You are on page 1of 44

Centrifugal Pump Design

pump&) valves



Page General National and International Standards for Centrifugal Pumps Shaft Deflection Improving the NPSH Requirement impeller Types Pump Types Pump Installation Arrangements Pump Sump Configuration Suction Pipe Layout Shaft Couplings 22

1 2 2.1 2.2 2.3 2.4 2.5 2.6 2.6.1 2.6.2 2.7

Symbols, Units and Designations Design Pump Capacity Pump Head Svstem Head ~beed Selectina the PumD Size calculating the power Consumption Pump Power lnput Calculating the Drive Rating Pump Characteristic Curve

2.8 System Characteristic (Piping Characteristic) 2.9 Operating Point 2.1 0 Parallel Operation of Centrifugal Pumps 3 Suction Characteristics 9.1 9.2 9.3

Technical Data

3.1 NPSH Required p , 3.2 NPSH Available , in Straight Pipes 4.1 Head Losses H head Losses , In p~ast-c P pes 4 4.2Pressure LossesH 4 3 Head Losses H , lor VISCOUS Llqulds in Straight Pipes , in Valves and Fittings 4.4 Head Losses H 5 5.1 5.2 6 7 7.1 7.2 7.2.1 7.2.2 7.3 7.3.1 7.3.2 Changing the Pump Performance Changing the Speed Trimming the Impellers Handling Viscous Liquids Typical Selection Examples

, and Density p of Water Vapour pressure p , of Various Liquids Vapour pressure p Density p of Various Liquids at Atmospheric Pressure 9.4 Extract of Main Legal Units for Centrifugal Pumps 9.5 Conversion of British and U.S. Units 9.6 Graph for Calculating Flow Velocity v 9.7 Graph for Calcuiating Velocity Head v212g 9.8 Graph for Calculating Velocity Head Differential A v212 g , 9.9 Graph for Calculating Head Losses H 9.10 Graph for Calcuiating Conversion Factors fern, ~ H , W and f,,,~ for Viscous Liquids 9.1 1 Graph for Calculating Conversion Factors for and f~~ for Viscous Liquids 9.12 Graph for Calculating Specific Speed n , - Schedule for Calculating the Operating Point or Pump Size for Viscous Liquids

Selecting the Pump Size Calculating the Power Consumption Pump Power lnput Calculating the Drive Rating Calculating the N P S H , Suction Lift from OpenfClosed Tank Positive Suction Operation from OpenlCiosed Tank 7.3.3 Positive Suction Operation from Closed Tank at Vapour Pressure 7.4 Changing the Speed 7.5 Trimming the Impeller 7.6 Handling Viscous Liquids 7.6.1 Calcuiating the Operating Point 7.6.2 Establishing the Pump Size

1 Symbols, Units and Designations

A a b2 D DN d F

2 Design 2 . 1 Pump Capacity The capacity Q is the external volume flow per unit of time in ms/s (I/s and m3/h are also commonly used). Balance water, leakage water etc. do not count as part of the capacity.

m 2 mm m mm (m) (mm) mm N -


9 H HA H . .

mIs2 m m m m m H s m H z ,en m H" m H",, m AH 1 K mm k m L llmin n NPSHreq m m N P S H , llmin nq kW P bar (N/m2) P bar (N/m2) P b bar (NIm2) P o bar (Nlm2) P" I/s (mVh) AQ Ils (m31h) Q Ils (m3/h) Q , " mm R 1 Re m U mls v mm Y l/h m G.d

~o'" , , ,

' 1



m21s kg/m3 (kg/dm3) 1

Area Width Impeller outlet width impeller diameter, pipe diameter Nominal bore of pipe Smallest inner diametel Force Conversion factor for head Conversion factor for flow rate Conversion factor for efficiency Gravitational constant = 9.81 mlsz Head System head Static head Shut-off head Static suction lift Static positive suction head Head loss Head loss - suction side Differential head Coefficient Absolute roughness Length of pipe Speed NPSH required NPSH available Specific speed Pump power input Pressure Barometric pressure Vapour pressure of liquid Pressure loss Differential capacity Capacity/Flow rate Minimum flow rate Radius Reynolds number Circumference Flow velocity Stroke Switching frequency Height differential between pump suction and discharge nozzles Loss coefficient Pump efficiency Pipe friction coefficient Correction coefficient Kinematic viscosity Density Temperature fact01 Opening angle

2 . 2 Pump Head The head H of a pump is the useful mechanical energy transmitted by the pump to the medium handled, related to the weight of the medium, expressed in m. It is independent of the density p of the medium handled, i.e. a centrifugal pump will generate the same head H for all fluids irrespective of the density p. The density p determines the pressure within the pump p=p.g.H and influences the pump power input P .

2 . 3 System Head , is made up of the following The total head of the system H (see Figs. 1 and 2):

, H .,, Static head = height difference between the suction and discharge fluid levels. If the discharge pipe emerges H ,, is referred to the centreline above the liquid level, then , of the outflow section.

. , the pressure head difference between the suction

P'S and discharge fluid levels in closed tanks. . Z H , the sum of all pressure head losses (pipe friction, friction in valves, fittings etc. in suction and discharge pipes). va2- ve2 ,the difference in velocity heads in the tanks. 29

.-HA= , H ,,

The system head HAis thus:

In practice the difference between the velocity heads can be ignored, leaving for closed tanks

+ +


+ ZH,,


for open tanks H A Hseo ZHV

Indices at outlet cross section of the systemlbranching off a at operating point B at discharge nozzle of pump/flowing through d at inlet cross section of planVbranching off e for cast iron G geodetic gee for plastic K suction side, at suction nozzle of pump S at best efficiency point opt radial R for sulphuric acid sch for water W for viscous liquids z consecutive numbers, items 1,2,3

2 . 4 Speed
With three-phase motor drives (asynchronous squirrel cage motor) the approximate pump speeds are as follows:
No. of poles

F r e q u e n w
at 5 0 Hz at 60 Hz




~eterence speeds in curve documentation in llmin 725 580 480 960 2900 1450 580 1160 1750 875 700 3500

415 500

In practice, however, motors usually run at slightly higher speeds which - upon consent of the customer - are taken into account by the pump manufacturer at the design stage (see section 7.4). Different speeds are possible using a speed adjustment device, gearbox or belt drive.

Fig 1 Pumping system with suction lin

Flg. 2 Pumping system with p ~ i t i v e suction


2.7 Pump Characteristic Curve In contrast to positive-displacementpumps (e.g. reciprocating pumps) at constant speed (n = const.) centrifugal pumps have a capacity Q which will increase if the head decreases. They are thus capable of self-regulation. The pump power input P, and therefore the efficiency q, plus the NPSHreq depend on the capacity. The behaviour and relationship of all thesevariables are shown by the curves (see Fig. 3) which thus illustrate the operating characteristics of a centrifugal pump. The characteristic curves apply to the density p and kinematic viscosity v of water, unless stated otherwise.

2.5 Selecting the Pump Size (see 7.1) The data needed for selecting the pump size - capacity Q and head H at the required duty point - is known, as is the mains frequency. The pump size and speed can be determined from the performance chart (also called selection chart) (see 8.0 Fig. 26); then the other parameters of the pump selected, such as efficiency q, input power P and NPSH, can be established from the appropriate individual performance curve (see 8.0, Fig. 3). Unless there is a particular reason to the contrary, arrange the operating point near Qopt(b.e.p.). For pumps handling viscous liquids see sections 6 and 7.6.2


Calculating the Power Consumption

2.6.1 Pump Power Input (see example in 7.2.1) The pump power input P of a centrifugal pump is the mechanical energy at the pump coupling or pump shaft absorbed from the drive. It is determined using the following equation:

with p g Q H q

in kgIdm3 in m/s2 in 1 1 s inm between 0 and 1

or another equation which is still used:

with p in kgIdm3 Q in m3/h H inm 367 conversion factor (constant) The pump power input P in kW can also be directly read with sufficient accuracy off the characteristic curves (see 2.7) where the de-nsity p = 1000 kgIm3. The pump power input P must be cbnverted (see 7.2.1) for other densities p.

2.6.2 Calculating the Drive Rating (see example under 7.2.2) Since it is possible that the system volume flow, and thus the operating point, will fluctuate, which could mean an increase in the pump power input P, it is standard practice to use the following safety margins when determining the motor size, unless the customer specifies otherwise: up to 7.5 kW approx. 20% from 7.5 to 40 kW approx. 15% from 40 kW approx. 10%. If extreme volume flow fluctuations are expected, the motor size must be selected with reference to the maximum possible pump capacity on the characteristic curves, taking the following into consideration: impeller diameter required, condition NPSHav LN P S H ,, (see 3.2), 0 permissible P/n values for the bearings. Handling 'liquids with a high proportion of solids, as well as handling pulp, means using special pumps and/or special impellers.

Fig. 3


Laufrad Breite

Rodete Impeller Roue Width Largeur Anchura

0 mm 130-169

Centrifugal pump characteristic curves

The duty conditions determine which is the more favourable - a flat or a steep curve. With a steep curve the capacity changes less than with a flat curve under the same differential head conditions AH (see Fig. 4). The steep curve thus possesses better control characteristics.

3.2 NPSH Available (= N P S H ,) The datum point for the N P S H , is the centre of the pump's suction nozzle. With standard, horizontalvolute casing pumps the centreiines of the suction nozzle and impeller are on the same level (Figs. 10 and l l ) , i.e. the geodetic height is 0. However, if there is a difference of geodetic height (e.g. with vettical pumps), it has to be taken into account. N P S H , is calculated as follows: a) Suction lift operation; the pump is above the liquid level (Fig. 10) N P S H . , is defined as:

~ i g8 . Paraiiei operation of two similar centrifugal pumps with the same shut-off head HO

However, with a cold liquid, e.g. water, and an open tank, i.e. oh 1 bar 1= 105 NIm2) .p , = 0 bar p = 1000 kgIm3 = 10 mls2 (incl. 2% error on 9.81 mIs2) g v . 2 1 2 g can be eliminated because of the negligible velocity head in the tank,

Fig. 9 shows an alternative solution: two pumps with the same shut-off head Ho but different capacities Qi and Qll pumping at a given operating point B in one piping system. Ql of pump I and QII of pump II combine to produce the total capacity QI+IIat the same head H.

The following simplified version is used in practice: N P S H , 10- H,, - Hsgeo.


+ 11 curve

~ i g10 . NPSH~., for suction iin operation

b) Suction head operation; the pump is below the liquid level (Fig. 11) N P S H , is defined as:

NPSH -Pe+Pb-Po BV p.9

B opersting point

+ ve2 - H,s + Hz geo 29

no Shut-off


The following equation is used in practice, assuming the same conditions as in a): NPSH,-10-H,,+H . ,

~ i g9 . Parallel operation of 2 pumw withthe same shut-off head no

Suction Characteristics

3.1 NPSH Required (= N P S H , . , ) (NPSH = Net Positive Suction Head) Centrifugal pumps will only operate satisfactorily if there is no build-up of vapour (cavitation) within the pump. Therefore the pressure head at the NPSH datum point must exceed the vapour pressure head of the medium handled. The NPSH datum point is the impeller centre, i.e. the point of intersection between the pump shaft centreline and the plane at right angles to the pump shaft and passing through the outer points of the vane inlet edge. The N P S H , . , isthevaluerequired bythe pumpandisexpressed in meters on the pump characteristic curves. The value often includes a safety margin of 0.5 m.

~ i 11 g NPSH~V for ~ u c i i o n head operation

In all cases the following is a prerequisite for cavitation-free operation: P S H , N P S H , 2N

4. Pressure Losses p , The pressure loss p, is the pressure differential arising as a result of wall friction and internal friction in piping runs, fittings, valves and fittings etc. The generally valid formula for the pressure loss of a flow in a straight length of pipe is:

where p , pipe friction loss, A pipe friction coefficient, U wetted periphery of section A through which the fluid flows. L length of pipe, p density of the medium pumped, v flow velocity across a section A characteristic of the pressure loss.

Straight lengths of circular cross-section piping are defined by the following equation: p" - h . L p.v2 D 2 where D bore of pipe. The pipe friction coefficient h varies with the state of flow of the medium and the internal surface finish of the pipeline through which the medium is flowing. The state of flow is determined by the REYNOLDS number (model laws): V.D Re=V

for non-circular sections v. 4 A Re=- v . U

where kinematic viscosity.

Table 1: Mean peak-to-valley heights k (absolute roughness)


Nonferrous metals, light alloys




oioesl: . . ,

can be ca.cLlate0 for smooth bore pipes (new rolied steel

in the region of laminar flow in the pipe (Re friction coefficient is:


2320) the

.$ 0.050




in the region of turbulent flow in the pipe (Re > 2320) the test results can be represented by an empirical equation by ECK:

g 0.020 .a h

o 0

I 9 '-, 0.010

\ I /


2 468

2 468



In the region of 2320 < Re < 108the deviations are less than 1 %. Fig. 12 shows, that h is solely dependent on the parameter D/k at relativelv hiah REYNOLDS numbers: k/D is the "relative kand the roughness", obtained from the "absolute roughnessm DiDe bore diameter D, where k is defined as the mean deDth bf the wall surface roughness (coarseness). According to MOODY the following applies:

v.D REYNOLDS number Re = -


~ i g 12: . pipe fridion coenicient A in fundion of REYNOLDS number and of relative wall roughness Dlk

where i loss coefficient, v flow velocity, g gravitational constant. The values in Fig. 13 apply to clean water at 20 O C and to fluids of equal kinematicviscosity, assuming the piping is completely filled, and consists of new cast iron pipes, with an internal bitumen coating (k = 0.1 mm). The head losses H , of Fig. 13 should be multiplied by: 0.8 for new rolied steel pipes, 1.7 for pipes with incrustations (the reduced pipe crosssection due to the incrustationsis the determining factor), 1.25 for old slightly rusty steel pipes.

Table 1 gives rough approximations of k,

4.1 Head Losses H, in Straight Pipes Fig. 13 gives the losses of head H, per 100 m of straight pipe run for practical usage. The head losses H, in this context are ..2 calculated according to

Capacity Q
~ i g1 . 3 Head losses in straightpipes (cast iron pipe,newoondition)irom DN 15 to2000 mrn and for capacities Q from 0.5 to 50000 m3/h ifiowvelocityvin mls. nom, bore in mm, water at 209.

In the case of pipes with very heavy incrustations, the actual head loss can only be determined by experiments. Deviations from the nominal diameter have a profound effect on the head loss, e.g. an actual bore of 0.95 times the nominal bore (i.e. only a slight bore reduction) pushes up the head loss Hv to 1.3 times the "as new" loss. New rubber hoses and rubberlined canvas hoses have H , values approximately equal to those indicated in Fig. 13. How to use Fig. 13 - an example: Assuming a rate of flow Q = 140 m3/hand a new cast iron pipe, inside diameter D = 150 mm, we obtain: head loss Hv = 3.25 m1100 m pipe length, flow velocity v = 2.2 m/s.

4.3 Head Losses H, for Viscous Liquids in Straight Pipes The head loss of a viscous fluid (subscript FI) can be ascertained for practical purposes with the aid of Fig. 16, after having obtained the head loss for cold water (20 O C ,v= m2/s) (subscript W) from Fig. 13:

- IFI ' H~~ -- . hw

See viscosity for conversion of viscosity values.

4.2 Head Losses H, in Plastic Pipes Head losses in plastic pipes H,,. The head losses of PVC and polythene "hard" and "soft" (drawn) plastic pipes are approximately equal. For the practical calculation of H ,,, the respective head losses for cast iron pipes HvG(Fig. 13) should be multiplied by the correction coefficients p of Fig. 14, which are dependent on the flow velocity v. The head losses evaluated in this way apply to water at a temperature of 10 O C . If the water temperature is other than 10 OC, these head losses must in addition be multiplied by a temperature factor cp (Fig. 15). Thus
Hv~=HV~-p.cp where HvK head losses in plastic pipes, HVG head losses in cast iron pipes acc. to Fig. 13, p correction coefficient acc, to Fig. 14, temperature factor acc. to Fig. 15. 1.o

Flow velocity v

Fig. 14: Correction coefficient p for conversion of head losses in a cast iron pipe at 20 O C water temperature to values in a plastic pipe at 10 O C water temperature; plotted in function of flow velocity v

Rg 16 Res~stance coefflclents A. for flow of VISCOUS flulds ~nstra~ght plpes

How to use figure 16 - an example: Given: capacity Q = 100 m3/h, new cast iron pipe, inside diameter D = 250 mm, kinematic viscosity v = 2 . 10-4 m2/s. Found in figure 13: Hvw= 0.14 m/100 m. It follows from figure 16 that: A , = 0.08,hW = 0.021.

Temperature t
Fig. 15: Temperature factor q for calcuiatlon of head losses in plastic pipes at water temperatures between 0 and 60 ' C

Increments of 20 to 30% should be added for sewage or untreated water.

One quite common viscous fluid is cellulose (pulp pumping), the viscosity of which depends on the flow velocity, since the material in question is "non-NEWTONian"! Figures 17 a through 17 f offer reference values for the head losses Hv per 100 m length of straight steel pipe run plotted against capacity Q (H, = f(Q); nominal bore: 100,150,200,250,300 and 350 mm) for conveying unbleached sulfite cellulose at 15 O C , 26 OSR



'1 0
Flg. 17 d

(grinding state, O S R - Schopper-Riegler degree of freeness) and with a pulp density (pulp pumping) of 1.5 to 7 0 1 0 bone dry. If the pump slurry concerned differs from that used for the purpose of plotting the curves of Fig. 17, then the values obtained from Fig. 17 should be multiplied by the following factors: K = 0.9 for bleached sulphite - sulphate cellulose, waste paper pulp K = 1.0 for boiled (digested) wood pulp, K = 1.4 for white and brown raw wood pulp.

100 50 40 30 $20 20 30 50 100 200 m3/h 500 Rate of flow Q 1000

300 p l

0 -

u $10

4 fin-e

l m N ' s b b j

1 1 1 / 1,

',pulp bensity ,, ~n010 bone drv

3 2

Fig. 1 7 a

10 20 m3/h Rate of flow Q



20 30
Fig. 1 7 e


100 200 m3/h 500 Rate of flow Q



Pulp density in 010 bone d r y l


20 30


Fig 1 7 b

100 200 m3/h 500 1000 Rate of flow Q

m 1OOm


100 50 40 ; 30 $ 20
0 -

g 10
5 4 3
Fig. 1 7 f

Rate of flow Q

Flg 1 7 ~

20 30



200 m3/h 500


Rate of flow Q

Figs. 17a-f: show a plot of the head losses Hv for conveying sulphite cellulose of various pulp densities at a temperature of 150 OC and a grinding grade of 26 "SR (pipe diameters DN 100 to DN 350) A-A = maximum velocity (2.44 or 3.05 mls) in the discharge pipe for economical operation.

Furthermore, the head loss obtained from Fig. 17,and if necessary corrected by one of the factors listed above, should be corrected additionally if the pulp slurry concerned is at a temperature higher than 15 O C . In this case, 1 OIo of the head loss value which applies to 15 O C should be deducted for every 2 O C of temperature difference. In the case of plastic pipes, the HvK value is obtained by multiplying the Hvvalue for steel pipes by 0.9. The head loss value is reduced even further if fillers such as kaolin (China clay) are contained in the pulp slurry concerned. For an 18 0 1 0 kaolin content, the head loss value will decrease by 12 010, and for a 26.5010 kaolin content, it will decrease by

For pressure losses in valves and fittings the following equation applies:

16 010.
4.4 Head Losses H , in Valves and Fittings

where C loss coefficient, p density of pumped medium, v flow velocity across a section A which is characteristic of the head loss. Tables 2 to 4 and Figs. 18 to 24 give details of the individual loss coefficients C and head losses Hv in valves and fittings for operation with water.

Elbow radius RK Duct width an

Fig 20 influence of roundrng off of concave and convex s ~ d e on the loss coeff~c ient of elbows wlth quadratic cross sectlon

Head loss Hv
Fig. 18: Determination of head losses Hv in vaives and fittings; flow velocity v relating to the actual cross-sectional area through which the fluid flows

I o3

Knee piece


6 0

9 0


smooth rough smooth rough smooth rough

Combinations with 90 knee pieces





1 . 1 5

1 . 3 0

T pieces (subdivision of flow)


with sharp edges

1= 1 . 3

rounded with straight bottom

1= 0 . 7

spherical with inward-rounded neck


1= 0 . 9

1= 2.5 to 4 . 9

Relative opening angle (90 - 9)/9o

Degree of opening yla

Fig. 19: Illustration of fittings with related loss coefficients (

Fig. 21: Loss coefficients of butterfly vaives, globe and gate vaives in function of opening angle or degree of Opening (Position numbers according to Table 2, design)

Table 2: Loss coefficients (of valves and fittings (referred to the velocity of flow in the adjoining cross-section DN Type of valvelfitting

/ ~esignslLoss coefficient (for DN =

nominal diameter)

1 Remarks

') If the narrowest shut-off diameter d~ is smaller than the nominal diameter DN, the loss coefficient ( must be increased by pN/dE)', with x = 5 to 6


In the case of partial opening, i.e. low flow velocities, the loss coefficients increase Designs: cf. page 15



13 14 15






Designs according to Table 2

The minimum and maximum values listed in Table 2 include figures taken from the most pertinent trade literature and apply to fully open valves and fittings under uniform conditions of flow. The losses attributable to flow disturbances in a length of pipe equalling ca. 12 X DN downstream of the valve or fitting are also included in those values (cf. VDINDE guideline 2173). Nonetheless, the actual values are subject to wide variance, depending on the conditions of inf owand outf ow, the model in question, ana tne design objcctives Table 3: Loss coefficients for fittings Elbows: Cast elbows 90, R = D + 100 mm, all nominal size i 0.5 Pipe bends 90, R = 2 to 4 X D

lnlet pipe fittings:

Inlet edge t t f t for 6 = 7 5 O 60" 45" sharp i= 0.5 3 chamfered i 0.25 0.55 0.20 0.05 i0.6 0.7 0.8

Discharge pieces:
i = 1 downstream of an adequate length of straight pipe with an approximately uniform velocity distribution in the outlet cross-section. 1 2 in the case of very unequal velocity distribution, e.g. immediately downstream of an elbow, a valve etc.

Loss coefficients of flow meters:

50 100 i -0.26 0.23 If the deflection angle only amounts to the above i values should be multiplied by
Nominal size DN Knee pieces: Deflection angle

200 300 500 0.21 0.19 0.18 60 45' 30" 15O, 0.85 0.7 0.45 0.3

Short venturi tube a = 30

Standard orifice plate

i is related to the velocity v at diameter D.

Diameter ratio dlD Aperture ratio m = (dlDP

90' 60" 45' 30' 15' i 1.3 0.7 0.35 0.2 0.1 Combinations of elbows and pipe bends: value of the single 90' elbow should not be doubled, The i but only be multiplied by the factors indicated to obtain the pressure loss of the combination elbows illustrated:

= 0.30 0.40 0.50 0.60 0.70 0.80

= 0.09 0.16 0.25 0.36 0.49 0.64

6 2 0.7 0.3 0.2 Standard orifice ( 300 85 30 12 4.5 2 plate Water meters (volumetric meters) i 10 In the case of domestic water meters, a max. pressure drop of 1 bar is wescribed for the rated load, and in practice the actual pressure loss is seldom below this figure.

short venturi tube i= 21

Branch pieces: (Branch of equal bore)

Expansion joints: Bellows expansion joint withlwithout guide pipe i = 0.310.2 i 0.6 to 0.8 Smooth bore pipe harp bend i - 1 . 3 t o 1.6 Creased pipe harp bend [ 3.2 to 4 Corrugated pipe harp bend

.for the diverted flow Q , or i d The resistance coefficients i respectively for the main flow Qd = Q - Q , relate to the velocity of the total flow Q in the nozzle. On the basis of that definition, i , and/or id may take on negative values, in which case they are indicative of pressure loss. Not to be confused with reversible pressure changes according to BERNOULLI'S equation (cf. annotation to Table 4).

where Q volume flow in m3/h, p density of water in kglm3 (effective temperature vapour ) , pressure, Table I p , pressure loss in bar. The !+value [m3/h] represents the volume flow of cold water (p = 1000 kglm3) at p, = 1 bar through a valve or fitting; it therefore gives the relationship between the pressure loss p, in bar and the volume flow Q in m3/h. Conversion: d4


where d reference diameter (nominal diameter) of the valve or fitting in cm.

Table 4: Pressure change coefficients in transition piece for arrangements illustrated in Fig. 14 A coefficient E in accordance with the values in the table below applies to each of the illustrated shapes of transition pieces1 reducers. If the pressure rises across the transition piece in the direction of fiow (divergent section), E is positive, and if the pressure drops (reducer), E is negative. Coefficients: Expansion

Changing the Pump Performance

5.1 Changing the Speed The same centrifugal pump has different characteristic curves for different speeds; these curves are interconnected by the similarity law. If the values for Q1, H1 and P1 are known at speed nl, then the new values for n2will be as follows:

1 Reduction

Form I Form

iI d/D = 0.5



0.56 0.07 II for a =1 5 ' 0.15 a = 20 5 0.23 111 1 = 4.80 IV for 20 < a < 4 0 ' 5 0 . 2 1


i 1 i

0 . 6 0.41 0.05 0 . 11 0.17 2.01 0.10

0.7 0.26 0.03 0.07 0 . 11 0.88 0.05

0 . 8 0.13 0.02 0.03 0.05 0.34 0.02


A change in the speed also causes the operating point to shift (see 2.9). Fig. 22 plots three QH curves for the speeds nl, n2 and n3, each curve is intersected by the system curve HA at points B1, B2 and B3 respectively. The operating point will move along the system characteristic HA from B1 to B3 when the speed is changed as indicated.

0.04 0.01 0.01 0.02 0.11 0 . 0 1


system curve HA

Note: In the case of branch pieces as per Table 3 and transition pieces as per Table 4, differentiationis made between irreversible pressure loss (=pressure reduction)

B Operating paint n Speed

on the one hand and reversible pressure changes involving hictionless flow as per BERNOULLI'Sequation (fluid dynamics)

0,aa 3 0'

capaciv Q ~ i g22 . Enen of change in speed

on the other. in the case of accelerated fiow, e.g. through a pipe constriction, p2- pl negative. Conversely, it is positive in pipe expansions. By contrast, the pressure losses ascertained by way of the loss coefficients 5 are always negative, if the overall pressure change is calculated as the arithmetic sum of p, and p2-p,. in the case of water transport through valves and fittings, the loss coefficients is occasionally neglected in favour of the so-called b-value:

5.2 Trimming the Impellers Permanently reducing the output of a centrifugal pump operating at constant speed (see Fig. 23) entails reducing the impeller diameter D. The characteristic curve booklets contain the pump curves of selected impeller diameters in mm. When trimming radial flow impellers (see 8.4)(trimming is not a geometrically similar reduction of an impeller since the outlet width normally remains constant), the relationship between Q, H and impeller diameter D is:


This conversion process can be used to convert from Bw to operating point BZ using Fig. 25a (see 7.6.1) 0 and to select the appropriate pump size from the given operating point Bzvia the operating point Bw using Fig. 25b (see 7.6.2). The conversion is valid for single-stage volute casing pumps with radial flow impellers (see 8.4), 0 specific speeds nq of 6 to 45 1Imin (see 7.6.1 and 9.12), kinematic viscosities v, of 1 to 4000 10-6 m21s (kinematic viscosities below 22 . 10-6 m2Is are normally disregarded).

The actual diameter can be determined as follows (see Fig. 23): Run a line in the QH graph (linear graduation) passing from the point of origin (take into consideration with curves with a suppressed point of origin) through the new operating point B2and intersecting at B1the full diameter curve Dl. The Q and H values 1 and 2 can then be plotted and used in the equation to obtain the approximate diameter DP.

Capacity Q
Fig. 23 Influence of impeller diameter

6 Handling Viscous Liquids As the viscosity v of the medium handled increases (at constant speed) the capacity Q, head H and efficiency q fall; at the same time the pump power input P rises. The best efficiency point shifts to smaller flow rates. The operating point Bwdrops to BZ (see Fig. 24).

Capacity Q
Fig. 24 Change in operating point when handling viscous liquids

(Z) end water (W)


1 0






e m

ThestandardoperatingpointforwaterBwwithQw,Hwand qw (W = water) is converted to the viscous liquid operating point BZ with Qz, HZ and qz (Z = viscous liquid) using the conversion factors lor viscous liquids f ~fu' and fq (see Figs. 25a and 25b).


" " " ' " "

' " ' " " ' ' '

Capacity Qz,~etr,Q W , O in ~~ -' h's -


'1 " " " " " " ' "

Fig 25a Determining the conversion f a h r s f ~ w f . * w and f q w for handiing viscous liqu~ds (enlarged version see 9 lo), if the operathg point for handling water IS glven

&)pumps Valves


7 Typical Selection Examples 7.1 Selecting the Pump Size (see 2.5) The following variables are known: Q = 25 1 1 s (= 90 mVh) H=80m Frequency 50 Hz Medium 60% sulphuric acid (index s) Density ps = 1.5 kgldm3 Temperature ts = 20 O C Kinematic viscosity vs = 3.8 . 10-6 m2Is (can be disregarded, see 6) (ps and vs taken from standard reference tables) The pump selected for this particular liquid is a CPK series standardized chemical pump. Technical data and characteristic curves for the CPK are given in the characteristic curve booklet and selection booklet (Figs. 26 and 27 are extracts). Selecting the size of the pump: Using the CPWHPK characteristic curve booklet for 50 Hz the selection charts give the following pump selections for the specified operating data: CPK 65-250 at n = 2900 Ilmin and Imin. CPK 150-250 at n = 1450 I The CPK 65-250 is selected for reasons of economy.

Fig. 25b Determlnlng the conversion factors f~ z and f~ z for handling VISCOUS llqulds (enlarged verslon see 9 111, if the operating poltit for handl~ng VISCOUS l ~ q u ~ d ISsglven

200 200 200


400 500 300 400 500

1000 1000




50 40



-_ 10 45 2

4 5 20 30

- 40

1 4


2, Qrn31h

3 10

10 40

25 30



50 200


100 140 400 500

2121 L 0 5 2 / 8

Fig. 26 CPKIHPK, selection chart n = 2900 l l m i n



Calculating the Power Consumption

7.2.1 Pump Input Power (see 2.6.1) Using the known variables and pump selection from 7.1 the power input is calculated as follows:

7.2.2 Calculating the Drive Rating (see 2.6.2) Taking the pump power input P (see 7.2.1) a 10% safety margin is added to the 43.3 kwatthe operating point.


p ,

g Q H P

in in in in in

@/dm3 mlsz 1 1 s m kW

So the drive rating must be at least 47.6 kW: the selection is a standard 55 kW motor, 2pole, iP 54lIP 44, type B 3. Pln value must be checked (see selection booklet, section Technical Data). chanaes to hioher flow rate. If the operating Point tem~orarilv the moror ratlng musr bc lncreascd accord~ng,;, 11 necessary JP lo the maxlmLm poss~ble Pumo Dower consumollon . . . A recheck of the Pln value then becomes important as a criterion for the bearing bracket.

or an alternative frequently used in practice:


p , Q H P

in in in in

kgldma m31h m kW

The pump power input Pcan also be established with sufficient accuracy from Fig. 27. P is interpolated as 29 kW for water, the value for sulphuric acid is:

p - 2 9 . k =

29 1.5 = 43.5 kW, 1

'1 Eniciency q from Fig. 27) interpolated

7.3 Calculating the NPSH,, (see 3.2) To achieve cavitation-free operation of the pump the limit of , ,,,, or the minimum maximum possible suction lift H , n i , must be adhered to. required suction head H



7.3.1 Suction Lifl from OpenlClosed Tank Here the pump is above the liquid level (see Fig. 10). Selected pump is a CPK 65-250. technical data see 7.1 , , , , is based on following system and Calculation of H pump data:


P b Po

= 1500 kgIm3

= 1 bar=1~105N/m2 = 0.0038 bar = 0.0038.1 05 Nlm2 (from reference table) (60% sulphuric acid at 20 OC) = 1.5 m (estimated from Fig. 13 for 10 m suction H,, pipe DN 100, incl. fittings and valves) can be disregarded because negligible Ve N P S H ,, = 3.3 m (interpolated from Fig. 27 incl. 0.5 m safety margin)

Open tank Given: p , = 0 bar

1 Closed tank

1 Given: p,

+ p,

= 1.5 bar = 1.5 . 105 Nlm2

- Pe+Pb-PD H s ueo, ",ax P.'S

- H,,

-N P S H ,,

(acc. to 3.2 with N P S H ,,

=N P S H , )

With H,,o,, = 1.97 m, N P S H , = N P S H ,, = 3.3 m; therefore NPSH, 2 N P S H ,, requirement is satisfied.

With H.,.o,,., = 5.37 m, NPSH, = N P S H , = 3.3 m; therefore NPSH, 2 N P S H , requirements is satisfied

7.3.2 Positive Suction Operation from OpenIClosed Tank Here the pump is below the liquid level (see Fig. 11). Selected pump is a CPK 65-250, technical data see 7.1 to 7.3.1.

Open tank Given: p . = 0 bar

I Closed tank

= 1.5

+ 3.3 - 6.77

= -1.97 m.

=3.3+ 1.5-10.17 = -5.37 m. Negative heads H z ,, are suction lift heads + H , . of the same value. The minus sign in the result tells us that the centrifugal pump, with an open or closed tank, could draw roughly the absolute amounts as in example 7.3.1 where the P S H , . , is just about satisfied. This requirement NPSH,, 2 N requirement would be more than satisfied in example 7.3.2 with a positive static suction head (as shown in the diagram).

7.3.3 Positive Suction Operation from Closed Tank at

Vapour Pressure (internal tank pressure = Vapour pressure of liquid, 1.e. pe + pb = PD) The pump is below the liquid level (see Fig. 11). Theselected pump is a CPK 65-250, see 7.1 for technical data. See 7.3.1 for system and pump data required to calculate Hzgeo, min but with pe + ~b = PD. Pe+Pb-Po H z , , i n = NPSHreq+ H,, Ps'~

Actual (now): Q, = 25.56 1 1 s HI = 73.2 m D, =240 mm Desired: QZ = 25 1 1 s Hz = 7 0 m i.e.

From4.8mupwards(H ) ,,,, is fulfilled.

thecondition NPSH,,ZNPSH,.,

Turning the impeller down from 240 mm (D,) to 237 mm (Dz) restores the original duty given in 7.4. It is, however, standard practice not to make such minor changes (less than 5 mm) to the impeller diameter.

7.4 Changing the Speed (see 5.1) The CPK 65-250 selected in 7.1 but with the following performance data (present duty: index 1, new duty: index 2)
Q q = 25 1 1 s (= 90 mslh) HI = 70 m at n, = 2900 llmin and D, = 240 mm (impeller diameter) is driven by a 55 kW three-phase motor with a nominal speed (n2) of 2965 llmin. The higher speed shifts the operating point, without considering the system characteristic HA, as follows to:


Handling Viscous Liquids (see 6) Schedule on page 44.

7.6.1 Caiculation the Operating Point The product is a mineral oil with a kinematic viscosity vz of 500.10-6 m21s and density p , = 0.897 kgldms.
We know the characteristic curve and operating dataof a pump handling water, where:

Qw = 34 1 1 s (= 122.4 m31h) Hw=18m n = 1450 llmin

To obtain the new data for mineral oil, the pump data at the b.e.p. must also be calculated and the following additional information must be known:

if this increase is not acceptable, the original duty can be restored by e.g. reducing the impeller diameter (see 7.5). Efficiency Speed Kinematic viscosity Density Gravitational constant


llmin kgIdm3

7.5 Trimming the Impeller (see 5.2) The unacceptably high pump output (see 7.4) caused by the higher motor speed is rectified as follows by trimming the impeller (present duty: index 1, new duty: index 2).


1 Pz

0.897 19.81

/ mls2

'1 horn individual characteristic curve (see Fig. 21)

4 points on the new characteristic curve can be established using the calculation chart below:
n w from graph in 9.12

fo,w from Fig. 25a fH,W O r sect. 9.10,


Theaevaiues mean 4 points on Q H ~ a n d OTZ line plus 3 points on the QPz line are establirhed. Plotled aver Q (see Fig. 28)

if HZ > Hw, use HZ = Hw

Caiculation in graphic form




7.6.2 Establishing the Pump Size The product is mineral oil, we are looking for the size of the pump capable of meeting the following operating data:
Capacity Head Kinematic viscosity Density

] Hz,setr

I vz


/ 31 Ills rn / 20 1 500 - 10-6 1 m21s 0.897 / kgIdm3

llmin llmin 1 1 s m

Use the following calculation table to convert to operating data with water and thereby find the appropriate pump size. n selected n,,~ 3) from graph in 9.12 fQ2 from Fig. 25b or section 9.1 1, ~H,Z page 42 Qw,~eir = 1450 27 0.8 0.86 38.8 23.3


Hz.8eti Hw,setr =
H,Z 3 ,

where Q z , ~ ~ = t Qopt , H z , B= ~ Hopt ~~


Q z s n Qwsnr


Calculation in graphic form

The definitive operating data when handling water are thus:

QW,Betr = QW = 38.8 1 1 s (= 139.7 mVh)

Hw,B~,~ = Hw= 23.3 m Based on these data a suitable pump is selected from the sales documents selection chart. Using the curve thus established, follow section 7.6.1 to establish 4 points on the new characteristic curve.



a m a

- 80
10 -

These 4 points can now be used to establish the curve to be expected for handling mineral oil, see Fig. 28.

- 70
'Iw - 6 0

- 50 - LO



0 1 0


2 0 Q 11s 30


1 20

5 0 10 20
11s 30


Capacity Q
F i g 28 Characteristic curve3 for both water NY) and viscous liquids (2) (see 76.1)

8.1 National and International Standards for Centrifugal Pumps A series of national standards have been introduced in Germany since the early sixties governing the manufacture, design, procurement and use of centrifugal pumps. These standards are drawn up by both operators and manufacturers and are now established in virtually all sectors of industry using and producing pumps (see Fig. 29, page 23). This is particularly true of DIN 24256 "End suction centrifugal pumps (PN 16) (chemical pumps)" which even in its first edition was virtually identical to the international standard IS0 2858 "End-suction centrifugal pumps (rating 16 bar) - Designation, nominal duty point and dimensions". These two standards occupy a central position because they form the basis for a range of standards already in existence and under preparation covering centrifugal pumps, accessories, guidelines and specifications.


Scope of ~ p p l i c a t l o n and ReSpOnsibilities

Dimensional Standards

- Pumps


Guidelines and Specifications

~ss~oiatt~n of German Engioeering Pump Comminee

24253 Centrifueal PU~PS wi!h armoured Iemoured singlesiege wlth axis1 inlet; duties. principal

dispatch, speoiiicstione

DiN 24251 Drainage Standslds Institute Commiffee EngineerPump8 with heads 1000 m

DIN 24252 Centrifugal

DIN 45635

DIN 24293

DIN 24295


DIN 24420

ments in machinew duties, measurements. enveloping Surface method, Pumps

technical documenterms, scope of suppiy, exeoutlan

pumpsets for liquids. requirements

Centr~fugal spares pump*; liSts technical reguire-

p p

e w'

, , ,

European Standards Coordinating Cornminee

Technical International OWBnilions tor centrifugal pumps Class I1

% 3

far standerdizatior TCi15, Pumps

I l l

.12 EC and 6 E R A member countries

Fig. 29 Chart of German and international standards for centrifugal pumps, accersories, guidelines and specifications (as o i ~ e b r u a r y 1990)

The high degreeof similarity between DIN24 256and IS0 2858 means that a series of national standards and draft standards such as: DIN 24259 "Pump baseplates", DIN 24960 "Mechanical seals; shaft seal chamber, principaldimensions, designationsand material . codes", VDMA 24297 "Centrifugal pumps; technical requirements, specifications" need minor or no changes in content even afterthe publication of the corresponding IS0 standard.


, ..a .."

, - 0.4

5 0.3 2

+ 0.2 2 5



8.2 Shaft Deflection Shaft deflection is principally caused by radial forces resulting from the hydraulic thrust in the impeller plane generated by the interaction between the impeller and pump casing (or diffuser). The magnitude and direction of the thrust changes with the rate of flow and affects the shaft and bearings. The pump maker can favourably influence these hydraulic radial forces by selecting the right casing (see Figs. 30 and 31). This guarantees conformity with the specified maximum permissible shaft deflection (e.g. API 610 or ISO) and also means cost-effective sizing of shafts, especially seals and bearings.
The radial thrust FR can be calculated with the help of the equation FR=K.p.g.H.D2.b2 with F , Radial thrust K Radial thrust coefficient acc. to Fia. 31 p Density of the medium pumped g Gravitattonal constant H Head D2 Impeller outside diameter b2 Impeller outlet width
~ig. 31





Spezilic speed nq ~agnitudeof the radial thrust coefficient K for volute rasing pumps as a


ol the spec~iicspeed nq and the pump flow level q=Q/Qopt

8.3 improving the NPSH Requirement It is possible in special cases to reduce the NPSH requirement of a pump to approx. 50-60% of the original level by fitting an inducer in front of the impeller, for example when a plant is extended and the available NPSH is inadequate or where economic factors prevent the available NPSH being increased (by raising the suction tank) or a lower speed larger-sized pump (with lower NPSH requirement) being fitted.

~ i g32 . Centrifugal pump flted with induce!

Circular casing

It must be noted that the reduction in the NPSH requirement applies only to a particular section of the flow range and not the complete range of the pump concerned (see Fig. 33).

volute caring

Combined circular voiute casing


Double volute casing

single volute casing

Circular casing

oouble volufe casing

Capacity Q
a = NPSHreq - without inducer b = NPSHreq - wNh inducer A = NPSHreq - with inducer B A and B are different types of inducers

~ i g30 , ~ a d i athrust l in centrifugal pumpswiih various caring types

~ i 33 g NPSH requirement ~ i t and h ~ i i n o u inducer t plotted against the capacity


Impeller Types

8.4.2 Non-clogging Impellers Large-clearance impellers are used on pumps handling contaminated liquids containing solids, the single-vane impeller has an unrestricted passageway from inlet to outlet (so-called free passage) "),

8.4.1 Vaned lmoellers pumps handling 'lean products have standard impellers fitted with vanes. Such impellers go from the radial flow type through the mixed flow type for higher flow rates up to the axial flow impeller for high flow rates and low heads.

Single-vane impeller*) closed Radial flow impeller')

Two-passage impeller') closed Mixed flow impeller') closed

Three-passage impeller*) closed Mixed flow impeller open 8.4.3 Special Impellers For contaminated and gaseous liquids.

Mixed flow impeller? closed, double entry

Axial flow impeller

') Front view with coverpiate removed *') Single-vane impellers are also avaiieble with slightly reduced passage for greater eniciency

Free flow impeller

8.4.4 Star Wheels Mainly used in self-priming pumps handling clean media

Fig. 36 Multistage, rudion and discharge side bearings, e.g. ring section high pressure centrifugal pump

Star wheel for side channel pump

8.4.5 Peripheral Impellers Used for clean media, low flow rates and high heads.

F i g 37 ciose-coupled, e.g. in-line pump

Peripheral impeller

8.5 Pump Types (typical examples) Figs. 34 to 39 show the various main design features:

Fig. 34 Slngle~entr~. single-stage, overhung, e.g, standardized chemicai pump

F i g 38 Vertical shan-driven sump pump, e.g submersible chemical pump

, : i

i Y - i,,?,,,
~ i 39 g submersible close-coupled pump. e.g. sewage pump

Fig. 35 Doubie-entry, suction and discharge side bearings, e.g, pipeline p u m ~

8.6 Pump Installation Arrangements The factors which determine how a pump is installed are:
the position of the shaft, i.e. horizontal or vertical, the position of the feet, i.e. underneath or shaft centreline, the arrangement of the drive, the weight distribution of the pump and drive (see Figs. 40 and 41).



coaxial with coupling or gearbox

common baseplate

horizontal horizontal


with parallel axis above pump, compact, belt drive simple speed variation


with parallel axis above pump wlth belt drive and outboard bearing or jackshaft

compact, simole meed variation



close-coupled, forming a water tight unit with pump

fully submersible

Fig. 40 Examples of horizontal installation

Alternative installation

1 Shaft



Remarks wet installation a) surface level discharge pipe

above ground on drive stool

soleplate beneath discharge nozzle

a) above ground on dr~ve stool dry installation b) above ground on drive stool through cardan shaft C) below surface on drive stool


a) automatic submersible close-coupled engagement unit with claw b) on support stand

wet installation a) permanent b) portable

8.7 Pump Sump Configuration Pump sumps are designed to receive liquids and be intermittently drained. The sump size depends on the capacity Q and permissible start-up frequency Z of the pump set, i.e. the electric motor. The start-up frequencies of dry motors are as follows: Start-up frequency Z Motor rating up to 7.5 kW max 15lh Motor rating up to 30 kW ma%. 12lh Motor rating above 30 kW max 10/h
Start-up frequency is calculated using:

8.8 Suction Pipe Layout The suction pipe should be as short as possible and run with a aentie siooe UD to the oumo. The suction oioe and inlet oioe mist be sufficiently wide apart to prevent'air entrainment'in the suction pipe. Furthermorethe mouth of the inlet pipe must always lie below the liquid level (see Fig. 43).

Suction pipe

where Z Q ,

no. of starts per hour . inlet flow in 1 1 s

Q, capacity at switch-on pressure in l/s Q, capacity at switch-off pressure in l/s VN useful volume of pump sump including possible flowback volume in I

'pos. deflector
Flg. 43 Aping emanpernevi to prevent sir emminmM

The maximum start-up frequency occurs when Qm = 2 x Q , i.e. when the capacity Qm is twice the incoming flow Q , . The max star-up frequency is therefore:
The medium handled must cover the suction pipe inlet to a suitable depth, otherwise rotation of the iiquid could cause air-entraining vortices (hollow vortices) to form; starting with a funnel-shaped depression at the iiquid su~face,a tubeshaped air cavity forms instantaneously, extending from the surface to the suction pipe. By ensuring that the medium handled always has a suitable level (see Figs. 44 and 45) or by taking measures to prevent vortices (see Figs. 46 to 48) this can be prevented, which is the more important, the higher the Row rate is.

With dirty liquids, solids must be prevented from being deposited and collecting in dead zones and on the floor. 45O walls, or better still 6W wails, help prevent this (see Fig. 42).

Fm. 44 Arrangement ot pi-

h me sunion hnk (rump1 to wevent vwticea

The minimum iiquid cover Smi. in m must be the velocity head plus a 0.1 rn safety margin for non-uniform velocity , in the suction pipe distribution. The maximum flow velocity v or inlet pipe should not exceed 3 m/s; we recommend 1 to 2 m/s.

Fig. 42 Inclined rump vallsm prevent solids tmm being depogltea and colls*lng

with v . flow velocity in m/s Sm. minimum liquid cover in m.


I 2

8 9 1000 Capacity Q

A !


F i g 45 Liguid OOYBI S 88 a lundion of the prplng bore ON and camcity Q

Fig. 45 shows the interdependence between liquid cover S, piping bore DN and capacity Q. The values obtained give sufficient protection against vortices. The graph can be used for the suction plpe layout illustrated.

Figs. 46 and 47 show typical arrangements used to prevent air-entraining inlet vortices where the minimum liquid cover is either not available or cannot be ensured. Fig. 48 shows a special arrangement which is frequently used - a round tank with a tangential inlet DiDe which causes the contents to rotate.




10 pump

Fm. 47 Use of swirl-oreverding bani-

Fig. 48 Use of baMes in me tankm ensure disblmance-bee n m m pump

8.9 Shaft Couplings Shaft couplings used with centrifugal pumps can be divided into rigid and flexible types. Rigid couplings are mainly used to connect shafts In perfect alignment. The smallest degree of misalignmentwill cause considerablestress on thecoupling and on the shafts. The following types are used:

Sleeve couplings, Muff couplings, Serrated couplings, Split couplings (DIN 115), Face plate couplings (DIN 758, DIN 759), Flange couplings (DIN 760).
Fm. SO TYPical couplings

Flexible couplings to DIN 740 are elastic, slip-free connecting elements between drive and driven machine which accommodate axial, radial and angular misalignment (Fig. 49) and damp shock loads. The flexibility is usually achieved by the deformation of damping and rubber-elastic spring elements whose life is governed to a large extent by the degree of misalignment. Fig. 50 shows the most common types of flexible couplings. Fig. 51 shows a spacer couolina between a oumD . . and drive: itsfunction is to permit removalI ; the pump rotating assembl; without disturbing the pump casing or drive (back-pull out design).

Fig 49 Misalignment

Fig. 51 Pump with spacer cou~ling

Technical Data 9.1 Vapour Pressure p, and Density p of Water

9.3 Density p of Various Liquids at Atmospheric Pressure


9.4 Extract of Important Legal Units for Centrifugal Pumps

Kinematic viscosity Dynamic viscosity Specific speed

m2/s Pas Pascaisecond (= N s/m2)


St (stokes), "E,... P (Poise), ...

mZ/s Pas

1 St = 10-1 m2/s 1 cSt = 1 mmYs 1 P=O.1 Pas

n 4




in Si-units (m and s)

9.5 Conversion ofBritish and U.S. Units

British Length


1 mil 1 point 1 line

I inch
1 1 1 1 1



Basic unit gallon for fluids

Basic unit bushel for dry goods

Mass and Weight Avoirdupois system (trade and commerce weights)

Troy system (for precious metals)

(in) hand link Ili) .. span foot (ft) yard (yd) I fathom (fath) 1 rod (rd) 1 chain fch) 1 furlong (fur) 1 mile (mi) (statute mile) = 1760 yd 1 nautical mile 1 circular mil 1 circular inch 1 square inch (sq in) 1 square link (sq li) 1 square foot (sq ft) 1 square yard (sq yd) 1 square rod (sq rd) 1 squarechain (sq ch) I rood I acre 1 square mile (sq mi) 1 cubic inch (cu in) 1 board foot (fbm) 1 cubic foot (cu ft) 1 cubic yard (cu yd) 1 register ton (FIT) = 100 cu ft 1 British shipping ton = 42 cu ft 1 US shipping ton = 40 cu ft 1 minim (min) I fluid scruple 1 fluid drachm (fl.dr.) 1 fluid dram (fl.dr.) 1 fluid ounce (fi.02.) I gill (gi) 1 pint (iiq PO I quart (iiq qt) 1 pottle 1 gallon (gal) 1 peck 1 bushel 1 US oil-barrel (for crude oil) 1 quarter 1 chaldron 1 dry pint (dry pt) 1 dry quart (dry qt) 1 peck (pk) 1 bushel (bu) 1 dry barrel (bbl) 1 grain (gr) I dram (dr avdp) 1 ounce (oz avdp) 1 pound (Ib) I stone 1 quarter 1 cental 1 short hundredweight (sh cwt) 1 hundredweight (Cd) 1 long hundredweight ( 1 cwt) 1 short ton (sh tn) 1 ton 1 long ton ( 1 tn) 1 pennyweight (d-4 1 troy ounce (02 tr) 1 troy pound (Ib t)

25.4 K m 0.3528 mm 0.635 mm 2 5 . 4 mm 10.16 cm 20.1168 cm 22.86 cm 0.3048 m 0.9144 m 1.8288 m 5.0292 m 20.1168 m 201.168 m 1.6093 1.8532 506.709 5.067 6.4516 404.687 929.03 0.8361 25.2929 404.686 1011.7124 4046.86 2.59 16.387 2.3597 28.3268 0.7646 2.8327 1.1897

25.4 0.3528 0.635 25.4 10.16 20.1168 22.86 ' 0.3048 0.9144 1.8288 5.0292 20.1168 201.168 1.6093 1.8532 506.709 5.067 6.4516 404.687 929.03 0.8361 25.2929 404.686 1011.7124 4046.86 2 . 5 9 16.387 2.3597 28.3268 0.7646 2.8327

~m mm mm mm cm cm cm


m m m km km pm2 cmz cm2 cmz cm2

km km pm2 cm2 cm2 cm2 cm2 m 2 m z m z m z m z kmz cmr dm3 dm3

m 2

m s rn3 mm3 cm3 cma cm3 cmr dm3 dm3 dm3 dm3 dm3 dm3 m s m a


m 2 m 2 km2 cm3 dm3 dm3 m 3 m a m 3 mma cma cma cm3 dm3 dm3

59.1939 1.1839 3.5516

1.1331 61.6119

3.6967 29.5737 118.2948 0.4732 0.9464


28.4131 142.065 0.5683 1.1365 2.2730 4.5460 9.0922 36.3687

3.7854 dm3

36.3687 -

0.291 1.3093

0.159 0.5506 1.1012 8.8098 35.2393 0 . 1 156 64.7989 1.7718 28.3495 0.4536


dm3 mg g g kg kg kg kg kg kg g g

64.7989 1.7716 28.3495 0.4536 6.3503 12.7006 45.3592 50.8024


dm3 dm3 dm3 dm3 m 3 mg g g kg

45.3592 kg 50.8024 kg 907.1849 kg


1.5552 31.1035

1016.0470 1.5552 32.1035 0.3732

g g kg




KSBBritish Density (oz/cu ft) 1 pound per cubic foot (lb/cu fi) 1 ounce (av) per cubic inch (ozlcu in) 1 pound per cubic inch (Iblcu in) 1 short ton per cubic yard (shtnlcu yd) 1 long ton per cubic yard (Itnlcu yd) 1 pound per gallon (Iblgal)

kgldma kgIdm3 kgldms kgldma kgldms mls mls m/s mls 1 1 s 1 1 s 1 1 s msls

1 ounce (av) per cubic foot

0.0010 0.0160 1.7300 27.6799

0.09978 0.3048 0.00508 0.9144 0.01 524 4.5460 0.07577 28.3268 0.7646 28.3495 0.4725 0.4536 0.00756

0.0010 0.01 60 1.7300 27.6799 1.I 865 1.3289 0.1 198 0.3048 0.00508 0.9144 0.01524 3.7854 0.7646 28.3495 0.4725 0.4536 0.00756 0.2520

kgIdm3 kgldms kgldms kgldms kgldma kgldma kgldms mls mls mls mls 1 1 s m31s gls gls kgls kgls kgls kgls


5 Capacity 1 gallon per second

(rate of volume flow)
1 gallon per minute

1 foot per second 1 foot per minute 1 vard oer . . second

(fils) (Wmin) fvdls)

Mass flow

Force (weight force)

1 cubic foot per second 1 cubic yard per second 1 ounce per second 1 ounce oer minute 1 pound 'per second 1 pound per minute 1 short ton per hour 1 ton per hour 1 long ton per hour 1 ounce (force) 1 pound (force) 1 short ton (force) 1 long ton (force)
pound (force) square foot pound (force) square inch short ton (force) square inch 1 inch H20 1 foot H20 I inch ~g pound (force) square inch short ton (force)

(gpm) (cusec) (Ow lozlmin) (lbls) ' (Iblmin) (shtnlh) (Itnlh) (02) (Ib) (shtn)

g/s g/s kgls kgls


0.2822 0.2780 4.4483




68.9476 137.8951 2.4909 29.8907 33.8663
mbar bar mbar mbar mbar mm2 N

(force) (Ibsq in ),(Psi:

68.9476 137.8951 2.4909 29.8907 33.8663

mbar bar mbar mbar mbar

(sh t;:~))
(in H20) (ft H20) (in Hg)

Mechanical stress

N 0.006895 sh tn (force)

N 0.006895 i;;;;;i

Work, energy, quantity of heat, internal (intrinsic) energy and enthalpy Power (heat flow)

1 foot-pound 1 ~orse power hour 1 Brit. Thermal Unit 1 foot-pound (av)

per second

iff lb) ~HP h) (BTU) . .


1.3558 0.7457 1.0558

, I
kW kW Pas


1.3558 0.7457 1.0558 1.4882 47.8803


kW kW Pas

1 Horse power(Hp) 1 British Thermal Unit

Dynamic Viscosity per second pound (mass) foot x second pound (force) x second square foot Temperature

(Ib(ttmy)) lb (force) s ( sq fi )
t = -4 5 tR

1.4882 47.8803



Conversion of temperature points:

Conversion of temperature differences:

5 T=7jtR+273.15;

AT=At=-Att, 5

Where: T thermodynamic temperature t Celsius temperature tF Fahrenheit temperature t . Rbaumur temoeratur Conversion of the specilic s p e d (type number) K customarily used in English-speaking conlries into n.acc. to IS0 2548:

in K in O C in O F in T I

9.6 Graph for Calculating Flow Velocity v as a Function of Capacity Q and I.D. of Pipe D

pumps Valves

( D

( D





hl!oolan ~ o l j

valves pump

=KSB9.7 Graph for Calculating Velocity Head v2/2g as a Function of Capacity Q and I.D. of Pipe D


6zfcn paall AlloolaA


~ o


% m r o

9.8 Graph for Calculating Velocity Head Differential A v2/2g as a Function of Capacity Q and Pipe I.D. Differential D,/D, v le!walau!p peau 4loolaA

pump Valves



_ -z

m m

tW I D

9.9 Graph for Calculating Head Loss H, as a Function of I.D. of Pipe D, Flow Velocity v and Capacity Q

Valves pumps

9.10 Graph for Calculating Conversion Factors fQ,w, fH,W and fqSw for Viscous Liquids Available: data for operation with water Required: data for operation with viscous liquid Calculation example: see page 21 Calculation chart: see page 44


pumps Valves

9.11 Graph for Calculating Conversion Factors Available: data for operation with viscous liquid Required: data for operation with water Calculation chart: see page 44

and fH,zfor Viscous Liquids



9.12 Graph for Calculating Specific Speed n,

500 600 700800

I 960


I 1450


2000 2500 3000

1 2900

4000 1/m1n 6000

8000 10000

15000 20000 25000

Speed n



Units n l/min l/s I/min

n , l/min 1 1

g = 9.81

nq = n .

dc&n 1) 3/rl.

mVs mVs m3/s

m m m

n , = 333 - n . l , " G z (g . Hopt) 4 3 , nq = 5.55 . n -

m/s2 m/s2

DIN 24 260

KG (g . Hod 3/4

All equations give numerically equal results. With multistage pumps use the stage head. With double-entry impeller pumps use only half the capacity. Example: Q 0 , = 66 m3/h = 18.3 I/s; n = 1450 1/min; Hop,= 17.5 m. , = 23 I /min Established: n

Type series

Quotation No

Rated speed

Item No.

Schedule for Calculating the Operating Point and Pump Size for Handling Viscous Liquids. Operating Point Available data: Capacity Head Speed Kinematic viscosity Density Gravttational constant Q w H w n V z
Pz 9

To determine the new operating data it is also necessary to calculate the data at b.e.p. 1 1 s

llmin m2/s kgIdm3 m/s2

Capacity Head Efficiency

'1 from ind8vldual characterlstlc curve

Qw,m ') HWW')


I/s m



Procedure n .u ,A! from araoh in . . . section 9.12 fa,w tom section f,. ,.. 9.10



These values mean 4 points on QHz and Q ~ line z DIUS 3 points

on the QPz line are

established. Plotted over a.

If Hz > Hw,use HZ= Hw Pump Size Available data: capacity Head

Calculation in graphic form



1 vz

I Hz,setr 1 Pz

1 I

111s m m2/s

/ kgldma

Procedure n selected n,,~ 3) from section 9.1 2 faZ from section 9.1 1

I l/min

I llmin
\/s m


-& -f ~ . ~ -b Hw,B~ -~ fu.2 where Qz,~etr = Qopt approx. Hz.setr Hopt


Calculation in graphic form

Gate and Globevalves Division Globe valves with soft or metallic seat, gate valves, ball valves, swing check valves, non-return valves and actuated valves for building services! industrial applications, chemical and proc:ss engineering as well as for conventional and nuclear power stations. Sector: Building Services Location and factory: Frankenthal Sector: lnduskial Enginnering, conventional and Nuclear ~. Power Stations Location and factory: Pegnitz Environmental Engineering Division Pumps for the treatment of municipal effluents (purification and transport), industrial effluents, surface drainage (shore protection, locks, lifting plants), aquaculture, agriculture (storage and transport of liquid manure), drainage in deep mining, delivery of cooling water and clean water. Planning, optimization, rehabilitation, supply, installation and commissioning of pumping stations for clean water and effluents. Components and systems for sewage treatment. Services to the planners and operators of the plants. Location: Frankenthal Factories: Pegnitz, Bremen, Lille Industrial and Process Pumps Division Butterfly valves Division : Standardized Dumos and multi-staae - . DumDs . for heat transfer Butterfly valves with soft and metallic seat, swing check valves and industrial' water. Process pumps for the chemical and and actuators for building services, industrial applications, petrochemical industries, for refineries, high-temperature chemical and process engineering as well as for conventional heating systems and cryogenics. Pumps for flue gas desuland nuclear power stations. phurization plants and for air and gas purifiers. Nan-clogging Location: Bagnolet centrifugal pumps for paper, cellulose, sugar and foodstuffs Factory: LaRoche Chalais industries and for the handling of solids. Building Setvices Division Location: Pegnitz ~car'niano industrial warcr pLmps. Submersiulenloror p ~ m p s Factories: Pegnitz, Ch?iteauroux, Deville, Frankenthal for the hanollng of sewage, elf Lent an0 fecccs h ~ n g planls. Water Pumps Division pumps for water supply, complete pump sets for pressure Multi-stage submersible motor pumps for municipal and boosting and fire-fighting, pumps for irrigation and sprinkling, v .buildina services. offshore industrial water s u .~ . ~ ..lirriaation. garden pumps. Systems for pump speed control. and mining applications as well as all special app~idations. Location: Courbevoie Borehole shaft-driven Dumps for irriaation, water s u.o.~.. l vfire. Factories: Frankenthal, Neuvy, Pegnitz fighting, and industrial'ap6ications.Engineered p i i p s division^ Single-stage bearing pedestal mounted pumps for irrigation Centrifugal pumps for conventional and nuclear power plants: duties. boiler feed and circulating pumps, condensate pumps, main Vertical propeller pumps for irrigation, water supply and coolant pumps, reactor feed pumps, cooling water pumps, agricultural drainage duties. pumps for seawater desalination plants, pumps for onshore Horizontal and vertical multi-stage pumps for irrigation and and offshore applications as well as for refineries and the water supply systems. petrochemical industry. Location: Courbevoie Location: Frankenthal Factories: Homburg (Saar), Chateauroux, Annecy Factories: Frankenthal, ~ n n e c y ~ New Technologies Development and manufacture of new pump types, valves, systems and electronic controls as well as engineering services in the fields of hydrodynamics, materials technology, measurement techniques, open and closed loop control, plastics technology, cold-drawing methods for chrome nickel steel, machine dyfamics, product and packing design, patent rights. Location: Frankenthal Factories: Frankenthal, Chateauroux


KSB Aktiengesellschaft Postfach 17 25 D-6710 Frankenthal

Telephone: (06233) 86-0 Fax: (0 62 33) 8633 95 Teletex: 62333 = ksbft