&ailable in &arious %nternational B<nglish" 2ussian" 6ren#h" 'erman" Spanish" Chinese" %talian" @orwegian" 7ut#h" Portuguese" Arabi#" Aapanese" PersianC and %ndian languages B1indi" Bengali" Assamese" 'ujarati" (arathi" Tamil" .rishn! .rishn did appear in his gentle" mer#i ul orm! 1e had wanted to see the our$armed orm" but what .

annada" 0riya" Sindhi" Sanskrit" @epali" Punjabi and >rduC and the same #ould be downloaded rom http:PPwww!yatharthgeeta!#omP! The audio o the Book" 4atharth 'eeta is a&ailable in &arious %nternational B<nglish" 'ermanC and %ndian languages B1indi" Bengali" 'ujarati" (arathi" Tamil" TeluguC and the same #ould be downloaded rom http:PPwww!yatharthgeeta!#omP! .Telugu" (alayalam" .

nowledge and at other times that done by the -ay o Sel less A#tion in a spirit o sel $surrender! 1e wanted to be told whi#h o the two was better! 1e knew by that time that a#tion was a #ommon a#tor in both the ways! And yet he put the Kuestion to .C1APT<2 1*: T1< 40' 06 7<?0T%0@ .rishn with sel $surrender" a sense o identity with him" and with irm #on#entration" or they worship the unmani est and imperishable 'od in whom he dwells with sel $ relian#e rather than sel $surrender" they both ollow the way ordained by him! -hi#h o the two" howe&er" are superior/ .nowledge! -ithout doing sel less a#tion" a man #an be neither a yogi nor truly enlightened! The -ay o .rishn and remember himO he should per orm the ordained deed and better still by surrendering himsel to him! 6irm and single$minded de&otion is the means or a#hie&ement o the supreme goal! This naturally whets ArjunIs #uriosity to know whi#h one o the two kinds o de&otees" they who worship the mani est 'od like .rishn in Chapter ) why he sometimes #ommended a#tion done by the -ay o . why he was urging him to undertake a dread ul task i he thought the -ay o .rishn answers the Kuestion thus! *! HThe Gord said" Q% belie&e them to be the most superior o all yogi who always meditate upon .rishn repeatedly told Arjun at the end o Chapter 11 that his #osmi# orm whi#h he had mani ested to him had ne&er been seen by anyone be ore and would not be seen by anyone in the uture! 2ather than being known by penan#e or yagya or #harity he #an be easily known and approa#hed$as Arjun has seen him$by unwa&ering de&otion and #ontemplation whi#h is #onstant and uninterrupted like a stream o oil! So Arjun was e.nowledge superior to the -ay o Sel less A#tion! A##ording to .nowledge and the -ay o Sel less A#tion i the same a#tion$the deed o yagya$has to be embarked on or both! -hereas an a e#tionate de&otee engages in the deed o yagya a ter ha&ing surrendered himsel and his a#tion to the desired 'od" the yogi o knowledge undertakes the same a#tion with a due understanding o his own strength and relian#e upon it! Arjun urther wished to know rom .nowledge #ontemplating the unmani est" imperishable prin#iple" are superior! 1! HArjun said" Q-hi#h o the two kinds o stead ast de&otees" they who always worship you in your embodied orm and the others who meditate upon your imperishable" unmani est Spirit" are superior in their mastery o yog/I II -hether they worship .horted to dedi#ate himsel to .rishn in Chapter .rishn and they who #ontemplate the unmani est Spirit" are superior! %n a#t" Arjun has raised this Kuestion or the third time here! 1e had asked .nowledge is also impossible to tra&erse without a#tion and it is beset with more obsta#les! @ow" or the third time" Arjun asks the Gord whi#h o the two kinds o de&otees" they who are de&oted to him with per e#t #on#entration and they who go along the -ay o .rishn be#ause he was a#ed with the problem o #hoosing the superior way! 1e was told that although seekers attain to the desired goal by going along either o the ways" the -ay o Sel less A#tion is better than the -ay o .rishn in both ways a#tion is a ne#essity! 7espite this" howe&er" i a man restrains his senses with unnatural &iolen#e and is yet unable to orget their obje#ts" he is an arrogant impostor rather than a man o knowledge! So Arjun was #ounselled to do the ordained task" the deed o yagya! The mode o yagya" whi#h is a spe#ial orm o worship and whi#h pro&ides a##ess to the supreme goal" was then elu#idated! -hat di eren#e is there then between the -ay o .

rishn" he will ha&e the ul illment o realiMing him! 1+! QQ%n #ase you are in#apable o e&en ollowing the way o pra#ti#e" you may yet se#ure ul illment by the per orman#e o a#tions whi#h are meant only or me!J .ing it upon the desired goal! But i Arjun is in#apable e&en o this" he should just long or .rishn is #ons#ious o his dis#ipleIs weakness" or Arjun has #on essed earlier that he #onsiders restraining the mind as di i#ult as restraining the wind" So he hastens to add: 9! QQ% you #annot irmly set your mind on meO 0 7hananjay" seek me by the yog o in#essant pra#ti#e Babhyas$yogC!II HPra#ti#eJ here means repeated drawing ba#k o the mind rom where$e&er it roams and i.rishn" but$ )! HA#hie&ement o per e#tion by men who are de&oted to the ormless 'od is more arduous" be#ause they who eel #on#eited be#ause o their physi#al bodies ind it more di i#ult to realiMe the unmani est!II A##omplishment is harder or worshippers who are de&oted to the 'od who is de&oid o all Kualities BnirgunC be#ause o their atta#hment to their physi#al e.rishnIs gra#ious shelter! :$9! HAnd" 0 Parth" % soon deli&er my a e#tionate de&otees who ha&e set their mind on me and who" #oming under my shelter and dedi#ating all their a#tion to me" e&er #ontemplate and worship me$the mani est 'od$with unshaken intentness" rom the abyss o the mortal world!II .isten#e! Attainment o the unmani est" ormless 'od is most di i#ult as long as a worshipper takes pride in his birth and prowess! 4ogeshwar .rishn$only de&ote himsel to his worship" % all his thoughts and a#tions are only or .rishn was a 'odlike a##omplished tea#her and the unmani est 'od was mani ested in him! A##ording to him the seeker who" instead o seeking shelter under a sage" goes ahead with trust in his own strength" knowing his present situation and what it will be in the time to #ome" and with the awareness that he will ultimately realiMe his own unmani est" identi#al Sel " begins to think that the Supreme Spirit is no di erent rom him and that he is Hhim!II <ntertaining su#h thoughts and without waiting or ul illment he begins to eel that his body itsel is the real Hhe!J So he wanders about in the mortal world" the abode o sorrows" and at last #omes to a dead end! But this is not so with the worshipper who goes ahead under .$8! QQAnd they who restrain all their senses well" always adore the Supreme Spirit who is beyond thought" all$per&ading" inde inable" illed with eKuanimity" immutable and immo&able" and ormless and indestru#tible " with total #on#entration" and who ser&e all beings &iewing them with an eKual eye" attain to me!II These attributes o 'od are not di erent rom those o .me with #on#entration and worship me Bthe embodied" mani est 'odC with true aith!II .rishn then prompts Arjun to su#h de&otion and throws light upon the way by whi#h it may be a##omplished! 8! HThere is no doubt whatsoe&er that you will dwell in me i you de&ote and apply your mind and intelle#t to me!II .

rishn has so ar said that the yogi who per orms sel less a#tion with a sense o sel $surrender has an ad&antage o&er the ollower o the -ay o .rishn! This &erse is most salutary or worshippers" or they should so #ondu#t themsel&es that they do not hurt anyoneIs eeling! They ha&e to be so" although others will not a#t in the same way! Being worldly$minded they #annot but indulge in &enomous ulminations! 1owe&er" whate&er they say to denoun#e and hurt should not disturb and interrupt the seekerIs meditation! -hate&er they do" his thoughts should be steadily and #onstantly set on the #o&eted 'od! %t is his duty to prote#t himsel rom the onslaughts o men who are$as it were$into.$18! HThe de&otee who has mali#e towards none and lo&es all" who is #ompassionate and ree rom atta#hment and &anity" who &iews sorrow and joy eKually and is orgi&ing" endowed with steady yog" #ontented alike with both pro it and loss" restrained in mind" and dedi#ated to me with irm #on&i#tion" is dear to me!J 1)! HThe de&otee who does not upset anyone" nor is upset by anyone" and who is ree rom the #ontradi#tions o joy" en&y" and ear" is dear to me!J Apart rom these Kualities" this worshipper is also one who neither agitates any being nor is agitated by any being" and who is ree rom joy" misery" ear" and all su#h distra#tions! Su#h a worshipper is belo&ed o .nowledge who worships the unmani est! Both o them a##omplish the same a#tion" but there are more hurdles in the way o the latter! 1e bears the responsibility or his pro its and losses himsel " whereas the burden o the dedi#ated worshipper is borne by 'od! So he soon a#hie&es pea#e as an out#ome o his renun#iation o the ruits o a#tion! .terous at his task" impartial" ree rom sorrow" and who has a#hie&ed the state o a#tionlessness" is dear to me!J That man is pure who is liberated rom desire! H7e.i#ated and out o their senses! 1:! HThe de&otee who is eman#ipated rom desire" pure" de.rishn now enumerates the attributes o the man who attains to su#h tranKuility! 1.er#ise o restraining the mind! (editation is better than the a##omplishment o a#tion through knowledge" be#ause the desired goal is always present in #ontemplation! <&en better than #ontemplation" howe&er" is the abandonment o the ruits o a#tion" or when Arjun has gi&en up the ruits o a#tion and surrendered himsel to the desired goal with the purpose o realiMing it" the burden o his e.terousJ means that he is adept in worship and meditation" the one ordained a#tion! 1e is una e#ted by ortune and mis ortune" ree rom .nowledge is better than just the e.11! H%n #ase you ail to a##omplish e&en this" abandon all the ruits o a#tion and take re uge in my yog with a thoroughly subdued mind!II % Arjun #annot e&en do this" he should gi&e up all desire o the rewards o a#tion as well as #onsiderations o pro it and loss" and with a sense o sel $surrender ind shelter under some sage with an a##omplished Soul! The ordained a#tion will then #ommen#e spontaneously under the prompting o this a##omplished tea#her! 1*! HSin#e knowledge is superior to pra#ti#e" meditation better than knowledge" and abandonment o the ruits o a#tion higher than meditation" renun#iation is soon rewarded with pea#e!II To engage in a#tion by the -ay o .er#ise o yog is borne by the adored 'od! So this kind o renun#iation is soon ollowed by the a#hie&ement o absolute pea#e! .

sorrow" and one who has gi&en up all undertakings be#ause there is le t no worthwhile enterprise on whi#h he #an embark! 19! HThe de&otee who is neither joyous nor en&ious" neither troubled nor #on#erned" and who has gi&en up all good and e&il a#tions" is dear to me!J This is the #rowning point o de&otion when the worshipper is not wanting in anything that is worthy nor in possession o anything that is impious! The worshipper who has rea#hed this stage is dear to .rishn told Arjun that neither had anyone seen him earlier nor would anyone see him later as he had beheld him! But one who worships him with steady de&otion and a e#tion is able to see him" know his essen#e" and be#ome one with him! %n other words" the Supreme Spirit is an entity who #an be realiMed! So Arjun should be a lo&ing de&otee! YYYYY At the outset o the present #hapter Arjun wished to know rom .rishn" he is realiMed by de&otees o both kinds be#ause he too is unmani est! 1owe&er" there are more pain ul hurdles in the path o seekers who are dedi#ated to the unmani est 'od with a well$ restrained mind! So long as the shell o the physi#al body remains" attainment o the ormless 'od is pain ul" be#ause this unmani est orm is attained only when the mind is thoroughly subdued and dissol&ed! Be ore that stage his body itsel stands as an obstru#tion in the worshipperIs way! Saying time and again$ H% am!J$H% am!J$H% ha&e to attain!J$he at last turns to his body itsel ! There is thus a greater #han#e o his stumbling on the way! So Arjun should surrender all his a#tions to .rishn has enumerated attributes o the de&otee who a#hie&es su#h pea#e! 6ree rom .rishn! 18$19! HThe steady worshipper" who regards riends and oes" honour and dishonour" #old and heat" happiness and sorrow" as eKual" and who is deta#hed rom the world" indi erent to slander and praise" meditati&e" #ontented with any manner o physi#al sustenan#e" and ree rom in atuation or the pla#e where he dwells" is dear to me! *+! HAnd the de&otees who rest in me and taste well the a oresaid ne#tar o dharm in a spirit o sel lessness are the dearest to me!II %n the #on#luding &erse o the #hapter" .rishn whi#h o the two kinds o de&otees" they who worship him with single$minded dedi#ation and they who #ontemplate the imperishable" unmani est 'od" are superior! A##ording to .rishn and remember him with steady de&otion" or he soon liberates rom the dark #hasm o the world de&otees who meditate upon him with the unbroken #onstan#y o a stream o oil" with total dependen#e on him" and a ter resigning all their a#tions to him! So the way o a e#tionate de&otion is the most superior! Arjun should aim his mind at .rishn adds that he lo&es those de&otees most who take re uge in him and partake well o the a oresaid imperishable substan#e o dharm! ミミミミミ At the #lose o the last #hapter" .rishn! % he #annot thus #ontrol his mind" howe&er" he should take to the way o #onstant pra#ti#e! 1e should withdraw his mind again and again rom where&er it strays and restrain it! % he is unable to do this" either" he should just engage in a#tion! The a#tion is only one$the deed o yagya! 1e should just go on doing what is it to be done" and do nothing else! -hether su##ess #omes to him or not" he should perse&ere with the ordained a#tion! % " un ortunately" he is in#apable o e&en this" he should renoun#e the ruits o all a#tion and ind shelter under a sage who has known reality" realiMed his Sel " and dwells in the Supreme Spirit! This renun#iation will bring him the ultimate pea#e! Therea ter" .

nowledge o the Supreme Spirit" the 7is#ipline o 4og" and the 7ialogue between .ill$will towards all beings" he is endowed with #ompassion and pity! 6ree eKually rom atta#hment and &anity" this de&otee is belo&ed o .rishn tells Arjun that de&otees o steady aith who #ast themsel&es at his mer#y and mould their #ondu#t with a spirit o sel lessness a##ording to the eternal" indestru#tible ne#tar o dharm whi#h he has enun#iated be ore" are the dearest to him! So engaging in the appointed task in a spirit o total sel $surrender is the best #ourse" be#ause in this way the responsibility or the worshipperIs gains and losses is borne by his noble tea#her$ pre#eptor! At this point .rishn and Arjun" entitled: HBhakti 4og"II or QQThe 4og o 7e&otionII Thus #on#ludes Swami AdgadanandIs e.t o the Book" 4atharth 'eeta is a&ailable in &arious %nternational B<nglish" 2ussian" 6ren#h" 'erman" Spanish" Chinese" %talian" @orwegian" 7ut#h" Portuguese" Arabi#" Aapanese" PersianC and %ndian languages B1indi" Bengali" Assamese" 'ujarati" (arathi" Tamil" Telugu" (alayalam" .rishn also points out the attributes o sages who dwell in the Supreme Spirit and #ounsels Arjun to ind shelter under them! At the &ery end" by prompting Arjun to take re uge in him" he de#lares himsel on par with these sages! Sin#e QQde&otionII is said to be the most superior way in this #hapter" it is appropriate to name it QQThe 4og o 7e&otion!II Thus #on#ludes the Twel th Chapter" in the >panishad o the Shreemad Bhagwad 'eeta" on the .position o the Twel th Chapter o the Shreemad Bhagwad 'eeta in QQ4atharth 'eetaII 1A2% 0( TAT SAT YYYYY @ote: The te.annada" 0riya" Sindhi" Sanskrit" @epali" Punjabi and >rduC and the same #ould be downloaded rom http:PPwww!yatharthgeeta!#omP! The audio o the Book" 4atharth 'eeta is a&ailable in &arious %nternational B<nglish" 'ermanC and %ndian languages B1indi" Bengali" 'ujarati" (arathi" Tamil" TeluguC and the same #ould be downloaded rom http:PPwww!yatharthgeeta!#omP! .rishn! The worshipper who is e&er absorbed in #ontemplation" sel $possessed" and dwelling in his Soul is dear to him! The seeker who neither hurts anyone nor is hurt by anyone is dear to him! The de&otee who is pure" de.terous in his task" beyond all sorrow" and who has steered his way a#ross by renoun#ing all desire and good as well as e&il a#tions" is dear to him! The steady" enlightened" and lo&ing de&otee who is eKuable and un#omplaining in both glory and ignominy" whose mind and senses are restrained and stilled" who is #ontented with any manner o li&ing" and ree rom atta#hment to the body in whi#h he dwells" is dear to him! This enumeration o the way o li e o worshippers who ha&e attained to the ultimate pea#e #ontinues rom the ele&enth to the nineteenth &erse" whi#h are there ore o great &alue to seekers! 'i&ing the inal &erdi#t at last" .

C1APT<2 1.rishn pro#laims that he too is a kshetragya! %n other words" he too was a yogi$ indeed a 4ogeshwar! Per#eption o the reality o kshetr and kshetragya" o nature with its #ontradi#tions and the Soul" is knowledge! .rishn is" .unti" a battle ield BkshetrC and the men who know it BkshetragyaC are #alled wise be#ause they ha&e grown spiritually de.ist two distin#t" prime&al instin#ts! There is irst the pious treasure o di&inity that pro&ides a##ess to the Supreme Spirit who stands or the most sublime dharm! 0n the other hand" there are the demonia#al impulses made up o impiety whi#h lead a man to a##ept the mortal world as real! -hen there is abundan#e o di&inity in the realm o the heart" the body is transmuted into a 7harmkshetr B ield o dharmC" but it degenerates into a .terous by per#ei&ing its essen#e!II %nstead o being in&ol&ed in this sphere" the kshetragya dominate it! So it has been said by sages who knew and #omprehended its reality! -hen the body is only one" how #an there be two spheres$ 7harmkshetr and .aura& also the warriors o his own army plunging and &anishing into the mouth o the all per&ading 'od! .perien#e! @ow .urukshetr when it is dominated by de&ilish or#es! This pro#ess o alternate rise and all" o as#ent and des#ent" operates at all times" but a de#isi&e war #ommen#es between the two opposing impulses when an earnest de&otee engages in the task o worship in asso#iation with a sage who has per#ei&ed the reality! 'radually" then" while the treasure o di&inity grows" impious impulses are en eebled and destroyed! The stage o 'od$realiMation is rea#hed only a ter the #omplete elimination o the ill$gotten hoard o unrighteousness! And e&en the utility o the treasure o di&inity is dispensed with a ter the stage o per#eption" or it is also then subsumed in the re&ered 'od! %n Chapter 11" Arjun saw a ter the .: T1< SP1<2< 06 ACT%0@ A@7 %TS .rishn who says thisO other sages ha&e also said the same! 8! HThis has BalsoC been said in &arious distin#t ways by sages in di erent s#riptural &erses and well$reasoned" de initi&e aphorisms on the knowledge o the Supreme Spirit BBrahmsutrC!J That is so say that ?edant" great sages" Brahmsutr" and .shetragya is the #hara#ter o the Sel a ter this inal dissolution! *! HAnd be it known to you" 0 Bharat" that % am the all$knowing Sel BkshetragyaC in all spheresO and to me awareness o the reality o kshetr and kshetragya" o mutable nature and the Sel " is knowledge!II The one who knows the reality o the sphere o the body is a kshetragya! This is &ou#hed or by sages who ha&e known the essen#e o this sphere by dire#t e.urukshetr" or #ombat! But it has not been made #lear so ar where that ield or sphere is! %t is only in the present #hapter that .@0-<2 At the &ery outset o the 'eeta 7hritrashtr asked Sanjay what had been done by his and PanduIs sons assembled at 7harmkshetr" at .urukshetr$in it/ %n truth" within the one body there e.nowledge is not mere dispute! .! HGisten to me brie ly on the when#e and what o that sphere and its &ariations and properties" as well on the kshetragya and his abilities!II The sphere o a#tion" o li e and death" is mutable be#ause it has e&ol&ed rom some #ause" whereas the kshetragya is possessed o authority! %t is not only .rishn all say the same thing! .rishn makes a pre#ise de#laration o the lo#ation o the sphere! 1! HThe Gord said" This body is" 0 son o .

ing the mind irmly on .rishn told Arjun earlier that he ought not to degrade his Soul! To lead the Soul to degradation is true &iolen#e BhinsaC" whereas to ele&ate it is non$ &iolen#e BahinsaC! A man who is in#lined to the amelioration o his own Soul is also a#ti&ely de&oted to the well$being o other Souls! %t is true" though" that this &irtue has its in#eption rom not hurting othersO the one is but a ne#essary #on#omitant o the other! So ahinsa" mer#y" honest thought and spee#h" aith ul ser&i#e to and worship o the tea#her" purity" irmness o mind and heart" and #ontrol o the body along with the mind and senses" and$ 8! H7isinterest in pleasures o both the world and hea&en" absen#e o ego" #onstant re le#tion o&er the maladies o birth" death" old age" si#kness" and pain"E II 9! H7eta#hment rom son" wi e" home and the like" reedom rom in atuation" bearing with both the pleasant and the unpleasant with eKuanimity"E II 1+! H>nswer&ing de&otion to me with a single$minded #on#ern or yog" ondness o li&ing in seKuestered pla#es" distaste or human so#iety"E J 6i.rishn" a 4ogeshwar" or on some sage like him" so that there is remembran#e o nothing else e.there ore" only saying what others ha&e already said! %s the #orporal body just what is &isible o it/ The Kuestion is taken up in the ollowing &erse! )$:! HSpeaking brie ly" mutable physi#al body is the aggregate o the i&e elements" ego" intelle#t" e&en the unmani est" the ten sense organs" mind and the i&e obje#ts o sense" as well as desire" mali#e" pleasure and pain" and intelligen#e and ortitude!J SummariMing the #onstitution o the body whi#h is kshetr with all its &ariants" .rishn tells Arjun that it is made up o the i&e great elements Bearth" water" ire" ether" and airC" ego" intelle#t and thought Bwhi#h" instead o being named" has been #alled the unmani est" metaphysi#al natureC" and thus throws light upon primal nature with its eight parts! Apart rom this the other #omponents are the ten senses Beyes" ears" nose" skin" tongue" organ o taste" hands" eet" genital organ" and anusC" mind" the i&e obje#ts o sense B orm" taste" smell" sound" and tou#hC" desire" mali#e" pleasure and pain" and #ons#iousness and #alm #ourage! The body" the gross #orporal rame" is the #omposite o all these parts! This in brie is kshetr and the good or bad seeds sown in it sprout as sanskar! (ade up o #omponents whi#h ha&e e&ol&ed rom a pre&ious sour#e or nature BprakritiC" the body must e.ist so long as these #omponents sur&i&e! Get us now see the attributes o the kshetragya who is unin&ol&ed in and ree rom this kshetr: 9! HAbsen#e o pride and arrogant #ondu#t" disin#lination to do injury to anyone" orgi&eness" integrity o thought and spee#h" de&oted ser&i#e to the tea#her" outward as well as inner purity" moral irmness" restraint o the body along with the mind and senses" E II These are only some o the attributes o the kshetragya: indi eren#e to honour and dishonour" reedom rom &anity" and relu#tan#e to hurt anyone BahinsaC! Ahinsa does not only mean desisting rom a#ts o physi#al &iolen#e! .#ept yog and de&out #ontemplation o nothing besides the desired goal" dwelling in solitary pla#es" disinterest in the #ompany o men" and$ 11! QQConstantly resting in the awareness that is #alled adhyatm and per#eption o the Supreme Spirit who is the end o realiMation o truth are all knowledge and whate&er is #ontrary to them is ignoran#e!II Adhyatm is knowledge o 'odIs dominan#e! The awareness that is deri&ed rom a dire#t .

rishn said in Chapter 8 that the man who tastes the manna o knowledge generated by the a##omplishment o yagya be#omes one with the eternal 'od! 1ere" too" he says that apprehension o the reality that the Supreme Spirit is knowledge! -hate&er is opposed towards it is ignoran#e! The a oresaid attributes su#h as an eKuanimous attitude to honour and dishonour #omplement this knowledge! The dis#ussion o the problem is now #on#luded! 1*! QQ% shall dis#ourse Bto youC well upon the 'od without a beginning or end" who is worthy o being known and a ter knowing whom the stu o immortality is gained and who is said to be neither a being nor a non$beingII .rishn has said be ore" he is the enjoyer o all yagya and penan#es! All the three properties are thus dissol&ed in him at last! 1)! H<.rishn promises to enlighten Arjun well on that whi#h ought to be known and a ter knowing whi#h the mortal man a#hie&es the Kuality o deathlessness! The ultimate 'od who is without a beginning and end is said to be neither a being nor a non$being" be#ause so long as he is remo&ed he is an entity" but who #an say what he is when a worshipper$a$sage$is assimilated in him! @ow there is only a single entity and the #ons#iousness o otherness is obliterated! %n su#h a state 'od is neither an entity nor a non$entityO he is only that whi#h is spontaneously per#ei&ed! .ternal birth and inner awakening" e.! H1e has hands and eet" eyes" heads" mouths" and ears on all sides" be#ause he e.ists per&ading all in the world!II 18! H.rishn now elaborates the ways o this great Soul: 1.ternal sustenan#e and inner adheren#e to the bene i#ial yog" e.ternal and inner phenomena ha&e been indi#ated here: or instan#e" e.nowing the obje#ts o all senses he is yet without sensesO unatta#hed to and beyond the properties o nature he is yet the sustainer o allO and he is also the one into whom all the properties merge!II 7e&oid o senses" unatta#hed" and beyond the properties o matter" he yet sustains all and is the enjoyer o all properties! As .ternal #hange o body and inner dissolution o all" that is" the disintegration o the #auses that lead to the generation o beings" and along with this dissolution$a##ess to the identi#al 'od! These are all attributes o that Supreme Being! 19! HThe light among lights and said to be beyond darkness" that 'od" the embodiment o knowledge" worthy o being known" and attainable only through knowledge" dwells in the hearts o all!II The awareness that #omes with intuiti&e per#eption is knowledge! And by this knowledge alone #an there be realiMation o 'od! 1e dwells in the hearts o allO the heart is his dwelling and we #annot ind him i we sear#h or him anywhere else! There ore" it is laid down by the #anon that .per#eption o the Supreme Spirit" the ultimate essen#e" is knowledge! .isting in all animate and inanimate beings" he is both animate and inanimateO he is also unmani est be#ause he is so subtle" and both distant and #lose!II 1e is all$per&ading" both animate and inanimate" imper#eptible be#ause o his ineness" beyond knowing by the mind and the senses" and both #lose and ar away! 1:! HThe Supreme Spirit who is worth knowing" and who appears to be di erent in di erent beings although he is one and undi&ided" is the begetter" sustainer" and destroyer o all beings!II Both e.

nowing the truth o what has been brie ly said o kshetr" knowledge" and o 'od" who ought to be known" my de&otee attains to my state!II .rishn now makes use o the terms HnatureJ BprakritiC and HSoulJ BpurushC or what he earlier des#ribed as kshetr and kshetragya! 19! HBe it known to you that both nature and Soul are without beginning and end" and also that maladies su#h as atta#hment" re&ulsion" and all the obje#ts that are possessed o the three properties are born rom nature!II *+! H-hereas nature is said to be the begetter o deed and doer" the Soul is said to be begetter o the e.perien#es nature$born obje#ts whi#h are #hara#teriMed by the three properties and it is asso#iation with these properties that is the #ause o his birth in higher or lower orms!II That means that liberation rom birth and death is to be had only a ter the #essation o the properties o nature whi#h prompt them! .rishn speaks o this! *1! HThe nature$based Soul e.'od #an be attained only through inner #ontemplation and #ondu#t o yog! 18! H.rishn then tells Arjun how the Soul dwells amidst nature! **! HAlthough residing in the body" the Soul is trans#endental and said to be the witness" the granter" the enjoyer" and the great 'od and Supreme Spirit!J The Soul dwelling in the sphere o the heart is e&en #loser than oneIs hands" eet" and mind! -hether we do good or e&il" he is un#on#erned! 1e just stands as a witness$an onlooker BupdrashtaC! -hen the right #ourse o worship is taken and the way arer rises a little higher" the approa#h o the witnessing Soul #hanges and he be#omes the granter BanumantaC! @ow he begins to grant and #on er intuitions! -hen the seeker is yet #loser to the goal by urther spiritual dis#ipline" the Soul begins to support and sustain BbhartaC! @ow he also pro&ides the propitious yog! Then he turns into the enjoyer BbhoktaC when the worship is e&en more re ined! 1e a##epts whate&er yagya or penan#e is per ormed" and at the stage a ter this a##eptan#e he is trans ormed into the great 'od B(aheshwarC! 1e is now master o nature" but sin#e he is master o nature it ollows that nature yet abides in some par t o him! At e&en a higher stage than this" a ter the Soul is endowed with the attributes o the ultimate" he #omes to be known as the Supreme Spirit! Thus" although dwelling in the body" this Soul or Purush is yet trans#endental$Kuite beyond nature! The only di eren#e is that whereas he is a witness at the beginning" by gradual as#ent a ter tou#hing the ultimate he is trans ormed into the Supreme Spirit himsel ! *.perien#e o pleasure and pain!II @ature is said to generate deed and the agent by whom a deed is a##omplished! 7is#rimination and renun#iation are the doers o good" while passion and anger are the doers o e&il deeds! 0n the #ontrary" the Soul engenders eelings o pleasure and pain! -ill man always #ontinue to su er" we may well ask" or will he also e&er be rid o it/ 1ow #an one be liberated rom nature and Soul when both o them are eternal/ .rishn has so ar spoken to Arjun on the reedom rom rebirth whi#h is the inal out#ome o the intuiti&e knowledge o 'od and nature! But he now stresses .! H%n whate&er manner he #ondu#ts himsel " the man who knows the truth o the Soul and nature with its three properties is ne&er born again!II This is sal&ation! 4ogeshwar .

rishn has this to say: *9! H1e alone knows the truth who steadily sees the imperishable 'od in all animate and inanimate beings that are destru#tible! That Soul alone apprehends reality who has a steady per#eption o the immortal 'od in the animate and inanimate beings that are annihilated in their own spe#ial ways! %n other words" he is o the state o the Supreme Spirit only a ter the #hara#teristi# destru#tion o that nature" ne&er be ore it! The same idea was e.yog whose mode is worship" or attainment is impossible without the a##omplishment o this a#tion! *8! H-hile some per#ei&e the Supreme Spirit in their heart by #ontemplation with their re ined mind" some others know him by the yog o knowledge" and yet others by the yog o a#tion!J Some men per#ei&e the Supreme Spirit in the realm o their hear t by inner remembran#e and meditation! Some others engage in the same task by Sankhya 4og or the -ay o 7is#rimination and .tension o the will o that one Supreme Spirit!J .pressed in the third &erse in Chapter 8 when .isten#e o the identi#al 'od in all beings" he does not himsel degrade his Sel !J 1e does not destroy himsel be#ause he #onstantly sees 'od as akin to his own Sel ! So he attains to the inal bliss o sal&ation! @ow the Kualities o the a##omplished Soul are pointed out! *9! HAnd that man knows the truth who regards all a#tion as per ormed by nature and his own Soul as a non$doer!II ?iewing all a#tion as a##omplished by nature implies that he sees the o##urren#e o a#tion only as long as nature sur&i&es! 1e also sees the Soul as a non$agent and thus he #omes by awareness o reality! .+! H1e realiMes 'od when he sees the whole &ariety o beings as resting upon and as an e.nowledge and the -ay o Sel less A#tion are the two modes o embarking on this deed o meditation and worship! *)! HBut ignorant o these ways" there are yet others who worship by just learning the truth rom a##omplished sages and" relying upon what they hear" they also doubtlessly steer a#ross the gul o the mortal world!II So" i we #an do nothing else" we should at least seek the #ompany o a##omplished sage! *:! H2emember" 0 the best o Bharat" that whate&er animate or inanimate being e.ists is born rom the #oming together o the insentient kshetr and the sentient kshetragya"J 0n the state in whi#h the inal attainment is made" .rishn pronoun#ed that the destru#tion o that #ondition o beings whi#h generates good or e&il impressions BsanskarC is the #ulmination o a#tion! A#tion is then #omplete! 1e means the same when he now de#lares that only he knows the truth who is steadily aware o the presen#e o eternal 'od in perishable animate and inanimate beings! *8! H1e a#hie&es the supreme goal be#ause" e&enly per#ei&ing the e.nowledge a ter a due appraisal o their strength! And yet others see him by the -ay o Sel less A#tion! The #hie means pointed out in the &erse abo&e is meditation! The -ay o .

pression/ %t is #oe..tension o the same 'od" he attains to him! @o sooner is this stage rea#hed than he realiMes 'od! This" too" is an attribute o a sage$a great Soul$with a steady wisdom! .! HThe Soul illuminates the whole kshetr just as the one sun lights up the entire world!II Then ollows the inal &erdi#t: .nowledge o the Supreme Spirit" the S#ien#e o 4og" and the 7ialogue between .tensi&e! To speak the word HbodyJ is so easy but what &astness is #ontained within this simple e.tensi&e with endless spa#e! %t is thus the animating prin#iple o li e and no being #an e.rishn has said that it is the sum o primal nature with its eight parts" the unmani est nature" the ten sense$organs and mind" the i&e obje#ts o senses" desire" greed and passion! So long as these #omponents sur&i&e" the body must also be in some orm or the other! This is the ield on whi#h the sown seeds" whether good or bad" grow as sanskar! The one who &oyages su##ess ully a#ross this sphere is a kshetragya! Possessed o di&ine moral &irtue" he is the one who determines the operations o kshetr! The present #hapter is thus mainly de&oted to a detailed elaboration o kshetragya! The s#ope o kshetr is indeed wide and e.rishn and Arjun" entitled: .unti" he is without beginning or end and trans#ending all properties!J 1ow it is so is illustrated in the ollowing &erse: .tensi&e with the primal nature o the entire uni&erse! %t is #oe.-hen a man sees the di usion o 'od through all the &arious sates o beings and regards them as but an e.1! HAlthough embodied" the imperishable Supreme Spirit is neither a doer nor tainted be#ause" 0 son o .tensi&e sky is unsullied be#ause o its subtlety" e&en so the embodied Soul is neither a doer nor tainted be#ause he is beyond all the properties!II %t is urther said o him: .*! HAs the all$e.urukshetr were named right at the beginning o the 'eeta but they were not lo#ated" and it is only in the present #hapter that .8! HThey who ha&e thus per#ei&ed the distin#tion between kshetr and kshetragya" and the way o liberation rom the maladies o nature" with the eye o wisdom attain to the Supreme Spirit!J Sages who know the di eren#e between nature and Soul" as also the way o liberation rom mutable nature" realiMe 'od! That is to say that knowledge is the eye with whi#h one may see the reality o kshetr and kshetragya" and that knowledge here is a synonym or intuiti&e per#eption! YYYYY 7harmkshetr and .ist without it! This whole uni&erse" this world" these #ountries and pro&in#es" and this apparent human body are not e&en a ra#tion o that nature! Thus" besides kshetragya" the #hapter also dwells at length on kshetr! Thus #on#ludes the Thirteenth Chapter" in the >panishad o the Shreemad Bhagwad 'eeta" on the .rishn points out to Arjun that the human body itsel is kshetr! And the one who knows it is a kshetragya! 1owe&er" rather than being entangled in it he is liberated" and he pro&ides dire#tion to it! %s the body" the kshetr" only so mu#h as we see o it/ 2e#ounting its main #omponents" .

shetragya ?ibhag 4ogII or QQThe Sphere o A#tion and its knower!II Thus #on#ludes Swami AdgadanandIs e.annada" 0riya" Sindhi" Sanskrit" @epali" Punjabi and >rduC and the same #ould be downloaded rom http:PPwww!yatharthgeeta!#omP! The audio o the Book" 4atharth 'eeta is a&ailable in &arious %nternational B<nglish" 'ermanC and %ndian languages B1indi" Bengali" 'ujarati" (arathi" Tamil" TeluguC and the same #ould be downloaded rom http:PPwww!yatharthgeeta!#omP! .H.position o the Thirteenth Chapter o the Shreemad Bhagwad 'eeta in H4atharth 'eetaJ 1A2% 0( TAT SAT YYYYY @ote: The te.t o the Book" 4atharth 'eeta is a&ailable in &arious %nternational B<nglish" 2ussian" 6ren#h" 'erman" Spanish" Chinese" %talian" @orwegian" 7ut#h" Portuguese" Arabi#" Aapanese" PersianC and %ndian languages B1indi" Bengali" Assamese" 'ujarati" (arathi" Tamil" Telugu" (alayalam" .shetr$.

ternally by audible &oi#e!II This is re#ommended or the seeker" but they who are a##omplished tea#her$pre#eptors are #onstantly a ter the seeker to a#Kuaint him with no&el situations by arising rom his Soul as well as by the e.perien#es o 'od! This awareness is made possible by an a##omplished tea#her that is" a realiMed sage who has attained to the Supreme Spirit and who stands inseparably with the worshipperIs Sel ! %t is or this reason that .nowledge is not logi#al arguments and neither is it just the memoriMing o holy te.rishn ne.C1APT<2 18: 7%?%S%0@ 06 T1< T12<< P20P<2T%<S 4ogeshwar .rishn says that he will tell him again o the knowledge whi#h is the most sublime o all knowledge! 1! HThe Gord said to Arjun" Q% shall tell you again that supreme knowledge whi#h is the noblest o all knowledge and" ha&ing possessed whi#h sages ha&e es#aped rom worldly bondage to a#hie&e the ultimate per e#tion!III This is the knowledge a ter a#Kuiring whi#h nothing else remains to be sought or! *! HThey who ha&e a#hie&ed my state by seeking shelter in this knowledge are neither born at the beginning o #reation nor alarmed in the e&ent o doom!J They who are #lose to this knowledge and ha&e taken re uge in it by attaining to .nowledge makes its ad&ent only a ter the distin#tion between kshetr and kshetragya" matter and spirit" is #omprehended! .rishnIs state through treading the path o a#tion are neither born nor rightened by the prospe#t o death" be#ause the physi#al entity o the sage #eases to be at the &ery moment when he attains to the state o the Supreme Spirit! 1is body is hen#e orth a mere dwelling! @ow whi#h is that point up to whi#h men are reborn/ This is the Kuestion .rishn was su#h a tea#her$sage! Arjun who o##upies the position o his pupil has besee#hed him to support him! So 4ogeshwar .rishn is resol&ed to enlighten Arjun again on the nature o true knowledge! (emory is a ilm on whi#h impressions and in luen#es are #onstantly re#orded! % the awareness that takes one to the supreme goal is blurred" nature whi#h is the #ause o grie begins to be imprinted on the slate o memory! So the worshipper should #onstantly re&ise the knowledge pertaining to realiMation o the inal goal right till the moment o attainment! (emory is ali&e and strong today" but the same might not be the #ase with progress to urther stages! %t is or this reason that the re&ered (aharaj Ai used to say" HTell your beads at least on#e e&eryday to re resh your awareness o 'od! But these beads are told in thought rather than e.rishn tells Arjun in the present #hapter that he will again e.perien#e that is had with dire#t per#eption o 'od is knowledge" and whate&er is opposed to it is ignoran#e! <&en a ter ha&ing dwelt upon all this" howe&er" .ts! That state o pra#ti#e is knowledge in whi#h there is awareness o truth! The e.plain that sublime knowledge to him! 1e is going to repeat what he has already said! This is so be#ause" as it has been rightly said" we should time and again turn to e&en well$studied s#riptures! (oreo&er" the urther a worshipper pro#eeds on the path o spiritual Kuest the nearer he goes to the desired goal and has new e. knowledge was de ined as apprehension o the Supreme Spirit who is the end o the Kuest or truth! .ample o their own #ondu#t! 4ogeshwar .t takes up! .rishn has elu#idated the nature o knowledge in se&eral oregoing #hapters! %n the nineteenth &erse o Chapter 8 he said that the ordained a#tion" #ommen#ed well by a worshipper" grows by gradual steps and be#omes so subtle that all desires and will are destroyed" and what he knows then by intuiti&e per#eption is knowledge! %n Chapter 1.

rishn: 1+! HAnd" 0 Bharat" Bjust asC sattwa grows by o&er#oming the properties o rajas and tamas" tamas grows by o&erpowering rajas and sattwa" and the property o rajas grows by suppressing tamas and sattwa!J .now" 0 son o .rishn now dis#ourses on the #olle#ti&e orm o the three properties! 9! H-hereas the property o sattwa moti&ates one to joy" rajas prompts to a#tion" and tamas &eils knowledge and dri&es one to #arelessness!II -hile sattwa leads one to ultimate bliss and rajas to a#tion" tamas tempts the mind and heart to utile endea&ours! 1owe&er" when the properties are #on ined to one pla#e and to one heart" how are they di&ided rom ea#h other/ A##ording to .ty$ninth &erse o Chapter *" the world itsel with its ephemeral pleasures is like night in whi#h the man endowed with the property o tamas e&er toils in a state o un#ons#iousness o the e ulgent 'od! This is the slumber o tamas and one who is trapped in it sleeps! .rishn said in the si.#ept this primal nature" and no other ather e.! HGike the great Creator" 0 Bharat" is my eight$propertied primal nature" the womb o whi#h % ertiliMe with the seed o #ons#iousness by whi#h all beings are shaped!II .#ept .rishnIs eight$part primal nature" is the womb in whi#h he sows the seed o #ons#iousness" and all beings are born rom this union o the insensate and the #ons#ious! 8! HThe eight old nature" 0 son o .unti" is the mother that bears all the beings o di erent births and % am the ather that #asts the seed!II There is no other mother e..t day" and with sleep! HSleepJ here does not mean that a man possessed o tamas sleeps too mu#h! %t is not a Kuestion o the body sleeping at all! As .rishn! @o matter who the root is" there will be births so long as there is meeting o the insensate and the #ons#ious! But why is the #ons#ious Sel bound to insensible nature/ )! HThe three nature$born properties Bsattwa" rajas" and tamasC" 0 the mighty$armed" bind the imperishable Sel to the body!II The ollowing &erse throws light upon how this is e e#ted! :! H0 the three properties" 0 the sinless" the puri ying and enlightening sattwa binds one to the desire or joy and knowledge!II The &irtuous property binds the Sel to the body with atta#hment to joy and knowledge! So sattwa" too" is a bondage! As we ha&e already seen" happiness lies in 'od" and the intuiti&e per#eption o that Supreme Spirit is knowledge! The man who is endowed with the property o sattwa is bound only so long as he does not apprehend 'od! 9! H.unti" that the properly o rajas" born rom desire and in atuation" binds the Sel with atta#hment to a#tion and its ruits! 2ajas" an embodiment o passion" in#lines one to a#tion!II 8! HAnd" 0 Bharat" know that the property o tamas" whi#h deludes all beings" arises rom ignoran#e and binds the Soul with #arelessness" sloth" and slumber!II Tamas binds the Sel with laMiness" the tenden#y to put o a task to the ne.

urunandan" darkness" disin#lination to duty whi#h ought to be done" #arelessness" and tenden#ies that engender in atuation arise!II As tamas multiplies" there ensue the haMe o ignoran#e Blight is a symbol o 'odC" a natural relu#tan#e to ad&an#e towards the di&ine radian#e" disin#lination to the spe#ial ordained a#tion" utile e orts o the mind and heart" and propensities whi#h tempt one to the world! -hat" howe&er" is the pro it o knowing the properties/ 18! H% the Soul departs when the property o sattwa is dominant" it attains to the pure worlds o the &irtuous!II And$ 1)! H% he meets with death when rajas is presiding" he is born as Bone o C humans who are atta#hed to a#tionO and he is born in the orm o unintelligent beings i he lea&es the body when tamas is pre&ailing!II So o all properties man should be endowed with sattwa! The bank o nature re unds the earned merits e&en a ter death! @ow let us see its #onseKuen#e! 1:! H-hile righteousness is said to be the pure out#ome o a#tion that is go&erned by sattwa" the out#ome o rajas is sorrow" and the out#ome o tamas is ignoran#e!II Absolute happiness" knowledge" renun#iation" and su#h other Kualities are said to be the out#ome o a#tion inspired by sattwa! 0n the other hand" sorrow is the out#ome o a#tion #hara#teriMed by rajas" and ignoran#e o a#tion dominated by tamas! 19! H.isten#e does the generation o these properties result into/ 18! H-hereas they who dwell in sattwa as#end to higher worlds" they who sojourn in rajas remain in the middle Bthe world o menC" and they who abide in the meanest o properties tamas are doomed to the lowest state!II The #urrent o li e that is ounded on sattwa lows towards the trans#endental" primal 'od and the man with su#h a li e attains to purer worlds! Souls who are dominated by rajas end up as .! H-hen there is an upsurge o tamas" 0 .But how should we know whi#h property is dominant at a #ertain time/ 11! QQ-hen the mind and senses are su used with the light o knowledge and #ons#iousness" it should be taken as a sign o the growing strength o sattwa!II And$ 1*! H-hen the property o rajas is as#endant" 0 the best o Bharat" greed" worldly in#lination" the tenden#y to undertake a#tion " restlessness" and desire or sensual pleasures arise!II -hat happens" howe&er" when tamas grows dominant/ 1.nowledge arises rom the property o sattwa" greed beyond any doubt rom rajas" and #arelessness" delusion" and ignoran#e rom tamas!II -hat mode o e.

rishnIs reply to the three Kuestions raised by Arjun! **! QQThe Gord said" QThe man" 0 Panda&" who neither abhors radian#e" in#lination to a#tion" and atta#hment that are generated respe#ti&ely by the operations o sattwa" rajas" and tamas when he is in&ol&ed in them" nor aspires or them when he is liberatedOE IJ *.#ommon mortals! Ga#king in dis#ernment and renun#iation" although they do not transmigrate into lower orms o li e" they ha&e to undergo rebirth! %gnorant and immoral men who are ruled by the rightly maligned tamas are reborn in the lowest orms! Thus the #onseKuen#e o all the three properties is some kind o birth or the other! 0nly they who go beyond these properties are reed rom the sha#kle o rebirth and they alone realiMe .rishnIs sublime state! 19! H-hen the Soul Bthat is a mere witnessC does not see anyone besides the three properties as doer and when he knows the essen#e o the Supreme Spirit who is beyond these properties" he attains to my state!II The assumption that the three proper ties only dupli#ate themsel&es is not based on true knowledge! The pro#ess o a##omplishment at last leads to the state in whi#h a ter the per#eption o 'od no other agent e.rishn has to say about this ne.#ept the three properties is &isible" and in su#h a state a man goes beyond them! -hat .t is a proo that this is not just a light o an#y! *+! QTrans#ending the properties that are the germ o the gross" #orporal body and liberated rom the miseries o birth" death" and old age" the Soul a#hie&es the ultimate bliss!II A ter a man is liberated rom the three properties" his Soul tastes the ne#tar o immortality! Thereupon Arjun puts another Kuestion to .rishn with unwa&ering dedi#ation" that is" with only the adored goal in his mind and obli&ious o all other worldly memories" #onstantly ser&es him by per orming the ordained a#tion" goes well a#ross the three properties and is worthy o being one with the Supreme Spirit! This union with 'od is the true kalp or #ure! @o one #an go beyond these .! HBAndC who" like a dispassionate onlooker" is unmo&ed by the properties and is steady and unshaken by dint o his realiMation that these properties o nature but abide in themsel&esOE II *8! HBAndC who" e&er dwelling in his Sel " &iews joy" sorrow" earth" stone" and gold as eKual" is patient" and e&enly regards the pleasant and the unpleasant" slander and praiseOE II *)! HBAndC who puts up with honour and dishonour" as BalsoC with riend and oe" with eKuanimity" and who gi&es up the undertaking o a#tion is said to ha&e trans#ended all the properties!II ?erses twenty$se#ond to twenty$ i th dis#lose the attributes o the man who has risen abo&e the three properties so that he is unagitated" unswayed by the properties" and steady! -hat ollows now is #lari i#ation o the means by whi#h one is liberated rom these properties! *:! HAnd the man who ser&es me with the yog o unswer&ing de&otion o&er#omes the three properties and se#ures the state o oneness with 'od!II 0ne who worships .rishn! *1! HArjun said" QBTell meC" 0 Gord" the attributes o the man who has risen abo&e the three properties" his manner o li e" and the way by whi#h he trans#ends the three properties!III The ollowing &erses #ontain .

properties without undertaking the pres#ribed task with per e#t intentness! So the 4ogeshwar at last gi&es his judgement! *9! H6or % am the one in whi#h the eternal 'od" immortal li e" the imperishable dharm" and the ultimate bliss all BabideC!II .rishn has pointed out that the eight old primal nature is the mother who #on#ei&es" whereas he is the li e$gi&ing atherO besides them there is no other mother or ather! Although there may well appear some mother and ather so long as the relationship o nature BprakritiC and Soul BpurushC" o passi&e matter and the a#ti&e male prin#iple" lasts" in truth nature is mother and .nowledge o the Supreme Spirit" the 7is#ipline o 4og" and the 7ialogue between .rishn #on#ludes Chapter 18 with a detailed a##ount o the three properties o nature! Thus #on#ludes the 6ourteenth Chapter" in the >panishad o the Shreemad Bhagwad 'eeta" on the .rishn .rishn is ather! The nature$borne properties o sattwa" rajas" and tamas bind the Soul to the body! 0ne o these properties grows by suppressing the other two! These properties are #hangeable! @ature is without end and #annot be destroyed" but the #onseKuen#es o its properties #an be a&oided! These properties in luen#e the mind! -hen sattwa is plenti ul" the #onseKuen#e is di&ine e ulgen#e and the power o per#eption! 2ajas" #hara#teriMed by passion" results in temptation to a#tion and in in atuation! % tamas is a#ti&e" sloth and #arelessness predominate! % a man meets with death when sattwa is predominant" he is born in higher and purer worlds! The man who departs rom this li e when rajas is plenti ul returns to be born again in the human orm! -hen a man dies under the sway o tamas" he is #ondemned to lower births! So it is &ital that men ought always to mo&e in the dire#tion o gradual ad&an#ement o the property o sattwa! The three properties are the real #ause o some birth or the other! Sin#e it is these properties whi#h #hain the Soul to the body" one should #onstantly endea&our to go beyond them! At this Arjun asks three Kuestions! -hat are the eatures o the man who has risen abo&e the properties o nature/ 1ow does he #ondu#t himsel / And what is the way o trans#ending the three properties/ 2eplying to the Kueries" a ter elaborating the attributes and mode o a#tion o the man who has liberated himsel rom these properties" 4ogeshwar .rishn has told Arjun at the beginning o this #hapter that he will again a#Kuaint him with that knowledge whi#h is the most sublime o all knowledge and a ter knowing whi#h sages a#hie&e identity with him and do not ha&e to undergo rebirth at the outset o #reation! They are also not grie&ed o&er the ine&itable demise o the body! They" in a#t" dis#ard the body on the &ery day on whi#h they a#hie&e Sel $realiMation! A##omplishment is made in the #ourse o physi#al li e" but e&en the prospe#t o death does not a e#t them! 7welling upon the nature o that rom whi#h they are liberated" .rishn is the dwelling o immortal 'od Bthrough a single$minded a##ess to whom the seeker is #ured o all worldly maladiesC" o e&erlasting li e" o eternal 7harm" and o the unblemished pure joy o attaining to the Supreme goal! %n other words" a 'od$oriented saint is the abode o all this bliss! Su#h a sage was .rishn at last points out the way by whi#h one may ree onesel rom these properties! Thus re&ealing himsel as the shelter o all" 4ogeshwar .rishn$a yogi! So i we are seeking or the ine able" indestru#tible 'od" the eternal dharm" and the pure" ultimate bliss" we ha&e to take re uge in some great Soul that dwells in the in#ommuni#able essen#e! 0nly su#h a sage #an enable a de&otee to a#hie&e what he is Kuesting or! YYYYY 4ogeshwar .

position o the 6ourteenth Chapter o the Shreemad Bhagwad 'eeta in H4atharth 'eeta!II 1A2% 0( TAT SAT YYYYY @ote: The te.and Arjun" entitled: H'untraya ?ibhag 4ogJ or QQ7i&ision o the Three PropertiesII Thus #on#ludes Swami AdgadanandIs e.t o the Book" 4atharth 'eeta is a&ailable in &arious %nternational B<nglish" 2ussian" 6ren#h" 'erman" Spanish" Chinese" %talian" @orwegian" 7ut#h" Portuguese" Arabi#" Aapanese" PersianC and %ndian languages B1indi" Bengali" Assamese" 'ujarati" (arathi" Tamil" Telugu" (alayalam" .annada" 0riya" Sindhi" Sanskrit" @epali" Punjabi and >rduC and the same #ould be downloaded rom http:PPwww!yatharthgeeta!#omP! The audio o the Book" 4atharth 'eeta is a&ailable in &arious %nternational B<nglish" 'ermanC and %ndian languages B1indi" Bengali" 'ujarati" (arathi" Tamil" TeluguC and the same #ould be downloaded rom http:PPwww!yatharthgeeta!#omP! .

C1APT<2 1): T1< 40' 06 T1< S>P2<(< B<%@' A##omplished sages ha&e stri&en to e.t the same has been #alled the ri&er or abyss o worldly li e! Sometimes it has also been #ompared to the hoo o a #ow! Apparently they all imply that the e.rishn" too" has used Ho#eanJ and HtreeJ as epithets or the world! 1e has said in the si.tension o the world is only so mu#h as that o the senses! And the stage at last #omes when e&en this earsome Ho#eanJ dries up! %n the words o 'oswami Tulsidas" the mere naming o 'od dries up this o#ean! 4ogeshwar .plain the nature o the world by &arious analogies! -hile some ha&e des#ribed it as the orest o worldly li e" others ha&e represented it as the o#ean o mortal e.rishn! The irst o these is the e&erlasting world and then beyond it there is the eternal Supreme Spirit! The ?ed are said to be the lea&es o this tree o the world! The man who obser&es this tree well along with its root and is aware o its reality is an adept in the knowledge o ?ed! The man who has per#ei&ed the truth o the world$tree rather than one who has merely perused holy books" is a true knower o the ?ed! Study o books only pro&ides a moti&e or pro#eeding in that dire#tion! %t may well be asked at this point why the ?ed are needed instead o lea&es! ?edi# &erses" whi#h generate well$being" are use ul be#ause they moti&ate rom the &ery point when a ter a great deal o wandering about a Soul goes through his last birth whi#h is like the inal shoot o a tree! This is the turning point where the straying #eases and the seeker begins to pro#eed #on idently towards 'od! *! QQ%ts bran#hes nourished by the three properties e.e o total abandonment! %t has to be #ut down" not worshipped as it usually is be#ause o the superstitious assumption that 'od resides in the roots o this tree and that its lea&es are the ?ed! 1owe&er" sin#e this tree has grown rom 'odIs own seed" #an it be #ut down/ %n a#t" the .! HSin#e its orm is not to be seen here as su#h and it has neither an end nor a beginning" nor a se#ure oundation" this immensely$grown tree should be #ut down with the a.tend high and low" obje#ts o the senses are its shoots" and its a#tion$engendering roots stret#h below to the world o men!II The boughs o sense$obje#ts and their enjoyment" nourished and #ulti&ated by the three properties" o the treelike world spread e&erywhere abo&e and below" e&en going ba#k into the earth and sprouting new shoots! They e.isten#e be#ause it is #hangeable! So it has to be elled with the a.th and se&enth &erses o Chapter 1* that he soon deli&ers his lo&ing de&otees" who #ontemplate him$the mani est 'od$with irm #on#entration" rom the gul o the mortal world! %n the present #hapter he de#lares that the world is a tree whi#h yogi who are seeking or the supreme goal ha&e to #ut down! 1! QQThe Gord said" Q1e who knows the Peepal B6igC tree that the world is" with its roots abo&e and bran#hes below and whi#h is said to be imperishable" and o whi#h ?edi# &erses are the oliage" is a knower o the ?ed!III The root o this e&erlasting Peepal$like world is the 'od abo&e and its boughs are the nature below! A tree does not e&en last till the symboli# tomorrow" but the tree o the world is indestru#tible! Two things are immortal a##ording to .isten#e! %n a di erent #onte.e o renun#iation!J The world$tree does not ha&e a irm e.tend rom the worms and inse#ts below to the godly state and #reator abo&e" but they #an bind only those who are born as men a##ording to their past a#tions! All other births are only or the enjoyment o sense$obje#tsO only human birth is subje#t to bondage in keeping with a#tion! And$ .

plains how it is so: 8! HGike the wind #arrying a s#ent rom its sour#e" the Soul that is lord o the body also bears along with him the senses and the mind rom its pre&ious body and assumes a new one!J The Soul #arries with him the propensities and mode o a#tion o the mind and i&e senses o the body rom whi#h he departs and takes them into his new body! The ne.th$the mind$ that dwell in nature!II .rishn asked Arjun earlier how he had happened to be a &i#tim o the mis#on#eption that the departed Souls o an#estors would all rom hea&en in the absen#e o obseKuial ri#e$ #akes and water$libation o erings! 1owe&er" the immediate Kuestion is what the Soul does a ter going into a new body and what truly are the i&e senses along with the mind/ 9! H'o&erning the senses o hearing" sight" tou#h" taste" smell and also the mind" he Bthe SoulC e.rishn now e.perien#es obje#ts through them!II But it is not seen to be so and e&eryone is not able to see it! 1+! HThe ignorant are unaware o the Soul" endowed with the three properties and departing rom the body or dwelling in it and enjoying obje#tsO only they who ha&e eyes o wisdom dis#ern him!J .rishn then speaks about the signs rom whi#h one may realiMe that the tree has been #ut down! )! H(en o knowledge who are ree rom &anity and delusion" &i#torious against the e&il o in atuation" e&er$abiding in the Supreme Spirit" totally de&oid o desire" and liberated rom the #ontradi#tions o joy and grie " a#hie&e the eternal goal!II The destru#tion o &anity" delusion" in atuation" desire and o the #ontradi#tions o pleasure and pain is possible only by #omplete sel $surrender to and abiding #onstantly in 'od! 0nly through this do men o true wisdom attain to the eternal state! The world$tree #annot be se&ered without this attainment and renun#iation is needed up to this point! @ow what is the orm o that ultimate state whi#h is a#hie&ed by renun#iation/ :! HThat a ter rea#hing whi#h there is no return" and whi#h is illumined by neither the sun nor the moon" nor by ire" is my supreme abode!II A ter this ultimate home has on#e been rea#hed" there is no rebirth! And e&eryone has an eKual right to it! 9! HThe immortal Soul in the body is a part o mine and it is he who attra#ts the i&e senses and the si.meaning o this #utting down is es#ape rom nature whi#h is a##omplished by renun#iation! But what is to be done a ter the tree has been #ut down/ 8! HThen that goal should be sought or" a ter arri&ing at whi#h one does not ha&e to turn ba#k again" with a sense o total submission to that primal 'od when#e all worldly li e is born!J But how to e e#t the Kuest or this 'od/ The 4ogeshwar lays down that sel $surrender is an essential #ondition or it! There should be the eeling that H% am at the mer#y o 'odJ$the %n inite Being rom whom the primordial world$tree has sprouted and grown! This tree #annot be #ut down without seeking shelter under him! .t body is immediately assured and that is why .

now that the radian#e o the sun that lights up the world" and o the moon and ire" is my own e ulgen#e!J @e.rishn who a##epts and assimilates the ood generated by the our modes o re#itation" namely" baikhari" madhyama" pashyanti" and para that are endowed with pran and apan Bit will be remembered that re#itation is always by means o inhaled and e.So naturally the ne.t &erse is on how to se#ure this &ision! 11! H4ogi know the essen#e o the Soul dwelling in their heart" but the unknowing who ha&e not puri ied themsel&es Bo e&ilsC ail to see him e&en a ter mu#h endea&our!II By restraining their minds rom all dire#tions and through earnest endea&our yogi per#ei&e their Soul! But men with an una##omplished Soul" that is" with un#lean mind and heart" ail to see him e&en though they stri&e or it! This is be#ause their mind and sense organs are impure! 0nly by making a strenuous e ort to subdue their mind are sages enabled to apprehend their Sel ! So #ontemplation is a ne#essity! .! HPermeating the earth" % support all beings with my radi#al energy and like the ambrosial moon" % pro&ide the sap that nourishes all plants!II And$ 18! H% am the ire" possessed o pran and apan" within the body o all li&ing beings that #onsumes the our kinds o oodU118V!II %n Chapter 8" .rishn 'od is the only ood$manna$with whi#h the Soul is so pla#ated that it ne&er eels any hunger again! -e gi&e the name o ood to a##epted nutrients o the body! But 'od alone is the real ood! And this ood is brought to ripeness only by going through the our steps o baikhari" madhyama" pashyanti" and para! Some wise men ha&e also #alled them name BnamC" orm BrupC" re&elation BleelaC" and abode BdhamC! At irst the name is pronoun#ed audibly! Then" gradually" the orm o the adored 'od begins to take shape within the heart! SubseKuently" the worshipper begins to &iew 'odIs dallian#e in his breath$how he per&ades e&ery atom o the uni&erse and how he operates e&erywhere! Per#eption o the works o 'od within the sphere o the heart is leela! 2ather than ena#tment o olk plays based on the legends o 2am and .rishn re erred to &arious kinds o ire$o knowledge B&erses 19 and .t he points out the sageIs task: 1.haled breathC U11)V! U118VThe our kinds o ood are bhakshya" bhojya" lehya" and #hosya! That whi#h is #hewed or eating is bhakshyaO that whi#h is swallowed without #hewing is bhojyaO that whi#h is li#ked is lehyaO and that whi#h is su#ked is #hosya! U11)VSee the e.nowledge itsel is ire! Assuming the orm o su#h ire" it is .position o twenty$ninth &erse in Chapter 8! A##ording to .rishn" it is per#eption o the operations o 'od within the realm o the heart that is the true leela! And the supreme abode is rea#hed when the tou#h o 'od begins to be elt a ter the per#eption o his operations! .9C" o 'od B&erse *)C" o restraint B&erse *:C" o the senses B&erse *:C" o yog B&erse *9C" and o pran$apan B&erses *9$.rishn now throws light upon the glories o the Sel o realiMed sages" whi#h ha&e also been dwelt upon earlier! 1*! H.nowing him thus" the worshipper #omes to dwell within him! 7welling in this abode and dwelling in the Supreme Spirit$a ter eeling his tou#h in the per e#t state o trans#endental re#itation Bpara&aniC are simultaneous e&ents! .+CO and the resultant rom all o them was said to be knowledge! .

ists as the omnis#ient presen#e in the heart o all beings and it is be#ause o him that the Supreme Spirit is remembered! (emory here signi ies the re#alling o the orgotten essen#e o 'od! There is #learly here a representation o the moment o realiMation! .ist e&en tomorrow! But this too is Soul in a parti#ular #ondition! There is" howe&er" another Sel beyond these two! 19! HBut higher than both o them is the one who per&ades the three worlds to support and sustain all" and who is named the eternal 'od and Supreme Spirit B%shwarC!II The unmani est 'od" the imperishable" and the Supreme Being are some other names by whi#h he is known! But truly he is di erent and ine.Thus" eKuipped with pran and apan" or shwas and prashwas" and progressing gradually through baikhari and madhyama to the #ulminating stage o para" the ood that 'od is" is ready and a&ailable and also assimilated" and" o #ourse" by then the eater o the ood is ready" too" to partake o the sublime nourishment! 1)! HSeated in the heart o all beings" % am their memory and knowledge and also the strength that o&er#omes all impedimentsO % am that whi#h is worthy o being apprehended by the ?edO and % &erily am the author o the ?edant as well as their knower!II .nowledge that #omes with memory and the ability to o&er#ome di i#ulties are also gi ts rom .pressible! 1e represents the ultimate state beyond the mutable and the immutable Bthe perishable and the imperishableC! 1e is dire#ted by the Supreme Spirit" but he is di erent and beyond words! .ists today" but may not e.rishn introdu#es himsel as a Soul in su#h a state! 18! HSin#e % am supreme by &irtue o being beyond both the perishable BbodyC and the imperishable BSoulC" % am known as the Supreme Being BPurushottamC in the world as well as in the ?ed!II 1e is reputed as the Supreme Being in both the world and the ?ed be#ause he has trans#ended the destru#tible" mutable kshetr and e&en gone higher than the immutable" imperishable" steady Soul! 19! HThe all$knowing man" who is thus aware o my essen#e" 0 Bharat" as the Supreme Being" always worships me with per e#t de&otion!II .rishn is also knower o the ?ed! 1e said at the beginning o the #hapter that the world is a tree" o whi#h the root is the 'od abo&e and all o the bran#hes below are nature! The one who #an distinguish the root rom the bran#hes that are nature knows the essen#e o it" and he is &ersed in the ?ed Bsa#red knowledgeC! 1ere he says that he is su#h a one$knower o the ?ed! 1e thus puts himsel on a par with other s#holars o the ?ed! Thus it is again stressed that .nowledge #omes when he is separate" but who will know whom when the worshipper has per#ei&ed him and be#ome one with him/ .rishn e.rishn was a sage who knew the truth$truly a 4ogeshwar among yogi! The subje#t is #on#luded here and now he goes on to say that there are two kinds o beings BPurushC! 1: QQThere are two kinds o beings in the world" the mortal and the immortal: whereas the bodies o all beings are destru#tible" their Souls are said to be imperishable!J The person male or emale" who has restrained his senses along with the mind" that is" whose body o senses is steady" is said to be imperishable! The QQperishableII person e.rishn! 1e is also a it subje#t or knowing by all the ?ed! 1e" too" is the author as well as end o the ?ed! .

rishn said at the beginning o the #hapter that the world is a tree like the Peepal! But the Peepal is just an analogy! %ts root is the 'od abo&e and all nature is its bran#hes that spread below! The .rishnIs glory was a mystery" he re&ealed it to his earnest de&otee" worthy and a e#tionate Arjun! This is possible with e&ery worshipper and sages ha&e thus brought millions on to the spiritual path! U11:VThe .ists timelessly as an a##omplished sage! Gikewise" although . o Chapter *" and thus indu#ed them to ha&e aith in him! 1e e.rishn has imparted it to all! But in truth it is only or those who are it to re#ei&e it! <&en the mani est orm o .Su#h a worshipper is not separate rom .horted men to #ome to him" all who labour and are hea&ily laden" and he would gi&e them rest by re&ealing to them 'od his 6ather B(atthew" 11:*8C! So e&eryone #an be a son o 'odU11:V! Albeit it is a di erent matter that going to sages is made possible only through sin#ere stri&ing or the a##omplishment o worship and meditation! %n Surah %% o the .perien#e and #ondu#t" and e&en by berating them" he made them gi&e up their irrele&ant assumptions among whi#h are in#luded the many rituals and #eremonies dwelt upon by .rishn is a #omplete sa#red pre#ept in itsel ! This mysterious knowledge o .rishn! *+! H% ha&e thus instru#ted you" 0 the sinless" in this most subtle o all knowledge be#ause" 0 Bharat" by knowing its essen#e a man gains wisdom and a##omplishes all his tasks!II .rishn o 7wapar! % am their sa#red Soul! % am o their orm! % you ha&e to attain" behold me!J %n pre#isely the same way my re&ered tea#her used to say" H(ark you that % am but a messenger o 'od! 2eal sages are messengers o the all per&ading" preeminent" #hangeless Supreme SpiritO and it is through them that his message is re#ei&ed!J Aesus Christ e.oran" Surah %%" 11: : And they say : Allah has taken unto himsel a Son! Be he glori ied F @ay" but whatsoe&er is in the hea&en and the earth is his! YYYYY .rishn was most se#ret! 1e told this to only de&otees! 2ather than or all" it was meant only or the worthy who are spiritually ready to re#ei&e and pro it by it! But when the same se#ret tea#hing is put down in bla#k and white" and appears in the orm o a book" it may seem that .rishn thus enlightens Arjun on the most se#ret knowledge" by being well a#Kuainted with the essen#e o whi#h a man be#omes all$knowing and gains his obje#t! So this instru#tion by .rishn in &erses 8+$8.oran" Allah re&eals: HGoF -e ha&e sent you B0 (ohammadC with the truth" a bringer o glad tidings and a messenger!II The re&ered (aharaj Ai used to say the same about himsel to all! 1e neither supported nor #ontradi#ted any &iew or do#trineO but he did tell those who earnestly #ra&ed or liberation rom passions and worldly atta#hment: HAust look at my orm! % you aspire or the ultimate Spirit" #ontemplate me and ha&e no doubt!J There were many who were skepti#al" but" through demonstrating by personal e.rishn was not meant or all! But he kept nothing ba#k rom the worthy Arjun! Arjun #ould not ha&e been sa&ed i his #harioteer had kept se#rets rom him! This uniKueness is to be ound in all a##omplished sages! 2amkrishn Paramhansde& was on#e e#stati#! 1is dis#iples asked him or the reason! Alluding to an eminent #ontemporary great soul" a realiMed sage Bwho had #ontrolled and subdued all his senses by abstra#t meditationC" 2amkrishn said that on that day he too had be#ome a Paramhans like him! A ter a while he told the dis#iples who ollowed him aspiring$with mind" a#tion and spee#h$ or reedom rom passion and worldly atta#hment" H7onIt e&er be in doubt now! % am the 2am who was born in Treta! %" too" am the .

one who gains awareness o the tree along with its root is well$&ersed in the ?ed! The bran#hes o this world$tree as well as its roots are e&erywhere" high and low" be#ause it has sprung rom the 'od whose seed$the Soul$resides within the heart o e&ery being! There is the myth that" seated on the lotus on#e" Brahma spe#ulated o&er his origin! 1e entered the stem o the lotus rom whi#h he was born and went deeper and deeper into it! 1e penetrated e&en deeper" but he #ould not see the sour#e o his birth! So in despair he resumed his seat on the lotus! Then through restraint o mind and meditation he at last dis#o&ered his ountainhead in the Supreme Spirit and e.rishn himsel ! -hen the Soul gi&es up a body" he #arries the in#linations o its mind and i&e senses into the new body he assumes! % the sanskar is enlightened and morally good" the Soul attains to the le&el o enlightenment and moral &irtue! % he bears rajas$dominated sanskar" he gets through to the medium le&el! And i the sanskar is #hara#teriMed by tamas" the Soul #limbs down to birth in lower orms o li e and indulges in sensual pleasures through their mind that #ontrols the senses! This is usually not seen" or the &ision that is needed to per#ei&e it is the &ision o knowledge! Aust memoriMing something is not knowledge! 4ogi are enabled to see it only by #on#entrating the mind on the Sel ! Thus knowledge is a#hie&ed rom pra#ti#e and a##omplishment" although it is true that study o sa#red works in#lines one to it! (en who are skepti#al and de&oid o a##omplishment do not gain the desired obje#t e&en though they endea&our hard or it! Thus there is here a portrayal o the stage o realiMation! So it is but natural that the attributes o this stage are dwelt upon! Throwing light upon them" .rishn says that he is the light o the sun and the moon" and he is also the brightness o ire! %t is his ire that a##epts and assimilates the ood that rea#hes the state o readiness by our ways! %n the words o .e o irm renun#iation and seek or the supreme goal" a ter a#hie&ing whi#h sages are not reborn! As to how to know that the tree has been #ut down" the 4ogeshwar says that the man who is ree rom pride and ignoran#e" who has o&er#ome the e&il o atta#hment" whose desires ha&e #ome to an end" and who is liberated rom #on li#ts" attains to the inal beatitude! %lluminated by neither the sun nor the moon" nor by ire" the 'od who is the ultimate state is sel $radiant! -hat is essential or this spiritual a#hie&ement is irm #on&i#tion that the one a ter approa#hing whom there is no re&ersion is the supreme abode" and that all are eKually entitled to it be#ause the embodied Soul is but an imma#ulate part o .ists e&erywhere" he #an be ound only within the heart! The one who #ontemplates him within the sphere o his heart realiMes him! Brahma is a symbol! 1e represents the emergen#e o the ideal state rom the mature pra#ti#e o yog! The mind that is in#lined towards 'od and possessed o knowledge o the Supreme Spirit is Brahma! Although growing in water" the lotus is unstained and pure! -hen the mind wanders about in Kuest it does not gain its obje#t" but seated on an imma#ulate seat with total sel $ restraint" the same mind realiMes 'od within the heart when it rea#hes the stage o dissolution o that restraint itsel ! 1ere" too" the world is a tree" whose roots and boughs are e&erywhere! %t stands or the worldly etters that bind only human beings in a##ordan#e with their a#tions! The other orms only su er the #onseKuen#es o these a#tions! So .ist! 1owe&er" this a#hie&ement #annot be possible until there is a sage$tea#her $ the #harioteer who restrains" .rishn" 'od is the only ood Bsu#h is the &erdi#t o the >panishad in whi#h the idea o##ursC a ter tasting whi#h the Soul is ully #ontented! The ood generated rom the stage o baikhari to para is readied and #onsumed" and e&en the worshipper" the re#ipient o this ood" #eases to e.tolled him" whereupon 'od himsel re&ealed to him that although he e.rishn implores Arjun to se&er this Peepal $like world with the a.

rishn too is here a sage$ knower o the ?ed" the knowledge o whi#h the all o mankind is entitled to! At the end it is said that the world has three kinds o beings! All the bodies o beings are transitory" but the same being is imperishable in the state when the mind is steady" although it is subje#t to #ontradi#tions! And e&en higher than this is the trans#endental 'od who is said to be unmani est and eternal" and who is indeed uniKue! This is the being beyond transien#e and permanen#eO this is the ultimate being! As one with this being" .guides" and prompts! Stressing the same point" .rishn is knower o the ?ed$ o the di&ine truth! 1e has said that he who knows the world$tree along with its root is &ersed in the knowledge o ?ed" but this knowledge #omes only to him who #uts down the tree! @ow he says that he is knower o the ?ed! 1e #ounts himsel as one o those who are initiated into the wisdom o the ?ed! So .rishn wholeheartedly! There is no anomaly in their knowledge! %t is this most Bse#retC knowledge that .nowledge o the Supreme Spirit" the 7is#ipline o 4og" and the 7ialogue between .rishn and Arjun" entitled: HPurushottam 4ogII or QQThe 4og o the Supreme BeingII Thus #on#ludes Swami AdgadanandIs e.rishn states that it is he who" residing in the heart o all beings" generates memory! 1e #auses them to re#all the 'od who was orgotten! 1e is also the knowledge that #omes with this memory! %t is also by him that the hurdles in the way are surmounted! 1e alone is it to be known and he" too" is the one who represents the end o this knowledge a ter it is known! And sin#e a ter this point the knower and the known are one" knowledge is irrele&ant" or now who is there to know and who to be known! .t o the Book" 4atharth 'eeta is a&ailable in &arious %nternational B<nglish" 2ussian" 6ren#h" 'erman" Spanish" Chinese" %talian" @orwegian" 7ut#h" Portuguese" Arabi#" Aapanese" PersianC and %ndian languages B1indi" Bengali" Assamese" 'ujarati" (arathi" Tamil" Telugu" (alayalam" .rishn is thus also the same$ beyond the destru#tible and the indestru#tible$be#ause o whi#h he is known as the Supreme Being! <nlightened seekers who know the Supreme Spirit thus worship .rishn imparts to Arjun! Sages o attainment do not re&eal it to all" but they also do not hide it rom the deser&ing! % it is hidden rom them" how will they a#hie&e their obje#t/ Thus #on#ludes the 6i teenth Chapter" in the >panishad o the Shreemad Bhagwad 'eeta" on the .position o the 6i teenth Chapter o the Shreemad Bhagwad 'eeta in H4atharth 'eetaJ 1A2% 0( TAT SAT YYYYY @ote: The te.annada" 0riya" Sindhi" Sanskrit" @epali" Punjabi and >rduC and the same #ould be downloaded rom http:PPwww!yatharthgeeta!#omP! The audio o the Book" 4atharth 'eeta is a&ailable in &arious %nternational B<nglish" 'ermanC and %ndian languages B1indi" Bengali" 'ujarati" (arathi" Tamil" TeluguC and the same #ould be downloaded rom http:PPwww!yatharthgeeta!#omP! .

rishn has a&owed" he will be the destroyer o all mankind and generator o &arnsankar i he does not #arry out his task #ons#ientiously! Sin#e the #hara#ter B&arnC o the Sel is that o 'od" his straying about amidst nature is &arnasankar: this is injury to the Soul and his deli&eran#e is non&iolen#e in the true sense! Truth ulness is not speaking what is apparently real or pleasing! %s it truth when we say that these #lothes belong to us/ There #an be" in a#t" no more blatant a lie than this! % we are not masters o our own persons that are mutable" or #hangeable" how #an the #lothing that but #o&ers them belong to us/ The 4ogeshwar himsel has spoken o the nature o truth to Arjun in asserting that there is no death o what is true in all the three di&isions o time$ past" present" and uture! The .horted Arjun to a#t! 1e then suggested to him in Chapter .rishn named the treasure o di&inity and the a##umulated hoard o demonia#al impulses in Chapter 9! A ter stressing their main eatures he told Arjun that men with demonia#al nature regard him but as a #ontemptible mortal! 1e has a ter all a human body and it is in this orm that he has attained to his supreme state! But they who are e&il and ignorant re use to adore him! Blessed with the treasure o di&inity" on the other hand" his de&otees meditate upon him with single$mindedness! 1owe&er" the nature o di&ine and demonia#al impulses has not yet been made #lear! %t is only in the present #hapter that this task is undertaken and the irst to be presented are attributes o the treasure o di&inity! 1! HThe Gord said" Q6earlessness" inner purity" stead astness o yog or knowledge" #harity" #ontinen#e" yagya" study o s#riptures" penan#e" and uprightness"E IJ Total absen#e o ear" inner san#tity" #onstant endea&our and meditation to a#Kuire the truth" #omplete sel $surrender" subduing o the mind and senses" #ondu#t o yagya Bas laid down by .rishn a##epts no su#h #eremonial a#t or sa#ri i#ial rite as yagyaC" meditation upon the Sel whi#h is the dis#ipline that prompts one towards the identi#al Supreme Spirit" penan#e that moulds the mind along with the senses in a##ordan#e with the #herished goal" and integrity o the mind and heart as well as o the body and its senses" are some o the traits that #hara#teriMe pious men! *! H@on&iolen#e" truth ulness" abstinen#e rom anger" renun#iation" tranKuility" absen#e o mali#e" #ompassion or all beings" disinterestedness" tenderness" modesty" abstinen#e rom utile e ort"E J True non&iolen#e is sal&aging o the Soul" or degrading the Soul is &iolen#e! As .plains it! 1is treatment o a#tion may be #ited as an instan#e o this! %n Chapter * he e.rishn in Chapter 8C" o ering sa#ri i#e to the ire o sel $restraint as well as to the ire o the senses" o ering pran and apan as oblation to ea#h other" and last o all the pro#ess o worship that entails sa#ri i#ing onesel to the ire o knowledge whi#h is a#hie&ed by the inner workings o the mind and senses rather than by the yagya that is per ormed with oilseeds" barley$grains and an altar B.C1APT<2 1:: T1< 40' 06 T<GG%@' T1< 7%?%@< 620( T1< 7<(0@%ACAG 4ogeshwar . that he ought to undertake the ordained a#tion! <lu#idating its nature he pointed out that the per orman#e o yagya is a#tion! SubseKuently" be ore des#ribing the nature o yagya he dwelt upon its origin as well as upon what it has to o er us! %n Chapter 8" he resorted to more than a doMen ways to unra&el the nature o yagya" the doing o whi#h is a#tion! %t is now that the meaning o a#tion is made #lear: that in the true sense it denotes yogi# #ontemplation and worship whi#h are a##omplished by the operation o the mind and senses! %n similar ashion .rishn has a uniKue style o posing a problem! 1e irst indi#ates the pe#uliarities o the issue in order to #ompel attention to it" and then elaborates and e.

rishn now pro#eeds to enlighten Arjun on the traits o demonia#al temper! 9! H-anting in in#lination to both engage in proper a#tion and a&oid improper a#ts" the demonia#al ha&e neither purity nor the right #ondu#t" nor e&en truth ulness!J (en with de&ilish predile#tions are ignorant both o that whi#h is worthy o being done and o that whi#h ought to be es#aped be#ause it is unrighteous! So they are bere t o inno#en#e" just #ondu#t" and o the eternal &erities! 1ow their minds un#tion is represented in the ollowing &erse: 8! HSin#e the world" they say" is unreal" without shelter and 'od" and #reated by itsel through mutual Bmale$ emaleC inter#ourse" what else is it or e.rishn inally #on#ludes his enumeration by telling Arjun that some other marks o the treasure o di&inity are orgi&eness" steady temper" inno#en#e" hostility against none" and total reje#tion o the eeling o #on#eit! %n all twenty$si.Sel alone is trueO he is the supreme truth! This is the truth we ha&e to i.#ept physi#al indulgen#e/J . attributes are thus #atalogued and" whereas all o them subsist only in a seeker whose meditation has ripened to maturity" they partially e.! H(agni i#en#e" orgi&eness" patien#e" purity o thought and #ondu#t" and absen#e o animosity and &anity$are BallC attributes o the man endowed with di&ine ri#hes!II 'lory is a property o 'od alone and the one" who a#ts by &irtue o this di&ine magni i#en#e partakes o it! @o sooner did Angulimal look at (ahatma Buddh than his thoughts were transmuted! This was be#ause o the inherent greatness o Buddh$ the greatness whi#h generates blessedness! .rishn himsel ! But in whom do the wealth o di&inity and demonia#al impulses abide/ :! HThere are in the world" 0 Parth" two kinds o beings" the pious" on whom % ha&e already dwelt at length" and the de&ilish o whom you will now hear rom me!J There are in the world two kinds o men" godlike and demon$ like! -hen sa#red impulses are a#ti&e within the heart" man is godlikeO but he turns de&ilish i he is ri e with demonia#al in#linations! -hether born in Arabia or Australia or anywhere else" people all o&er the world are di&ided into only these two #lasses! A ter ha&ing spoken at length so ar o godly disposition .ist in all o us! They lie in dorman#y e&en in men who are dominated by e&il impulses and it is be#ause o this that e&en the most allen sinner is entitled to redemption! 8! H0stentation" arrogan#e and #on#eit as well as wrath" harsh spee#h" and ignoran#e are all" 0 Parth" the Kualities o a man with de&ilish #hara#ter!J @ow the respe#ti&e operations o the two kinds o #hara#ter are elaborated! )! HSin#e it is established" 0 Panda&" that while the treasure o di&inity liberates and the demonia#al state a#ts as a sha#kle" you ha&e no need to grie&e or you are blessed with di&ine ri#hes!J Possessed as he is o a sa#red disposition" Arjun will surely attain to sal&ation and thus to the state o . our eyes on! Some other attributes o a righteous man are abstinen#e rom anger" surrender o whate&er one has" renun#iation o desire or the rewards o good as well as o e&il a#tion" absen#e o i#kleness" a&oidan#e o undesirable a#ts that are #ontrary to the aspired$ or goal" eeling o mer#y or all beings" non$atta#hment to obje#ts e&en when the senses are asso#iated with them" eeling o tenderness" shame at straying rom the obje#t" and keeping away rom utile e ort! .

! HTheir perpetual thought is: % ha&e gained this today and % shall ha&e that wishO % ha&e these ri#hes and % shall ha&e more in the uture!J And$ 18! H% ha&e slain that enemy and l shall also slay other enemiesO % am 'od and the holder o so&ereignty! Besides being under the illusion that they are per e#t" strong" and happy" they are also &ain regarding their great ortune and noble birth" and they mistakenly belie&e that they are uneKualled! 1)! HThus deluded by ignoran#e they think: % am wealthy and noble$born! -ho #an eKual me/ % shall per orm yagya" gi&e alms" and lead a li e o bliss!J They are &i#tims o e&en more delusions! 1owe&er" there is a problem here! All that these men do are said to be an out#ome o ignoran#e! %s it" we may ask" also ignoran#e to pra#tise yagya and #harity/ Be ore urther dwelling upon the problem in the se&enteenth &erse" .isten#e is to destroy others! 1+! HPossessed o arrogan#e" #on#eit and wantonness" and immersed in insatiable lust" they subs#ribe to alse do#trines out o ignoran#e and a#t wi#kedly!J (addened by ego and #herishing desires that #annot be satis ied" these ignorant persons entertain mistaken belie s and indulge in religious pra#ti#es that are in a#t unholy and #orrupt <&en the presumably sa#red #eremonies and sa#ri i#ial rites per ormed by them are nothing but per&ersions! 11! HBeset by #ountless an.-ith su#h an assumption" the only purpose o worldly li e is enjoyment o sensual pleasures! -hat else is there besides them/ 9 H7epra&ed and dim$witted be#ause they hold su#h a &iew" these mali#ious and #ruel people are born only to ra&age the world!II -ith their nature #orrupted by their dependen#e on a mistaken outlook" the only purpose o their e.ieties that stret#h right up to death and absorbed in the enjoyment o sensual obje#ts" they are irmly #on&in#ed that satis a#tion o #arnal desires is the highest goal!II 'rati i#ation o sensual desires is the only happiness or them and they are so enamoured o this thought that they stri&e only to ha&e as mu#h o pleasure as they #an" or there is to them nothing beyond this! 1*! HChained by hundreds o bonds o illusory hopes" and at the mer#y o desire and anger" they wrong ully endea&our to store wealth or the satis a#tion o their lust!J <&en a single rope is su i#ient to hang a person" while these people are enmeshed in innumerable aspirations! Addi#ted to lust and anger" they are engaged day and night in wrong ully amassing o ri#hes or the grati i#ation o sensual desires! %t is urther said in this #onte.t: 1.rishn takes up the Kuestion o the ultimate end o these ignorant" deluded men! .

rishn will later throw light upon the nature o this hell" but in the meantime he re&erts to the problem o the apparently sa#red a#ts o the ignorant: 19! QThese #on#eited persons" into.rishn! 0nly by abandoning the three per&ersions #an a person per orm the ordained task" the out#ome o whi#h is the ultimate glory o redemption! .unti" these ignorant ools" #on#ei&ed in de&ilish wombs birth a ter birth" are doomed to all yet lower to the most degraded state!II This degradation is gi&en the name o hell! So let us now &iew the origin o this hell! *1! HSin#e lust" anger" and greed are the three gateways to hell be#ause they are destru#ti&e o the Sel " they ought to be orsaken!J Gust" anger" and greed are the three bases on whi#h demonia#al impulses rest! So gi&ing them up is a pro itable enterprise! **! HThe person" 0 son o ..i#ated by &anity and wealth" o er ostentatious sa#ri i#es whi#h are yagya only in name" in &iolation o s#riptural injun#tion!II 2endered arrogant and senseless by wealth and worldly honour" these persons per orm #eremonies and sa#ri i#ial rites whi#h are only nominally yagya" and sa#rilegious to boot! They do not obser&e the mode o worship laid down by 4ogeshwar .unti" who es#apes these three doors to hell" pra#tises what is propitious or them and thus attains to the supreme State!J 0nly by keeping away rom these three ways to hell is a person eKuipped or #ondu#t that may reward them with sublime good and the inal beatitude o attaining to .rishn in &erses *8$. and 1+$19 o the ourth and si.th #hapters respe#ti&ely! 18! HSubser&ient to &anity" brute or#e" arrogan#e" lust and anger" these wi#ked and degraded persons ha&e a eeling o enmity to me who dwells in them and in all others!II A##ording to s#ripture" memory o 'od is yagya! They who orsake this way and per orm only nominal yagya" or do something or the other instead o yagya" abhor 'od and are hostile to him! But there are persons who #ontinue to abhor and are yet sa&ed! Are these enemies o 'od also going to be sa&ed/ .rishn has de#lared earlier that he hurls su#h degraded persons down into hell! @ow he reiterates the same when he says that he dooms them to perpetual de&ilish births! This is hell! % the torments o a #ommon prison are terrible" how mu#h more so must be the endless all into in erior orms o li e/ So it is imperati&e that one must always stri&e to a#Kuire the treasure o di&inity! *+! H%nstead o realiMing me" 0 son o .1:! H(isled in many a way" entangled in the webs o atta#hment" and inordinately ond o sensual pleasure" they all into the most de iled hell!J .rishnIs answer to the Kuestion is that it is not so! 19! H% ore&er #ondemn these abhorring" degraded" and #ruel persons" the most abje#t" among mankind" to demonia#al births!II They who worship in transgression o s#riptural ordinan#e are the lowly$born and the most degraded o people" and it is they who are judged to be perpetrators o #ruel deeds! .

! HThe one who transgresses s#riptural injun#tion and a#ts indis#riminately a##ording to his will a#hie&es neither per e#tion nor the Supreme 'oal" nor e&en happiness!J The s#ripture in Kuestion is none other than the 'eeta itsel " whi#h .rishn has named about hal a doMen de&iations su#h as ignoran#e" arrogan#e" &anity" and #ruelty that make up the demonia#al hoard! 6inally" then" he pronoun#es the &erdi#t" addressing Arjun" that whereas the ri#hes o piety bring about per e#t liberation and realiMation o the supreme state" the store o de&ilish impulses sha#kles and degrades the Sel ! But Arjun is at the same time assured that he need not despair" or he is blessed with the treasure o di&inity! -hi#h" howe&er" are the abodes o the righteous and o the unrighteous impulses/ 7is#oursing on this" . attributes that ha&e been pointed out! All o these &irtues dwell only in those worshippers who are engaged in the pra#ti#e o yog and ha&e #ome #lose to the desired goal" but they e.*.ternal worldly business" the more alluring is the orm in whi#h desire" anger" and greed mani est themsel&es to him! The ordained a#tion is on the other hand something to whi#h a##ess is se#ured only a ter the gi&ing up o lust" wrath" and greed" and it is only then that su#h a#tion is trans ormed into habitual #ondu#t! 6or the person who reje#ts it and a#ts wil ully" there is neither happiness nor a##omplishment" nor the ultimate absolution! And s#ripture is the only authority that pres#ribes the righteous as well as the unrighteous! So it is in#umbent upon Arjun to #ondu#t himsel a##ording to s#ripture and that s#ripture is the 'eeta! YYYYY At the beginning o the #hapter 4ogeshwar .rishn has repeatedly portrayed as the #ondu#t whi#h brings one the highest glory and supreme good! The more a person is engaged in e.rishn told Arjun to do the ordained task! Besides stressing the ordained a#tion" he has also pointed out that yagya is that a#tion! 4agya is an image o that spe#ial orm o worship whi#h #ompletely subdues the mind and leads one to the eternal" immutable 'od! 1e now adds that desire" wrath" and a&ari#e are the three main approa#hes to hell! 0nly a ter renoun#ing these three e&ils does a#tion #ommen#e$the appointed a#tion whi#h .rishn has des#ribed as Hthe most mysterious o all knowledgeJ in the twentieth &erse o Chapter 1)! The 'eeta is the per e#t s#riptureO and the one who ignores it and a#ts wil ully is depri&ed o a##omplishment" sal&ation" and bliss! *8! HSo s#ripture is the authority on what ought and ought not to be done" and ha&ing learnt that you ha&e the ability to a#t a##ording to the pro&isions laid down by the s#ripture!II %n the eighth &erse o Chapter .ist partially in all$in you as well as me! SubseKuently .rishn then gi&es a detailed a##ount o the attributes o men who are #ursed with e&il disposition! (en with unrighteous predile#tions ha&e no inkling o how to undertake a#tion that is worth doing" nor o how to abstain rom that whi#h is unworthy! Sin#e they ha&e not undertaken a#tion" there is in them neither truth nor purity" nor the right ." too" .rishn has said that peopleIs disposition is o two kinds" the pious and the impious! A person is godly i there is an abundan#e o the di&ine impulses in him" but is de&ilish i he teems with &i#es! -here&er they are born and whate&er names they are known by" people #annot but belong to one o these two #lasses! .rishn has gi&en an elaborate a##ount o the pious impulses that #onstitute the treasure o di&inity! Steady meditation" total sel $surrender" inner san#tity" restraint o the senses" subduing the mind" study that reminds one o the Sel " stri&ing towards yagya" morti i#ation o the senses along with the mind" absen#e o anger" and #alm intelle#t are among its twenty$si.

pli#itly de#lared that Arjun is blessed with di&ine ri#hes! That is why he has been #ounselled not to despair! There is thus another e&iden#e here that 'od resides in the hearts o all! %t ought to be kept in mind that there is a power abo&e that is #onstantly wat#hing us! So it is essential that our #ondu#t and per orman#e o a#tion should be in keeping with what is ordained by s#ripture" or else there is imminent punishment! U119VA sophist philosopher who propounded the grossest orm o atheism and materialism! U118VA brother$in$law o 7uryodhan" a ter ha&ing been subje#ted to many humiliations by the Panda& or o ering an insult to 7raupadi" Aayadrath played a leading part in planning the slaughter o Abhimanyu" the son o Arjun" and at last met his death at the hands o Arjun! 4ogeshwar .nowledge o Supreme Spirit" the S#ien#e o 4og" and the 7ialogue between .rishn has" in this #hapter" elaborately des#ribed di&ine as well as de&ilish impulses and indi#ated that the human heart itsel is the habitat o both! Thus #on#ludes the Si.teenth Chapter o the Shreemad Bhagwad 'eeta QQ4atharth 'eetaII 1A2% 0( TAT SAT YYYYY .rishn! Gust" anger" and greed appear e&en more tempting to those who are the more intensely absorbed in worldly a airs or e&en in de#orous ul illment o so#ial obligations! Truly" there ore" only by es#hewing these three does one gain admittan#e to the ordained a#tion! And the s#ripture$ the 'eeta $ is" there ore" the only authority to turn to" when one is a#ed by the dilemma o what to do and what not to do $ o that whi#h is worthy o doing and that whi#h is unworthy! So the injun#tion is" to undertake only the uniKue a#tion" ordained by this holy book $ the true a#tion! Thus 4ogeshwar .#ondu#t! A##ording to them the world has neither any shelter nor 'od" and is just me#hani#ally generated by #arnal inter#ourse! So" indulgen#e is their ultimate goal" or there is nothing beyond it or them! Su#h a delusion was #ommon in .ists within them as well as all others! 7id Arjun kill AayadrathU118V and others under a &ow / % he did" he is but a demonia#al #hara#ter! 1e is then an enemy o 'od! But .rishn" dim$ witted" #ruel men are born only to harm others and to destroy whate&er is propitious! They insist that sin#e they ha&e slain one oe" they will now slay another! So .rishn" hell is repeatedly alling into low" sordid birthsO they are thus synonymous e.rishn has e.position o the Si.pressions! This degradation o the Sel is hellO and lust" anger and greed are the three #hie gateways to it! These are the three bases o demonia#al tenden#ies! 0nly a renun#iation o these three marks the #ommen#ement o the a#tion whi#h has time and again been dis#oursed upon by .isted! %t is not that only Char&akU119V has propagated su#h a &iewO it will be there so long as the human psy#he is subje#t to the rise and ebb o di&ine and de&ilish instin#ts! A##ording to .rishnIs age" too! %n a#t" it has always e.rishn has said that he or e&er hurls down demonia#al" #ruel men" again and again" into hell! But what is the orm o this hell/ A##ording to .rishn and Arjun" entitled: H7ai&asur Sampad$?ibhag 4ogJ or QQThe 4og o Telling the 7i&ine rom the 7emonia#al!II Thus #on#ludes Swami AdgadanandIs e.rishn tells Arjun that rather than slaying their oes these men who are sla&es to lust and anger are really hostile to him$the 'od that e.teenth Chapter" in the >panishad o the Shreemad Bhagwad 'eeta" on the .

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rishn" is the property$sattwa" rajas" or tamas o persons who albeit worship with aith but in disregard o the s#riptural ordinan#e /I II To resol&e ArjunIs doubt .! HSin#e the aith o all people" 0 Bharat" is a##ording to their inherent propensity and man is re&erent" he is what his aith is!II The aith o all persons is a##ording to their natural in#lination! (an is by nature a #reature o aith! %t is thus that a personIs #hara#ter bears a #lose resemblan#e to the #hara#ter o their aith! -e are o ten asked who we are! Some o us say that we are Soul! But 4ogeshwar .pli#itly said at the end o Chapter 1: that the a#tion whi#h he has repeatedly spoken o #ommen#es only a ter the renun#iation o desire" anger" and greed! %t is the a#tion without a##omplishing whi#h there is neither happiness nor per e#tion" nor the inal beatitude! S#ripture is" there ore" the authority to all ba#k upon whene&er we are a#ed by the dilemma o that whi#h is worthy o being done and that whi#h is unworthy$o that whi#h we should do and that whi#h we should not! And that s#ripture is the 'eeta" the epitome o the most esoteri# knowledge! There are other s#riptures" too" but it is o the utmost importan#e that we always keep our eyes i.C1APT<2 19: T1< 40' 06 T12<<60G7 6A%T1 4ogeshwar .ed on the 'eeta! % we seek elsewhere we may stray" or the systemati#" straight approa#h o the 'eeta is not to be ound anywhere else! Therea ter Arjun asks the Gord to enlighten him on the state o persons who worship in #ontra&ention o the s#riptural ordinan#e although with staun#h aith! Are they sattwiki" rajasi or tamasi/ Are they righteous" impassioned" or diaboli#al/ Arjun wishes to be enlightened on this be#ause he has learnt earlier that whate&er be the property" sattwa" rajas or tamas" it is determined by the nature o oneIs birth! %t is or this reason that at the &ery outset o the #hapter he raises the Kuestion! 1! HArjun said" -hat" 0 .rishn #ontradi#ts this: like the nature o their inherent disposition is their aith" and so thus is the person! The 'eeta pro&ides an insight into what true yog is! (aharishi Patanjali was also a yogi and we ha&e his yog system o philosophy! A##ording to him yog is per e#t restraint o the mind! And the use o this arduous dis#ipline is .rishn e.rishn then #lassi ies aith too as being o three kinds! *! HThe Gord said" QGisten to me on how the aith arising rom peopleIs innate nature" too" is o three kinds" &irtuous" impassioned" and blind!III %n Chapter *" the 4ogeshwar told Arjun that the pres#ribed a#tion in yog" in both the -ay o Sel less A#tion and the -ay o 7is#rimination" is the same! The mind whi#h is earnestly and irmly gi&en to sel less a#tion is aimed in a single dire#tion! The minds o ignorant persons are" on the #ontrary" endlessly di&ided" be#ause o whi#h they in&ent #ountless di erent ways! Their minds are riddled with innumerable dissensions and they not only de&ise &arious rites and #eremonies" but also launt them in lowery and alluring words! >n ortunately they who pay heed to these alluring words are also deluded" as a result o whi#h they ail to do that whi#h is worthwhile and just! The same is reiterated here in a di erent way when .rishn points out that the aith o persons who worship in transgression o the s#riptural injun#tion is o three kinds! The #urrent o 6aith lowing in the human heart" is either good or er&ent or insensible! .

rishn! 9! HGisten to me Bas % tell youC the distin#tion between the three kinds o yagya" penan#e" and alms" that are like the three kinds o ood relished a##ording to indi&idual taste!J People lo&e three kinds o ood a##ording to their respe#ti&e taste just as there are three kinds o aithO and there are likewise three kinds o yagya" penan#e" and #harity! The irst to be #ategoriMed is ood! 8! H6ood that is naturally pleasing and #ondu#i&e to li e" intelle#t" strength" sound health" happiness" and satis a#tion besides being sa&oury" tender" and durable is lo&ed by the &irtuous!II Apparently" a##ording to .rishn pro#eeds to #atalogue the three kinds o aith! 8! H-hile the &irtuous worship gods and the impassioned and morally blind worship yaksh and demons" they who are blinded by ignoran#e worship ghosts and nature$ spirits!II -e all labour tirelessly to worship what our hearts are in#lined to and what we re&ere! )$:! H(ark you that they who undergo terrible sel $morti i#ation without s#riptural san#tion and are a li#ted with hypo#risy and arrogan#e besides lust" atta#hment" and &anity o power" and who wear out not only the elements that orm their bodies but also me who dwells in their Souls" are ignorant men with e&il disposition!II The Soul is rendered eeble by maladies when it slips into the issures o nature" whereas yagya pro&ides him strength! Arjun is" there ore" #ounselled to regard the ignorant" insensible people who do injury to the Soul as unKuestionably demonia#al! Thus is resol&ed the issue raised by Arjun! 2ighteous persons who ha&e orsaken the way shown by s#ripture worship godsO they who are dri&en by passions worship yaksh and demonsO and the ignorant pray and bow to ghosts and spirits! They not only worship" but indulge in the most agoniMing e.that in this state the onlooker" the indi&idual Soul enshrined in the human body" #omes to rest irmly in his own eternal" true #ounterpart! %s he tainted be ore this union / %n PatanjaliIs &iew the Soul is earlier the same as the predile#tion o the man who embodies it! And .er#ises o penan#e! A##ording to .rishn" howe&er" these a#ts o sel $morti i#ation only sap the elements that make up their bodies and the 'od within their Soul! Thus" instead o adoring the one true 'od and partaking o his di&inity" they only urther distan#e themsel&es rom him! These persons ought to be regarded as e&il! This implies that e&en worshippers o gods are e&il! There #ould be no stronger way o putting a#ross the idea! So let us resol&e to only adore and pray to and worship that Supreme $ Being o whom all these$the many gods" yaksh" demons" ghosts and spirits$are no more than tiny ra#tions! This has been repeatedly emphasiMed by .rishn" ood that is naturally agreeable and good or strength" sound health" and intelle#t" and thus or longe&ity" is good! And su#h ood is dear to the righteous! %t is thus #lear that no ood as su#h has the property o ennobling or o stimulating" or o depressing! So neither is milk per e#t nor onions in laming" nor garli# a generator o baser instin#ts! As or ood that is #ondu#i&e to good physiKue" healthy mind" and sound health" the #hoi#e o people all o&er the world &aries widely a##ording to en&ironment and geographi#al #ondition .rishn now a irms that man is naturally endowed with the Kuality o aith" indeed totally immersed in it! There is some dedi#ation in him and he is moulded by the #hara#ter o his aith! A man is what his natural in#lination is! At this point" .

unti" be unatta#hed and do your duty to the Supreme Spirit well!J %n Chapter 8" then" he went on to e.plain the #hara#ter o the uniKue a#tion #alled yagya: that it is an a#t o sa#ri i#e in whi#h the pra#ti#er o yog o ers the in#oming and outgoing breath Bpran and apanC to ea#h other and in whi#h the two &ital winds are regulated by o ering them as oblation to the ire o sel $restraint to a#hie&e serenity o breath! There were thus enumerated ourteen steps o yagya" whi#h are all but &arying stages o the same a#tion that bridges the gul between indi&idual Soul and the Supreme Spirit! %n brie " yagya has been imaged as that uniKue pro#ess o #ontemplation whi#h leads the worshipper to the eternal" immutable 'od and ultimately e e#ts his dissolution in that Supreme Being! .rishn has o ered in Chapter :! The proper thing to do is to eat and drink only that whi#h is a&ourable to worship and adoration o 'od! 9! HBitter" sour" salty" too hot" pungent" rough" and a#idi# ood that gi&es rise to sorrow" worries" and illness" is pre erred by the passionate!J And $ 1+! H6ood that is hal $#ooked" unsa&oury" odorous" stale" le to&er" and de iled is liked by men with a dull sensibility!II The dis#ussion o ood is now #losed and that o the ne.and" o #ourse" a##ording to indi&idual taste! -hereas ri#e is the staple ood o some" others in other regions pre er bread made rom wheat$ lour! There are #ountries where people subsist mainly on banana and potato! (utton and ish" and e&en rogs" snakes and dogs" and horse$ lesh are all a##epted and enjoyed as ood by inhabitants o di erent parts o the earth! There are people to whom #amel$ lesh is a deli#a#y! An o&erwhelming majority o <uropeans and Ameri#ans are eaters o bee and pork! But that has not in any way pre&ented them rom being ranked irst in matters o learning" intelle#tual ad&an#ement" and e#onomi# progress! A##ording to the 'eeta" ood that is taste ul" tender" and nutritious is sattwik! That ood is good whi#h is #ongenial and a&ourable to long li e" strengthening o both body and mind" and to sound health! But it is also laid down that ood that is naturally relished is good! So there is no use saying that this ood is pious while that is impious! The only tenable &iew is that" that ood is good whi#h is in keeping with the lo#al situation" surroundings" pla#e" and time" and whi#h pro&ides the reKuired nourishment! The use o an obje#t" rather than the obje#t itsel " is what makes it good" morally obje#tionable" or e&il! So it is that ood and drinks su#h as meat and al#oholi# be&erages are un#ongenial to a person who has renoun#ed the home and amily" and taken up the li e o a sanyasi renun#iate engaged in meditation upon 'od! <.t subje#t" namely" yagya" taken up! 11! H4agya that has s#riptural san#tion and the per orman#e o whi#h is an obligation" is itting and auspi#ious when it is pra#tised by persons with intent minds who aspire to no reward!J The 'eeta appro&es o su#h yagya! %t was in Chapter .rishn 6irst named yagya! HSin#e the #ondu#t o yagya is the only a#tion"J he said" Hand all other business in whi#h people are engaged are only orms o worldly bondage" 0 son o .rishn again points to the same holy injun#tion when he lays it down that the yagya that is de#reed by s#ripture and the per orman#e o whi#h is a duty and whi#h restrains the mind" is the .perien#e demonstrates that su#h &i#tuals result in a state o mind that is inimi#al to spiritual dis#ipline! There is always a possibility that su#h ood and drinks will lead the seeker astray rom the way o attainment! So they who ha&e #hosen a li e o se#lusion be#ause o their disen#hantment with worldly passions had better keep in mind the ad&i#e about ood that . that .

er#ise in the study o ?ed" in remembran#e o the Supreme Being" and in Sel $ #ontemplation" is said to be the penan#e o spee#h!J Arti#ulation is also resorted to in order to gi&e e.rishn ne.pression to thoughts that ha&e a leaning towards obje#ts o sensual grati i#ation! 2estraining it rom this and steering it deliberately in the dire#tion o 'od is the penan#e o spee#h! The last orm we are apprised o is penan#e o the mind! 1:! HA able temperament" tranKuility" silent meditation" sel $ possession" inner purity" and the like are said to be penan#e o the mind!J Simultaneous pra#ti#e o the three kinds o penan#e $ o body" spee#h and mind$is the truly worthwhile penan#e! 19! HThe three old types o penan#e undergone with utmost aith by sel less persons who do not desire any ruit thereo is said to be truly righteous!J The other kind o sel $morti i#ation is that whi#h is indulged in by persons whose temperament .t remarks upon the Kuestion o penan#e! 18! HAdoration o 'od" the twi#e$born" the tea#her$pre#eptor" and o the learned" along with ha&ing the Kualities o inno#en#e" uprightness" #hastity" and disin#lination to &iolen#e$are said to be penan#e o the body!II The body e&er strays towards its desires! So #hastening it to make it abide by the predisposition o the Soul is physi#al penan#e! 1)! HAnd utteran#e that does not agitate but is soothing" propitious" and truth ul" and whi#h is but an e.#ellen#e when it is undertaken by persons who do not desire any ruit o their endea&ours! 1*! HAnd" 0 the uneKualled among Bharat" be it known to you that the yagya whi#h is embarked upon or mere ostentation" or e&en with a &iew to some reward" is #ontaminated by passion and moral blindness!II The one who sets about thus is &ersed in the pre#ept o yagya" but he is" in a#t" unrighteous and obsessed be#ause he per orms yagya either to launt his &irtue and win admiration" or with the design o se#uring some pro it! .! H7e&oid o s#riptural san#tion and powerless to in&oke the Supreme Spirit as well as to restrain the mind" the yagya that is engaged in without a sense o total sa#ri i#e and aith is said to be demonia#alII >nsupported by s#riptural authority and in#apable o generating e&en ood$the lowest orm in whi#h 'od is mani ested$and o restraining the mind to the Sel " and possessed o neither the urge to make sa#red o erings$the will or total sel $surrender$nor true de&otion" this orm o yagya is rightly said to be o the most in erior kind! There ore" the person who undertakes it does not ha&e e&en the aintest glimmering o true yagya! .rishn then points out the eatures o the most in erior kind o yagya! 1.yagya o e.

pe#tation o some a&our or reward" is o the impassioned kind! **! HAnd the alms whi#h are dispensed without de eren#e or #ontemptuously to unworthy re#ipients at an inappropriate pla#e and time are said to be diaboli#al!J The basest kind o gi ts are" howe&er" those that are o ered with disrespe#t and s#orn to the undeser&ing at an inopportune pla#e and time! The re&ered (aharaj Ai would always tell us" HBear it in mind that the donor is wre#ked i he gi&es alms to the undeser&ing!J Similar to this is .t takes up the Kuestion o alms! *+! HAnd the alms that are gi&en to the right person at the right pla#e and time" and in the spirit that #harity is a bounden duty done without any e.pe#tation" are said to be good!II *1! HAnd alms whi#h are o ered grudgingly and or a good turn in e.#eptional souls who ha&e renoun#ed the world all prey to this in irmity! The third kind o penan#e" that whi#h is #alled demonia#al" is not only done wrong ully but also with the mali#ious intention o #ausing harm to others! .is that o rajas" or passion! 18! HAnd i undergone with the purpose o gaining homage" honour" and adoration" or or mere display" penan#e is unsteady and ephemeral" and is said to ha&e the property o rajas!J And so we now #ome to the penan#e o the most depra&ed kind$the one whi#h is deemed e&il" whi#h is o the nature" or property" o tamas! 19! QQThe penan#e that is undertaken out o mere stupid stubbornness or to hurt others is said to be diaboli#al!II Thus" as we ha&e seen" the purpose o penan#e that is good and &irtuous is to mould the body" mind" and spee#h in harmony with the #herished end! The mode o impulsi&e penan#e is similar" but it is taken up with the &ainglorious desire or worldly honour! Sometimes e&en e.rishn appro&es o this orm o #harity as an indispensable ne#essity! .plained be ore" too! This sa#red syllable is also #alled prana&" the word or sound! The word represents the all$ pre&ading" pre$eminent" un#hangeable 'od rom whom ha&e arisen all ?ed" all yagya" and the whole #reation! Tat means it and is used de erentially or 'od! And sat means truth that is una e#ted by time" spa#e" and the law o #ausation! .rishn ne.rishnIs obser&ation that #harity is worthwhile only i it is dire#ted" at a suitable pla#e and time" at the meritorious with true generosity and without any desire or a re#ipro#al a&our! 'i ts that are o ered relu#tantly and with an eye on some pro it in return are morally lawed" while alms that are gi&en irre&erently and with s#orn to the undeser&ing are positi&ely e&il! Though generi#ally they are all gi ts" alms$gi&ing by persons who renoun#e their desires" home" and all" and pla#e their trust in 'od alone" is o a higher order" or #harity o this kind implies a total surrender by a mind that has been purged o all #ra&ings! .rishn at last enlightens Arjun on the signi i#an#e o 0(" tat" and sat!U119V U119VThe syllable 0(" symbol o the Supreme Spirit" has been e.#hange" or with some re#ompense in &iew" is said to be impulsi&e and morally improper!II 1owe&er" #harity that is grie&ous be#ause it is done under #oer#ion" or with e.

*.rishn to ask him how he had be#ome a &i#tim o su#h a deluded notion! That whi#h is real is ne&er absent at any time and it #annot be annihilated" whereas that whi#h is unreal has no e.pression sat is employed when the #ommen#ement o the undertaken task is #omplete in e&ery respe#t and well under way! Sat by no means implies that all these obje#ts are ours! 1ow #an things our physi#al bodies make use o belong to us when we are not masters o e&en our own persons/ The appli#ation o sat is e&er aimed in the same dire#tion$o aith in the &erity that the Sel is the most sublime reality! The word sat is used when there is irm belie in this truth" when there is a hankering a ter per e#tion to realiMe this truth" and when the a#tion that e e#ts this realiMation begins to get along well! 0n the same subje#t o reality the 4ogeshwar speaks again! *9! HAnd it is said that the #ondition inherent in yagya" penan#e" and #harity" as well as the .rishn ne.#ellen#e" and" 0 Parth" the word is also used to denote a propitious a#t!J At the beginning o the 'eeta" Arjun held orth that amily traditions alone were permanent and real! That pro&oked .rishn tells Arjun on how the three names 0m" tat" and sat" symboliMing 'od" dire#t us to the Supreme Being and #all him to mind! %t is he who" at the beginning" #reated the Brahmin" the ?ed" and yagya! That is to say that Brahmin" the ?ed" and yagya are all born rom 0(" the symbol 0 Brahm! Thus it #ould also be said that they ha&e all ensued rom yog! They are generated only by #easeless #ontemplation o 0(" and other than this there is no way! *8! H%t is hen#e that the deeds o yagya" #harity" and penan#e" as ordained by s#ripture" are always initiated by the de&otees o ?ed with a resonant utteran#e o the syllable 0(!II %t is owing to this that per orman#e o the ordained worship" bene&olen#e and penan#e by persons who #on#ern themsel&es with 'od e&er #ommen#es with an arti#ulation o the sa#red 0(" or this utteran#e reminds one o that Supreme Being! .isten#e at any time" and it #annot be otherwise! @ow what is that whi#h ne&er has a being/ .! H0m" tat " and sat are three epithets used or the Supreme Being rom whom at the outset there #ame orth the Brahmin" ?ed" and yagya!II .press the ideas o truth and e.rishn a irmed while resol&ing these Kuestions that the Sel alone is real and also that the bodies o all li&ing beings are perishable! The Sel is eternal" imper#eptible" permanent" and immortal! This is the paramount truth! .rishn then elaborates the meaning and use o tat! *)! HStripped o desire or any reward and holding that 'od is all per&ading" persons who aspire to the ultimate bliss embark on the tasks o yagya" penan#e" and #harity as ordained by s#ripture!II Tat denotes surrender to 'od! Stated di erently" one has to re#ite 0( and take up the a##omplishment o yagya" alms$gi&ing" and penan#e with absolute trust in tat" i!e!" that 'od! .t elu#idates the meaning and use o sat! *:! HSat is employed to e.rishn remarks that this epithet o the Supreme Being" &iM" sat" re ers to truth and thus to the sense o per e#tion! Arjun is urther told that the e.

rishn #lassi ies these worshippers as the most debased" or the only orm o re&eren#e #ountenan#ed by him is the worship o the one 'od! SubseKuently 4ogeshwar .rishnIs answer to the Kuestion is that sin#e aith is inherent in man" he #annot but belie&e in something here or there! So he is shaped by his leaning and aith! 7etermined respe#ti&ely by properties o sattwa" rajas and tamas" aith is o three kinds! -hile men with righteous aith adore gods and men o illusion are de&otees o yaksh Bsour#e o renown and &alourC and demons Bpersoni i#ation o wealth and brutish #ondu#tC" the ignorant &enerate ghosts and spirits! By their &arious orms o worship that are la#king in spiritual appro&al" all su#h de&otees not only impair the elements that they embody but also their iner resolutions and the 'od that dwell within them! These adulators o supernatural spirits" yaksh" demons" and di&erse gods should indeed be looked upon as disposed to e&il rather than as true worshippers! %t is or the third time now that .rishn a irms de#isi&ely that aith is an essential reKuisite o all these undertakings! *8! HThere ore" 0 Parth" is it said that" de&oid o aith" the oblation and alms that are o ered and the penan#e that is su ered" as well as all other similar &entures" are all alse" or they #an do us good neither in this world nor in the ne.endea&our to attain to 'od" is also real!II 0nly a#tion that is entered upon or the attainment o 'od is realO and yagya" alms$gi&ing" and atonement are but #omplements to this undertaking! 6inally" .t!II All that is done without genuine trust and re&eren#e$whether sa#ri i#e or #harity or sel $ morti i#ation by way o #ontrition$is unreal! This is said" or su#h deeds are bene i#ial neither in this li e nor a ter death! 6aith #ombined with sel $surrender is" there ore" a #ru#ial ne#essity! YYYYY At the beginning o the #hapter Arjun wishes to be instru#ted by the Gord on the nature o the aith o men who set upon the task o worship in &iolation o s#riptural injun#tion! -ho among us does not know the many who persist in adoring ghosts and spirits/ -hat is the nature o their aith/ %s it moral" impulsi&e" or steeped in ignoran#e and there ore e&il/ .rishn has broa#hed the subje#t o gods! 1e told Arjun" irst in Chapter 9" that only misguided men who ha&e been robbed o their dis#ernment by lust worship gods! 2e&erting to the problem in Chapter 9" he asserted that e&en worshippers o the many gods really worship him$the one eternal" immutable 'od! 1owe&er sin#e the pra#ti#e is #ontrary to s#riptural pro&ision" this worship o theirs is but utile! And now here" in Chapter 19" .er#ises that subdues the mind and is ree rom desire$is morally worthwhile! 4agya that is per ormed to launt onesel and as just a &enture or the grati i#ation o some desire is morally reprehensible! The lowest o all" howe&er" is yagya that is rightly #alled e&il" or it is di&ested o s#riptural san#tion and embarked on without in#antation o sa#red B?edi#C hymns" spirit o sa#ri i#e" and true dedi#ation! 2e&erent ser&i#e to a tea#her$pre#eptor" who has all the &irtues that #an pro&ide a##ess to the Supreme 'od" and sin#ere #ontrition that obser&es the prin#iples o non$injury" #ontinen#e" and .rishn deals with our &ital issues" o ood" yagya" atonement" and alms$gi&ing! 6ood is said to be o three #ategories! (en who are endowed with moral &irtue relish ood that is nutritious" naturally pleasing" and soothing! (en who are gi&en to passion and moral #on usion are ond o dishes that are pungent" hot" tantaliMing" and injurious to health! And ignorant men with a wi#ked leaning hanker a ter stale and un#lean are! % taken up and a##omplished in the way pro&ided by s#ripture" yagya$internal meditati&e e.

position o the Se&enteenth Chapter in H4atharth 'eetaJ 1A2% 0( TAT SAT YYYYY @ote: The te.nowledge o the Supreme Spirit" the S#ien#e o 4og" and the 7ialogue between Q.t o the Book" 4atharth 'eeta is a&ailable in &arious %nternational B<nglish" 2ussian" 6ren#h" 'erman" Spanish" Chinese" %talian" @orwegian" 7ut#h" Portuguese" Arabi#" Aapanese" PersianC and %ndian languages B1indi" Bengali" Assamese" 'ujarati" (arathi" Tamil" Telugu" (alayalam" .rishn and ArjunI entitled! QQ0( Tatsat Shraddhatraya ?ibhag 4ogII or QQThe 4og o Three 6old 6aithII Thus #on#ludes Swami AdgadanandIs e.purity #onstitute penan#e o the body! Speaking that whi#h is true" agreeable" and benign is the penan#e o spee#h! Bringing the mind to bear upon the reKuired a#tion and holding it in a state o silent meditation on the #herished goal alone and nothing else is penan#e o the mind! But the penan#e that is #omplete and per e#t in all respe#ts is that whi#h in&ol&es the mind" spee#h" and body all! Alms gi&en re&erentially out o a Sense o moral obligation and with a due regard or suitable pla#e and time as well as or worthiness o the re#ipient are good! But alms gi&en with relu#tan#e and hope o some #onseKuent pro it are an out#ome o passion" while alms gi&en with disdain to an undeser&ing bene i#iary are #aused by ignoran#e! %denti ying the #hara#ter o 0(" tat arid sat" .annada" 0riya" Sindhi" Sanskrit" @epali" Punjabi and >rduC and the same #ould be downloaded rom http:PPwww!yatharthgeeta!#omP! The audio o the Book" 4atharth 'eeta is a&ailable in &arious %nternational B<nglish" 'ermanC and %ndian languages B1indi" Bengali" 'ujarati" (arathi" Tamil" TeluguC and the same #ould be downloaded rom http:PPwww!yatharthgeeta!#omP! .rishn says that these names awaken memories o 'od! 0( is intoned at the initiation o penan#e" #harity" and yagya that are in keeping with the way pres#ribed by s#riptureO and the sa#red sound stays with the seeker until the #onsummation o his enterprise! Tat signi ies the yonder 'od! The ordained a#tion #an be a##omplished only with a sense o total resignation and sat mani ests itsel only when the &enture has got well under way! -orship o 'od alone is reality! Sat is put to use when the de&otee is #on&in#ed o the truth and possessed by a #ra&ing or per e#tion! Sat is rele&ant" too" to the inal #on#lusion o the a#tion" #omprising yagya" #harity" and penan#e" that is #apable o taking one to 'od! The deeds that pro&ide a##ess to 'od are doubtlessly real! But along with all these" aith is a prime ne#essity! >nder taken without aith" the a#tion that is a##omplished" the alms that are gi&en" and the ire o penan#e in whi#h the worshipper has burnt himsel $are all in &ain" pro itless both in the present li e and in the li&es to #ome! 6aith is thus imperati&e! Thus" through the whole #hapter" light is shed on aithO and in its #on#luding part there is attempted$ or the irst time in the 'eeta$ a detailed elu#idation o 0(" tat and sat! Thus #on#ludes the Se&enteenth Chapter" in the >panishad o Shreemad Bhagwad 'eeta" on the .

rishn has thus submitted our pre&alent thoughts! 6irst" that #o&eted deeds should be oresworn! Se#ond" that the ruits o all a#tion should be gi&en up! Third" that all a#tions should be relinKuished" or they are all blemished! And ourth" that it is wrong to orego yagya" #harity" and penan#e! <.C1APT<2 18: T1< 40' 06 2<@>@C%AT%0@ This is the last #hapter o the 'eeta" the irst hal o whi#h is de&oted to the resolution o se&eral Kuestions posed by Arjun" whereas the latter hal is the #on#lusion whi#h dwells upon the many blessings that low rom the sa#red work! Chapter 19 #lassi ied and elu#idated ood" penan#e" yagya" #harity" and aith! %n the same #onte.t" howe&er" the di erent orms o renun#iation BsanyasC ha&e yet not been tou#hed upon! -hat is the moti&e or whate&er man does/ -ho is the moti&ator$'od or nature/ The Kuestion was raised earlier" but the present #hapter again sheds light on it! Gikewise" the subje#t o the HKuadritypeJ di&ision o men was broa#hed earlier" but the present #hapter again takes it up and #losely analyMes its #hara#ter within the ramework o nature! Then" at the end" numerous ad&antages that ensue rom the 'eeta are illuminated! A ter ha&ing listened to .pounds that whi#h is true among many a##epted &iews! .rishnIs time" too" out o whi#h" one was true! <&en today there are many &iews! -hen a sage makes his ad&ent in the world he isolates and puts orward that whi#h is the most salutary among the many &arying do#trines! All great Souls ha&e done this and .rishn has done the same! %nstead o ad&o#ating a new way he only supports and e.pressing his a##ord with one o these thoughts" .rishnIs #ategoriMation o &arious subje#ts in the pre&ious #hapter" Arjun now also desires to be enlightened on the di erent orms o renun#iation BsanyasC and relinKuishment BtyagC! 1! HArjun said" Ql am #urious to learn" 0 the mighty armed" 0 1rishikesh" master o the senses and slayer o demons the prin#iples o relinKuishment and o renun#iation!I II Total abandonment is renun#iation" a state in whi#h e&en will and merits o a#tion #ease to be" and prior to whi#h there is only endless gi&ing up o atta#hment or ul illment o the spiritual Kuest! There are two Kuestions here: Arjun wants to know the essen#e o renun#iation as well as the essen#e o relinKuishment! Thereupon 4ogeshwar .! H-hile many erudite men insist that sin#e all a#tions are &ile they ought to be orsaken" other s#holars pro#laim that deeds su#h as yagya" #harity" and penan#e ought not to be orsaken!II A ter thus submitting &aried opinions on the problem" the 4ogeshwar ad&an#es his own de initi&e &iew! 8! HGisten" 0 the best o Bharat" to my notion o renun#iation and o how" 0 the unmat#hed among men" this renun#iation is said to be o three kinds!J )! H2ather than orsaking them" deeds su#h as yagya" #harity" and penan#e ought #ertainly to be undertaken as a duty" or yagya" #harity" and penan#e are deeds that redeem men o wisdom!J .rishn says: *! QQThe Gord said" Q-hereas numerous s#holars use renun#iation or the gi&ing up o #o&eted deeds many others o mature judgement use relinKuishment to name the abnegation o the ruits o all a#tion!III .rishn says that it is also his #on#lusi&e &iew that yagya" #harity and penan#e are not to be orsaken! This illustrates how di&ergent &iews on the Kuestion were #urrent at .

rishn #ategori#ally denies the possibility! 11! HSin#e the abandonment o all a#tion by an embodied being is impossible" the one who has gi&en up the ruits o a#tion is #redited with ha&ing pra#tised relinKuishment!II H<mbodied beingsJ does not imply only gross" &isible bodies! A##ording to .:! H%t is my #onsidered belie " 0 Parth" that these deeds as also all others ought #ertainly to be a##omplished a ter orsaking atta#hment and desire or the ruits o labour!II 2eplying to ArjunIs Kuestion" .rishn then e.rishn ne.rishn the ordained" essential a#tion is only one$ the per orman#e o yagya! The 4ogeshwar has re&erted to and stressed the ordained mode time and again" lest the seeker should de&iate rom the right path! And now he de#lares that it is improper to abandon this ordained a#tion! 6orsaking it out o some delusion is thus said to be relinKuishment o the diaboli#al kind Bthat is" o the nature o tamasC!The deed that ought to be done and the ordained a#tion are the same" and gi&ing it up out o in&ol&ement in obje#ts o sensual pleasure is morally" improper" The man who abandons su#h a#tion is doomed to rebirth in low orms" or he has suppressed the impulse or di&ine adoration! .#ellen#e and reedom rom doubt" one who neither abhors deeds that are unpropitious nor is enamoured o those that are propitious is wise and sel $ denying!J 0nly the a#tion pres#ribed by s#ripture is auspi#ious and all that is opposed to it is mere bondage o this mortal world and there ore inauspi#ious! The person o eKuanimity" who neither loathes what is inauspi#ious nor is atta#hed to that whi#h is auspi#ious" be#ause or su#h a person e&en that whi#h had to be done has at last #ome to an end" is imbued with righteousness" eman#ipated rom doubt" and dis#erning! So su#h a person is enabled to disown all! This total relinKuishment" #oming along with a##omplishment" is renun#iation! %s there" we might be tempted to ask" any easier way/ .rishn the three properties o &irtue BsattwaC" passion BrajasC" and ignoran#e BtamasC" born out o nature" imprison the Soul within the body! The Soul is embodied only as long as these properties remain! So long .rishn now points out the way o relinKuishment that is good and worthwhile! 1+! H'i ted with lawless moral e.t speaks about relinKuishment that is tainted by passion and moral blindnessBrajasC! 8! H1e who rashly oregoes a#tion under the assumption that all o it is grie&ous" or out o ear o physi#al su ering" is depri&ed o the merits o his relinKuishment!II 0ne who is in#apable o worship and who #asts o a#tion be#ause o his apprehension o physi#al pain is re#kless and morally in error" and his relinKuishment$o the nature o passion BrajasC$ ails to bring him the ultimate repose o mind that should be the end o relinKuishment! 9! H0nly that relinKuishment is esteemed righteous" 0 Arjun" whi#h is ordained and pra#tised with the #on&i#tion that doing it a ter ha&ing orsaken atta#hment and ruits o labour is a moral #ommitment!J So only the ordained deed is to be done and all else has to be dis#arded! 1owe&er" shall we go on doing it endlessly or will there be a point when it too is gi&en up/ Speaking o this" .amines relinKuishment! 9! HAnd" sin#e the reKuisite a#tion ought not to be abandoned" orsaking it out o some mis#on#eption is deemed as renun#iation o the nature o ignoran#e BtamasC!J A##ording to .

systems o 1indu philosophy! %t is so #alled be#ause it enumerates twenty$ i&e tatt&a or true prin#iplesO and its #hie obje#t is to se#ure the inal eman#ipation o the twenty$ i th tatt&a" i!e! the Purush or Soul" rom the bonds o wordly e.rishn! U1*+VSankhya is the name o one o the si.isten#e by imparting knowledge o the twenty$ our other tatt&a and by properly distinguishing the Soul rom them! 1)! QQThese are the i&e #auses o whate&er a#tion a man a##omplishes with his mind" spee#h" and body" either in a##ordan#e with or e&en in #ontra&ention o s#ripture!J 1:! H7espite this" howe&er he who$out o his immature judgement$&iews the #onsummate" deta#hed Sel as the doer is dull$minded and he sees not!II As the Soul is identi#al with 'od" the pronoun#ement also implies that 'od does not a#t! This is the se#ond time that the 4ogeshwar has stressed the point! 1e said in Chapter ) that 'od neither a#ts himsel nor impels others to a#t" nor does he bring about e&en the asso#iation o a#tions! Then why do we say that e&erything is done by 'od/ %t is only be#ause our minds are #louded by delusion! -e just say whate&er #omes to our mind! 1owe&er" as .rishn has a irmed" there are i&e #auses o a#tion! 4et the ignorant man" in#apable o per#ei&ing the reality" &iews .! HGearn well rom me" 0 the mighty$armed" the i&e prin#iples that SankhyaU1*+V a#knowledges as a##omplishers o all a#tion!J 18! H%n respe#t o this" there are the prime mo&er" the se&eral agents" the &aried endea&ours" the sustaining power" and likewise the i th means that is pro&iden#e!II The mind is the doer! ?irtuous and e&il in#linations are the agents! Per orman#e o righteous a#tion demands a predisposition to dis#ernment" non$atta#hment" tranKuility" sel $restraint" sa#ri i#e" and #onstant meditation! But lust" anger" in atuation" a&ersion" and a&ari#e are the agents that e e#t unrighteous deeds! There are then the mani old e orts$the endless desires$and the means! That aspiration begins to be ul illed whi#h is supported by means! And last o all there is the i th prin#iple" pro&iden#e or sanskar$the out#ome o all that has happened to the Soul in the past! This is borne out by .rishn then takes up the #auses that e e#t righteous and unrighteous a#tions! 1.isten#e! Sin#e an embodied Soul #annot es#hew all a#tion" it is said that one who has gi&en up the ruits o a#tion has mastered renun#iation! 1en#e it is that it is imperati&e to do the pres#ribed deed and renoun#e its ruits so long as the properties that make the body remain! % " on the other hand" a#tions are undertaken with some desire or the other" they do bear ruits! 1*! H-hereas the triple returns$good" bad" and mi.amination o the out#ome o good and bad deeds" and o their #easing at the point where all desire is annihilated" is thus #on#luded! .he will ha&e to pass rom one body to another" or the properties that beget the body are still in e.ed$o #o&etous peopleIs a#tions" issue orth e&en a ter death" the a#tions o people who ha&e renoun#ed all" do not e&er bear any ruits!II The deeds o a&ari#ious men produ#e #onseKuen#es that arise e&en a ter death! These #onseKuen#es indeed persist through endless births! But the a#tions o those who ha&e relinKuished all$ o true sanyasi Bso #alled be#ause they ha&e gi&en up all their possessionsC$do not bear ruits at any time! This is #omplete renun#iation the highest stage o spiritual seeking! The e.

ists or him be#ause o his total renun#iation o the aggregate o all his deeds! 18! H-hereas the way o se#uring knowledge" the worthwhile knowledge" and the knower #onstitute the three old inspiration to a#tion" the doer" the agents" and the a#tion itsel are the three old #onstituents o a#tion!II Arjun is told that the impetus to a#tion is deri&ed rom all$ knowing seers" the mode o a#Kuiring knowledge" and the obje#t that is worthy o being a#Kuired! .rishn also girds up his loins or Arjun and assures him that he has just to play the part o an instrument" or he B.now that knowledge as imma#ulate BsattwikC by whi#h one per#ei&es the reality o the indestru#tible 'od as an undi&ided entity in all di&ided beings!II .rishn has said earlier that he is the obje#t worth knowing! The stimulus to a#tion is deri&ed only when there is a realiMed sage with per e#t knowledge who #an initiate the seeker into the way by whi#h the desired knowledge #an be obtained" and when the seekerIs eyes are i.nowledge" a#tion" and the doer are also ea#h o three kinds! 19! HGisten to me well on how e&en knowledge and a#tion and the doer ha&e been graded into three kinds ea#h" in the Sankhya philosophy o properties BgunC!II The ne.the lone" 'odlike Soul as the doer! 1e ails to realiMe that 'od does not per orm any deed! Parado.rishnC is the real doer$ arbiter! -hat a ter all is the sageIs import/ %n truth" there is a line o gra&ity that separates 'od rom nature! So long as the seeker is within the boundaries o nature" o the three properties" 'od does not a#t! -hile abiding #lose by the worshipper" he is yet only an onlooker! But when the seeker gets hold o the #herished goal with irm intentness" 'od begins to regulate his inner li e! The seeker then breaks ree rom the gra&ity o nature and enters the realm o 'od! 'od e&er stands by su#h a seeker! But he a#ts only or a worshipper su#h as this! So let us always meditate on him! 19! QQThough he may slay" the man who is liberated rom #on#eit and whose mind is unsullied is neither a killer nor bound by his a#tion!J 2ather than granting li#en#e to kill without any ear" the &erse signi ies that the truly liberated person a#ts as a mere instrument o the Supreme Spirit! Su#h a person may sometimes be #ompelled to do e&en &iolent and awesome deeds Blike ArjunC" but he undertakes them in a wholly deta#hed and sel less spirit as well as with the #on&i#tion that doing them is his bounden duty! So" although su#h a liberated person slays rom the worldly point o &iew" he does not really slay! %n truth" howe&er" one who dwells in #onstant awareness o 'od is o ne#essity disin#lined to anything that is e&il! Su#h a person is simply not tempted to destroy" or the world whi#h tempts people to destroy no longer e.i#ally" howe&er" while saying all this" .t &erse throws light upon the #hara#ter o &irtuous knowledge! *+! H.ed on his goal! Similarly" the store o a#tion begins to grow by the #oming together o the doer$dedi#ation o mind" agents su#h as wisdom" disinterest in the material world" repose" and sel $restraint by whi#h the a#tion is a##omplished" and awareness o the a#tion! %t has been pointed out earlier that neither does the undertaking o a#tion by the seeker a ter a##omplishment ha&e any purpose" nor is there any loss e&en in its abandonment! 4et he engages in a#tion e&en then or the generation o &irtuous powers in the hearts o those who are le t behind! This is e e#ted by the #on luen#e o the doer" the agents" and the a#tion itsel ! .

Su#h knowledge is dire#t per#eption" with whi#h the properties o nature #ome to an end! %t marks the #ulmination o awareness! Get us now see knowledge o the se#ond BrajasC kind! *1! H.amination o the attributes o judgement Bintelle#tC" resol&e" Bstead astnessC and eli#ity BhappinessC! .! HThat a#tion is said to be imma#ulate whi#h is ordained and embarked on with deta#hment" by one who is ree rom in atuation as well as loathing" and who does not aspire to any reward!II The ordained a#tion is none other than worship and meditation that lead the Soul to 'od! *8! HAnd that a#tion is said to be o the nature o passion whi#h is strenuous and entered upon by one who #o&ets rewards and is egotisti#! This seeker also per orms the ordained a#tion" but what a great di eren#e is made by the a#t that he is desirous o rewards and possessed o &anity/ So the a#tion undertaken by him bears the #hara#ter o moral blindness! *)! QQThat a#tion is said to be unenlightened whi#h is taken up out o sheer ignoran#e and with disregard or out#ome" loss to onesel " and injury to others" as well as or oneIs own #ompeten#e!II Su#h a#tion is bound to be redu#ed to nothingness at last and it is unKuestionably not appro&ed by s#ripture! 2ather than a#tion it is mere delusion! Get us now see the attributes o the doer! *:! HThat doer is said to be o imma#ulate nature who is ree rom atta#hment" who does not indulge in arrogant spee#h" and who is endowed with patien#e and &igour as well as unswayed by su##ess and ailure!II These are the attributes o the righteous doer and the a#tion he undertakes is" o #ourse" the same ordained a#tion! *9! QQThat doer is said to be o the attribute o passion who %s impulsi&e" #o&etous o the ruits o a#tion" a#Kuisiti&e" perni#ious" &itiated" and subje#t to joy and sorrow!II *8! HThat doer is said to be o the attribute o ignoran#e who is i#kle" un#outh" &ain" de&ious" spite ul" dispirited" laMy" and pro#rastination! These are the attributes o the ignorant doer! The s#rutiny o the Kualities o doers is #on#luded at this point and 4ogeshwar .now that knowledge as tainted by passion by whi#h one per#ei&es di&ided entities in all separate beings!II **! HAnd know that knowledge as besmir#hed by ignoran#e BtamasC whi#h adheres to the body alone as i it were the whole truth" and whi#h is irrational" un ounded on truth" and petty!II 7e&oid o wisdom and the reKuired dis#ipline to buttress it" this kind o knowledge is worthless as it takes one away rom awareness o 'od who is the one and only reality! The ollowing &erses then re#ount the three kinds o a#tion! *.rishn now embarks on an e.

+$.*! HThat intelle#t is o the nature o ignoran#e" 0 Parth" whi#h is en&eloped in darkness and whi#h apprehends the sin ul as &irtuous and &iews e&erything in a distorted way!II %n &erses .*9! HGisten to me" too" 0 7hananjay" on the three old #lassi i#ation a##ording to the properties o nature as % make them e.+! HThat intelle#t is imma#ulate" 0 Parth" whi#h is aware o the essen#e" o the way o in#lination as also o renun#iation" o worthy and unworthy a#tion" o ear and earlessness" and o bondage and liberation!II %n other words" the righteous" morally good intelle#t is that whi#h is aware o the distin#tion between the way that leads to 'od and the way to re#urrent birth and death! .t takes up the three kinds o stead astness! .8! QQThat stead astness" 0 Parth" by whi#h the a&ari#ious man holds ast and a#Kuisiti&ely to obligations" wealth" and pleasure" is o the nature o passion and moral blindness!II 6irmness o will in this #ase is #on#erned primarily with the dis#harging o oneIs worldly duties" a#Kuisition o wealth" and sensual pleasure" the three primary obje#ts o material li e" rather than with inal liberation! The inal end may be the same" but in this #ase the seeker aspires to ruits and desires something in return or his labour! .#ellent ortitude! .)! HBAndC that stead astness" 0 Parth" by whi#h the e&il$ minded man de#lines to orsake sloth" ear" worry" grie " and also arrogan#e" is o the nature o ignoran#e!II .#ellen#e! The intelle#t whi#h has only a dim per#eption o the righteous and the unrighteous a#tion" and whi#h does not know the truth" is dominated by passion! The per&erse intelle#t that deems the sin ul as &irtuous" the destru#tible as eternal" and the inauspi#ious as auspi#ious" is shrouded in the gloom o ignoran#e! The dis#ussion o intelle#t is #on#luded here and .* thus" intelle#t is graded into three kinds! The intelle#t whi#h is well aware o the a#tion that has to be engaged in and the a#tion that has to be shunned" as well as o that whi#h is it or un it to be done" is #hara#teriMed by moral e.t #onsiders the three types o happiness$ .rishn ne.! QQThat resolute stead astness" by whi#h" 0 Parth" one go&erns through the pra#ti#e o yog operations o the mind" the li e$breaths" and the senses" is imma#ulate!II 4og is the pro#ess o meditation" whereas the #oming into mind o any impulse other than the impulse to su#h #ontemplation is moral transgression! Straying o the mind is de&iation rom the path o &irtue! The unwa&ering resolution with whi#h a man rules o&er his mind" breath" and senses is" there ore" o the nature o goodness! 7ire#ting the mind" the &ital breaths" and the senses towards the desired goal is the morally e..1! QQThat intelle#t is o the nature o passion and moral blindness" 0 Parth" by whi#h one #annot e&en know the righteous and the unrighteous as well as what is worthy or unworthy o being done!II .rishn ne.hausti&ely and respe#ti&ely" o intelle#t" stead astness" and happiness!II .:! QQ@ow listen to me" 0 the best o Bharat" on the three kinds o happiness" in#luding the eli#ity" whi#h one #omes to dwell in" by pra#ti#e and thus a#hie&es #essation o grie !II .

9! HThat happiness whi#h is at irst like poison but inally tastes like ne#tar" or it issues orth rom the lu#idity o an intelle#t that has realiMed the Sel " is o an impe##able nature!J The happiness that is #ome by through spiritual e.uber Bgod prote#tor o wealthC" are to be worshipped! Similarly" talking o &arious desires at the end" he ga&e &erdi#t that or ul illment o all desires and or sal&ation one should worship the Gord @arayan alone! .ternal gods or the ourth time! That is" gods were spoken o in #hapter 9"9" and 19! All the statements so ar made by .rishn then pro#eeds to re#ount the s#ope o the properties o nature that e&er pursue us! 8+! HThere is no being" either on earth or among the dwellers o hea&en" who is entirely ree rom the three properties born o nature!J All beings" right rom Brahma at the top to worms and inse#ts at the lowest" are transient" mortal" and under the sway o the three properties BSattwa" rajas and tamasC! <&en hea&enly beings in#luding the &arious e.rishn" imply that gods are in luen#ed by the three properties o nature! Those who worship su#h gods" in reality worship that whi#h is perishable and impermanent! %n the third se#tion o Shreemad Bhag&at" while des#ribing the meeting o nine 4ogeshwars with the e.That happiness is whi#h the seeker attains to" by spiritual dis#ipline by #on#entrating his or her mind on the #herished goal and this happiness is there ore a destroyer o grie ! .abir has pointed out the di eren#e between the pleasure$lo&ing world" that easts and alls into un#ons#ious slumber" and himsel who stays awake shedding tears o #ontrition! But although this happiness is like poison at the outset" at the end it is like ne#tar that #on ers the substan#e o immortality! Su#h happiness" born out o a #lear understanding o the Sel " is said to be pure! .er#ise" #on#entration o mind on the desired end" and in whi#h all grie #ome to an end" is bitter like &enom at the #ommen#ement o worship! Prahlad was hanged and (eera was poisoned! Sant .alted sage Sukra" during the dis#ourses" the sage Sukra said" that or lo&e between male and emale" the Gord Sankara and his #onsort Par&athi" or sound health the Ashwani .9! HThat happiness whi#h both initially and inally beguile the Sel " and whi#h arises rom slumber" lethargy" and negligen#e" is said to be o the nature o ignoran#e!II The happiness whi#h both in the #ourse o indulgen#e and subseKuently" deludes the Soul" lays one un#ons#ious in the dark night o worldly li e" and whi#h is born out o indolen#e and utile e orts" is o the nature o ignoran#e! .ternal gods" are subje#t to the malady o these properties! 1ere" 4ogeshwar .umars Bthe #elestial physi#ian twinsC" or &i#tory the Gord %ndra Bgod Gord o hea&enC and or material ri#hes" .8! HThat happiness whi#h springs rom the asso#iation o the senses with their obje#ts" and whi#h is like ne#tar at the beginning but like gall at the end" is said to be tainted with passion and moral blindness!II The happiness obtained rom the #onta#t o the senses with their obje#ts tastes like ne#tar in the #ourse o enjoyment but like poison at the end" or this kind o happiness leads to repeated birth and death! So su#h happiness is rightly said to be impassioned and a li#ted with moral blindness! .rishn has taken up the subje#t o e.

C 7oes he mean by this that he has di&ided men into our rigid #astes determined by birth/ 1is answer to the Kuestion is an emphati# no" and he asserts that he has but di&ided a#tion into our #ategories a##ording to their inherent properties! The innate property o a being or obje#t is a measure$ a yardsti#k! So the di&ision o mankind into our &arn is only a di&ision o the one and same a#tion into our stages a##ording to the moti&ating properties! %n .)C %n Chapter 8" then" he indi#ated that he is the #reator o the our #lasses!B&erse 1.shatriya in Chapter * and said that Hthere is nothing more propitious or a .rishn has$di&ided into our steps in his system o &arn! @ow" how are we to know to whi#h property and stage we belong/ This is what . he said that although in erior in merit" oneIs own natural #alling BdharmC is the best and e&en meeting with death while upholding it results in good" whereas an obligation other than oneIs own" e&en though well obser&ed" generates nothing but dread!B&erse .shatriya #lass" whereas a partial #ombination o the property o ignoran#e and that o passion #onstitutes the ?aishya #lass! This is the ourth time when 4ogeshwar .pressible 'od! The #ondu#t that takes one to 'od is worship" whi#h #ommen#es in aith in the desired end! So meditation on the Supreme Being is the one true a#tion that .rishn has taken up the issue! 1e named .hortations #oming rom 'od" and the ability to a#t a##ording to them$ are all a Brahmin Qs obligations that arise rom his own nature! %t might be said" there ore" that the seeker is a Brahmin when all these merits are present in him and the #ommen#ed a#tion is an integral part o his nature! .shatriya" ?aishya" as also o Shudr are determined by properties that are born out o their nature!II % a manIs nature is made up o the property o goodness" there is inner purity along with the ability to meditate and worship! % the dominating property is that o ignoran#e" lethargy" sleep" and insanity are the out#ome" and the attempted a#tion is at their le&el! The #apa#ity o oneIs natural property is his &arn$his #hara#ter! Similarly" a partial #ombination o goodness and passion #onstitutes the .rishn turns to in the ollowing &erses! 8*! HSel $restraint" subduing o the senses" inno#en#e" #ontinen#e" mer#y" uprightness" piety" true knowledge" and dire#t per#eption o di&inity are the Brahmins pro&in#e$born our o his nature!J 2estraining the mind" #urbing the senses" lawless purity" morti i#ation o mind" spee#h" and body to mould them in tune with the #herished goal" orgi&eness" all$per&ading righteousness" staun#h aith in the one aimed at goal" #ons#iousness o the Supreme Being" the awakening in the realm o the heart o the e.perien#e that absolute pea#e within! A ter this" su#h a realiMed sage$ yogi shall ha&e no more duties that he needs to per orm and he will ha&e attained the state o a#tionlessness! The Kuestion o the organiMation o men into our #lasses B&arnC that was initiated mu#h earlier is now reintrodu#ed! %s oneIs #lass determined by birth" or is it the name o the inner ability gained rom oneIs a#tion/ 81! HThe duties o Brahmin" .shatriya than a righteous war!JB&erse .There ore" one should remember the 0mnipresent Gord and or su#h a##omplishment the only a&ailable means is to take re uge in an a##omplished tea#her" asking sin#ere Kuestions and rendering ser&i#e! @ow see in this $ The de&ilish and di&ine treasures are two traits o the inner realm" out o whi#h the di&ine treasures enable one to ha&e the great &ision o the Supreme Being" hen#e they are #alled di&ine but yet are within the in luen#e o the three properties o nature! -hen the three properties o nature are pa#i ied" the seeker too shall e.rishnIs words" a#tion is the mode o attaining to the one" ine.1C %n Chapter .

terity" unwillingness to retreat in battle" #harity" and so&ereignty are the natural pro&in#e o a .rishn" the omnipresent 'od is the inal out#ome o yagya! The de&out souls who partake o this ruit are eman#ipated rom all sins and it is the seeds o this a#tion that are sown by the meditati&e pro#ess! To prote#t this germ is true husbandry! %n ?edi# writings ood means the Supreme Spirit! 'od is the only real sustenan#e$the ood! The Soul is ully pla#ated at the #ompletion o the e.t" the word HgoJ B#owC was used to re er to the senses! So prote#tion o H#owsJ means #are o the senses! The senses are prote#ted by dis#ernment" non$atta#hment" restraint" and stead astness! They are" on the other hand" dri&en and rendered eeble by lust" wrath" a&ari#e" and atta#hment! Spiritual a#Kuisition is the only true wealth! This is our one true asset and on#e it has been earned" it stays on with us ore&er! 'radual amassing o this wealth in the #ourse o our struggle with the world o matter or nature is trade! The a#Kuisition o knowledge" whi#h is the most pre#ious o all ri#hes" is #ommer#e! And what is arming/ The body is like a pie#e o earth! The seeds whi#h are sown in it sprout in the orm o sanskar$ the merits o a#tion: the or#e that is built up by all the a#tions in pre&ious li&es! Arjun is told that the seed Bthe initial impulseC o sel less a#tion is ne&er destroyed! ?aishya is the third step o the ordained a#tion$ o #ontemplation o the Supreme BeingO and preser&ation o the seeds o di&ine meditation that are sown in this pat#h o earth$the body" while at the same time opposing hostile impulses" is agri#ulture! As 'oswami Tulsidas has said" whereas the wise husbandsman arms well and with #are" they who are o de i#ient wisdom are insensible and arrogant! To prote#t the senses thus" to store spiritual wealth amidst the skirmishes o nature" and to always strengthen #ontemplation o the ultimate essen#e are the pro&in#e o ?aishya! A##ording to .er#ise has been brought to su##ess ul #on#lusion" the Soul is reed rom the #y#le o birth and death! To go ahead sowing the seeds o this ood is true husbandry! To ser&e those who ha&e attained to a higher spiritual status" re&ered men o a##omplishment" is the duty o Shudr! 2ather than meaning HbaseII" Shudr means Hone with de i#ient knowledge!J %t is the seeker at the lowest stage who is a Shudr! %t is but proper that this initiate worshipper should begin his Kuest with rendering ser&i#e! Ser&i#e to men o a##omplishment will in the #ourse o time generate nobler impulses in him and he will thus gradually mo&e up to the higher ?aishya" .shatriya! 88! H6arming" prote#tion o #ows Bthe sensesC and #ommer#e are the natural pro&in#e o a ?aishya" whereas rendering ser&i#e is the natural #alling o a Shudr!II Agri#ulture" rearing o #attle" and #ommer#e are duties in keeping with the nature o a ?aishya! -hy only preser&ation o #ows/ Should we slaughter bu aloes/ %s it wrong to keep goats/ There is nothing at all like all this! %n the an#ient ?edi# te.8.shatriya!J Bra&ery" a#hie&ement o di&ine glory" orbearan#e" #ompeten#e in meditation$skill in a#tion" disin#lination to run away rom struggle with the material world" relinKuishment o all" and domination o all eelings by eeling or the Supreme Being$are all a#ti&ities born out o the nature o a .er#ise o #ontemplation and ne&er again knows any #ra&ing! 0n#e the e.rishn is that the worshipper should begin his journey in keeping with the attributes o his own nature! .#ellent" good" medium" and low$stages: the our steps" low and high" whi#h seekers who tread the path o a#tion ha&e to #limb! This is so be#ause the a#tion in Kuestion is only one$the ordained a#tion! The only way to inal attainment a##ording to .! H?alour" majesty" de.shatriya" and Brahmin stages! And ultimately he will go beyond &arn Bproperties o natureC and be#ome one with 'od! Chara#ter is a dynami# entity! There is #hange in an indi&idualIs &arn along with #hanges in his #hara#ter! So" in a#t" &arn are the our$e.

rishn told Arjun earlier" too" that he would rea#h this inal goal by engaging in a#tion$the real" pres#ribed a#tion! 8:! HBy adoration o that 'od" who has #reated all beings and who per&ades the whole uni&erse" through the undertaking o his natural #alling" man attains to inal a##omplishment!II The seeker a#hie&es inal #onsummation through per orman#e o his nati&e duties! %t is" there ore" essential that he should #onstantly keep his mind i.rishn says again that e&en a partially enlightened man ought to begin rom the same point: rom sel $ surrender to 'od! 89! H<&en though unmeritorious" oneIs own nati&e #alling is superior to the o i#e o others" or a man #arrying out his natural obligation does not bring sin upon himsel !J Although in erior" oneIs own obligation is better than e&en the well per ormed duties o others! A man absorbed in per orming a task that is determined by his own nature does not in#ur sin in so ar as he is not subje#ted to the endless #y#le o Hentran#esJ and He.unti" o how one who is imma#ulate a#hie&es realiMation o the Supreme Being" whi#h represents the #ulmination o knowledge!II .rishn" howe&er" imitation or en&y #an be o no a&ail! The inal a##omplishment is only by dedi#ation to oneIs own nati&e #alling" not by its abandonment! 88! H0neIs innate duty ought not to be orsaken" 0 son o .pe#ted that the a#tions o the no&i#e seeker are lawed" or their doer is yet ar rom per e#tion! But e&en these a#tions must not be gi&en up! (oreo&er" there is no a#tion that is unimpea#hable! And a#tion has to be undertaken e&en by one" who belongs to the Brahmin #lass! %mper e#tions$the obs#uring pall o nature$are there until there is steady de&otion! They #ome to an end only when the a#tion natural to a Brahmin is dissipated in 'od! But what are the attributes o the a##omplisher at the point where a#tion is no longer o any a&ail/ 89! H1e whose intelle#t is aloo all round" who is without desire" and who has #onKuered his mind" attains to the ultimate state that trans#ends all a#tion through renun#iation!J H2enun#iationJ is" as we ha&e already seen" #omplete sel $ abnegation! %t is the #ondition in whi#h the seeker abandons whate&er he has and only then does he rea#h the point when no urther a#tion is needed! H2enun#iationJ and Hattainment o the supreme state o a#tionlessnessJ are synonymous here! The yogi who has rea#hed the state o a#tionlessness attains to the Supreme Being! )+! HGearn in brie rom me" 0 son o .th &erse o this #hapter that yagya" #harity" and penan#e ought to be undertaken a ter abandonment o atta#hment and ruits o a#tion! @ow" stressing the same point" .ed on 'od" adore him" and pro#eed on his way step by step! %nstead o making any gain" a junior student e&en loses whate&er he has i he sits in a senior #lass! So the law is that one should #limb step by step! %t was said in the si.itsJ$o birth and death! %t is Kuite o ten that worshippers begin to eel disen#hanted with the ser&i#e they are rendering$! They look at the more a##omplished seekers who are absorbed in meditation and grow en&ious o the honour that is a##orded them be#ause o their merits! So no&i#es at on#e all to imitating! A##ording to .8)! HCommitment to his own inborn duty brings man to the ultimate a##omplishment and you should listen to me on how a man a#hie&es per e#tion through dedi#ation to his innate #alling!II The per e#tion that is ultimately a#hie&ed is realiMation o 'od! .unti" e&en i it is blemished" be#ause all a#tions are impaired by some law or the other as ire is shrouded by smoke!J %t is but e.

rishn said in Chapter * that the Sel is real" eternal" permanent" ine able" and o the stu o immortality! But only seers ha&e apprehended him endowed with these Kualities! So naturally the Kuestion arises as to what is meant by per#eption o the essen#e! There are many who set out to make rational tabulations o i&e or twenty$ i&e prin#iples! But .nowledge$the worshipper who is ree rom desire and atta#hment" and who has an upright mind" attains to the supreme state o a#tionlessness! -hen the maladies o &anity" brute power" lust" wrath" arrogan#e" and in atuation$that or#e one down into the ra&ines o nature$are rendered eeble" and &irtues su#h as dis#ernment" non$ atta#hment" sel $restraint" irmness o will" abiding in solitude" and meditation$ that lead one to 'od$are ully de&eloped and a#ti&e" the seeker is eKuipped to be united with the Supreme Being! %t is this ability that is #alled trans#endental aith and it is by this that the worshipper #omes to apprehend the ultimate reality! 1e then knows what 'od is and" knowing his di&ine glories" he is at on#e merged with him! Putting it di erently" Brahm" reality" 'od" the Supreme Spirit" and Sel are all substitutes or ea#h other! .pound that way! )1! HBlessed with a pure intelle#t" irmly in #ommand o the Sel " with obje#ts o sensual grati i#ation like sound orsaken " with both ondness and re&ulsion destroyed"$J )*! H7welling in se#lusion" eating rugally" subdued in mind" spee#h and body" in#essantly gi&en to the yog o meditation" irmly resigned"$II ).rishnIs &erdi#t on the problem in Chapter 18 is Kuite #lear" that 'od is the one supreme essen#e! And one who knows him is the seer! % you desire to know the truth and #ra&e or the essen#e o 'od" #ontemplation and worship are an ines#apable ne#essity! 1ere" in &erses 89 to ))" 4ogeshwar .nowing any one o them" we #ome to know them all! This is the inal a##omplishment" the inal liberation" the inal goal! So the 'eeta is unambiguous in its &iew that in both the -ay o .er#ise o renun#iation$through the -ay o .nowledge or 7is#ernment Bor the -ay o 2enun#iationC and the -ay o Sel less A#tion" the ordained deed$meditation$has to .The ollowing &erses e.! H'i&ing up #on#eit" arrogan#e o power" yearning" ill humour" and a#Kuisiti&eness" de&oid o atta#hment" and in possession o a mind at repose" a man is worthy o be#oming one with 'od!J %t is 6urther said o su#h a worshipper: )8! H%n this serene$tempered man" who &iews all beings eKually" who abides intently in the Supreme Being" neither grie&ing o&er nor hankering a ter anything" there is ostered a aith in me that trans#ends all else!II @ow aith is at the stage where an out#ome #an ensue rom it" namely" in the orm o 'od$ realiMation! ))! HThrough his trans#endental aith he knows my essen#e well" what my rea#h is" and ha&ing thus known my essen#e he is at on#e united with me!J The Supreme Being is per#ei&ed at the moment o attainment and" no sooner has this per#eption #ome about than the worshipper inds his own Soul blessed with the attributes o 'od himsel : that his soul is$like 'od$indestru#tible" immortal" eternal" ine able" and uni&ersal! .pli#itly that one has to a#t in the way o renun#iation" too! As promised by him" he will e.rishn has laid down e.pound in brie how through #onstant e.

rishn" to rest in his mer#y rather than depend upon his own prowess" to ind shelter in him" to adopt the attitude o yog" and always bring his mind to bear on him! 4og means #ompletion" unity" that whi#h brings grie s to an end and pro&ides a##ess to 'od! %ts mode" too" is a unity" the e.rishnIs words! The point is rea irmed! )9! H4our egotisti# resol&e not to ight is surely mistaken" or your nature will #ompel you to rake up arms in the war!II :+! HBound by your natural #alling e&en against your resol&e" 0 son o .er#ise o yagya whi#h is ounded on restraint o the atta#king impulses o the mind and the senses" the regulation o the in#oming and outgoing breath" and on meditation! %ts out#ome" also" is with the eternal 'od! The same is elaborated in the ne. your mind on me!J Arjun is #ounselled to sin#erely yield all his a#tions$whate&er he is #apable o doing$to .rishn" Arjun will #onKuer the #itadels o the mind and the senses! As 'oswami Tulsidas has put it" e&en #elestial beings seated at the portals o these orts obstinately keep the shutters ajar as the breeMes o #arnal pleasure blow in! The mind and the senses at the #ore are the impregnable redoubts! But Arjun #an storm them by aiming his thoughts at 'od alone! 0n the other hand" howe&er" he shall be undone and depri&ed o the ultimate good i out o &anity he does not pay heed to .er#ise o yagya! And to gain it there must be sel $surrender! )9! H<arnestly resigning all your deeds to me" inding shelter in me" and embra#ing the yog o knowledge" you should e&er i.be entered upon and a##omplished or the attainment o the supreme state o a#tionlessness! The importan#e o worship and meditation or the worshipper who has renoun#ed all has been stressed so ar! And now by introdu#ing the idea o Hde&otionJ the same is said or the yogi who undertakes sel less a#tion! ):! HAlthough engaged in a#tion whole heartedly" one who inds re uge in me a#hie&es the e&erlasting" indestru#tible" inal bliss!II The deed to be per ormed is the same$the ordained a#tion" the e.rishn ne.t &erse! )8! H<&er resting on me" you will be sa&ed rom all a li#tions and gain deli&eran#e" but you shall be destroyed i out o arrogan#e you do not pay heed to my words !J Thus always o#using his mind on .t speaks on the dwelling o 'od! :1! HPropelling all li&ing things that bestride a body$whi#h is but a #ontri&an#e$by his maya" 0 Arjun" 'od abides in the hearts o all beings!II But i 'od li&es in our hearts and is so #lose to us" why are we ignorant o his presen#e/ This is so be#ause the #ontraptions we #all body are dri&en by the power o maya" the uni&ersal ignoran#e or illusion by &irtue o whi#h we #onsider the unreal uni&erse as real and distin#t rom the Supreme Spirit! So this physi#al me#hanism is a gra&e impediment and it takes us round endlessly through one birth a ter another! -here" then" #an we ind shelter or re uge/ .unti" you will ha&e to undertake the deed you are relu#tant to do be#ause o your sel $de#eption!J 1is innate disin#lination to retreat rom the battle with nature will #ompel Arjun to set upon the task be ore him! The subje#t is #on#luded with this and .

rishn now deliberates upon the way out o this di i#ulty! :8! HGisten yet again to my most se#ret words" indeed eli#itous" that % am going to speak to you be#ause you are the dearest to me!J .:*! HSeek re uge with all your heart" 0 Bharat" in that 'od by whose gra#e you will attain to repose and the e&erlasting" ultimate bliss!II So i we ha&e to meditate" we should do it within the realm o the heart! % we know this and yet seek or 'od in a temple" mosKue or #hur#h" we but waste our time! @otwithstanding this" howe&er" as it was said earlier too" these pla#es o ormal worship ha&e their importan#e or seekers with inadeKuate awareness! The heart is the true abode o 'od! %t is the message o e&en the Bhagwat (ahapuran: that although 'od is all$per&ading" he is realiMed only by meditation in the realm o heart! :.rishn! 1e is also told that in order to ind this san#tuary he has to listen again to the GordIs most esoteri# words! 7oesnIt .rishn and any benedi#tion that the Gord bestows upon him #annot be too mu#h! 1e will in#essantly e.rishn alone! By doing so he will be absol&ed o all iniKuities and a li#tions! The #hosen tea#her$ pre#eptor takes it upon himsel to e e#t the gradual ele&ation o the pupil to e&er more re ined spiritual states and his release rom all sins i " instead o worrying about his position on the path o a#tion" the pupil single$mindedly seeks re uge in his mentor" and looks up to no one else but his a##omplished tea#her$ pre#eptor! All sages ha&e said the same! -hen a holy writing is rendered" it may appear that it is or all" but it is truly Hse#ret tea#hingJ$ se#ret undoubtedly be#ause it is permitted only to those who are spiritually eKuipped to study and pro it by it! Arjun is su#h a deser&ing pupil and so it is that .! HThus ha&e % imparted to you the knowledge whi#h is the most mysterious o all abstruse learningO so re le#t well on the whole o it Band thenC you may do as you wish!J The wisdom that .shatriya or ?aishya or Shudr" and look or shelter under .horted earlier to seek re uge in the 'od that dwells in the realm o the heart! And now he is prompted to ind shelter under .rishn himsel elaborates the merits o the worthy pupil! :9! HThis Bthe 'eetaC whi#h has been arti#ulated or you must ne&er be made known to one who is bere t o penan#e" de&otion" and o willingness to listen" as also to one who speaks ill o me!II .rishn intend to #ommuni#ate by this that inding shelter under a noble tea#her$pre#eptor is indispensable or the seeker who has taken to the spiritual path/ .ert himsel or the sake o his de&otee! But what is the blessed re&elation that .rishn has a##orded is the truthO it marks the sphere where the seeker has to make his KuestO and it is also the point o attainment! 4et the harsh a#t is that 'od is #ommonly not per#eptible! .rishn endea&ours on#e more to enlighten Arjun! 'od always stands by the seeker" or he is so dear to him! Arjun is belo&ed o .rishn" a 4ogeshwar" then enlightens Arjun on the way o true sel $surrender! ::! H'rie&e not" or l shall ree you rom all sins i you abandon all other obligations BdharmC and seek re uge in me alone!J Arjun is #ounselled that he has to rid himsel o #on#ern about what #ategory o doer he is" whether Brahmin or .rishn instru#ts him so earnestly! @ow .rishn is going to make to Arjun/ :)! H% gi&e you my sin#ere pledge" be#ause you are so dear to me" that you must attain to me i you keep me in mind" adore me" worship me" and bow in obeisan#e to me!J Arjun was e.

! HArjun said" QSin#e my ignoran#e has been dispelled by your gra#e" 0 A#hyut" and % ha&e re#o&ered dis#ernment" % am ree rom doubt and shall ollow your pre#ept!I II HA#hyuth F Be#ause o 4our gra#e" my passion is destroyed" % ha&e regained my memory" % am .rishn! This is something o whi#h the Gord is irmly assured! 91! QI<&en he will be reed rom sins who just hears it Bthe 'eetaC with de&outness and without any ill will" and he will se#ure the worlds o the righteous!J <&en hearing the tea#hings o the 'eeta with aith and without any #arping is enough to ele&ate one to a superior mode o e.rishn by the yagya o knowledge! True knowledge is what issues or th rom the pro#ess #alled yagya! %n the &erses under #onsideration" thus" the Gord has pointed out the bene its o study" dissemination" and hearing o the 'eeta! @ow at the end he asks Arjun i has understood and assimilated his words! 9*! H1a&e you" 0 Parth" listened intently to my words and" 0 7hananjay" is your delusion born our o ignoran#e dispelled/J 9.rishnIs de&otees" Souls who adhere to the Gord" is the most belo&ed o him be#ause he is the only sour#e o benedi#tion$the only highway that leads one to 'od! 1e is the one who tea#hes men to go along the right path! 9+! HAnd it is my belie that % shall ha&e been worshipped through the yagya o knowledge by one who makes a thorough study o this sa#red dialogue between us!II The Hyagya o knowledgeJ is that" the out#ome o whi#h is wisdom! The nature o this wisdom has been elaborated earlier! This wisdom is the awareness that is a#Kuired along with dire#t per#eption o 'od! And it is with su#h wisdom" su#h awareness" that the dedi#ated and industrious dis#iple o the 'eeta will adore .rishn was a realiMed sage and" along with adorers" he must also ha&e a#ed some slanderers! The 'eeta is not or people who speak mali#iously o 'od! But" then" to whom should this sa#red knowledge be made known/ :8! HThe one who" with irm de&otion to me" imparts this most se#ret tea#hing o my worshippers will doubtlessly attain to me!II And then .rishn has thus" in &erses :9 to 91" said that imparting o the tea#hings o the 'eeta to the deser&ing is as &ital as withholding them rom the undeser&ing! Sin#e e&en hearing the se#ret tea#hing o the 'eeta moti&ates the worshipper to the reKuired endea&our" the one who just hears it will also surely attain to .rishn speaks about the one who disseminates the sa#red knowledge! :9! H@either is there among mankind any doer who is dearer to me than this man" nor will there by any in the world who is dearer to me than him!II The man who enlightens .isten#e" or by this too its sa#red pre#epts will be in#ul#ated in the mind! .rishn! As or the one who propagates the s#ripture" no one else is dearer to the Gord than this man! The man who studies the 'eeta worships ..

rishn a series o big and small Kuestions! Gike in #hapter * &erse 9" HPlease will 4ou tell me that pra#ti#e o worship through whi#h % #an attain to the Absolute good!J %n #hapter * &erse )8" H-hat are the attributes o an enlightened sage/J %n &erse 1 o #hapter .rishn said in the i ty$ ourth &erse: H0 Arjun E a worshipper #an dire#tly know this orm o mine" a#Kuire its essen#e" and e&en be#ome one with it by total and unswer&ing dedi#ation!J And just now he has asked him whether he is rid o his delusion! Arjun replies that his ignoran#e is allayed and that his understanding is restored! @ow he will a#t at .ed at the time o re&iewing both the armies" to ind his kith and kin therein! 1e prayed H'o&indaF 1ow #an we be happy a ter annihilation o our own relati&es/ 6amily tradition will be destroyed be#ause o su#h a war" there will be s#ar#ity o obseKuial o erings like ri#e #akes and so on to the departed an#estors" hybridiMation or mongreliMation o #astes takes pla#e! -e" being wise" yet are ready to #ommit sin! -hy do we not ind a way out o #ommitting these sins/ Get the armed ." H% in your &iew the -ay o ." H<&en without wishing" under whose guidan#e does a man #ommit sin/J %n &erse 8 o #hapter 8" H4our birth is o re#ent times" whereas the Sun was born a long time ba#k" then how #an % belie&e that 4ou taught yog to the Sun in the ar distant past" in the beginning o this kalp/II %n &erse 1 o #hapter )" HSometimes 4ou praise renun#iation" the way o knowledge" and yet other times you support the -ay o Sel less A#tion! Please tell me one out o these whi#h is inal" by whi#h % #an attain to the Absolute good!J %n &erse .aura&a kill me" an unarmed man" in the war and that death is glorious! 'o&inda" % am not going to wage war!J Saying thus he sat down at the ba#k o the #hariot! Thus in the 'eeta" Arjun" in a#t" put orward in ront o 4ogeshwar .: o #hapter .nowledge is superior" then why do you #ompel me to do these terrible a#tions/J %n &erse .#onsistent" being bere t o doubts and am e&er ready to obey 4our orders!J -hereas" Arjun was perple.rishnIs behest! ArjunIs liberation should #ome along with this .) o #hapter :" HThe (ind is &ery i#kle! -ith sla#k e orts" what would be his lot/J %n &erses 1 and * o #hapter 8" H'o&inda" who is that Supreme Being" whom 4ou ha&e des#ribed/ -hat is the religious knowledge/ -hat are Gords o gods and Gord o being/ -ho is the Gord o sa#ri i#e in this body/ -hat is that a#tion/ 1ow do 4ou #ome to be known at the end time/J Thus he put orward se&en Kuestions! %n &erse 19 o #hapter 1+" Arjun has e&in#ed #uriosity" asking" QQ-hile meditating in#essantly" through what eelings BemotionsC do % #all you to mind" to remember you /II %n &erse 8 o #hapter 11 he prayed and submitted" H% long to see the splendours that ha&e been des#ribed by 4ou!J %n &erse 1 o #hapter 1*" H-ho is the superior possessor o 4oga among the de&otees who worship you well through un&a#illating attenti&eness and those who worship the imperishable unmani est Supreme Being/J %n &erse *1 o #hapter 18" HA man who has surpassed the three natural modes is liberated o #hara#ter and how #an a man surpass these three modes/J %n &erse 1 o #hapter 19" QQ-hat would be the ate o a person who engages in yagya with dedi#ation but does not ollow the pro#edure as laid down by the s#riptures /II And in &erse 1 o #hapter 18" H0I mighty armedF % yearn to learn separately and indi&idually e&erything about the nature o relinKuishment and renun#iation!J Thus" throughout the 'eeta" Arjun #ontinued to put orward Kueries BThe esoteri# se#rets whi#h #ould not be asked by him were re&ealed by the Gord 1imsel !C As soon as his doubts were dispelled he was reed rom asking Kuestions and said"J 'o&indaF @ow % am e&er ready to obey your instru#tions!J %n truth the Kuestions raised were or the bene it o all mankind and not just or Arjun alone! -ithout ha&ing these Kuestions answered" no seeker #an progress orward on the path o the highest good! There ore" to enable a man to obey an enlightened guru and to progress on the path o the highest good" it is ne#essary" that one should learn the #omplete tea#hings o the 'eeta! Arjun was #on&in#ed and satis ied that all his Kuestions had been answered and his doubts allayed! %n Chapter 11"a ter ha&ing re&ealed his #osmi# orm" .

rishn has assured us repeatedly that he abides in the realm o the heart! 1e e.rishn and the saintly Arjun/ 9)! H%t is by the blessing o the most re&ered ?yas that % ha&e heard this trans#endental" most mysterious yog enun#iated dire#tly by the Gord o yog .ists within all o us! 1e is also within you! Arjun is a symbol o a e#tionate de&otion" whi#h is but another name o the mindIs in#lination and dedi#ation to the #herished goal! % a worshipper is endowed with su#h de&otion" perpetual triumph against the demeaning properties o nature is assured! -ith su#h de&otion there must also always ne#essarily be stead ast wisdom! 2ather than being #on ined to a #ertain pla#e" time or indi&idual" these attainments are uni&ersal$ or e&er and or all! So long as beings e.realiMation! 1e has indeed be#ome whate&er he had to be! But s#ripture is meant or posterity and the 'eeta is here or all o us to a&ail oursel&es o ! 98! HSanjay said" Thus ha&e % heard the mysterious and sublime dialogue o ?asudeo and the sage$like Arjun!I II Arjun is portrayed as a man with a noble Soul! 1e is a yogi" a seeker" rather than an ar#her set to kill! But how has Sanjay been enabled to hear the dialogue between .esha& and Arjun transports me " 0 .rishn and he are" there too dwell the triumph a ter whi#h there is no de eat" the magni i#en#e o 'od" and the irmness o resol&e that enables one to be #onstant in this in#onstant world! Su#h is the well$ deliberated judgement o Sanjay" o the seer who is gi ted with #elestial &ision! The great ar#her Arjun is no longer amidst us! But were stead ast wisdom and the glory that #omes with spiritual #onKuest or him alone/ The 'eeta is a dramatiMation o a histori#al e&ent that belonged to a #ertain time" namely the age that is known as 7wapar! This does not mean" howe&er" that ArjunIs realiMation o the truth o 'od #ame to an end with the #easing o his time! 4ogeshwar .ing B7hritrashtrC" to sublime joy time a ter time!II -e too #an e.rishn as a master o yog$one who is a yogi himsel and who is also endowed with the gi t o imparting yog to others! 9:! HThe re#olle#tion o the eli#itous and mar&ellous #olloKuy between .ing" % am lost in wonder and e#stasy o&er and o&er!II SanjayIs rapture #an be ours" too" i we in#essantly keep in our minds the aspe#t o the #herished end! That brings us to the last &erse o the 'eeta in whi#h Sanjay states his inal #on#lusion! 98! H'ood ortune" #onKuest" splendour" and stead ast wisdom abide where&er are Gord .rishn and the noble ar#her Arjun : su#h is my #on&i#tion!J %ntent #ontemplation and irm restraint o the senses are ArjunIs bow$the legendary 'andee&! So it is that Arjun is a sage who meditates with eKuanimity! So where&er 4ogeshwar .ist" 'od must dwell in their hearts and the Soul must impatiently hunger or the Supreme BeingO and he who is a e#tionately de&oted to 'od will attain to ArjunIs status! <&eryone o us #an" there ore" aspire hope ully to the ultimate bliss o dire#t per#eption o .rishn himsel !J Sanjay regards .perien#e SanjayIs bliss i we remember the sa#red dialogue with per e#t #ontentment! Sanjay then re#alls the GordIs mira#ulous bearing and speaks o it! 99! H2e#alling the amaMing &isage o the Gord again and again" 0 .

rishn also re&erts to the our old organiMation o men into #lasses B&arnC! 7eeds that enable the Soul to be#ome one with 'od" su#h as o&er#oming the senses" restraint o the mind" intentness" tuning the body" spee#h" and mind to the #o&eted end through sel $ morti i#ation" and generation o di&ine awareness as well as o the readiness to adhere to 'odIs dire#tions$#onstitute the pro&in#e o the Brahmin #lass! Prowess" unwillingness to retreat" mastery o impulses" and possession o the reKuired skill or undertaking a#tion$are all duties o the .horted Arjun earlier to but stand as a pro.rishnC is the one who a#ts and determines! .rishn #ites our pre&alent #reeds! -hile many sa&ants style the abandonment o all a#tion as renun#iation" se&eral others employ the term to designate the gi&ing up o desired a#tion! (any s#holars ad&o#ate the orsaking o all deeds sin#e all o them are lawed" but others are #on&in#ed that deeds su#h as yagya" penan#e" and #harity ought not to be relinKuished! 0ne o these belie s was right" too" and .y sin#e he BGord .'od! YYYYY At the beginning o the eighteenth" the #on#luding #hapter o the 'eeta" Arjun wishes to be enlightened on the similarity as well as the distin#tion between relinKuishment and renun#iation! %n response to this .rishnIs true message re ers to the line o gra&ity that separates nature rom man! So long as a man li&es within nature" he is dominated by maya" 'odIs Hdi&ine #onsortJ and the mother o all material obje#ts! But no sooner has he risen abo&e nature and gi&en himsel up to the inal eman#ipation than he #omes under the reign o 'od who now rises in his heart like a #harioteer! Arjun belongs to the #ategory o su#h men and so does Sanjay! 6or others too there is the pres#ribed way by whi#h they #an break ree rom the tena#ious attra#tion o nature! The stage ollowing upon this is the one at whi#h the guiding impulse #omes rom 'od himsel ! The impetus or the ordained a#tion arises rom the #on luen#e o an all knowing sage" the right way o a#Kuiring knowledge" and the Supreme Being who is the one obje#t that ought to be known! So it is that it is an essential reKuirement or the seeker to take some sage as his tea#her$ pre#eptor! 6or the ourth time in the 'eeta" in the #hapter .e#uted" the numerous desires all o whi#h #annot be ul illed" the indispensable power that upholds" and pro&iden#e$the merits and demerits that ha&e been har&ested rom the deeds o pre&ious births! These are the i&e #auses that e e#t all a#tions! %rrespe#ti&e o this" howe&er" there are men who belie&e that the per e#t 'od is the doer! Su#h men are doubtlessly o immature judgement and unaware o truth! But" whereas .rishn has pronoun#ed a similar judgement" whi#h is that yagya" penan#e" and #harity must ne&er be orsaken" or they bring deli&eran#e to men o dis#ernment! So ostering them while also gi&ing up unrighteous impulses that are inimi#al to them is true renun#iation! Su#h renun#iation is per e#t! But relinKuishment with a desire or some pro it in e.#hange is tainted by passion and moral blindnessO and it is de initely e&il when the pres#ribed deed is orsaken out o sel de#eption! 2enun#iation is the #rowning point o resignation! Per orman#e o the pres#ribed task and the rapture that results rom meditation are indeed &irtuous" while sensual pleasure is an out#ome o in atuation! And the pleasure in whi#h there is no prospe#t whatsoe&er o the ultimate union with 'od undoubtedly issues orth rom ignoran#e! All deeds" whether done in a##ordan#e with s#ripture or against" are brought into being by i&e #auses: the mind that is the doer" the &arious agents by whi#h a deed is e.rishn a irms in the #hapter that 'od does not a#t" he has also e.shatriya #lass! Care o the senses and promotion o spiritual plenty are innate obligations o the ?aishya #lass" while ministering to the needs o the spiritually adept is the #alling o the Shudr #lass! 2ather than alluding to any parti#ular #aste or tribe" HShudrJ only denotes the unenlightened man$the man who sits in meditation or two hours without really a&ailing himsel o e&en ten minutes o that time! %t is true that his body is motionless" but the .

horted to ind shelter under the 'od who dwells in his heart! 1e ought to take re uge with all his mind" a#ts" and spee#h in .#ellent" good" medium" and in erior$#ategories o Brahmin " .#ept the #herished goal! And it is only by su#h de&otion that the worshipper gains awareness o reality! 'od alone is real and when the worshipper knows him and the #elestial Kualities o whi#h he is possessed$that he is ine able" eternal" and immutable$he at on#e #omes to dwell in that 'od! So the essen#e is this ultimate reality rather than i&e or twenty$ i&e elements! -ith the #ompletion o worship the Soul is united with this essen#e and endowed with its sublime attributes! .rishn $an adept in yog$and Arjun$a sage with tender" a e#tionate de&otion$are or e&er! They ha&e always been and they will always be! %ntrodu#ing himsel " .rishn urther instru#ts Arjun that 'od" the ultimate reality" abides in the hearts o all beings! But men are unaware o this be#ause" seated on the &ehi#le o maya" they stray and wander! So Arjun is e.mind whi#h has to be stilled ranges wildly all the while! 2endering ser&i#e to men o a higher spiritual status$to some noble mentor$is the means by whi#h a seeker like this #an liberate his Sel ! Gittle by little" merits will then be engendered in him" too" and his worship set in motion! This unenlightened manIs a##omplishment must ne#essarily" there ore" #ommen#e with rendering ser&i#e! The a#tion is only one" the ordained a#tion$meditation" %t is its pra#titioners who are di&ided into the our$e.rishn! This is the most se#ret knowledge that must ne&er be imparted to one who is spiritually unworthy o re#ei&ing it! 0n the other hand" howe&er" it is imperati&e to pass it on to truly de&out men! @iggardliness in this respe#t is meanness" or how #an the de&otee be sa&ed without this knowledge/ At the end .shatriya" ?aishya" and Shudr! So it is not so#iety but a#tion that has been di&ided into our #lasses on the basis o innate properties! Su#h is the #hara#ter o &arn postulated by the 'eeta! <lu#idating the nature o reality" .rishn! % he but renoun#es all other obligations" their merits too will all be bestowed on him! And as an out#ome o this abandonment he will attain to .rishn says that although he is ine able" the Supreme Being to whom he has attained dwells in the realm o all hearts! 1e has always abided there and he always will" and we all ha&e to seek shelter under him! A sage is but a man who looks or this san#tuary! 1e is an a e#tionate .rishn is the supreme 4ogeshwar$Gord o yog" Arjun is a sage$a man with a noble Soul! 1e is engul ed in wa&e a ter wa&e o joy as he re#alls their #olloKuy! So we too should always bring our minds to bear upon the Supreme Spirit! Constant meditation on 'od is indispensable! -here&er 4ogeshwar .rishn and the sage Arjun are" there too are magni i#en#e" su##ess" and stead astness o resol&e like the unshaken irmness o the Polar star! The ways o world that are today may #hange tomorrow! 'od alone is #hangeless! So the truly stead ast resol&e is also that whi#h enables the seeker to approa#h the immutable 'od! % .rishn inKuires i Arjun has listened attenti&ely to his dis#ourse" and whether he is rid o ignoran#e! ArjunIs reply to this is that his illusion is dispelled and his dis#ernment restored! 1e admits that what the Gord has told him is the truth and that he shall abide by his tea#hings! Sanjay" who has heard the dialogue eKually well" #on#ludes that whereas .rishn and Arjun are taken as mere histori#al #hara#ters belonging to a #ertain age known as 7wapar" they are no longer with us today! 7oes it mean" howe&er" that there is now neither #onKuest nor a#hie&ement or us/ % that be so" the 'eeta is o no &alue to us! But su#h is not the #ase! .rishn promises that he will instru#t Arjun in the mode o that ultimate a#hie&ement whi#h is the #rowning point o knowledge! The worshipper is #ompetent to per#ei&e 'od when his wisdom" disinterest" sel $#ontrol" ortitude" uninterrupted #ontemplation" and in#lination to the meditati&e pro#ess$all attributes that enable the Soul to merge in the Supreme Being$are ully ledged" while at the same time a li#tions su#h as desire" anger" delusion" ondness" and mali#e that hurl the Soul down into the ra&ines o nature are rendered inert! This ability moulds the intent de&otion that turns its eyes away rom e&erything e.

rishn and Arjun" entitled: HSanyas 4og or QQThe 4og o 2enun#iationII Thus #on#ludes Swami AdgadanandIs e.de&otee as Arjun is! So it is &ital to seek re uge in a sage who is aware o the essen#e" or only he #an pro&ide the reKuisite impulse! This #hapter also sheds light on the nature o renun#iation! The resigning" o all one has" is renun#iation! (ere putting on o a #ertain kind o attire is not renun#iation! Absorption in the ordained deed" while leading a li e o se#lusion" with a due appraisal o oneIs own strength or with a sense o sel $surrender" is ines#apable! 2enun#iation is the name o the abandonment o all a#tion along with #onsummation" and so but a synonym or the inal deli&eran#e! That absolution is the #rowning point o renun#iation! Thus #on#ludes the <ighteenth Chapter" in the >panishad o Shreemad Bhagwad 'eeta" on the .t o the Book" 4atharth 'eeta is a&ailable in &arious %nternational B<nglish" 2ussian" 6ren#h" 'erman" Spanish" Chinese" %talian" @orwegian" 7ut#h" Portuguese" Arabi#" Aapanese" PersianC and %ndian languages B1indi" Bengali" Assamese" 'ujarati" (arathi" Tamil" Telugu" (alayalam" .annada" 0riya" Sindhi" Sanskrit" @epali" Punjabi and >rduC and the same #ould be downloaded rom http:PPwww!yatharthgeeta!#omP! The audio o the Book" 4atharth 'eeta is a&ailable in &arious %nternational B<nglish" 'ermanC and %ndian languages B1indi" Bengali" 'ujarati" (arathi" Tamil" TeluguC and the same #ould be downloaded rom http:PPwww!yatharthgeeta!#omP! .nowledge o the Supreme Spirit" the S#ien#e o 4og" and the 7ialogue between .position o the <ighteenth Chapter in H4atharth 'eetaJ 1A2% 0( TAT SAT YYYYY @ote: The te.

rishn singles out one o the our di ering #reeds pre&ailing at his time and de ends it! Sin#e truth is one" eternal" and #hangeless" as a #orollary AGG SA'<S A2< 0@<! .rishn3s time" too! Being a realiMed sage who had per#ei&ed the highest spiritual reality" he opposed these alse #reeds and thus ul illed his gi&en obligation o bringing men ba#k to the path o righteousness! 7oesn3t he tell Arjun in the si.rishn resol&es Arjun3s doubt by telling him that they ha&e all undergone numerous births! But while men like Arjun" who ha&e not yet #ompleted their journey o Kuest" are unaware o their pre&ious births" .rishn has re&ealed in the 'eeta is the same as sages #oming earlier than him had known and whi#h sages to #ome herea ter shall speak o i they ha&e known it! SA'<S pa&e and widen the eli#itous path by opposing mis#on#eptions and blind #ustoms that but seem like truth and proli erate in its garb! This has been a &ital need sin#e the beginning" or many di&ergent ways #ome into being with the passage o time! So de#epti&ely like truth do they appear that it is almost impossible to distinguish them rom reality and assert that it is so! But sin#e realiMed sages dwell in the essen#e" they #an re#ogniMe ways that are at &arian#e with it! They are #apable o representing truth in a de initi&e orm and prompting other men to its pursuit! This is what all seer prophets$2am" (ahabir" Buddh" Aesus" and (uhammad$ha&e done! And so it was with the more re#ent Tulsidas" .isten#e while" on the other hand" the real is ne&er non$e.t! But sin#e truth is immutable and permanent" it is always what it is! % one &entures orth to #hange or modi y it" he has e&idently not known truth! So all sages who ha&e trodden the path o seeking and rea#hed the supreme goal #annot but pro#laim the same truth! So they do not sow dissension between man and man! 0ne who attempts to do so is e&idently ignorant o truth! -hat .er#ise that unites one with 'od was set in motion" it was .rishn has had a re#ent birth$in a remembered time! .abir" and 'uru @anak! 7eplorably" howe&er" a ter a sage has departed rom the world" instead o ollowing the path shown by him" his ollowers gradually begin to re&ere and worship su#h physi#al obje#ts as the pla#es o his birth and death or the spots he had reKuented during his li e! %n other words" they pro#eed to idoliMe the great Soul! Their memory o the sage is indeed sharp and strong at the beginning" but it gets blurred with time" and men #ome in#reasingly under the sway o misguided and alse notions that inally #rystalliMe into stupid" irrational pra#ti#es! (any su#h misguided #ustoms" #laiming to represent truth" had lourished in 4ogeshwar .rishn also admits at the same time that he is not saying this as an in#arnation o 'od: he is only saying what has also been a irmed by other sages who realiMed the truth o the Soul3s identity with the all$per&ading Supreme Spirit! 1is a##ount o the human body as a sphere o a#tion BkshetrC and o the one who grows spiritually de.rishn dis#loses to Arjun in Chapter 8 that it was he who had taught the eternal yog to ?i&aswat" the Sun$god! But how are we$like Arjun$to lend #reden#e to this assertion/ ?i&aswat was born in the distant" obs#ure past" whereas .istent! .rishn who has beheld his Sel and realiMed the unmani est 'od remembers them well! That is why he is a 4ogeshwarF The state he has attained to is there ore ine able and imperishable! -hene&er the spiritual e.S>((A24 %nterpreters usually endea&our to hit upon something no&el! But truth is" o #ourse" truth! %t is neither e&er new" nor does it e&er grow old! 6resh issues that ind a pla#e in newspaper #olumns are but temporal e&ents that emerge one day and disappear on the ne.terous by subduing it BkshetragyaC is akin to what has also o ten been pro essed by other great men o dis#ernment! <lu#idating the essen#e o relinKuishment and renun#iation in Chapter 18" .teenth &erse o Chapter * that 5The unreal has no being and the real has no non$beingO and the truth about both has also been seen by men who know the reality/5 The unreal has no e.

es" male and emale! 6or enlightened persons as it is pointed out in the si.initiated by some enlightened saint$ be he a 2am or a Narathustra! The &erities that .isting #reed or barbarous tribes" or among the poor or ri#h" the sage is unsha#kled by the established traditions o the people among whom he or she is born! A sage rather holds 'od as his supreme goal" sets upon the way that leads towards him" and ultimately be#omes what that Supreme Being is! So there #an be no distin#tions o #aste" #lass" #olour or wealth in the tea#hings o the realiMed sage! A sage loses right e&en o the physi#al di eren#e o the se.teenth &erse o Chapter 1)" there are only two kinds o beings in all the world" the mortal and the immortal! -hereas the bodies o all beings are destru#tible" their Souls are imperishable! So it is regrettable that dis#iples o sages" #oming in later times" de&ise their own pe#uliar" narrow$minded #reeds and dogmas! -hereas the ollowers o one o these sages name themsel&es Aews" others #all themsel&es Christians or (uslims or 1indus! A sage is Kuite un#on#erned with su#h denominations and barriers" or su#h a person is abo&e #ommunity and #aste! 1e or she is but a seer$a Soul o enlightenment and realiMation" and any attempt to mi.ist as pure" imma#ulate Souls" while their bodies are turned into mere dwellings! -hoe&er belonging to this state has enlightened mankind is a 4ogeshwar" a Gord o 4og BunionC! Gike all others a sage has to be born somewhere! But whether su#h an indi&idual is born in the <ast or -est" among whate&er ra#e or #olour" among ollowers o some e.rishn enun#iates in the 'eeta ha&e also #hara#teriMed the tea#hing o seers like Aesus" (uhammad" and 'uru @anak in later times! So all sages belong to one raternity! They all #on&erge at the same point through their per#eption o the reality o 'od! The ultimate goal they arri&e at is the same! There are many who &enture along the path o realiMation" but the ultimate bliss they attain to is the same i the pro#ess o their worship is su##ess ully a##omplished! A ter realiMation they e.isten#e o the #ountry! That makes it ne#essary that we approa#h the problem obje#ti&ely and with an open mind" so that we #an ha&e a #lear grasp o its genesis and impli#ations! The Kuestions that need to be answered are: -ho is to blame or our mass #on&ersions/ %n what way ha&e the proselytiMers been better or worse than the people they ha&e #on&erted/ Sin#e 'od is one and the truth" dharm is also one and uni&ersal" is it really possible or men to #hange rom one aith to another/ 7o they ha&e a di erent 'od by just #hanging their name and way! o li e/ That proselytiMation has so grie&ously a e#ted the one #ountry that may right ully boast o ha&ing been the #radle o the eternal truth$ the Sanatan 7harm$ is a disgra#e or whi#h we all ha&e to hang our heads in shame! But this is not enough and we should gi&e #are ul thought to the #ir#umstan#es that ha&e brought %ndia to her sorry state o today! . up with a so#ial setup is an error! @o sage$tea#her is" there ore" su#h an indi&idual to be #astigated or spoken ill o " irrespe#ti&e o among whom they are born or o any se#tarian bias by whi#h su#h a sage is &enerated by members o a #ertain #reed! The realiMed sage is impartial and so by denigrating su#h a person we but sap the omnis#ient 'od who dwells within us" alienate oursel&es rom him" and do injury to the Sel ! An a##omplished! sage is thus the one earnest bene a#tor we ha&e in the world! Possessed o knowledge and dis#ernment" the sage alone #an bestow the highest good on us! So it is our primary duty to #ulti&ate and #herish goodwill or him or her and we only dupe oursel&es i we depri&e oursel&es o this eeling o riendliness and re&eren#e! A sore" long$standing problem o %ndia" P20S<G4T%NAT%0@ #on&ersion rom one religious #reed to another$has engendered sentiments so irrational and &iolent that today they are threatening the &ery e.

i#ants" gambling" and #ertain kinds o improper marriages! But instead o being dharm" all these measures were only an attempt at some sort o so#ial organiMation by whi#h the prophet had endea&oured to di&ert the lust$ridden so#iety o his time towards his own tea#hings! But" while this aspe#t o (uhammad3s tea#hings has always been gi&en prominen#e" little thought is gi&en to his #on#ept o dharm! 1e has laid it down that Allah holds to a##ount the man" e&en a single breath! o whose is bere t o #ons#iousness o the Almighty" just as he #ondemns a sinner or his iniKuities" and the punishment or whi#h is perpetual damnation! 1ow many o us #an sin#erely #laim that we ha&e li&ed a##ording to this ideal/ (uhammad pro&ided that the man who harms none" not e&en beasts" is enabled to hear the &oi#e o 'od! This was said or all pla#es and times! But the Prophet3s ollowers ha&e #hanged the import o the de#ree altogether by assigning a uniKue position to the 'rand (osKue at (e##a: it is here that one must not plu#k a blade o grass" nor slaughter a beast" nor #ause harm to anyone! Thus (uslims too ha&e been #aught in traps o their own making and it is more o ten than not orgotten that the 'rand (osKue is but a monument to #herish and perpetuate the Prophet3s sa#red memory! Among others" the true import o %slam was understood by Tabrej" by (ansour" by %Kbal! But they were all &i#timiMed and perse#uted by religious anati#s and bigots! And so was So#rates poisoned" allegedly or #onspiring to #on&ert people to atheism! Sin#e Aesus toiled e&en on the Sabbath and #on erred &ision on the blind" the same #harge was le&elled against him and he was #ru#i ied! %n %ndia e&en today" people" who earn their subsisten#e rom a pla#e o worship" a religious order or se#t" or rom a seat o pilgrimage" raise a great! hue and #ry that aith is imperilled whene&er a sage speaks o reality! They #an only oppose truth and "do nothing else" be#ause they regard its propagation as a threat to their li&elihood! Gike the perse#utors o So#rates and Aesus" su#h so #alled religious people ha&e also either orgotten or deliberately turned a blind eye to why a #ertain sa#red memory had been preser&ed in a monument in the remote past! Sages are amiliar with all kinds o #ondu#t$e.ternal and internal" pra#ti#al and spiritual" and also .7elusions had grown so rank at the time o (uslim in&asions in the (iddle Ages that 1indus really #ame to belie&e they would lose their dharm i they but ate a hand ul o ri#e or drank a mouth ul o water rom the hands o an alien! Con&in#ed that they had been stripped o their dharm" thousands o 1indus took their own li e! They knew well how to die or their dharm" but they had no awareness at all o what that dharm was! There was no #ons#iousness whatsoe&er o how the eternal" imperishable Soul" unsullied by any material obje#t" #ould die by a mere tou#h! <&en physi#al bodies are killed by some weapon or the other" but 1indus were bere t o their dharm by mere tou#h! 1owe&er" it was #ertainly not dharm that was destroyed! -hat really met with destru#tion was just a body o mis#on#eptions! (ugisuddin" the kaji o Bayana" promulgated a law during the reign o 6eroMe TughlaK that (uslims had the right to spit into a 1indu3s mouth be#ause the 1indu had no aith o his own and he would be redeemed by a (uslim3s spittle! (ugisuddin was not really unjust in doing so! % spitting into a mouth #ould #on&ert only one 1indu to %slam" spitting into wells #on&erted thousands! The teal tyrant o the age thus was not the alien in&ader" but the 1indu so#iety itsel ! 1a&e they who ha&e been #on&erted" we may ask" gained dharm/ Con&ersion rom one way o li e to another is not dharm! (oreo&er" the proselytiMers" too" were by no means men o dharm! At heart the proselytiMers were e&en worse &i#tims o #ertain mis#on#eptions! And it was su#h a pity that ignorant 1indus ell unheeding into the pit alls o these delusions! %n order to re orm ba#kward and ignorant tribes" (uhammad had laid down a ramework o so#ial order to regulate marriage" di&or#e" inheritan#e" borrowing and lending" usury" e&iden#e" oath$taking" atonement" o##upation and li&ing" and #ondu#t! 1e had also orbidden idolatory" adultery and orni#ation" stealing" into.

rishn3s state by gradually making his way on the path o worship beholds what was per#ei&ed by the Gord himsel ! 1e alone re#ogniMes the signs pro&ided in the 'eeta and know what really the 4ogeshwar intended to say! @ot e&en one &erse in the whole song o re&elation is #on#erned with the phenomena o e.S1<T2$the sphere o internal a#tion! %t is o ten ad&an#ed that there are two spheres o a#tion" e.o worldly #ondu#t and the ideal #ondu#t enjoined by s#riptures" or without su#h #omprehensi&e knowledge they #annot rame laws to regulate so#ial li e and beha&iour and a de#orous order! ?ashisth" Shukra#hary" 4ogeshwar .ternal li e! -e all know what to eat and how to dress oursel&es! 7i#tated by time" pla#e" and #ir#umstan#e" &ariations in mode o li&ing" assumptions" and #onsiderations that regulate so#ial beha&iour are a gi t rom nature! So what pro&isions #ould .igen#ies o&er the span o a millennium or at most two! The sword was an essential eature o the martial organiMation laid down by 'uru 'obind Singh or the Sikhs! But what is the &alidity o #arrying a sword in the #hanged #ir#umstan#es o today/ Aesus rode asses and he orbade his dis#iples to steal asses! But whate&er he said o these simple #reatures has been rendered irrele&ant today be#ause people around the world now rarely use asses as a means o #on&eyan#e! %n the same way 4ogeshwar .oran! The primary #on#ern o sages is . up the ordinan#e or the attainment o inal liberation with the so#ial pro&isions! 6ollowers are sadly drawn more by the so#ial" worldly pro&isions whi#h they hasten to adopt not only as they are but in a mu#h o&erdone orm" and are e&er ready to Kuote sages in de en#e o the so#ial norms they ha&e a##epted! And they do not realiMe that in doing all this they are in a#t only distorting the righteous and true a#tion that realiMed sages ha&e re#ommended" and turning it into so many orms o sel $de#eption! Prejudi#es$born out o ignoran#e$ha&e grown and persisted in respe#t o all holy books" be it the ?ed" the 2amayan" the (ahabharat" the Bible" or the .hort their people to ha&e as many #hildren as they #an and reward them or this! %n the ?edi# .erted themsel&es or the eradi#ation o so#ial e&ils! The under taking o worship o the Supreme Spirit in a spirit o dis#ernment and renun#iation may not be possible i these e&ils are not eliminated! Apart rom this" #ertain 5allurements5 need to be pro&ided in order to di&ert men" who are too engrossed in the world" to the state in whi#h they #an se#ure an awareness o truth! But the so#ial order that sages ha&e en&isaged to a#hie&e this and the words they ha&e employed to ormulate this order do not #onstitute dharm! They only #ater to people3s needs or a #entury or two and are #ited as pre#edents or a ew #enturies more" but they are #ertainly rendered li eless with the emergen#e o resh e.ternal and internal! But this is not true or a sage! 1e speaks o only one sphere" although listeners may interpret him di erently a##ording to their own indi&idual predile#tions! %t is thus that a single pronoun#ement is assigned &arious impli#ations! But the Soul that has attained to .rishn attempted to impose a #ertain order on #ontemporary so#iety a##ording to the needs o the time" a##ounts o whi#h are ound in su#h works as the (ahabharat and the Bhagwat! Along with this" howe&er" these works also portray the ultimate reality$the spiritual essen#e$ rom time to time! And we shall #ertainly ail to #omprehend both the so#ial aspe#t and the truth i we mi.rishn ormulate or this/ Some under populated nations e.rishn himsel " (ahatma Buddh" (oses" Aesus" (uhammad" Sant 2amdas" 7ayanand" and hundreds o other sages like them ha&e done the same! But their so#ial" worldly pro&isions are at best o a temporal nature! Bestowing material bene its on so#iety is not a Kuestion o truth BSanatan 7harmC be#ause physi#al problems are here today and gone tomorrow! Though undoubtedly use ul in a gi&en time and situation" worldly dispensations by sages are also" there ore" &alid only or a limited period and as su#h they #annot be a##epted as a timeless order! Sages do operate as GA-$'%?<2S and they ha&e rightly e.rishn make or them/ % some so#ieties adopt polygamy be#ause their girls outnumber boys" others a##ept polyandry be#ause there are ewer girls! -hat laws #ould .

ternal pla#es o worship su#h as temples and mosKues" and to adore idols o symboli# representations o gods and goddesses/ %deally 1indus are ollowers o the eternal truths o Sanatan 7harm$ &alues and &irtues that awaken the immutable" eternal 'od within man3s heart and thus enable him to realiMe his Sel ! Pursuing and del&ing deep into eternal truths" their orebears had disseminated their insights add re&elations all o&er the world! %rrespe#ti&e o the part o the earth he hails rom" one who treads the path o reality is essentially a belie&er in the eternal truth" Sanatan 7harm! 0&erridden by desire" howe&er" 1indus ha&e gradually lost sight o reality and be#ome &i#tims o a host o mis#on#eptions! .Age in %ndia it was pres#ribed that a #ouple ha&e at least ten #hildren! But in the #hanged #onditions o today the ideal is one #hild or" at the most" two! The best thing" o #ourse" is to ha&e no #hild at all! The less #hildren" the ewer the problems o the #ountry will be in this age o o&erpopulation #risis! @ow" what rules #ould .rishn emphati#ally warns Arjun that there are no entities like gods! -hate&er be the power a man de&otes himsel to" it is 'od who stands behind the obje#t o his adoration to reward him! %t is 'od who sustains all worship" or he is all$per&ading! Truly" there ore" the .isten#e through worshipping me by yagya" go to hea&en and enjoy godly pleasures or their &irtuous a#ts!5 %t is said that 'od grants what the worshippers desire! A ter enjoying the joys o hea&en" howe&er" they ha&e to return to the mortal world$the world that is go&erned by the three properties! But sin#e they abide in 'od" the ultimate bliss" and are prote#ted by him" they are ne&er destroyed! %t is also 'od who gradually liberates them by ul illing their yearning or enjoyment and thus setting them on to the way that leads to the highest good! But material prosperity is only an in#idental #on#ern o the 'eeta and it is in this respe#t that it is di erent rom T1< ?<7! There are numerous allusions to them in the 'eeta" but the sa#red books o the ?ed are altogether only milestones! The seeker has no use or them a ter he has rea#hed his destination! So Arjun is prompted" in the orty$ i th &erse o Chapter *" that sin#e all the books o the ?ed pro&ide illumination only within the limits o the three properties o nature" he should rise abo&e them" liberate himsel rom the in#ongruities o joy and grie " rest on that whi#h is #onstant" and be eKually indi erent towards the a#Kuisition o what he does not ha&e and the prote#tion o what he has" so as to de&ote himsel intently to the Sel within! %n the &ery ne.rishn pro#laims in the twenty$eighth &erse o Chapter 8 that a ter ha&ing se#ured knowledge o the essen#e o 'od" the yogi goes beyond the rewards o ?edi# s#riptural study" sa#ri i#ial rites" penan#e" and #harity" and thus attains to absolution! That also means that the ?edi# s#riptures endure and that per orman#e o the ordained yagya is in#omplete so long as the ultimate state has not been a#hie&ed! As it is pointed out in Chapter 1)" he who knows 'od" the root o the Ashwath tree that the world is" is a knower o the ?ed! That knowledge" howe&er" #an be had only by sitting de&otedly at the eet o a noble sage$tea#her! 2ather than a book or seat o learning" the mode o worship that this mentor enjoins is the sour#e$ the spring$o that knowledge" although it #annot be denied that holy books and #entres o ormal instru#tion are intended to steer one in the same dire#tion! A##ording to the 'eeta there is only 0@< '07! The whole pantheon o lesser gods and goddesses worshipped by 1indus is a stark reminder o how the spirit o dharm gets ignored and the letter predominates" gi&ing rise to #ountless per&ersions! Sin#e the ordained task is an internal pro#ess o the mind and senses" how itting is it to build e.rishn promises in &erses *+$** o Chapter 9: 5(en who do the pious deeds enjoined by the three ?ed" who ha&e tasted ne#tar and reed themsel&es rom sin" and who wish or hea&enly e.t &erse it is added that the worshipper has no need or the ?ed a ter inal liberation just as a man has no need or a measly pond when there is the in inite o#ean all around him! There is also the suggestion here that the one who goes beyond the ?ed" by knowing 'od" is a Brahmin! So" although the use ulness o the ?ed does #ome3 to an end or worshippers o the Brahmin #lass" there is no doubt about their utility or others! .rishn lay down or this/ %t is not that the 'eeta is Kuite un#on#erned with (AT<2%AG G%6< A@7 P20SP<2%T4! .

ample! Be it (eera or Sita" or any other &isionary who has sought or and per#ei&ed reality" ea#h o them is an ideal or us and we should ollow in their ootsteps! But what greater olly #an be there than assuming that we ha&e dis#harged our moral obligation by merely o ering lowers and applying sandal paste to these e.ternal but within the realm o heart! 4et people are drawn towards and worship e&en su#h unworthy obje#ts as ro#k" water" mere stru#tures o bri#k and mortar" and a host o in erior di&inities! To these obje#ts they also sometimes add an idol o .emplars/ % we but look at some reli# o one whom we regard as an ideal" we are o&erwhelmed by the sentiment o lo&ing de&otion! This is as it should be" or it is only by the inspiration pro&ided by him and by his guidan#e that we #an mo&e ahead on our spiritual journey! %t should be our purpose to ad&an#e step by step towards the point where we be#ome what our ideal is! This is true worship! 1owe&er" although it is right that we do not in any way slight our ideals" we shall be guilty o straying rom our goal and be wide o our mark i we #ompla#ently belie&e that o ering o lea&es and lowers is all that is needed or a#hie&ement o the propitious end! As or gaining wisdom rom our ideals and a#ting upon it" whate&er we #all them$a hermitage" monastery" temple" mosKue" #hur#h" math" &ihar or guru$dwara" ea#h one o them does ha&e its merit pro&ided it is marked by genuine spiritual #on#ern! -hose memory or image is #onse#rated in these monuments/ -hat was his a##omplishment/ -hat penan#es did he go through or it/ 1ow did he make his attainment/ %t is to learn the answers to these Kuestions that we should go to #entres o worship and pilgrimage! But these #entres are pro itless i they #annot enlighten us by e.rishn3s tea#hings" ha&e s#ulpted images o their mentor Buddh who had all his li e #ondemned idolatory! They ha&e orgotten the words spoken by their noble tea#her to his belo&ed pupil Anand: 5-aste not your time on the worship o one who is in the state o being!5 This is not to insist" howe&er" that pla#es and obje#ts o di&ine adoration like temples" mosKues" #hur#hes" seats o pilgrimage" idols" and monuments ha&e no &alue whatsoe&er! (ost signi i#antly they keep ali&e memories o bygone seers so that people may #onstantly remember their ideals and a#hie&ements! Among these sages there ha&e been women as well as men! Sita" Aanak3s daughter" had been a Brahmin girl in her pre&ious li e! At her ather3s prompting" she had subje#ted hersel to rigorous penan#e" but su##ess had yet eluded her! %n her ne.rishn! -hat an irony that e&en ollowers o Buddhism" who lay su#h great stress on .ample on the steps by whi#h some a##omplished Soul had inally rea#hed his goal! They are also o no &alue i they #annot present us with a setup that is truly propitious! %n that #ase all they #an o er us is some blind" established #reed or pra#ti#e! % it is so" we .rishn enlightens Arjun" all su#h worshippers o improper obje#ts impair not only! their physi#al beings but also 'od who dwells within them! Su#h worshippers should" there ore" be deemed as surely possessed o an unrighteous" e&il disposition! Sin#e 'od abides in the hearts o all beings" it is binding on e&eryone that he takes re uge in him alone! The true pla#e o worship is" there ore" not e.t li e" howe&er" she was rewarded when she a#hie&ed union with 2am and #ame to be re&ered as imma#ulate Blike 'od himsel C and immortal" and as maya$'od3s 5di&ine #onsort5! (eera had a royal birth" but there was an awakening o de&otion to 'od in her heart" too! Struggling with many hurdles she at last emerged triumphant! Shrines and monuments ha&e been ere#ted to #ommemorate her" so that the #ommunity may imbibe spiritual li e rom her pious e.worship o other gods is unlaw ul and its ruits are perishable! 0nly those ignorant men whose minds ha&e been held to ransom by desire worship other gods and their obje#ts o worship &ary a##ording to their nati&e in#linations! -hile gods are the obje#t o adoration by good and &irtuous men" demons and yaksh are worshipped by those who are gi&en to passion and moral blindness" ghosts and spirits are &enerated by men o ignoran#e! (any o these worshippers e&en subje#t themsel&es to se&ere and grie&ous austerities! But" as .

.rishn tells Arjun in the thirty$ninth &erse o Chapter * that both the -ay o .nowledge and 7is#ernment and the -ay o Sel less A#tion #an e e#ti&ely se&er the etters o a#tion as well as o its #onseKuen#e! Pra#tising them in e&en small measures su##ess ully liberates one rom the terror o birth and death! %n both the ways the resolute deed is one" the mind is one" and the dire#tion is also one! But ignorant minds are riddled with endless #ontradi#tions! %n the guise o a##omplishing a#tion they in&ent numerous deeds" rites" and #eremonies! But these are not true a#tion and Arjun is e.doubtlessly #ause oursel&es harm by reKuenting them! These #entres o worship had originally #ome up to ob&iate the arduous ne#essity o indi&iduals going rom one home to another or instru#tion and prea#hing" and to repla#e it with #olle#ti&e religious dis#ourse! But in the #ourse o time idolatory and irrational adheren#e to entren#hed #on&entions supplanted dharm and ga&e rise to innumerable misguided notions! The syllable 0( is to 1indus the symbol o the one 'od that the 'eeta illuminates! 0(" also #alled prana&$the word or sound" e.C! And he" too" .t &erse it is added: 5%t is hen#e that the deeds o yagya" #harity" and o penan#e" as ordained by s#ripture" are always initiated by the de&otees o ?ed with a resonant utteran#e o the syllable 0(!5 .rishn is an in#arnation" but he is also a sage$a noble tea#her$ pre#eptor$who is the '%?<2 06 40'! As we ha&e just seen" a##ording to the 4ogeshwar" the knowledge o the way that leads to ultimate good" the means o embarking on it" and o its attainment" is deri&ed rom a noble mentor! <&en roaming about rom one holy pla#e to another or similar other strenuous e.rishn tells Arjun in the eighth &erse o Chapter 8: 5% am E the sa#red syllable 0(!5 %n the ollowing #hapter it is said: 51e who departs rom the body intoning 0(" 'od in word" and remembering me" attains to sal&ation!5 B?erse 1.horted to .C! The twenty third &erse o Chapter 19 de#lares that 50(" tat" and sat are three epithets used or the Supreme Being rom whom at the outset there #ame orth Brahmin" the ?ed" and yagya!5 And in the &ery ne.imity to an a##omplished sage" asking him sin#ere Kuestions" and rendering o humble ser&i#e to him #onstitute the means o realiMation! 0nly by pursuing this #ourse #an Arjun inally bring his spiritual Kuest to ruition! The &ital importan#e o an a##omplished tea#her pre#eptor is again emphati#ally stated in Chapter 18: 5 -hereas the way o se#uring knowledge" the worthwhile knowledge" and the knower #onstitute the three old inspiration to a#tion" the doer" the agents" and the deed itsel are the three old #onstituents o a#tion!5 A##ording to .ertions #annot bring this knowledge within our rea#h in the absen#e o a tea#her who #an impart it to us! %n the thirty ourth &erse o Chapter 8" Arjun is ad&ised to obtain this knowledge rom sages through re&eren#e" inKuiry and guileless soli#itation" or only these wise Souls who are aware o the reality #an initiate him into it! Close pro.rishn3s injun#tion" there ore" an enlightened sage" rather than books" is the primary medium by whi#h a#tion is a##omplished! A book only o ers a ormula and no illness is healed by memoriMing the pres#ription: the more important thing is its appli#ation$its pra#ti#e! (u#h has been said about delusions and we are #on ronted by them" too" in regard to ACT%0@! The 'eeta sheds light on how these mis#on#eptions #ome into being! .presses the Supreme Being! %n the ?edi# literature it is said that the past" present" and uture are all nothing but 0(!3 The syllable represents the omnipresent" omnipotent" #hangeless 'od! 6rom 0( are born all that is propitious" all aiths" all #elestial beings" all the ?ed" all yagya" all utteran#es" all rewards" and all that is inanimate or animate! .rishn a irms in the se&enteenth &erse o Chapter 9" is 5the bearer and preser&er o the whole world as also the gi&er o rewards or a#tionO ather" mother" and also the grandsireO the sa#red" imperishable 0( who is worthy o being knownO and all ?ed$ 2ig" Sam" and 4ajur!5 %n Chapter 1 + he #alls himsel 50( among words5 and 5the &owel akar among the letters o the alphabet 5the irst sound o the sa#red 0(! B&erses *) and .rishn3s inal &erdi#t is that re#itation o 0( is a prime ne#essity and that its proper mode has to be learnt by sitting de&otedly at the eet o some a##omplished sage! .

rishn has also made it #lear that yagya has nothing to do with non spiritual matters and that the yagya whi#h is per ormed by means o material obje#ts is indeed #ontemptible! %t is so e&en i we o er sa#ri i#es worth millions! True yagya is per ormed by internal operations o the mind and senses! .rishn! %t is yagya whi#h he has named the 5ordained task5$the deed that is worth doing$in the opening &erse o Chapter :! %t is urther pointed out in Chapter 1: that the undertaking o yagya #ommen#es in the real sense only a ter lust" anger and greed ha&e been #ompletely orsaken B&erse *1C! The more a man is absorbed in worldly business" the more tempting do desire" anger" and greed appear to him! %n Chapters 19 and 18" too" while dwelling upon the task that is appointed" worthy and righteous" .: 5Sin#e the #ondu#t o yagya is the only a#tion and all other business in whi#h people are engaged are only orms o worldly bondage" + son o .unti" be unatta#hed and do your duty to 'od well!5 True a#tion is that whi#h rees the Sel rom sha#kles o the world! But what pre#isely is this deed" the undertaking o yagya" whi#h e e#ts the a##omplishment o a#tion/ %n Chapter 8" .rishn has e.nowledge is also a#hie&ed by the -ay o Sel less A#tion! The seeker who per#ei&es the two as identi#al is the one who knows reality! The seer who de#lares both a#tions as one is .nowledge! But the man who steps on the -ay o Sel less A#tion #ommen#es his undertaking with a total relian#e on the adored tea#her! This seeker lea&es the Kuestions o pro it and loss to his mentor3s dis#retion! So this is also the -ay o 7e&otion! -hat is worth noting" howe&er" is that the initial impulse in both #ases #omes rom a noble tea#her! <nlightened by the same sage" while one o the pupils embarks on the pres#ribed task with sel $relian#e" the other does it by surrendering himsel to the mer#y o his tea#her! So it is that 4ogeshwar .nowledge is the #ons#iousness o the immortal essen#e that ensues rom yayga at its su##ess ul #ompletion! 4ogi who are blessed with this trans#endental awareness be#ome one with 'od! And on#e the goal that had to be a#hie&ed is rea#hed" there is no need or any urther a#tion by the liberated Soul" or all a#tion merges into the knowledge that is gained rom dire#t per#eption o the ultimate essen#e! The liberation o the Soul is thus also liberation rom a#tion! The 'eeta speaks o no a#tion other than this appointed a#tion$ the yagya that a#hie&es 'od$ realiMation! This has been repeatedly emphasiMed by .t day" and that he will ultimately rea#h the aspired$ or goal! Sin#e he pro#eeds with a due awareness and understanding o his situation" this way arer is #alled a ro&er o&er the -ay o .rishn has elu#idated yagya in more than a doMen ways whi#h are #olle#ti&ely but a portrayal o the mode that pro&ides a##ess to the Supreme Being! %n a#t" all the di erent orms o yagya are internal pro#esses o #ontemplation: orms o worship that render 'od mani est and known! 4agya is thus the spe#ial" ordained means by whi#h a worshipper tra&erses the path that leads to 'od! The means by whi#h this appointed task is a##omplished$regulation and serenity o breath" meditation" re le#tion" and restraint o the senses$#onstitute a#tion! .rishn tells Arjun that the ultimate essen#e that is se#ured by the -ay o .rishn and the a#tion" too" in both #ases is one! The readers on both paths ha&e to relinKuish desire and the out#ome o the two dis#iplines is also one! 0nly the attitudes with whi#h this a#tion is undertaken are two! This one a#tion$the ordained a#tion$is 4A'4A! .@0-G<7'< and the -A4 06 S<G6G<SS ACT%0@! <ngaging in the deed with a proper e&aluation o one3s ability" as well as o the pro it and loss in&ol&ed in the enterprise" is the -ay o .nowledge! The one who tra&erses this path is #ons#ious o what he is today" what #hange there is going to be in his role on the ne.pli#itly told Arjun in the ninth &erse o Chapter .undertake only the a#tion that is ordained! This a#tion is an appointed #ourse and it is that whi#h brings to an end the body whi#h has been journeying through one birth to another sin#e time immemorial! This journey #an by no means be said to ha&e terminated i the Soul has to undergo yet another birth! The appointed a#tion is only one" the a#tion that we #all worship or meditation! But there are two ways o approa#hing it : the -A4 06 .rishn has .

rishn not only #on&in#ed him o its &alidity but also indu#ed him to take up his appointed task! Sin#e Arjun is e.nowledge as well as the 4og o A#tion! That means the entire message o the 'eeta! Arjun did not wish to ight! 1e #ast away his bow and sat down despondently in the rear o his #hariot! By imparting the knowledge o a#tion to him" then" .rishn has asserted that there is no pro&ision or abandonment o the ordained a#tion on either the -ay o .rishn3s pre#epts be#ause o the sin ul lega#y o numerous misguided #ustoms and #reeds as well as modes o worship that we ha&e inherited and whi#h bind our minds in #hains o ignoran#e! -e #an run away rom material possessions" but the pre#on#eptions that lurk in our minds and hearts pursue us where&er we go! And i we e&er deign to abide by .isted a se#t" the members o whi#h boasted o being renun#iates be#ause they did not kindle ire and had e&en gi&en up meditation! As against this" .horted to take up arms and ight in almost a s#ore o &erses" doubtlessly there was a war! But there is not a single &erse in the whole o the 'eeta whi#h appro&es o physi#al slaughter and bloodshed! This is #learly seen rom Chapters *" ." )" :C" and spe#ially in the inal #hapter" it is underlined that no man be#omes a yogi" a sel denier by just not lighting ire or by relinKuishment o a#tion! % we but understand the nature o yagya and a#tion" we will also easily #omprehend the other issues raised in the 'eeta" the issues o -A2" o the our part organiMation o a#tion" o &arnsankar" and o the -ay o .nowledge or the -ay o 7e&otion! The enjoined task has to be set upon! This is an ines#apable ne#essity! By #onstant and resolute pra#ti#e the a#t o worship is progressi&ely re ined and inally rendered so subtle that will and desire are #ompletely subdued and stilled! True renun#iation is only this total #essation o will and desire" and there is no sa#ri i#e earlier than this a##omplishment that #ould be #alled renun#iation! %n #hapter a ter #hapter B*" .a irmed o&er and o&er that this one ordained a#tion is the most propitious! >n ortunately" howe&er" in spite o .rishn3s tea#hings" we #annot help distorting them into the shape o our deluded" pre$ #on#ei&ed notions! %t is e&ident that yagya ne#essarily entails 2<@>@C%AT%0@! So" naturally we ha&e the Kuestion i there is any stage be ore the ultimate realiMation at whi#h one may orsake this a#tion in the name o renun#iation! %t appears rom the nature o .rishn3s repeated warning we persist in assuming that whate&er we do in the world is 5a#tion!5 And that there is no need or any relinKuishment! All that is needed or our deeds to be sel less is that we should not aspire a ter ruits o labour! -e erroneously persuade oursel&es that the -ay o A#tion is a##omplished by just our undertaking a task with a sense o obligation" or that the -ay o 2enun#iation is a#hie&ed by a mere surrender o whate&er we do to 'od! Similarly" no sooner is the Kuestion o yagya broa#hed than we abri#ate the i&e 5great sa#ri i#es5 su#h as o ering oblations to all beings Bbhoot yagyaC or water libations to departed an#estors" or sa#ri i#es to ire to appease superior gods like ?ishnu" and promptly rush to per orm them loudly #hanting 5swaha5 1ad .#eption is the deed that is ordained and per ormed through solitary meditation" and in whi#h the mind is reined in rom all obje#ts other than the #herished goal! % su#h is the nature o a#tion en&isioned in the 'eeta" the Kuestion o physi#al war are simply does not arise! % the propitious way re&ealed by the 'eeta is only or those who wish to ight wars" we had better keep it aside! %n a#t" Arjun3s predi#ament is3 one that #on ronts all o us! 1is grie and inde#ision were there in the histori#al past and they are with us e&en today! -hen we try to restrain our minds and #on#entrate with all our being" we are shaken by su#h in irmities as desire" anger" in atuation" and disen#hantment! To ight these maladies and destroy them is war! -ars ha&e been and are being ought in the world" but the pea#e resulting rom them is in#idental and transitory! True and lasting pea#e is won only when the Sel has attained the state o immortality! ." 11" 1)" and 18" be#ause the a#tion that is stipulated in all o them without e.rishna not made a spe#i i# pronoun#ement in regard to yagya" we should ha&e been at liberty to ollow the di#tates o our will! But it is a demand o wisdom that we obey what is laid down in s#ripture! 4et we obstinately re use to a#t upon .rishn3s argument on the Kuestion that at his time" too" there e.

rishn tells Arjun in the third &erse o Chapter 19: 5Sin#e the aith o all men" 0 Bharat" is a##ording to their inherent propensity and man is essentially re&erent" he is what his aith is:3 <&ery man3s #hara#ter is moulded by his aith and the aith is a##ording to his dominant property! 4arn is thus a s#ale" a yardsti#k" to measure one3s #apa#ity or a#tion! But with the passing o time we either grew obli&ious o or dis#arded the appointed a#tion" began to de#ide so#ial status by heredity$thus treating &arn as #aste" and laid down rigid o##upations and modes o li&ing or di erent men! This is so#ial #lassi i#ation" whereas the #lassi i#ation made in the 'eeta is spiritual! (oreo&er" they who ha&e thus twisted the meaning o &arn ha&e also distorted the impli#ations o a#tion so as to prote#t their hollow so#ial standing and e#onomi# pri&ileges! -ith the passage o time" thus" &arn #ame to be determined by birth alone! But the 'eeta makes no su#h pro&ision! .rishn has re&ealed that no one #an attain to that Supreme Spirit without setting upon the way o a#tion! Sages o a##omplishment who are eman#ipated neither gain rom undertaking a#tion nor lose by orsaking it! And yet they engage in a#tion or the good o mankind! Gike these sages" there is nothing that .rishn a irms that all mankind is under the threat o alling into the &arnsankar state i the sages who dwell in 'od re rain rom ul illing their obligation! % these sages desist rom the per orman#e o their assigned task" the una##omplished will imitate them" dis#ontinue worship" and or e&er wander in the maMe o nature! They will thus be#ome &arnsankar" or the imma#ulate 'od and the state o a#tionlessness #an be a#hie&ed only by an undertaking o the ordained a#tion! Along with his ear o destru#tion o amilies in the impending war and the #onseKuent birth o &arnsankar BillegitimateC #hildren" Arjun also gi&es &ent to his apprehension that" depri&ed o 0BS<S>%AG 066<2%@'S" the departed Souls o an#estors will all rom hea&en! Thereupon 4ogeshwar .rishn has di&ided into ar ?A2@ or #lasses! A worshipper with inadeKuate knowledge is at the Shudr stage! So it is in#umbent on him to begin his Kuest with rendering o ser&i#e as reKuired by his nati&e ability" or thus alone #an the pro i#ien#ies o the ?aishya" .rishn had di&ided men into #lasses/ The de initi&e answer to this is ound in the thirteenth &erse o Chapter 8" where" he de#lares: 5% ha&e #reated the our #lasses B&arnC a##ording to innate properties and a#tion!5 So he has #lassi ied a#tion" not men" on the basis o inherent properties! The meaning o &arn will be understood without di i#ulty i we ha&e grasped the signi i#an#e o a#tion" and the import o &arnsankar will be #lear i we ha&e #omprehended what &arn is! 0ne who de&iates rom the way o ordained a#tion is ?A2@SA@.:**$*8C! %llegitimate #hildren are said to be born when women turn adulterous" but .rishn asks him how su#h a delusion has #ome o&er him! Pronoun#ing that obseKuial o erings are but an instan#e o spiritual ignoran#e" the Gord points out that the Soul #hanges rom a tattered" ra&aged body to a new one just as a man dis#ards worn out #lothes to put on a new apparel! Sin#e the physi#al body is mere #lothing and" rather than dying" the Soul just .This is the only pea#e a ter whi#h there is no disKuiet" and it #an be a#hie&ed only by a##omplishing the ordained a#tion! %t is this a#tion" rather than mankind" that 4ogeshwar .rishn says that he was the #reator o the our old &arn! Are we to assume rom this that there was #reation within the boundaries o %ndia alone" or #astes su#h as ours #annot be ound anywhere else in the world/ The number o our #astes and sub$#astes is beyond #ounting! 7oes this mean that .shatriya" and Brahmin #lasses be gradually in#ul#ated in him! Thus only will he be enabled to as#end step by step! At the other end" the Brahmin too is lawed be#ause he is yet distant rom 'od! And" a ter he has merged with that Supreme Being" he #eases to be a Brahmin! 5?arn5 denotes 5 orm!5 A man3s orm is not his body but his inborn disposition! .A2! The true &arn o the Sel is 'od himsel ! So to stray rom the path that takes the Sel to 'od and to be lost in the wilderness o nature is to be &arnsankar! .rishn has not a#hie&ed" but he yet #ontinues to labour diligently or the sake o men who lag behind! % he does not per orm his gi&en task well and earnestly" the world will perish and all men will be &arnsankar B.

#hanges rom one apparel to another" who is it that we endea&our to appease and sustain by making all these obseKuial o erings/ That e.istent hea&enly abode" #annot but be an instan#e o ignoran#e! Arjun3s an.rishn tells Arjun in the twenty$ninth &erse o Chapter 9 : 5They who are aware o 'od" the identity o the Supreme Spirit and the indi&idual Soul" and o all a#tion" ind shelter under me and stri&e or liberation rom the #y#le o birth and death:3 They who know .rishn" the man who is a li#ted with the maladies o lust and anger that arise rom the property o spiritual ignoran#e" and whose hunger or #arnal enjoyment is insatiable" is the most abje#t sinner! %n other words" #o&etousness is the #hie among all sins! Gust and desire" dwelling in the senses" mind and intelle#t" are the ountainhead o sin! @o amount o washing the body #an make us #lean i iniKuity lurks within the mind! 7e#laring that the mind and senses are purged by #onstant remembran#e and re#itation o the name" by steady meditation" and by resigning onesel as well as rendering "earnest ser&i#e to some realiMed" a##omplished sage who has grasped the essen#e" .rishn and are united with him ore&er! Piety is" there ore" that whi#h indu#es the Sel to rise abo&e birth and death and all e&ils so as to know the eternal" immutable reality and ore&er dwell in it! By the same logi#" that deed is sin ul whi#h #onstrains the Sel to go round and round within the boundaries o mortality" and o grie and spiritual si#kness! .plains why .ample o ignoran#e! Stressing the same again" he adds in the se&enth &erse o Chapter 1): 5The immortal Soul in the body is a part o mine and it is he who draws the i&e senses and the si.horted to obtain the knowledge" into whi#h all a#tion is at last merged" rom sages through re&eren#e" inKuiry" and inno#ent soli#itation! This knowledge$awareness o the highest spiritual truth$annihilates all sin! The same idea is stated di erently in Chapter 1.rishn as well as they know the Supreme Being who animates all beings" all di&inities" and yagya" and whose minds are absorbed in him" #ome to know the 'od in . when Arjun is told that whereas wise men who partake o the ood ensuing rom yagya are liberated rom all sin" the impious who only #o&et grati i#ation o physi#al desires subsist on nothing but sin! 4agya is" as we ha&e seen" a #ertain pro#ess o meditation by whi#h all in luen#es and impressions o the world$animate as well as inanimate$stored in the mind are redu#ed to nothing! 'od is the only remnant that is le t behind! So" while sin is that whi#h engenders bodies" a#ts o piety enable a man to realiMe the indestru#tible" eternal essen#e a ter whi#h the Soul is reed rom the #ompulsion o assuming yet another body! 2id o wi#ked and #on li#ting passions" the doers o &irtuous a#tion whi#h brings the #y#le o birth and death to an end worship and adore the Supreme Spirit with an a&owed resol&e! .th$ the mind$that dwell in nature!J The Soul #arries along the properties and mode o the mind and i&e senses o the body rom whi#h he departs and takes them into his new body! -hen the ne.rishn urges Arjun" in the thirty$ ourth &erse o Chapter 8" to undertake these deeds! Arjun is e.rishn de#lares the pra#ti#e an e.ieties o&er &arnsankar and the all o the Souls o the departed orbearers rom their #elestial home naturally draws one3s attention to the Kuestions o S%@ and P%<T4! @umerous mis#on#eptions also pre&ail in regard to what is &irtuous and what is impious: the righteous and the unrighteous! A##ording to 4ogeshwar .t body" eKuipped with all the means o physi#al enjoyment" is immediately assured to the Soul" to whom do we o er the obseKuial lour$#akes and libations/ As the Soul dis#ards his old body" he at on#e assumes another" and there is no interruption between the two e&ents! %magining" there ore" that the Souls o our de#eased an#estors o a thousand or more generations are lying somewhere waiting to be ed and o ered drinks by their li&ing des#endants" as well as shedding tears o sorrow o&er the an#ied all o these Souls rom their non$ e.

%t is said again in Chapter 1+ that the wise man" who knows .ists and the real is ne&er without e.rishn has told Arjun in the ortieth &erse o Chapter * : 5Sin#e sel less a#tion neither wears out the seed rom whi#h it sprang nor has any ad&erse #onseKuen#e" e&en a partial obser&an#e o it liberates one rom the dire terror o repeated birth and death!5 So the undertaking o this a#tion is dharm! This appointed a#tion has been #lassi ied into our #ategories on the basis o the seekers3 inherent ability! At the initial stage" when a man sets upon the way o seeking a ter a due understanding o his task" he is a Shudr! But he is ele&ated to the rank o a ?aishya when his hold upon the means gets steadier! At the third stage" the same worshipper is promoted to the yet higher status o a .rishn B*!1:$*9C" the unreal ne&er e.isten#e at any time! 'od alone is real" permanent" indestru#tible" #hangeless" and eternal" but he is beyond thought" imper#eptible" and Kuite abo&e the luttering o mind! A#tion is the "name o the mode by whi#h a man attains to 'od a ter subduing his mind! Putting this mode into pra#ti#e is dharm" whi#h is a trust or obligation! As .rishn has pointed out in Chapter 1: that" misguided in numerous ways" enmeshed in the webs o atta#hment" and inordinately ond o sensual pleasure" men all into the most de iled hell! Gight is shed on the nature o this hell in the nineteenth &erse o the same #hapter when .rishn lays down in the orty$si.th &erse o Chapter 18 that engaging in a#tion that is in harmony with one3s nati&e disposition is swadharm! Though o an in erior merit" the dis#harge o one3s natural obligation should be pre erred! The undertaking o a deed o superior merit is" on the other hand" improper and injurious i it is attempted without #ulti&ating the ability that is #ommensurate with it! <&en losing one3s li e in the ul illment o one3s inborn #alling is better" be#ause the body is a mere garb and no one is really #hanged by putting on a .rishn3s essen#e as the birthless" eternal" and Supreme 'od o the entire world" is reed rom all sins! %t is only the dire#t per#eption o 'od" as we ha&e been enlightened" that liberates the Soul rom sin! %n brie " there ore" whereas that whi#h e e#ts repeated birth and death is sin" the deed that prompts one towards 'od and begets the ultimate repose is piety! -hile merits su#h as truth ulness" relying upon the produ#e o one3s own labour" regarding women with the lo&ing re&eren#e that is elt or one3s own mother" and integrity are also important #on#omitants o &irtue" true piety is o #ourse the realiMation o 'od! The man who o ends against aith in 'od is a sinner! %n the popular imagination sin and 1<GG always go together! @ow" what is this hell/ %t has been des#ribed &ariously as bottomless pit" as in erno" and as underworld! 'i&ing an a##ount o the property o ignoran#e" .shatriya when he gains the ability to oppose the #on li#ts o nature! The awakening o true knowledge that is transmitted by the &oi#e o 'od himsel " and whi#h bestows on one" the ability to rely upon that 'od and be#ome like him" transmutes the seeker into a Brahmin! 1en#e it is that 4ageshwar .rishn says: 5% or e&er #ondemn these abhorring" sin ul" and #ruel men" the most abje#t among mankind" to in erior births!5 ignorant and wi#ked men who entertain a eeling o hostility against 'od are perpetually #ondemned to repeated birth in lower orms o li e! As or what takes one to this hell" it is de#lared in the same #hapter that lust" anger" and greed" all destru#ti&e o san#tity o the Sel " are the three gateways to hell! %t is these maladies" more than any others" that #onstitute the de&ilish hoard! So hell" as &isualiMed in the 'eeta" is degradation to re#urrent birth in base orms! A ter ha&ing &iewed all the di erent" s#attered strands that go into the making o the 'eeta" it will be now opportune to dwell upon the #omposite &iew o 71A2( that emerges rom the s#ripture! %t may be #laimed without any impropriety that dharm" properties and #ondu#t that enable a man to realiMe his Sel " is the o&erriding #on#ern o the 'eeta! A##ording to .

rishn tea#h us in regard to this/ There was a time when pupils were initiated into the ?ed and trained in the martial skills o ar#hery and wielding ma#es! But no one #ares to learn these things today be#ause ours is an age o automati# ma#hines and sel $ propelled weapons! -hat #an .rishnC$ the one 'od$with intentness" and his Soul is then merged with 'od who is the ultimate reality and dharm! So" a##ording to the 'eeta" that man is pious who per orms the appointed task in keeping with his innate property to realiMe 'od! Arjun is #ounselled at last to orsake all his other obligations and seek re uge in .er#ise is resumed rom the same point at whi#h it was dis#ontinued! Thus #limbing rom step to step" the seeker at last attains to the immortal state! The same is re$emphasiMed in the orty$se&enth &erse o the #on#luding #hapter" when it is said that a man attains to ultimate liberation by worshipping 'od well a##ording to his inborn in#lination! %n other words" remembering and meditating on 'od by the appointed mode is dharm! But who is the man entitled to this spiritual dis#ipline #alled dharm/ -ho has the pri&ilege o approa#hing it/ Shedding light on the problem" .nowledge o the physi#al world has grown tremendously and bi ur#ated into numerous bran#hes! But there is a reality that trans#ends all this physi#al knowledge! %t is always there with e&ery one o us" but un ortunately we are obli&ious o it! -e neither know it nor #an re#ogniMe it! %t is the memory" the awareness" o this sublime reality that slips rom Arjun3s mind" but he re#o&ers it by listening de&outly to .rishn tells Arjun that e&en the most degraded man is rendered &irtuous i he worships him B.ternal" physi#al li e #an he possibly make/ %n the olden days" yagya was per ormed to in&oke rains" but today we do it by me#hani#al means! %n the past #rops were almost wholly dependent on rains" but now there is arti i#ial irrigation and we ha&e the mu#h &aunted 5'reen 2e&olution!5 -hat #an the 4ogeshwar say about all this/ That is why he has rankly admitted that bound and #onstrained by the properties o nature" the physi#al li e o man grows and #hanges a##ording to #ir#umstan#e! %t is these properties that shape the di erent orms o e.rishn say about these matters/ -hat pro&isions or the e.di erent apparel! -hen taken up again" the spiritual e.ternal li e! .rishn3s sa#red message that is enshrined in the 'eeta! The memory that #omes ba#k to Arjun is the memory o 'od who dwells in the realm o e&ery heart and is yet so ar away! %t is e&ery man3s aspiration to approa#h that Supreme <ssen#e" but he does not know the way! 1ow .rishn! So that man who is wholly de&oted to the one 'od is endowed with piety! To dedi#ate onesel thus to 'od is dharm! The pro#ess by whi#h the Sel is enabled to attain to the Supreme Being is dharm! The awareness" that #omes to sages a ter their hunger or union with 'od has been Kuen#hed be#ause o their a#hie&ement o the ultimate state" is the only reality in all o #reation! So we ha&e to seek re uge in these men o enlightenment and wisdom in order to learn how we #an make our way along the path that leads to inal bliss! That path is only one and embarking on it is dharm! 7harm is an obligation$a sa#red trust! %t is propitious and the mind that applies itsel to this enjoined task is also one and uni ied! B*!81C 0 ering the un#tions o the senses and the operations o the li e$winds to the ire o yog$sel $restraint$kindled by the knowledge o 'od is dharm! B8!*9C -hen sel $#ontrol is identi#al with the Soul" and the operations o breath and the senses are thoroughly stilled" the #urrent whi#h arouses passions and the #urrent that bears one towards 'od merge into one in the Sel ! 2ealiMation o 'od is the sublime #ulmination o this spiritual pro#ess! The 6<G%C%T4 o ered by the 'eeta is its illumination o the hidden truth o 'od$ or the enlightenment o all mankind! There are no s#hools that impart instru#tion in lust" anger" greed" and delusion to their pupils! And yet there are youngsters who are better$&ersed in these &i#es than e&en their elders! -hat #an .

rishn has re&ealed or the attainment o the ultimate essen#e is the 'eeta3s most pre#ious and indeed inestimable gi t or the good o all humanity! The 'eeta embodies a spiritual pre#ept that is #omplete in e&ery respe#t! This pre#ept is ound in the ?ed" too" and they are among the sublimest o holy books! The >panishad are their abstra#t! And the 'eeta" 5Song o the Gord"5 embodies the essen#e o all o them! Sin#e a seKuestered li e" restraint o the senses" and #onstant re le#tion and meditation are essential reKuirements o the ordained a#tion" it is o ten asked o what use the 'eeta #an be to 10>S<10G7<2S! That is like saying that the 'eeta is only or as#eti#s$ or men who ha&e renoun#ed the world and all! But this is not true! Although the 'eeta is primarily or persons who tread the path o spiritual Kuest" it is also in good measure or those who aspire to step on to it! This song o re&elation is or all men" and it is spe#ially salutary or householders$ or men and women who are rearing a amily and struggling to support and sustain it" be#ause su#h indi&iduals stand at the point where a#tion is #ommen#ed! .rishn" o the eeble worshipper whose in#onstant mind has strayed away rom sel less a#tion and who has" there ore" been depri&ed o per#eption whi#h is the inal out#ome o yog/5 %s it that this deluded" shelter$ less man is dissipated like s#attered #louds" depri&ed o both 'od$ realiMation and worldly pleasures/ .un ortunate it is that we know all other ways but are ignorant o this one" uniKue way that takes us to ultimate happiness/ The shroud o nes#ien#e o not knowing" that en&elops us is so thi#k that the mind ails to penetrate it and get at the truth! Cons#ious o the ignoran#e that lies like a dense mantle o&er men3s minds" the 4ogeshwar" knower o man3s innermost se#rets" has in his in inite gra#e illumined the hidden truth in the 'eeta or the enlightenment o all o us! As or the language in whi#h his tea#hings are enshrined" it is so simple" dire#t" and lu#id that no reader #an either mis#onstrue it or e.rishn tells Arjun that the initial step taken in the undertaking o sel less a#tion is ne&er destroyed! Attempted in e&en a small measure" it at last pro&ides liberation rom the terror3 o birth and death! @ow" who besides an o&erburdened and harried householder is e.:C @ow" who possibly is e.th &erse o Chapter 8 : 5<&en i you are the most heinous sinner" the ark o knowledge will #arry you sa ely a#ross all e&ils!5 B8!.t .rishn promises in the thirty$se#ond &erse o the same #hapter" attain to the Supreme goal by taking re uge in 'od! -hat is pledged here is thus or all mankind$1indus" (uslims" Christians" and all others" men and women! <&en persons o sin ul #ondu#t #an a#hie&e inal eman#ipation by inding shelter under 'od! A householder is not essentially a sin ul man! (oreo&er" the order to whi#h he belongs is" as we ha&e already seen" the starting point o the s#ripturally ordained a#tion! Climbing e&er higher" .pe#ted to a#t in a small measure/ 1e has so little time to de&ote to the task! Arjun is told in the thirty$si.rishn urther de#lares in the thirtieth &erse o Chapter 9 : 5<&en i a man o the most depra&ed #ondu#t worships in#essantly" he is worthy o being regarded as a saint be#ause he is a man o true resol&e!5 -ho #an be more allen" the man who is already absorbed in di&ine adoration or the man who has not yet been initiated into the pro#ess/ <&en women" ?aishya" and Shudr" who are said by the ignorant to be o in erior birth" .pe#ted to be the greater sinner" the man who is in#essantly absorbed in spiritual seeking or the man who only #ontemplates embarking on it/ So the garhastya$order$the order o the householder$is the stage that marks the beginning o a#tion! %n Chapter :" Arjun asks the lord: 5-hat is the end" + .perien#e any di i#ulty in #omprehending it! The way that .rishn then pro#eeds to assure his riend and dis#iple that e&en this irresolute man who digresses rom yog is not destroyed" or one who has per ormed good deeds ne&er #omes to grie ! -ith his sanskar" su#h a person is either born in the house o a noble man or admitted to the amily o an enlightened yogi! Su#h a person is thus on both ways indu#ed to worship and" treading this appointed path through se&eral births" he or she inally a#hie&es the ultimate state! All this is rele&ant to a householder more than to anyone else! %sn3t a person in a#t" re$born as a householder be#ause o wandering rom the -ay o Sel less A#tion/ And this a##ident o birth is what bestows on that indi&idual an in#lination towards spiritual seeking and worship! %n this #onte.

rishna says R Q% am going to say that same an#ient 4oga or you now! 4ou are my belo&ed dis#iple" true riend! Arjun was intelligent" true worthy! 1e reeled out a #hain o Kuestions like you were born justO the Sun was born ages ago! 1ow do % a##ept that Q4ou told this to the SunI/ 1e asked some twenty twenty$ i&e Kuestions o this type! By the time 'eeta #ame to #on#lusion all his Kuestions were answered" at that jun#ture the Gord 1imsel raised the Kuestions Arjun #ould not muster up and were in his bene it and #lari ied the same! At the end o it all the Gord said" Q ArjunF 7id you listen to my ad&i#e in #on#entration/ -as your ignoran#e raised out o desire has &anished/ Arjun said" @ashto moha smritirlabdha twatprasadanmaya#hyut D Sthitohsmi gatasandehah karishye &a#hanam ta&a DD 18P9.rishn says" like the orm o 'od himsel ! .ing %kshwaku! The 2ajarshis rom %kshwaku knew it and during this important period this indestru#tible happening disappeared rom this earth! %nitially there was a tradition o listening and memoriMing! %t was not e&en thought that it #ould be do#umented! (anu (aharaj #arried it in his psy#hologi#al memory and #reated the tradition o memory! Thus this knowledge deri&ed rom 'eeta is the pure (anusmriti! The Gord had imparted this knowledge to the Sun e&en be ore he ga&e it to (anu" so why donIt we #all it Suryasmriti/ %n a#t the Sun is that part o the Gight" the Almighty that is the #reator o this uni&erse! Gord Shri .rishna says" Q% ma the ather o the ultimate li e stream sperm" and the nature is the womb that nurtures itI! The Sun is the originator! Sun is that ultimate power o the Gord that designed the humans! %t is not a personality and where the enlightened power #reated the humans the same power was trans erred the knowledge based on 'eeta that is it was trans erred to the Sun! Sun told the same to his son (anu thus it is #alled (anusmriti! Sun is not a person" it is the sour#e! Gord Shri .nowledge deri&ed rom 'eeta is the pure (anusmriti R'eeta appeared e&en be ore the original man (anu RQ%mam &i&aswateh yogam prokta&anaham&yayamIB8!1+C ArjunF % told about this indestru#tible happening to Sun at the beginning o time and Sun told it to (anu! (anu listened to it and #arried it in his memory be#ause what he heard #ould be #arried only in (anuIs smiriti BmemoryC! (anu told the same thing to . 1ey Gord" my desires ha&e subsided! % ha&e gotten memory! % ha&e not only listened but % am #arrying it as part o system now! % will abide by your orders" and will hold the war! 1e pi#ked up his bow" warred" won" and established an empire o the pure dharma and in the orm o a religious s#ripture that original 7harmashastra 'eeta again #ame in #ir#ulation! 'eeta is sour#e religious s#ripture! This is the (anusmriti that was embedded in memory by Arjuna! There is a re eren#e to two 'eeta in ront o (anu R 0ne gotten rom the 6ather" the se#ond" the ?edas whi#h appeared in ront o (anu! There was no third thing that appeared (anuIs time! Those days do#umentation was not a way" paper L pen were not #ommon thus there was the tradition o listening to the knowledge and making it part o the memory! (anu (aharaj" the sour#e human kind" the irst human ga&e the honor o shruti BlisteningC to ?edas and memory to 'eeta! ?edas appeared in ront o (anu" listen to them" they are meant or listening! <&en i you may orget them later onwards there is no harm but 'eeta is smriti" you should always remember it! This is that hea&enly psalm ro the humankind that will ore&er gi&e you li e" pea#e and e&erlasting prosperity! The Gord said R ArjunF % you will not listen to my ad&i#e be#ause o your ego you will #ease to .although step by step" the householder will also a#hie&e the state o a yogi and be#ome a part o the supreme essen#e and" then" his orm will be" as 4ogeshwar .

rishn #alls the ordained a#tion in order that we may know and be in#lined to undertake it! %n #ase we are o&ertaken by loss o remembran#e sometimes" we go ba#k to these works to re resh our memory! But these sa#red books are o absolutely no a&ail i we just sprinkle grains o ri#e and sandal$paste on them and then relegate them to a high shel ! A noble work like the 'eeta is a marker$a sign that dire#ts us along the right path and pro&ides support right up to the time when the destination is rea#hed! -e look up to holy books so that we may #onstantly ad&an#e towards the #herished goal! But a ter the heart has on#e seiMed it" the goal itsel is trans ormed into a book! ?eneration o noble memories is desirable" but a blind worship o them is deplorable! As or the present e.#ited with the &i#es and pray other operations will not get happiness" prosperity and will neither rea#h abode!I So Arjun"HTasma#h#hhaastram pramanam te karyaakarya&ya&asthitouhDJthis is the standard s#ien#e behind management o your tasks and untasks! Study it well and a#t a##ordingly! 4ou will be my part" rea#h that indestru#tible position and will attain li e ore&er and e&erlasting pea#e and prosperity! 'eeta is the (anusmriti and as per Gord Shri .rishnC wishes to do him good! This knowledge is the most se#ret knowledge$se#ret be#ause it is meant or only men o the reKuired spiritual preparedness! So Arjun is at the end bidden that be ore he passes on this knowledge to another man he must wait" i the man is not a true de&otee" until he is brought o&er to the ordained way! 0bser&an#e o su#h a pre#aution in the imparting o this most mysterious knowledge is essential" or this knowledge is the one and only means o inal sal&ation! And the 'eeta is a systemati# a##ount" in .rishn in its true perspe#ti&e! <mbodying the whole means o ultimate liberation" the 'eeta is sel $#ontained" There is not a single point in it that may engender any doubt! But sin#e it .position" it is #alled 4atharth 'eeta be#ause it is an attempt to elu#idate the meaning o .%@7! (any a sage like (aharshi Patanjali has elu#idated the mode" in isolation rom Kuestions o so#ial order and organiMation" that begets the highest eli#ity! 4ogeshwar .rishn also inds the way more salutary! Also" his message is or only deser&ing pupils! 1e reminds Arjun time and again that he has imparted the knowledge to him be#ause he is his lo&ing de&otee and be#ause he B.S are use ul in the same way as monuments and pla#es that remind us o the ideals and a#hie&ements o some departed sage! They tell us o the dynami# spiritual pro#ess whi#h 4ogeshwar .e.ist" that it the one who disrespe#ts the ad&i#es o 'eeta will be#ome e.rishna 'eeta is the religious s#ien#e" there is no other s#ien#e" no other memory! 1e &arious memories pra#ti#ed in so#iety today is the allba#k o orgetting 'eeta! The memories are the solution or ma#hinations o the royalties and a weapon to build walls in the so#iety! They neither paint a #orre#t pi#ture o (anuIs thoughts neither do they des#ribe (anuIs times! 0riginal (anusmrit