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ON THE STANDARDISATION OF TUNISIAN 1

On the Standardisation of Tunisian
The case for a formal recognition of a Tunisian language
Jihëd G. MEJRISSI
League of Tunisian Humanists
Table of Contents
Abstract.................................................................................................................................................1
1.Introduction.......................................................................................................................................1
2.The Tunisian Languages!.................................................................................................................2
2.1 "hat is Tunisian#......................................................................................................................2
2.2 "hat is a Language#.................................................................................................................$
%.The &ase 'or Standardising Tunisian.................................................................................................(
%.1.1 Tunisian and Arabic..........................................................................................................(
%.1.2 "h) standardise Tunisian#.............................................................................................1*
%.1.% +reser,ing the -anguage o' the ./reat Arab Nation01 o' Is-a21 and o' the 3uran..........12
$.Transcribing Tunisian......................................................................................................................1%
$.1 "hich Tunisian#.....................................................................................................................1%
$.2 The STUNdard 4ethod..........................................................................................................1%
$.% The STUNdared Ar-ette and A-ternati,e 4ethods..................................................................21
(.&o25arison and +otentia-s..............................................................................................................2$
6.&onc-usion.......................................................................................................................................27
Abstract
This essa) discusses the -inguistic situation o' Tunisia and 5resents t8o standardisation
2ethods 'or Tunisian1 na2e-) the STUNdard and the STUNdard Ar-ette 2ethods.
This docu2ent 8as 'irst 5ub-ished in Februar) 1(
th
1 2*1$ and its current re,ision is that o'
Februar) 1(
th
1 2*1$. This docu2ent 8as 5roduced 8ith 'ree and o5en9source so't8are. The author:s
2ateria- is re-eased under both the && ;<9SA %.* and the /FDL 1.%.
=e)8ords> Tunisian1 -anguage1 standardisation1 STUNdard
1. Introduction
Si2i-ar-) to its North A'rican neighbours1 the -inguistic situation in Tunisia o8es 2uch to
the 5o-itica-1 socia-1 and re-igious 'actors. Since the +hoenician sett-e2ents in North A'rica1
-inguistic ,arieties in the regions ha,e been absorbing e?terna- in'-uences@ Tunisian is not an
e?ce5tion. O''icia- recognition o' Tunisian as a -anguage 8as 'eared as it 8as dee2ed that it 8ou-d
a''ect the ro-es o' Is-a2 and its -iturgica- -anguage1 &-assica- Arabic1 hereina'ter re'erred to as
ON THE STANDARDISATION OF TUNISIAN 2
Arabic. As discussed in 4EARISSI 2*1%!>
These sa2e argu2ents are a-so echoed 8hen discussing the status o' A2aBigh as a
regiona-1 nationa-1 or an o''icia- -anguage1 in Tunisia and in other North A'rican States.
Ne,erthe-ess1 Tunisian has been undergoing standardisation atte25ts b) Tunisian &i,i-
Societ) and other inde5endent co25onents1 and its use in o''icia- co22unication
gradua--) continues to re5-ace Arabic.
2. The Tunisian Language(s)
2.1 What is Tunisian?
In genera-1 Tunisian re'ers to the grou5 o' -inguistic ,arieties s5oCen 8ithin the state o'
Tunisia. Tunisian is a 5art o' the North A'rican dia-ect continuu21 o' 8hich the 2ain characteristics
are the A2aBigh Substrata1 the substantia- Arabic ,ocabu-ar)1 and the 4editerranean in'-uences.
This docu2ent and 'uture si2i-ar 5ub-ications 2ade and 8i-- 2aCe use o' the 8ord Tunisian to
denote the -anguage rather than .Tunisian Arabic01 due to the 'act that the re5etition o' the 8ord
Arabic each ti2e see2s rather unnecessar) and 2a) be e,en 2is-eading. This is si2i-ar to the
deno2ination o' 4a-tese> One does not sa) .4a-tese Arabic01 a-though 4a-tese can be 'u--)
understood b) Tunisians to the sa2e e?tent that 4oroccan is1 but rather1 si25-)1 4a-tese. There is
5erha5s a si2i-arit) 8ith the situation o' Ro2ance -anguages> It 8ou-d see2 rather
inco25rehensib-e to state that one s5eaCs a S5anish dia-ect o' Latin1 or s5eaCs Ita-ian Latin.
Languages are usua--) attributed to the 5o-itica- entit) or the state 8here the) are s5oCen1 and so
shou-d the Tunisian -anguage be.
4uch -iCe in an) other 5art in the 8or-d1 an i22ense di,ersit) o' Tunisian -inguistic
,arieties e?ist. It is 5ossib-e ho8e,er to grou5 the2 into the 'o--o8ing1 re-ati,e-) ho2ogeneous1
grou5s> one co25ro2ising North Eastern dia-ects1 and the other co25ro2ising North "estern
dia-ects and Southern dia-ects. So2e o' the 2ain di''erences bet8een the t8o grou5s are> The usage
o' the DED or DgD that in turn is1 natura--)1 in'-uenced b) a ,ariet) o' 'actors and -inguistic strata1 and
ON THE STANDARDISATION OF TUNISIAN %
the di''erence in the used second95erson singu-ar 5ronoun1 i.e. 8hether the sa2e 5ronoun is used 'or
both 'e2a-e and 2a-e. Hence'orth1 'or 5ractica- reasons1 the 'irst grou5 is re'erred to as the 39
dia-ects1 and the second 8ou-d be re'erred to as the /9dia-ects
1
.
The 39dia-ects co25rise the /rand Tunis dia-ects1 the Sahe- dia-ects1 and the S'a? dia-ects.
The -atter is1 ho8e,er1 signi'icant-) di''erent 'ro2 the 'irst t8o in 2u-ti5-e as5ects1 na2e-) in the
t)5e and -ength o' the used ,o8e-s and the treat2ent o' borro8ed 8ords. The /9dia-ects1 though
sharing the usage o' DgD instead o' DED1 are in their turn ,er) distinguishab-e. Natura--)1 Tunisian
North "estern dia-ects are c-ose to A-gerian North Eastern dia-ects1 and Tunisian South Eastern
dia-ects are re-ati,e-) c-ose to Lib)an "estern dia-ects. Tunisian South "estern dia-ects1 8hi-e
re2aining c-ose to South Eastern ones1 retain their o8n characteristics as 8e--.
On the other hand1 2u-ti5-e -oca- dia-ects 8ithin the regions o' the 39dia-ects use the DgD
instead1 such as the o-d ;ouhFar dia-ect1 or the TouBa dia-ect in the Sahe- region. The o55osite cou-d
a-so be 5ossib-e 'or /9dia-ect regions. Further2ore1 8ords 8ith .E0 2a) e?ist in /9dia-ects regions
and the o55osite is correct as 8e--. For instance1 the na2e o' the cit) ./ebes0 8ou-d not be
5ronounced .3ebes0 b) a 5erson using an) o' the 39dia-ects. Si2i-ar-)1 the na2e o' the is-and
.3arEna0 8ou-d not be 5ronounced ./argna0 in /9dia-ect regions. Other 8ords such as .be-gde01
or .be-gda01 8hich cou-d 2ean D8e--D1 are not 5ronounced in a di''erent 8a) in 39dia-ect regions.
This 2a) suggest that the 5resence o' the consonant .g0 is 5rior to that o' the .E0.
One o' the 2ost 5ro2inent 5roFects that sought to 2a5 this di,ersit) 8as L:At-as
LinguistiEue de Tunisie1 or The Linguistic At-as o' Tunisia1 b) Sa-ah 4eFri1 Ta))eb ;aCCouch1 and
other.
1 This 2a) a-so be re-e,ant on the socia- -e,e-> Tunisia is sti-- characterised 8ith a high degree o' regiona-
'ractiona-isation1 and the usage o' a 5articu-ar dia-ect 2a) suggest a 5articu-ar socia- or econo2ic bacCground.
ON THE STANDARDISATION OF TUNISIAN $
2.2 What is a Language?
The second ha-' o' the Euestion that re2ains to be ans8ered is> "hat is a -anguage# To
ans8er this Euestion one needs to e?a2ine the di''erence bet8een a -anguage and a dia-ect1 and
8hat 2ade so2e dia-ects beco2e -anguages.
Linguistica--)1 there is so 'ar no uni,ersa--) acce5tab-e de'inition or di''erentiation bet8een
a -anguage and a dia-ect. "hat 2aCes a dia-ect beco2e a -anguage is a 2u-titude o' 'actors1 2ost
i25ortant-) +o-itics1 there'ore the distinction is indeed subFecti,e. Se,era- dia-ects under8ent
codi'ication through nu2erous notab-e 5ub-ications and beca2e the de 'acto o''icia- standard o' the
-anguage. Arabic is not an e?ce5tion1 as 8hat is no8ada)s ca--ed Arabic 8as in 5erha5s a dia-ect1
a2ong 2an) other1 that under8ent standardisation through the 3uran.
4andarin and &antonese are not 2utua--) inte--igib-e1 ho8e,er the 5o-itica- 8i-- decided
that the) are considered as dia-ects o' &hinese. The sa2e case a-so a55-ies 'or Arabic> A-though
4oroccan and O2ani are not 2utua--) understandab-e1 5o-itica- interests and +an9Arabist e''orts
decided that the) are .dia-ects o' Arabic0. It 2a) be incorrect to consider this as a dig-ossia in the
sense o' se,era- dia-ects that ste22ed 'ro2 a co22on Arabic -anguage1 but 5erha5s o' c-ose
dia-ects1 in the anthro5o-inguistic sense1 that used Arabic as a standard -ingua 'ranca due to its
-iturgica-1 and again 5o-itica-1 status.
To su2 u51 2an) -inguists1 5articu-ar-) anthro5o-ogica- -inguists1 do not di''erentiate
bet8een a dia-ect and a -anguage. +erha5s one ru-e o' thu2b1 hu2orous ne,erthe-ess1 is the idio2
5o5u-arised b) 4a? "einreich 8ho attributes to one o' his auditors> .A -anguage is a dia-ect 8ith
an ar2)0. Linguistic ,arieties are so2eti2es regarded as dia-ects i'1 a2ong other1 the) do not ha,e
a standardised 'or2 and i' the) are not used in 5ub-ications.
ON THE STANDARDISATION OF TUNISIAN (
3. The Case for Standardising Tunisian
Ha,ing c-ari'ied both ter2ino-ogies1 that o' Tunisian and that o' -anguage1 one 8ou-d e?5ect
that 8riting Tunisian 8ou-d be a rather 5-ain tasC. Ho8e,er 2an)1 5articu-ar-) 5ersons 8ith +an9
Arab or +an9Is-a2ic a''inities1 2ight cha--enge this 8ith a ,ariet) o' 2oti,ations and obFections1 'or
instance> ."h)# Isn:t Tunisian a'ter a-- Fust a dia-ect o' Arabic#01 .8h) 8rite do8n a dia-ect 8hen
one can -earn Arabic#01 .Isn:t it better to 5reser,e Arabic1 the -anguage o' the ./reat Arab Nation01
o' Is-a21 and o' the 3uran#01 etc. The 'o--o8ing section 8ou-d seeC to co22ent these Euestions.
3.1.1 Tunisian and Arabic
4an) 8ou-d o'ten tend to thinC that e,er)one in the o'ten9re'erred9to9as .Arab countries0
2

s5eaCs Arabic1 id est &-assica- Arabic or 5erha5s a .dia-ect o' Arabic0. This is 'urther co25-icated
b) the 'act that 2an) citiBens o' North A'rican and "est Asian states re'er to the ,ariet) o'
-anguages the) uses as .Arabic01 2uch -iCe 8hat the indigenous A2aBigh 5o5u-ations o' North
A'rica o'ten re'er to their -inguistic ,arieties as .Ta2aBight0 or .A2aBigh01 and rare-) use other
e?on)2s such as .Tari'it0 or .Tashe-hit0. LEDD<9&E&ERE 2*1*! notes that c-ai2ing other8ise
8ou-d be tanta2ount to den)ing an .Arab identit)0 a-together. Another reason 'or this 2a) be that
the adFecti,e .Arabic0 is current-) used in North A'rica to 2ean either.o-d01 or .-oca-0 in contrast
to .2odern01 or .not 'u--) ado5ted01 a di''erentiation that 2a) ha,e been accentuated b) the
Euro5ean co-onia- e''orts in the region. It 2ight ha,e a-so been initia--) used to 2ean .'oreign0> For
instance .TurCish co''ee0 and .Neo9+unic bathes0 are re'erred to res5ecti,e-) as .Arabic co''ee0
and .Arabic bathes0. These 2a) be re9borro8ed e?5ressions 'ro2 Euro5ean -anguages that ha,e
2 The ter2 .Arab countries0 is 5erha5s one o' the 2ost co22on1 )et1 a2biguous ter2ino-ogies in the region.
+o-itica--) it re'ers to countries that are 2e2bers o' the .League o' Arab States01 8hich1 in turn1 is se-ecti,e about
8hat 2a) Eua-i') as .Arab01 as not a-- countries 8here Arabic is an o''icia- -anguage are 2e2bers1 'or e?a25-e
&had or Israe-. It 2a) a-so re'er to countries 8here a 2aForit) o' citiBens identi') the2se-,es as Arabs1 8hether
ethnica--) or -inguistica--)1 a-though this 2aForit) is assu2ed not accounted. The ter2 .Arabic9s5eaCing countries01
2a) so2eti2es 5resent a2biguities and 2a) e,en be incorrect in certain conte?ts> No countr) in the 8or-d uses
Arabic1 i.e. &-assica- Arabic or 4odern Standard Arabic1 as a -anguage 'or its dai-) usage. On the other hand1 i'
8hat is 2eant b) .Arabic9s5eaCing countries0 is1 5erha5s1 countries 8here an a--eged .Arabic dia-ect0 is s5oCen1
then this de'inition -ea,es out 2u-ti5-e regions1 'or instance the state o' 4a-ta. There is there'ore a need to re'rain
'ro2 ethnic or -inguistic c-assi'ications and use geogra5hic or other1 2ore neutra-1 ter2ino-ogies.
ON THE STANDARDISATION OF TUNISIAN 6
5re,ious-) identi'ied such obFects as .Arab0.
In other conte?ts1 the ter2 .Arabian01 . orbGn0 in Tunisian1 is derogator) and carries the ɛ
2eaning o' .no2ad01 .5ri2iti,e01 or .unci,i-ised0. There are e,en so2e co22on sa)ings 2ocCing
the beha,iour o' .Sidi L arbi01 or .2) 4aster t ɛ he Arab01 as .in'-e?ib-e0 and e,en .du--0. One
Tunisian Nesi2 TouBi1 2*12!1 and 5ossib-) a-so Lib)an ديعق
َ
لا1 2**(!1 'o-C-ore song is entit-ed .4e
AebouC rab <e 4er)e201 -ittera-) 2eaning .<ou "ere Not ;rought b) Ar Ɛ abs1 O 4ar)e201 and in
that conte?t 2eaning .<ou "ere Not /i,en ;irth to b) Arabs1 O 4ar)e20. The inter5retations o'
the tit-e and the -)rics can di''er 8ide-). +arado?ica--) a-so1 Tunisians a-so ha,e a co22on sa)ing
5raising Arabs1 8hich is .Sidi ennbi arbi01 2eaning .our 2aster the 5ro5het is an Arab0. This Ɛ
a2bi,a-ence is on-) a bit o' the ethno-inguistic and socio-inguistic as5ects o' Tunisian. The
situation has been 'urther co25-icated b) the 5o-itica- +an9Arabist e''orts that ha,e1 a2ong other1
o''ered a ,er) se-ecti,e ,ie8 o' histor) to be taught in 5ri2ar) schoo-s near-) e?c-uding a-2ost a--
non9Arab and non9+unic heritage1 changed the na2es o' ,arious A2aBigh ,i--ages into a 2ore
Arabic9sounding to5ono2)1 and engaged in a sCe8ed shi't o' the Tunisian cu-tura- 5aradig2s to
2ore1 rather Arabised1 ones1 2ain-) through the de-iberate absor5tion o' cine2atogra5hic and
2usica- 5roducts 'ro2 Eg)5t and other "est Asian countries1 rather then 'ocusing and e25hasising
on -oca- ones.
Linguistica--)1 Tunisian is radica--) di''erent 'ro2 Arabic in 2u-ti5-e as5ects. To na2e a
'e8> the consonant9,o8e-9consonant structure in Arabic 8ords does not necessari-) a55-) in
Tunisian. In Tunisian it is 5er'ect-) concei,ab-e 'or t8o consonants to be used consecuti,e-) in an
onset1 8hi-e Arabic1 and a-so 4odern Eg)5tian1 do not ha,e this 5ossibi-it). "ords such as
.T8ensa01 2eaning .Tunisians01 are arabised to .Ta8anisa0. Another di''erence is the shi't in the
-ength o' the ,o8e-s@ such as the usage o' the ,o8e- .e0 instead o' the Arabic .a0 or .'at:ha01 both
in the treat2ent o' borro8ed 8ords and 8hi-e reading a te?t in Arabic. For instance1 a Tunisian
ON THE STANDARDISATION OF TUNISIAN H
8ou-d 2ost -iCe-) not read .Dhahaba A2in i-a:-2adrasati.01 a 5hrase in Arabic 2eaning .A2in
8ent to schoo-01 )et .Dhehebe E2in i-e:-2adreseti01 8ith the .a0 re2aining on-) in so2e 5ro5er
na2es and a 'e8 structures. In Tunisian1 the 5hrase beco2es .E2In 2che -e-2adrsa01 8ith the a-e'
co25-ete-) disa55earing in the beginning o' the 8ords1 again re2aining on-) in so2e 5ro5er
na2es
%
. As it can a-so be seen 'ro2 the 5re,ious e?a25-e1 the Jerb9SubFect9ObFect structure 'ound
in Arabic does not e?ist in Tunisian1 but is instead 2or5hed into a SubFect9Jerb9ObFect
construction. These di''erences and 2u-ti5-e other are 2ost-) due to the A2aBigh substrata1 2aCing
Tunisian 5erha5s the ,er) )oung descendant o' a se,era-9hundred9)ear o-d 5idgin -anguage1 that has
since been arabised due to the substantia- usage o' Arabic as the -iturgica- -anguage o' Is-a2. These
'or2s o' +roto9Tunisian dia-ects 2a) ha,e e2erged as 5idgin -anguages bet8een the indigenous
A2aBigh 5o5u-ations and the ne8 Arab co-onisers and sett-ers@ -ater undergoing creo-isation or
Coineisation1 and gradua--) under a hea,) Arabisation 5rocess1 so2eti2es carried out b) the
A2aBigh the2se-,es as 2eans 'or 5o-itica- ru-e 2oti,ated b) the Is-a2
$
1 and 8ith the constant
contact 8ith other Ro2ance -anguages1 it ga,e rise to current dia-ects o' Tunisia. This ,ie8 is a-so
suggested in JERSTEE/H 17K$!1 8here the author 'o--o8s a -anguage restructuring 5ers5ecti,e
to ,ie8 cases o' creo-isation in ,arious North A'rican and "est Asian -anguages1 and su55orts his
,ie8 8ith nu2erous e?a25-es o' 'eatures that can be retraced to 5re9Arabic -anguages 5resent in
the area. For 'urther re-ated readings on the A2aBigh substrata in Tunisian1 4EARISSI 2*1%! and
,arious other 5ub-ications addressing the 5articu-arities o' North A'rican -anguages 2a) be o'
re-e,ance. Tunisian a-so incor5orates ,arious TurCish in'-uences1 'or instance the .9Fi0 su''i? to
denote the 5ro'ession1 -ater beco2ing a-so the 'a2i-) na2e o' 2an) Tunisians. Jarious other
TurCish 8ords 8ere borro8ed1 such as .babour01 'ro2 the TurCish .,a5ur01 2eaning .shi50. The
% Ne,erthe-ess1 8hen 5ro5er na2es are 'u--) ado5ted into Tunisian1 the) -ose the .A-e'0 sound co25-ete-). An
e?a25-e is .AL2ad01 8hich beco2es in Tunisian .M2ed0.
$ The indigenous A2aBigh and other 5o5u-ations o' Tunisia 2ade use o' Arabic and Is-a2 in 5o-itics1 5erha5s in the
sa2e 'ashion that the Se-FuEs 2ade use o' Abbasid d)nasties and o' Arabic tit-es a'ter the 'a-- o' ;aghdad in the
e-e,enth centur).
ON THE STANDARDISATION OF TUNISIAN K
use o' 8ords o' TurCish origin has ho8e,er been dec-ining as the) ha,e been gradua--) substituted
8ith French or Eng-ish 8ords.
Further2ore1 LEDD<9&E&ERE 2*1*! e,a-uates the socio-inguistic and sociohistorica-
situations o' Tunisia1 and argues that Tunisian1 through the e?a25-e o' the North Eastern dia-ect o'
Sousse1 ha,e gone under a creo-isation 5rocess. Jarious c-ues 5oint out in this direction1 inc-uding1
a2ong other1 the dia-ect:s -e?icose2antics and the 'act that the Euestion 8ords are near-) a--
bi2or5he2ic. Si2i-ar-)1 8hi-e c-assi')ing 4a-tese as the 2ost creo-e9-iCe -anguage1 and to a -esser
e?tent Audeo9Tunisian1 he ,ie8s the2 as a-- ste22ing 'ro2 a 'or2 o' creo-e +roto9Tunisian 8ith
,arious degrees o' decreo-isation. This decreo-isation re5resents .the 5rocess b) 8hich a creo-e1
through 5ro-onged e?5osure to the su5erstrate -anguage 'ro2 8hich it deri,es1 gradua--) sheds its
creo-e 'eatures in 'a,our o' those o' the 2ore 5restigious su5erstrate -anguage0. This has 5ossib-)
been the case 'o--o8ing the signi'icant contact bet8een the A2aBigh substrata and the Arabic
su5erstratu2 or su5erstrata in Tunisia. It 2a) be co25ared to an ongoing 5rocess in Tunisian1
8here ,arious French structures are being incor5orated and used as nati,e ones1 though 5erha5s not
to the e?tent o' decreo-isation. This ho8e,er re2ains a de-icate 5oint and is ,er) debatab-e a2ong
creo-ists and -inguists1 5articu-ar-) the ti2e s5an 8ithin 8hich creo-isation or decreo-isation taCes
5-ace. This creo-isation 5rocess is a-so a 5oint rather ruth-ess-) re'used to ad2it1 as 2an)1 8ith each
their 2oti,ations1 tend to 2ini2ise the di''erences bet8een Tunisian and Arabic in a rather 5uritan
2anner> "hi-e the contribution o' other -anguages1 aside 'ro2 Arabic is ignored1 the ro-e o' the
constant Arabisation through the 2osEues1 that ha,e been re5resenting Is-a2isation and Arabisation
stations near-) 'or the -ast 2i--ennia o' the region:s histor)1 is o'ten o,er-ooCed. For so2e1 8ho re-)
a-2ost uni-atera--) on Arabic and Arabocentric sources1 it see2s as i' the 5o5u-ations o' the region
8ere 2ute be'ore the Arri,a- o' the Arabs1 and on-) began to s5eaC1 in Arabic o' course1 around the
eighth centur). Such 5oints do not stand 8hen e,a-uating the histor) o' Tunisia1 and indeed ser,e
ON THE STANDARDISATION OF TUNISIAN 7
on-) 'or naN,e 5o-itica- 5ur5oses.
Arabic1 one the other hand1 has 2anaged to Cee5 its status so 'ar because o' Is-a21 and this
has been the case 'or centuries o' Arab e?5ansion and co-onisation. A situation si2i-ar to ho8 Latin
o8ed its status in the 4idd-e Ages to &hristianit)1 or to ho8 French 2anaged to gras5 a strong
-inguistic 'ootho-d in Sub9Saharan A'rica1 using the sa2e re-igion as 8e--. On the other hand1 there
is eEua--) a reason to be-ie,e that the Hi-a-ite and the other tribes that contributed to the -anguage
Arabisation 5rocess1 did not necessari-) s5eaC the sa2e Arabic as 4uha22ad1 or the dia-ect1 or
dia-ects1 o' Arabic that Uth2an chose to use in transcribing the 3uran. This -eads us to the
'o--o8ing 5oint> &-ai2ing that Tunisian is a dia-ect deri,ed 'ro2 Arabic 8ou-d i25-) 'or so2e that
Arabic in one o' its &-assica- 'or2s 8as 8ide-) s5oCen in Tunisia and then ga,e rise to a ,ernacu-ar
,ariant that e,o-,ed into no8ada)s: Tunisian1 8hich is historica--) inaccurate. There'ore1 ,ie8ing
Tunisian as a a -anguage that is deri,ed 'ro2 Arabic1 in the sense o' 5erha5s O-d Norse and S8edish
2a) be incorrect. The re-ationshi5 bet8een Tunisian and Arabic is 5erha5s c-oser to the re-ationshi5
bet8een A'riCaans and Dutch. Tunisian is as 2uch Arabic as <iddish is /er2an. In 4EARISSI
2*1%!1 the e?a25-e o' the Eng-ish -anguage is 5ro,ided 'or i--ustration. The origina- te?t:s 'ootnotes
8ere e2bedded into the Euotation>
Arabic 2a) be to Tunisian1 8hat French1 5articu-ar-) Nor2an1 is to Eng-ish1 8ith
A2aBigh being Eng-ish:s Ang-o9Sa?on> In the 5eriod 'o--o8ing the Nor2an &onEuest o'
Eng-and1 Eng-ish retained 2ost o' its /er2anic substrata and borro8ed e?tensi,e-)
'ro2 the ne8 -inguistic ,arieties1 8hich 8ere those o' the ne8 conEuering E-ite. This
5rocess resu-ted a'ter 2an) centuries in .4idd-e Eng-ish01 in turn resu-ting a'ter
2u-ti5-e other centuries in .Ear-) 4odern Eng-ish01 o' 8hich the current standardised
'or2 that this docu2ent uses1 is a descendant1 a'ter 2u-ti5-e other eras. Si2i-ar-)1 the
Arab Is-a2ic in,asion o' Tunisia and the subseEuent Hi-a-ite sett-e2ents1 acco25anied
b) the status o' Arabic as the -anguage ado5ted b) the ne8 ru-ers since it is that o' the
ne8 re-igion1 5ushed 'or an Arabisation o' the region1 resu-ting a'ter around t8e-,e
hundred )ears in Tunisian in its current 'or2s. A 5ro5er 2eta5hor to describe it cou-d
5erha5s be that o' an A2aBigh 2indset tr)ing to i2itate Arabic in an en,iron2ent 'i--ed
8ith 4editerranean ne8 8ords 'or in,entions and disco,eries. It is ho8e,er need-ess to
sa) that a Tunisian and a Saudi1 'or instance1 8ou-d no8ada)s be unab-e to understand
each other i' each s5eaCs on-) their o8n -oca- -inguistic ,ariet)1 and the) 8ou-d need to
ON THE STANDARDISATION OF TUNISIAN 1*
resort to a third -anguage1 8hich 8ou-d no8ada)s 2ost -iCe-) be Eg)5tian1 due
5erha5s1 a2ong other1 to the substantia- 'i-2 industr) 5roducts o' the countr) that 8ere
hea,i-) e?5orted to a-- o' North A'rica and "est Asia 1 or Eng-ish1 due 5erha5s1 a2ong
other1 to the internationa- -ingua 'ranca status that Eng-ish 2anaged to obtain.
Tunisian re2ains a d)na2ic -anguage carr)ing thousands o' )ears o' A2aBigh and Neo9
+unic substrata1 enco25assing ,ocabu-ar)1 2or5ho-og) 2echanis2s1 treat2ent o' borro8ed 8ords1
gra22ar1 and 5-ent) o' other 'eatures1 8ith an e?tensi,e Arabic ,ocabu-ar)1 substantia- Latin1
Ita-ian1 and TurCish i25acts1 and a gro8ing French and no8ada)s Eng-ish in'-uence. Tunisian
8ithout its signi'icant A2aBigh substrata 8ou-d be inco25-ete1 and 8ithout its Arabic1 and other1
,ocabu-ar) 8ou-d be 5-ain Dun9TunisianD.
3.1.2 Wh standardise Tunisian!
The ans8er to this Euestion 2a) see2 ,er) ob,ious to so2e@ 'or the rest1 'e8 5oints 8ou-d
be e?a2ined. O55onents are in,ited to ans8er the Euestion .8h) not standarise Tunisian#0.
Aside 'ro2 the 'act that the 2ere acade2ic bene'its are attracti,e1 the 8ide-)9ado5ted
transcri5tion o' Tunisian o''ers a ,er) interesting access to one o' the 2ain as5ects o' the Tunisian
cu-ture. Fe8 e?a25-es o' 5ub-ications in Tunisian 2ight inc-ude 2an) o' ;echir =hra)e':s 8orCs1 a
booC b) Ta8'iE ;en ;riC entit-ed .=a-b ben Ca-b01 or .Dog son o' a dog01 in re'erence to a
co22on Tunisian insu-t1 and a re5orted trans-ation o' Saint9E?u5Or):s the Litt-e +rince into
Tunisian b) HOdi ;a-egh 4EARI1 2***!1 8ho a-so authored a co--ection o' 5ub-ications on
Tunisian Sa)ings. Other 5ub-ications inc-ude the .FarBaBBou0 and the .Dhedd Esso-ta0 ne8s5a5ers1
and ,arious co-u2ns on other Fourna-s 8here authors 8rote in a 'or2 o' -anguage in bet8een
Tunisian and Arabic. The 'irst e-ectronic 2agaBine in Tunisian is 5erha5s the Tach-iC 2agaBine.
Other ,arious 2ateria- is 8ide-) 5resent on ,arious on-ine sources1 e,en essa)s about Sartre:s 8orCs
in Tunisian1 ho8e,er in no 5articu-ar standardised 'or2@ and to access it1 Cno8-edge o' both
Tunisian1 Arabic1 and French is usua--) needed. A-- o' the 5ast atte25ts to 8rite Tunisian 8ere not
ON THE STANDARDISATION OF TUNISIAN 11
8ithin an) standardisation sche2es1 the) 8ere 2ost-) 'o--o8ing the Arabic gra22ar ru-es1 or a
si25-i'ied ,ersion o' it. Tunisian has been e,en 8ritten since be'ore the countr):s inde5endence
'ro2 France1 and the Tunisian -eader Habib ;ourguiba used Tunisian in his s5eeches1 as 5erha5s
5art o' his ,ision o' 'orging a Tunisian identit). An e?a25-e using Tunisian can be 'ound in the
i--ustration be-o8> A 5icture o' a 5re9inde5endence 5oster ad,ertising a theatre 5-a) entit-ed
.8o2en are not in danger01 in Tunisian .ennsG 2ouch 'i Chtar01 8ritten in Arabic scri5t. Aside 'ro2
the tit-e1 e,er)thing e-se is in Arabic. The used nu2bers seen on the u55er right corner o' the
i--ustration 'o--o8 the Indian nu2era-s con,ention@ such nu2era-s are not in use an) 2ore in
Tunisia1 as their usage 8as ,er) connected to the TurCish in'-uence.
Illustration 1: An Example of Texts in Tunisian
Source> Author:s archi,e
The transcri5tion and recognition o' Tunisian is a recognition o' a-- the heritage and the
-anguages and that contributed to its sha5ing. It is a-so a reconci-iation o' the -inguistic
contradictions in the countr) 8here one s5eaCs a -anguage but needs to resort to either o' t8o
di''erent ones1 i.e. Arabic or French 'or o''icia- uses1 as not a-- o' the Tunisian 5o5u-ation 'u--)
2asters these t8o -anguages. It ser,es -itt-e 5ur5ose to use t8o 'oreign -anguages and to -ooC do8n
ON THE STANDARDISATION OF TUNISIAN 12
on one:s o8n -inguistic ,ariet). This itse-' is a rather unnatura- state> It does not 2aCe sense to s5eaC
a -anguage1 8rite a di''erent one1 and ca-- the2 both the sa2e. "orse1 it is rather inconcei,ab-e to
s5eaC a -anguage and not be ab-e to 5ro5er-) 8rite it.
On the other1 rather 5o-itica-1 hand1 acCno8-edging Tunisian as a -anguage 8ou-d strengthen
the sense o' a Tunisian nationa- identit). The 5o-itica- ado5tion o' the standardisation o' Tunisian
8ou-d set a 5recedent in North A'rica1 as no other North9A'rican9re-ated -anguage is standardised1
aside o' course 'ro2 Tunisian:s cousin1 the 4a-tese -anguage. Standardisation 8ou-d de'inite-)
contribute to the 5reser,ation o' the Tunisian co22on 2e2or) and to 2ore intense acade2ic
interaction 8ithin Tunisia:s si2i-ar -inguistic en,iron2ent1 5articu-ar-) the 8ho-e o' North A'rica
and 4a-ta.
3.1.3 "reser#ing the language of the $%reat Arab &ation'( of Isla)(
and of the *uran
The standardisation o' Tunisian shou-d not be seen as an o55osition to Arabic. It is a'ter a--
the Tunisians: right to be ab-e to s5eaC and read their -anguage and 5ass do8n their heritage. Such
naN,e re'usa-1 2ost-) b) +an9Arabists and 5uritans1 is un'ounded and it is on-) their choice and
res5onsibi-it) i' the) 8ish to o55ose Tunisian to Arabic. The standardisation o' Tunisian 2a) not go
a-ong 8ith the 5o-itica- obFecti,es o' a 5articu-ar 'action1 but it ser,es ,er) 8e-- the interest o' a--
Tunisians1 as e?5-ained abo,e. Further2ore1 the ca-- to the Dreturn to use ArabicD is rather absurd1 as
ne,er in their histor) did Tunisians s5eaC the sa2e -anguage as the 3uran. It 2a) ha,e been used as
an e-ite -anguage or 'or o''icia- use1 but such 8as the use o' Latin 8hen O-d French 8as being
s5oCen in France. 4ost i25ortant-)1 no authorit) has the right to den) the usage o' one -anguage1
8hi-e c-ai2ing that another is .better01 regard-ess o' 8hat an) booC or doctrine 2a) suggest.
The standard Tunisian -anguage 8ou-d 2ost de'inite-) acCno8-edge the i22ense
contribution o' Arabic1 ho8e,er the nature o' -anguages is e,o-ution1 in ,arious 8a)s1 and a
ON THE STANDARDISATION OF TUNISIAN 1%
standardised Tunisian is but a ste5 'urther. In that sense1 Arabic 8ou-d sti-- be Tunisia:s 'irst 'oreign
-anguage1 at -east 'or the near 'uture1 as it has been since the Arab co-onisation and the subseEuent
Hi-a-ite in,asions.
+. Transcribing Tunisian
4.1 Which Tunisian?
One 'urther cha--enge that o55onents o'ten set is .8hich Tunisian to transcribe#0. "hi-e this
ho8e,er ad2its i25-icit-) the 5ossibi-it) o' standardising Tunisian1 it ignores one o' the 2ost
historica--) i25ortant 2i-estones in the histor) o' -anguages> As it has been the case 'or ,arious
other -inguistic ,arieties1 it 8ou-d indeed be the 5o-itica- 8i--1 acco25anied b) the 2edia e''orts1
that 8ou-d choose one 5articu-ar ,ariant o' Tunisian as the standard 'or2. One e?a25-e is 8hen the
Inde5endent Higher Authorit) 'or E-ections in Tunisia chose a s-ogan in North9Eastern Tunisian
reading .8Ea))et bech tEa))ed01 transcribed o''icia--) in Arabic -etters 8ith . ديقت شاب تيقو0 and
rough-) 2eaning .ti2e to register0. This see2ed distaste'u- to Tunisia:s then9candidate and -ater its
5ost9October92*11 interi2 5resident1 4onse' 4arBouEi1 8ho -ater 8rote and 5ub-ished an artic-e
contesting the 2easure and ca--ing &reo-e -anguages a .cancer01 and de2anding the cri2ina-isation
o' the usage o' Tunisian in 2edia and the e?c-usi,e usage o' Arabic يقوزرملا1 2*11!.
In this 5a5er1 and in the 'o--o8ing 5ub-ication b) the author1 and ho5e'u--) b) the League o'
Tunisian Hu2anists and other 5arties1 the used dia-ect as5ires to be as neutra- as 5ossib-e and as
co25rehensib-e as 5ossib-e. It cou-d ne,erthe-ess be hea,i-) in'-uenced b) the characteristics o' the
39dia-ects grou51 and natura--) b) the ti2e 'ra2e o' the transcri5tion.
4.2 The STUNdard Method
The STUNdard 2ethod taCes its na2e 'ro2 a 5ort2anteau o' the 8ords Standard and
Tunisian. It 5ro,ides the transcri5tion in a 2odi'ied Latin a-5habet. The 2ethod is -arge-) based on
ON THE STANDARDISATION OF TUNISIAN 1$
the 4a-tese1 A2aBigh Latin1 and French a-5habets. Its 2ain ai2 is to co2bine 'ide-it) in s5eech
transcri5tion and 5rocessing1 and to 5ro,ide an accessib-e 2ethod to read Tunisian. The 2ethod
uses basic Latin a-5habet and adds t8o characters> The -etter . 01 5resent in the A2aBigh Latin ɛ
a-5habet a2ong other1 is used transcribe a ,oiced 5har)ngea- 'ricati,e P a55ro?i2ate1 o' 8hich the
I+A s)2bo- is P P or P P. The -etter .L01 5resent in the 4a-tese A-5habet a2ong other1 is used to ʢ ʢ̝
transcribe a ,oice-ess 5har)ngea- 'ricati,e1 o' 8hich the I+A s)2bo- is the sa2e1 i.e. PLP. The
Unicode 5osition 'or the -o8er case . 0 is UQ*2(;1 and the Unicode 5osition 'or the u55er case ɛ
. 0 is UQ*17*. The Unicode 5osition 'or the -o8er case .L0 is UQ*12H 1 and the Unicode 5osition Ɛ
'or the u55er case .M0 is UQ*126. "hen using the STUNdard 2ethod1 a-- the Tunisian 8ords are
8ritten e?act-) as the) are 5ronounced.
The tab-es be-o8 5ro,ide 'urther detai-s about the a-5habet. So2e o' their contents has been
a-so 5ub-ished on the STUNdard 8eb-og1 a,ai-ab-e through the -inC> 888.stundard.8ord5ress.co2.
The 8eb-og a-so 'eatures ,arious resources that 2a) be o' use.
Table 1: The STUNdard Method
Upper
Case
Letter
Lower
Case
Letter
Example in
Tunisian
Example
in
English
Notes
A a Ar)ena A2erica
; b ;enBart ;ee
& c &ontratou &at
D d DouB Dear
E e E-CG' Dead Sound usua--) as5irated in the beginning o' a 8ord
Ɛ ɛ in Drahe2 Ɛ NPA Joiced 5har)ngea- 'ricati,e P a55ro?i2ate
F ' Fer)ene Free
/ g /a'sa /i,e
H h Herg-a Ha,e
M L Mou2a NPA Joice-ess +har)ngea- 'ricati,e
I i Sidi ;ouBid 4eet
ON THE STANDARDISATION OF TUNISIAN 1(
Table 1: The STUNdard Method
Upper
Case
Letter
Lower
Case
Letter
Example in
Tunisian
Example
in
English
Notes
A F Aandouba /enre
= C =bir =ing
L - La2ta Lo,e
4 2 4oCnin 4oon
N n Nebe- Near
O o O22 La ra)ess ɛ Odd
+ 5 +ortabe- +-ease
3 E 3arEna NPA Joice-ess u,u-ar sto5
R r Rda))e' NPA An a-,eo-ar tri--
S s Sousa S-ee5
T t Tounis P Tata8in TaCe
U u ErrO,o-usion NPA &-ose 'ront rounded ,o8e-
J , Ji--a Jio-in
" 8 T8ensa "e--
R ? Etta?i Ta?i
< ) <es2in <e--
S B Sagh8Gn Sero
Addition--)1 other sound can be transcribed 8ith a doub-e9consonant co2bination through
adding an .h0 to one o' the other consonants such as>
Table 2: STUNdard Two-etter !ombinations
Upper case
Combination
Lower Case
Combination
Example
in
Tunisian
Example
in
English
Notes
&h ch &hbiCa Shore
Dh dh Dh:habb The Arabic D:dhad1 i.e. .ض0 d !1 does not e?ist ˤ
in Tunisian1 and is indistinguishab-e 'ro2 .
ظ0 T !. Further2ore1 . ˤ ظ0 T ! and . ˤ ذ0 T!
ha,e 5ractica--) 2erged in Tunisian.
ON THE STANDARDISATION OF TUNISIAN 16
Table 2: STUNdard Two-etter !ombinations
Upper case
Combination
Lower Case
Combination
Example
in
Tunisian
Example
in
English
Notes
/h gh /ho2rasen NPA Joiced ,e-ar 'ricati,e
=h Cg =hnis NPA Joice-ess ,e-ar 'ricati,e
Ou ou TouBer /ood
Th th Theni Three
In -oan8ords1 other doub-e9-etter sounds 2a) be a-so used as 5resent in their origina-
-anguage1 or 2a) a-so be changed into their Tunisian eEui,a-ents. For e?a25-e the usage o' .5h0
cou-d 'o--o8 the French 5ronunciation1 i.e. 5ronounced .'01 or cou-d a-so be substituted 8ith an .'0.
The sound .5h0 itse-' is 'ro2 the /reeC -etter .U0 and has been borro8ed b) French and other
-anguages. Other -oan8ords that ha,e not been co25-ete-) ado5ted1 cou-d be either 8ritten in the
8a) the) are 8ritten in the origina- -anguage1 or a-so be standardised. For e?a25-e1 the French 8ord
.ad2inistration0 cou-d re2ain as such1 or be transcribed .ad2inistrasion0 de5ending on the 8riter:s
o8n choice1 and a-so on the genera- and the 5articu-ar conte?t. An e?a25-e o' a 8ord that has been
ado5ted and 8ou-d be standardised is the French .tO-O5hone 5ortab-e01 beco2ing .te-i'oun
5ortabe-0. Additionna--)1 the -etter .O0 2a) be used to indicate a short .e01 'or e?a25-e in .anO0.
Other ,ariations o' -etters such as .G01 .I01 .V01 or .W0 2a) be used to indicate a -ong ,o8e-. For
instance .Corraset S-i201 2eans the co5) booC o' S-i21 and .CorrasGt S-i20 2eans the .co5) booCs
o' S-i20. Si2i-ar-) .tabbe 0 8ou-d 2ean ordering so2eone to 'o--o81 8hi-e .tabbG 0 8ou-d 2ean ɛ ɛ
a 5erson 8ho 'o--o8s.
The 5unctuation cou-d 'o--o8 the Eng-ish 2ode> 'or e?a25-e1 un-iCe French1 there see2s to
be no need to -ea,e a s5ace bet8een the -ast 8ord o' a sentence and a subseEuent e?c-a2ation or an
interrogation 2arC. In addition1 the usage o' the a5ostro5he1 .:01 is si2i-ar to the usage o' the dash1
ON THE STANDARDISATION OF TUNISIAN 1H
.901 in the 4a-tese -anguage1 but 8ith s-ight-) 2ore 'unctions. A2ong its uses is the se5aration o'
-etters1 in case a con'usion due to t8o9-etter co2binations 2ight occur@ 'or e?a25-e in .t:hanna0
2eaning .be sure0 and .theni0 2eaning second. The a5ostro5he is a-so used bet8een t8o
consecuti,e t8o9-etter consonants@ 'or e?a25-e> .Ch:dhit0. It 2a) a-so be used to indicate stress on
the .a-e'0 sound> A-though it is 2ost-) as5irated or si-ent1 5articu-ar-) in the beginning o' the 8ords1
the a5ostro5he can be used so2eti2es in 8ords o' Arabic origin to indicate a needed 5ronunciation1
5articu-ar-) in the case o' a diaeresis. For instance1 the Arabic 8ord .ضرلا01 transcribed as .a-:ardh0
and 2eaning .the -and0 a2ong other1 8ou-d be .-ardh0 in Tunisian1 8ithout an) .a-e'0 sounds at
a--. I' ho8e,er the conte?t reEuires a 2ore Arabised 5ronunciation1 it cou-d be then transcribed as
.e-:ardh0. Further2ore1 the a5ostro5he cou-d a-so be used to indicate an acron)2 or an initia-is21
'or instance> .e-:+&01 or .es:STE/0.
The conFunction .801 2eaning .and01 is 8ritten se5arate-). A-though in &-assica- Arabic and
Hebre8 it is 8ritten attached to the subseEuent 8ord. Jarious in'-uences ha,e contributed to a
co22on 5ractice o' se5arating the conFunction 'ro2 the 8ord. The se5arated orthogra5h) is used
'or si25-i'ication reasons. The .80 re2ains the on-) conFunction 5resent in Tunisian1 as the Arabic
.'a0 ف! and .tho22a0 مث! do not e?ist.
The de'inite artic-es are 8ritten attached to the 8ord to a,oid con'usion in the case o' the
'irst -etter o' the 8ord being a so-ar -etter. For e?a25-e the 8ord .cha2s01 2eaning sun1 8ou-d
beco2e .ech:cha2s0. The 8ord .ga2ra01 2eaning 2oon1 8ou-d beco2e .e-ga2ra0. I' it 8ere the
o55osite1 i.e. .ech cha2s0 and .e- ga2ra01 it 2ight beco2e con'using and 2a) be i25ractica-.
"hi-e 4a-tese so-,ed this b) adding a dash bet8een the artic-e and the 8ord1 e.g. .?e2?0
beco2ing .i?9?e2?0 and .Ea2ar0 beco2ing .i-9Ea2ar01 the STUNdard 2ethods si25-i'ies this b)
o2itting the s)2bo-s or the s5aces bet8een the artic-e and the 8ord 'o--o8ing. "riting the artic-es
se5arate-) re2ains a ,a-id1 a-beit 5rob-e2atic1 5ossibi-it) ne,erthe-ess. E?a25-es are 'ound in the
ON THE STANDARDISATION OF TUNISIAN 1K
'o--o8ing tab-e.
Table ": Trans#ription of $efinite Arti#les
Solar
letter
example
Dar Eddar Feddar " 'eddar
" 'eddar
2te ou ɛ
Fi dar Fi darou
" 'i
darou
Translati
on in
English
House
The
house
In the
house
And in
the house
And in
the house
o'! his
In a
house
In his
house
And in
his house
Lunar
Letter
example
;it E-bit Fe-bit " 'e-bit
" 'e-bit
2te ou ɛ
Fi bit Fi bitou
" 'i
bitou
Translati
on in
English
Roo2 The roo2
In the
roo2
And in
the roo2
And in
the roo2
o'! his
In a roo2
In his
roo2
And in
his roo2
It 2a) be 5ossib-e to Fusti') the need 'or the character 0 01 as 2an) cou-d see its ɛ
transcri5tion 5ossib-e through the usage o' other ,o8e-s1 such as .X01 .Y01 .Z01 .[01 de5ending on
the 'o--o8ing ,o8e-. This ho8e,er 2a) be 2is-eading in the cases 8here the . 0 is 5receded b) a ɛ
,o8e-1 or 8hen it is 'o--o8ed b) another consonant in the sa2e onset. It is a-so the case 8hen the
. 0 is the -ast sound in a 8ord and is not 'o--o8ed b) an) other character1 and -iCe8ise 8hen the ɛ
consonant is doub-ed. Detai-s cou-d be 'urther e,a-uated in the 'o--o8ing tab-e through the usage o'
,arious Tunisian e?a25-es. The co-u2n .Other Transcri5tions!0 uses the 'o--o8ing consonant to
the . 01 and in case o' its absence the 5receding one1 as an indicator 'or the character to be used. ɛ
Table %: Issues of Trans#ription &elated to the 'oi#ed (har)n*eal +ri#ati,e - Approximate Sound
STUNdard
Transcription
Other
Transcription(s)
Meaning in English
T-a t ɛ T-aXt I P <ou singu-ar! c-i2bed
T-aɛ T-aX He c-i2bed
Ta- et ɛ Ta-Zet She c-i2bed
T-a na ɛ T-aXna "e c-i2bed
T-a tou ɛ T-aXtou <ou 5-ura-! c-i2bed
ON THE STANDARDISATION OF TUNISIAN 17
Table %: Issues of Trans#ription &elated to the 'oi#ed (har)n*eal +ri#ati,e - Approximate Sound
STUNdard
Transcription
Other
Transcription(s)
Meaning in English
Ta- ou ɛ Ta-You The) c-i2bed
Ta- Vt ɛ Ta-XVt +-ura- noun o' one .c-i2bing ti2e01 cou-d a-so 2ean .tri5s01
the -atter 2eaning 2ight ha,e occurred through se2antic
change 'o--o8ing the usage o' .u50 and .do8n0 as directions.
Ta--aɛ Ta--aX An i25erati,e 'or2 o' .guess0 or .-i't0
To--i a ɛ To--iXa Ridd-e
T ebtou ɛ TZebtou <ou 5-ura-! are tired
;a ed ɛɛ ;aZZed
An i25erati,e 'or2 o' .2o,e0. The 8ord cou-d a-so 2ean
.a'ter0.
As e?hibited b) the tab-e1 a-though the transcri5tion o' the . 0 is 'easib-e through the usage ɛ
o' ru-e o' the 'o--o8ing ,o8e-1 it 2a) be con'using and i25ractica-
(
. This ho5e'u--) e?5-ains its
addition. Further2ore1 the usage o' this character is 5re'erred due to its 5ossib-e ,isua-
identi'ication 8ith the Arabic -etter .ع0 that is used to transcribe the sa2e sound1 as 8e-- as the
nu2ber .%01 de 'acto used to transcribe the sa2e sound on ,arious on-ine and other sources using
the Latin scri5t. The -etter . 0 is 5re'erred o,er the 4a-tese a-ternati,e .gL01 'or si25-icit) and ɛ
e''icienc) 5ur5oses. Further2ore1 the . 0 is a consonant and not a ,o8e-1 and its transcri5tion ɛ
through the characters co22on-) ,ie8ed as ,o8e-s 2a) be 'urther con'using on other -e,e-s.
The 5aragra5h be-o8 is an e?a25-e o' te?ts using the STUNdard 2ethod>
;archa )naFF2ou )asa-ou -ech hedha e-Co--# 4a8 neCtbou )e2a be-'ransa8i )e2a ɛ
be- arbi 8aLna 2arteLin. E-2ochC-a Latta Cen tet a--e2 E- arbi 8e-a E-'ransa8i1 ɛ ɛ ɛ
2ouch bech tnaFFe2 te'he2 Ettounsi 8 2ouch bech tnaFFe2 taLCi bettounsi. NLebbou
8e-a naCrhou aLna T8ensa Eba- 8 ba d Co-- cha)1 8 Ci' nous-ou neCtbou -oughetna ɛ
bettounsi 8 naEra8ha Ci' Ci' bettounsi anna LaFa en co22un t-e22na ennGss e-Co--. ɛ
Hedhe)a e--i nLebbou na 2-ouh 8 n8ass-ouh1 8 )a tiC essaLLa Ci' sbart 8 Erit ɛ ɛ
e-5aragra' e-Co-- bettounsi. =en 'a22a a)) LaFa ennaF2ou n a8nou beha contactina. ɛ
4arLbe biC.
As a su22ar) 'or this section1 a co25arison 8ith the A2aBigh Latin1 Arabic1 4a-tese1 and
( It re2ains ho8e,er an o5tion in case o' needed Eng-ish9-etter9on-) transcri5tion. Through using the abo,e9
2entioned ru-e and then the re2o,a- o' the circu2'-e? diacritic.
ON THE STANDARDISATION OF TUNISIAN 2*
Ti'inagh a-5habets is suggested.
Table .: Ama/i*h atin0 Arabi#0 Maltese0 Tifina*h0 and Tunisian Alphabets
Tunisian ma!igh Latin Maltese Ti"inagh rabic
A A A ⴰ ا
; ; ; ⴱ ب
&
Used 2ain-) in -oan8ords1
other8ise re5-aced b) .C0
&h & ⵛ ش
D D D ⴷ د
Dh Ḍ ⴹ P P ظ ض ذ
E E E ⴻ
Ɛ Ɛ /L ⵄ ع
F F F ⴼ ف
/ / / ⴳ
/h Ɣ ⵖ غ
H H H ⵀ ه
M Ḥ M ⵃ _
I I I ⵉ
A A S ⵊ _
= = = ⴽ 2
=h R ⵅ _
L L L ⵍ _
4 4 4 ⵎ ç
N N N ⵏ _
O O
Ou U U ⵓ
+ + ⵒ
3 3 3 ⵇ _
R R R ⵔ ر
S S S ⵙ _
T T T ⵜ P L .
Th T ⵝ .
U Used 2ain-) in -oan8ords
ON THE STANDARDISATION OF TUNISIAN 21
Table .: Ama/i*h atin0 Arabi#0 Maltese0 Tifina*h0 and Tunisian Alphabets
Tunisian ma!igh Latin Maltese Ti"inagh rabic
J J ⵠ
" " " ⵡ و
R Used 2ain-) in -oan8ords
< < A ⵢ _
S S \ ⵣ ز
4.3 The STUNdared Arlette and Alternative Methods
For ,arious reasons1 2an) 2a) 5re'er using Arabic and si2i-ar -etters to transcribe Tunisian.
Fo--o8ing this rationa-e1 the STUNdard Ar-ette 2ethod is another si2i-ar 5ro5osa- using an Arabic9
based a-5habet1 8ith .Ar-ette0 being a 5ort2anteau o' .Arabic0 and .-etters0. The a-5habet
co25rises a-- the 2K -etters and adds the +ersian three9dotted ._01 o' 8hich the Unicode 5osition is
UQ*6HE1 as 8e-- as the =urdish three9to59dotted ._01 and its three9botto29dotted ,ariant .¸01 o'
8hich the res5ecti,e Unicode 5ositions are UQ*6AK and UQ*6A(.
The 2ethod 5ro5oses to disregard the di''erences bet8een . . 10 ذ ض01 and .ظ0 and bet8een .
.0 and .L01 as their sounds ha,e 5ractica--) 2erged in Tunisian. "ords borro8ed 'ro2 Arabic that
sti-- retain their characteristics 8ou-d eEua--) either be 8ritten as the) are origina--) 'ound or
transcribed 8ith their Tunisian counter5arts. It a-so suggests to disregard an) historica-
inconsistencies re-ated to the transcri5tion o' the Arabic g-otta- sto5 .ha2Ba01 i.e. ..0 and si25-)
use the .a-e'01 i.e. .ا01 8hen reEuired. Other 5oints 2a) be the conser,ation o' the .shadda0 to
signa- a doub-ed consonant1 and the 5ossib-e re5-ace2ent o' the si-ent 'ina- ..0 in the ending b) an .
ا01 e?ce5t 5erha5s 'or e?isting Arabic 8ords that ha,e a co22on transcri5tion. Further2ore1 the
conFunction .و0 cou-d be 8ritten se5arate-) 'ro2 the 8ord1 and the si-ent .ا0 5resent in Arabic at the
end o' the ,erbs conFugated 8ith 5-ura- 5ronouns cou-d be dro55ed.
ON THE STANDARDISATION OF TUNISIAN 22
Table 1: The STUNdard Arlette Method
STUNdard
rlette
Letter
STUNdard
E#ui$alent
Example in
Tunisian
Example
in rabic
Notes
ا A P ..ا,را ا.ا,را .ربا
ب ; .ر¸.ب باب
_ + _باتر¸¿ Does not e?ist in Arabic
. T _.¸ت .ي>ت
. Th ي.اث ي.اث
_ A P .بود.> ابود.> د,د>
_ M P ..¸> ا.¸> ي>
_ =h _ي.> ري>
د D زود _يلد
ذ Dh ,.ذ ,.ذَ
ر R .,

در .ي.ر
ز S _ا¸.ز راز
_ S P ..¸. ا.¸. ر¸.
ش &h P .×ي,. ا×ي,. _م.
_ Ss P ..اL ا.اL ,ع.
ض Dh عا. عا.
In Tunisian1 it is 5ronounced .dh01
un-iCe the Arabic .d:dh0.
L T P Tt _,واLت .لواL
ظ Dh _L .,رL &ou-d a-so be transcribed as ._.0
ع Ɛ م.ارد _ي. _ي.
غ /h _.ارم. يلا.
ف F P ..ا,رs ا.ا,رs ر¸Ls
¸ J اI ي¸ Does not e?ist in Arabic
_ 3 P ..قرق ا.قرق م,دق
_ / P ...s ا..s Does not e?ist in Arabic
2 = ري,´ ري,´
_ L P .Lمل اLمل ,عل
ç 4 _ي.×. ,.×.
_ N _با. ر..
ه H P .Isر. .sر. ر

.
و " P ...ا¸ت ا..ا¸ت ,.و
ON THE STANDARDISATION OF TUNISIAN 2%
Table 1: The STUNdard Arlette Method
STUNdard
rlette
Letter
STUNdard
E#ui$alent
Example in
Tunisian
Example
in rabic
Notes
_ < _يم.ا, ,عI,
The 5aragra5h be-o8 is an e?a25-e o' te?ts using the STUNdard Ar-ette 2ethod>
. _ا´ _.> .I×.ملا _ي>اتر. ا.>و يبرعIب ا.ا, _وا..ر.Iب ا.ا, ¸,.×. وا. '_ ×ل ا.. ش.. ¸لا., ¸م>

., ا.رب
. ¸.ر×. !و ¸,

>. ي..¸.لاب ي×>ت م>

.ت _ب ش¸. و ي..¸.لا م¸.ت م>

.ت _ب ش¸. ._وا..ر.لا !و يبرعلا مI ع.ت
.>ا> ا.. ي..¸.لاب .ي´ .ي´ ا.وارق. و ي..¸.لاب ا...¸ل ¸,.×. ¸I.¸. .ي´ و .ي. _´ دعب و _,ق ا..ا¸ت ا.>ا
. فارsارا,لا ت,رق و .ر,. .ي´ .>

.لا .يLع, و .ه¸I.

¸. و ه¸Iمع. ¸,>. يل ا ا,ا.. _ ×لا _

ا.

لا ا.م

Iت _ام

´ _¦
. . . .يب ا,>ر. ا.ي.´ا..¸´ ا¸ب ¸.واع. ¸م>.

ا .>ا> _

ا ام

s _ا´ ي..¸.لاب _×لا
Jarious 5rob-e2s arise 8hen using this scri5t though. First o' a--1 as the a-5habet abo,e is an
AbFad1 there are no ,o8e-s1 hence the 5rob-e2 o' diacritics that is a-so 'ound in Arabic. A 5erson
8ith no 5rior Cno8-edge o' ho8 a Tunisian 8ord shou-d be 5ronounced 8ou-d not Cno8 ho8 to
5ro5er-) read it. Further2ore1 e,en 8hen using the sa2e diacritics 'ound in Arabic1 there is no 8a)
to transcribe the di''erences o' .a0 and .e0 'or e?a25-e1 un-ess 5erha5s through a s)ste2 using
another consonant as a ,o8e-1 si2i-ar to the the =urdish Sorani a-5habet. This is 'urther
co25-icated b) the constant recourse to scri5t9s8itching1 5articu-ar-) 8hen 8riting an) te?t 8ith
borro8ed ter2s 'ro2 other -anguages that cannot be 'u--) transcribed 8ith Arabic -etters@ and as
French 8ords1 or 8ords o' French origin1 2aCe u5 an i25ortant 2ass in the Tunisian -e?icon1 the
2atter is 'urther co25-icated. One 5ossibi-it) is to use the .c-osest0 ,o8e- in transcri5tion1 'or
e?a25-e transcribe .errO,o-usion0 as ._¸ي.يل¸¸,ر

لاD1 or .anO01 the /ebes 'irst95erson singu-ar
5ronoun1 as .ي.اD. This ho8e,er is not reco22ended as it is not a truth'u- transcri5tion o' ho8 the
sounds is1 and 8i-- 2ost certain-) cause con'usion on the 5ro5er 2anner o' 5ronunciation. The
5re,ious e?a25-e o' .ي.ا0 is su''icient to see this 5uBB-e> "ithout 5ro5er Cno8-edge o' the conte?t1
it 8ou-d not be 5ossib-e to Cno8 ho8 to 5ronounce it> .Gni01 .eni01 .anO01 or .ani0@ those 'our
ON THE STANDARDISATION OF TUNISIAN 2$
o5tions being actua- ,arieties o' the 'irst95erson singu-ar 5ronoun in Tunisia. Arabic1 as is1 si25-)
-acCs the 5ro5er ,o8e-s 'or Tunisian. And this 2ethod sti-- needs to be either 'urther de,e-o5ed1 or
abandoned a-together1 i' 5ers5ecti,es are not ,er) 5ro2ising.
,. Co)-arison and "otentials
It 2a) be arguab-e that1 since Tunisian shares 5-ent) o' its ,ocabu-ar)1 or to be e?act o' the
origin o' the 8ords in its ,ocabu-ar)1 8ith Arabic1 then the Arabic scri5t see2s 2ore suitab-e 'or
transcri5tion. "hi-e this 2a) see2 a de'ensib-e 5osition1 it cou-d ho8e,er be re'uted on 2u-ti5-e
-e,e-s.
First o' a--1 a scri5t and a -anguage1 a-though ,er) interre-ated1 are not the sa2e. 4u-ti5-e
-anguages1 o' di''erent -inguistic 'a2i-ies1 cou-d be 8ritten in the sa2e scri5t. For e?a25-e1
Jietna2ese and S5anish1 a-though ,er) distant1 both use the Latin Scri5t. Si2i-ar-) a-so1 +ersian
and Arabic use a re-ati,e-) si2i-ar scri5t1 a-though being 'ro2 di''erent -inguistic 'a2i-ies.
Additiona--)1 the choice o' the A-5habet is ,er) 2uch de5endent on 5o-itica- reasons1 and a
-anguage can a-so change the scri5t it is 8ritten 8ith1 i' 5o-itica- 8i--1 a2ong other1 is 5resent.
Jietna2ese s8itched to Latin scri5t 'ro2 the &on'ucian scri5t a'ter French co-onisation1 and
si2i-ar-) the +ersian -anguage ado5ted an Arabic9deri,ed a-5habet a'ter the 5o-itica- in'-uence o'
the Arab9Is-a2ic e?5ansions and co-onisations. Another notab-e e?a25-e is that o' the TurCish
-anguage1 that has s8itched 'ro2 an Arabic9deri,ed scri5t to a Latin9deri,ed scri5t.
Further2ore1 -anguages cou-d a-so be 8ritten 8ith 2u-ti5-e scri5ts at the sa2e ti2e. =urdish
'or e?a25-e1 is 8ritten in both the Latin9based Ha8ar a-5habet1 and a-so the Arabic9based Sorani
a-5habet@ it 8as a-so 8ritten using a &)ri--ic9based a-5habet. Ho8e,er1 this 5rocess is usua--)
-i2ited in ti2e1 unti- a de 'acto1 or a de Fure1 ado5tion o' a co22on scri5t. It is a-so 8orth
2entioning that in other cases1 -anguages cou-d be 8ritten 8ith di''erent s)ste2s using the sa2e
ON THE STANDARDISATION OF TUNISIAN 2(
scri5t. An e?a25-e is the Nor8egian -anguage1 8hich cou-d be 8ritten in both the N)norsC and the
;oC2]- standards1 both using Latin9based scri5ts.
The 'o--o8ing tab-e ai2s to 5ro,ide a co25arison o' the trade9o''s bet8een the t8o 2ethods
'ro2 the 5ers5ecti,e o' 5ersons 8ho ha,e access to one scri5t but not the other1 i.e. Cno8-edge o'
the Latin a-5habet but not the Arabic one1 and in,erse-).
ON THE STANDARDISATION OF TUNISIAN 26
Table 2: !omparison of the Alphabets
%eature &etails STUNdard STUNdard rlette
'owels Un-iCe Arabic1
Tunisian has ,arious1
-ong and short1
,o8e-s1 na2e-) a1 V1
e1 G1 i1 I1 o1 ou1 ...
+ossib-e Not 5ossib-e1 un-ess using a
D=urdish9-iCeD or DU)ghur9-iCeD
true a-5habet. This cou-d
ho8e,er co25-icate
transcri5tion e,en 'urther and
2a) render readabi-it)
con'using 'or the uninitiated.
Using an enhanced Arabic
diacritics1 i.e. TashCi-1 s)ste2 is
a-so another a-ternati,e but a
2uch 2ore co25-icated one.
E,en 8hen transcribing Arabic1
the usage o' these diacritics is
,er) o'ten sCi55ed and re2ains
5erha5s the e?c-usi,it) o' the
3uranic or other re-ated te?ts.
dditional
consonants
So2e sounds -acC in
either o' the
a-5habets or are not
intuiti,e-)
recognisab-e
+ossib-e 8ith the
addition o' t8o
characters> . 0 and .L01 ɛ
aside 'ro2 the
intuiti,e-)9recognisab-e
t8o9-etter co2binations
+ossib-e 8ith the addition o'
three characters> . . 10 _ ¸01 and
..01 as 8e-- as their conditiona-
initia-1 2edia-1 and 'ina- 'or2s
Comprehension Readabi-it) +ossib-e +ossib-e1 though noticeab-)
2ore co25-icated1 5articu-ar-)
due to the cursi,e 8riting and
the conditiona- 'or2s1 a2ong
other
ccessibilit( +rereEuisites in order
to be ab-e to 5ro5er-)
read.
An)one 8ho has access
to the Latin a-5habet
An)one 8ho has access to the
Arabic a-5habet1 and to 5rior
Cno8-edge o' Tunisian
Consonant)
consonant)
$owel
occurrence
Un-iCe Arabic1
Tunisian can ha,e
2u-ti5-e consonants
in one onset1 8hich
cou-d be co25-icated
to read 'or those 8ho
are rather 'a2i-iar
8ith Arabic.
+ossib-e +ossib-e1 8ith the usage o' the
Arabic suCun1 . 0 1 diacritic
Script)
switching
+articu-ar-) 8hen
8riting a te?t 8ith a
borro8ed 8ord1 an
initia-is21 or other
+ossib-e Scri5t9s8itching occurs
5ersistent-)
ON THE STANDARDISATION OF TUNISIAN 2H
Table 2: !omparison of the Alphabets
%eature &etails STUNdard STUNdard rlette
Limitations Transcri5tion o' so2e
sounds1 cou-d be so-,ed
b) adding 2ore
characters or
co2binations
Fide-it)1 i.e. does not transcribe
Tunisian as it is@ access to
Tunisian 8ou-d be conditioned
to 5rior Cno8-edge o' both
Arabic and Tunisian in order to
5ro5er-) identi') the 8ords.
To reiterate> There is no 5rob-e2 'or the t8o s)ste2s to co9e?ist 'or the sa2e -anguage1
si2i-ar-) to the e?a25-es o' the Nor8egian ;oC2]- and the Nor8egian N)norsC1 and the =urdish
Ha8ar and the =urdish Sorani a-5habets1 a2ong 2an) other. STUNdard cou-d be used to transcribe
2ateria- in a Latin9based a-5habet and so2e o' its ,arious uses 2a)1 'or e?a25-e1 be the eas)
5ossibi-it) o' -earning Tunisian b) the chi-dren o' Tunisian i22igrants in countries using a Latin
scri5t. Its usage 8i-- certain-) 5ro,ide 5ub-ications in Tunisian 8ith a 8ider accession and i25act.
Si2i-ar-)1 The STUNdard Ar-ette cou-d eEua--) ha,e its niche o' users1 5re'erring an Arabic9based
scri5t@ the di''erences re2ain technica-. +ro,iding 2ateria- in both Latin9deri,ed1 Arabic9deri,ed1
and 5erha5s a-so Ti'inagh a-5habets is a rather interesting1 though co25-icated1 5ros5ect. The -atter
o5tion1 i.e. the North9A'rica9nati,e Ti'inagh1 see2s current-) a rather 'ar9'etched 5ossibi-it) 'or
,arious reasons1 it is ho8e,er interesting-) the scri5t that so-,es 2ost o' the -i2itations and 8here
no additiona- -etters 8ou-d ha,e to be added1 un-iCe the Latin9deri,ed and the Arabic9deri,ed
5ro5osa-s.
The usage o' the Latin9based A-5habet 2a) be Fusti'ied b) ,arious reasons1 2ost
5ro2inent-) its accessibi-it)1 as it has been a-2ost estab-ished as a uni,ersa--)9recognisab-e scri5t.
This 8ou-d tre2endous-) 'aci-itate the access to Tunisian1 es5ecia--) 8ithin the current conte?ts o'
g-oba-isation and 4editerranean integration1 and 8ou-d eEua--) a--o8 Tunisian to easi-) ado5t
ne8-)9borro8ed 8ords that use the sa2e scri5t1 as 8e-- as other 8ords that ha,e been a-read)
ON THE STANDARDISATION OF TUNISIAN 2K
borro8ed b) -anguages using the sa2e scri5t. Its ado5tion is a-so re-ati,e-) eas) considering the
5resence o' the 4a-tese e?5erience> 4a-tese is a ,er) c-ose1 and 'air-) inte--igib-e -anguage 8ith
Tunisian1 that a-read) uses a Latin9based a-5habet 'or its transcri5tion. It is indeed an e?5eri2enta-
5roo' o' such 5ro,ed success'u- ado5tion. A Latin9based a-5habet 8ou-d1 a2ong other1 5ro,ide 'or
the 2issing consonants and ,o8e-s in Arabic1 so-,e scri5t9s8itching 5rob-e2s 5resent 8hen an
Arabic9based scri5t is used1 and 8ou-d sti-- 5ro,ide a high -e,e- o' 'ide-it) o' transcri5tion that the
diacritic9-ess1 as near-)9a-8a)s 8ritten1 Arabic9based scri5t -acCs. In 5ractice ho8e,er1 its usage
8ou-d be un'ortunate-) ,er) -i2ited1 due to ,arious re-igious and cu-tura- i25edi2ents1 un-ess
5ro5er 5o-itica- 8i-- is a,ai-ab-e.
To su22arise1 the e?a25-e o' a Tunisian trans-ation o' the "iCi5edia artic-e re-ated to the
So-ar S)ste2 is 5ro,ided. The source o' the te?t in Eng-ish can be 'ound in So-ar S)ste2 2*1$!.
Table 3: !omparison Throu*h the Example of an Arti#le &elated to the Solar S)stem
English Text Tunisian Translations
The So-ar S)ste2 is the Sun
and the obFects that orbit the
Sun. These are a 5-anetar)
s)ste2 o' eight 5-anets and
,arious secondar) bodies1
d8ar' 5-anets and s2a-- So-ar
S)ste2 obFects that orbit the
Sun direct-)1 as 8e-- as
sate--ites 2oons! that orbit
2an) 5-anets and s2a--er
obFects. The So-ar S)ste2
'or2ed $.6 bi--ion )ears ago
'ro2 the gra,itationa- co--a5se
o' a giant 2o-ecu-ar c-oud. The
,ast 2aForit) o' the s)ste2:s
2ass is in the Sun1 8ith 2ost o'
the re2aining 2ass contained
in Au5iter. The 'our s2a--er
inner 5-anets1 4ercur)1 Jenus1
Earth and 4ars1 a-so ca--ed the
terrestria- 5-anets1 are 5ri2ari-)
Ess)stG2 So-Gr hou8a
Ech:cha2s 8 -obFeGt e--i eddour
-a Ech:cha2s. LobFeGt ɛ
hedhou2a hou2a s)stG2
5-anetGr 'ih th2an)a 5-anetGt 8
aFsG2 secondGr 2eChta-'in1
5-anGtet d8ar' 8 obFeGt sghar
2ta S)stG2 So-Gr )dourou ɛ
direct -a Ech:cha2s1 8 Bede ɛ
sate-itGt ga2rVt! )dourou -a ɛ
barcha 5-anetGt 8 obFeGt asghar.
Ess)stG2 So-Gr t'or2a $.6
2e-)ar a2 -te-i 2ettiLa ɛ
gra,itationG- 2ta sLaba ɛ
2o-ecu-Gr e2-eEa. E-2aForitO ɛ
e-Cbira 2ta e-2ass 2ta ɛ ɛ
ess)stG2 hi)a Ech:cha2s. "
-aCthari)a 2ta e-2ass -oChra ɛ
2a8Fouda 'i Aou5itGr. Larb a ɛ
5-anetGt essghar eddaCh-enin1
4ercur1 Jenus1 Lardh 8 4ars1
.اي>ب¸ل و _م.لا ¸. ر!¸. çا..ي.لا
ا.و.. .اي>ب¸ل _م.لا _I. رود

ا يل ا
.اتا..¿ اي.مث .يs را...¿ çا..ي. ا.¸.
.اتا..¿ ._ي.I.>. راد.¸×. çا.>ا و
çا..ي. _.. را-. .اي>بوا و فراود
اداز و ._م.لا _I. ت´ار,د ورود, ر!¸.
! " ا.رب _I. ورود, .ارمs .ا.يIتا.
çا..ي.لا ر-.ا .اي>بوا و .اتا..¿
ا.ر¸.ت ر!¸. #$ يلا.ل çا. رايI.
.با>. _.. _ا.¸ي.ا.ي¸ارs ا>يLلا.
.ري,×لا ي.,ر>املا .ق.م. ر.ي×ل¸.
_م.لا ي. çا..ي.لا _.. _املا _..
يs اد¸>¸.ار>ل _املا _.. ا,ر.×ل و
را-.لا .اتا..¿ اعبرل را.ي¿¸>
و ضرل ._ي.ي¸ .ري´ر. ._ي..>دلا
.اتا..¿ اداز وام

.., يل ا ._را.
ON THE STANDARDISATION OF TUNISIAN 27
Table 3: !omparison Throu*h the Example of an Arti#le &elated to the Solar S)stem
English Text Tunisian Translations
co25osed o' rocC and 2eta-. e--i )etsa22e8 Bede 5-anetGt
terrestriG-1 2etCa88nin
-aCthari)a 2en LFar 8 2eta-.
و ر>> _. ا,ر.×ل _ي.¸×.. ._ا,ر..ر

ت
_ا.ي.
The 'our outer 5-anets1 ca--ed
the gas giants1 are substantia--)
2ore 2assi,e than the
terrestria-s. The t8o -argest1
Au5iter and Saturn1 are
co25osed 2ain-) o' h)drogen
and he-iu2@ the t8o outer2ost
5-anets1 Uranus and Ne5tune1
are co25osed -arge-) o'
substances 8ith re-ati,e-) high
2e-ting 5oints co25ared 8ith
h)drogen and he-iu2!1 ca--ed
ices1 such as 8ater1 a22onia
and 2ethane1 and are o'ten
re'erred to se5arate-) as Dice
giantsD. A-- 5-anets ha,e a-2ost
circu-ar orbits that -ie 8ithin a
near-) '-at disc ca--ed the
ec-i5tic 5-ane.
اداز وام

.., يل ا ._ي.ار

,لا .اتا..¿ اعبرل
% % .اتا..¿لا. ا.رب ر,´ا . _..,ا>د زاs
و را.ي¿¸> ._ ×Iب را,×ل زو¸

لا _ا,ر..ر

ت
_. _¸ملا¿ي..ر¿ _ي.¸×.. ._ريتا.
.اتا..¿ زو¸

لا :ç¸يI. و _ا>وردي.
._ي.,. و _ي.ار,ا ._ ´¸ب _ي.ار

,لا
.ا..¸..,ي. _. ا,

ر.×ل _ي.¸

×..
_¸م¸يت!ور _..,¸¿ ..ي.I. م.د..
" _ا>وردي¸لا _. وارا¿.¸×., .ي´ _يلا.
! .املا امي´ .ا>¸Iث وام

.., . ç¸يIي¸لا و
وام

.., .اع. اداز و ._ا.. و اي..

ا
% % .اتا..¿لا _..,ا> _,ا ب م.د>

و
& ر.ي´ري. ..رب تيبروا م.د.. _ ×لا
& _L

.. _زا´ ..,د L.و يs د¸>¸.
% % _,.¿ .ي.¿يI´ا ام

..,
Larb a 5-anetGt e-barranin1 e--i ɛ
)etsa22e8 Bede .gas giants01
aCber barcha 2e-5-anetGt
terrestriG-. EBBouB -eCbVr
be-Co--1 Aou5itGr 8 Saturn1
2etCa88nin 5rinci5a-e2ent
2en hidroFGn 8 he-)o2@ eBBouB
5-anetGt e-barranin bouCo--1
Uranus 8 Ne5tun1 2etCa88nin
-aCthari)a 2en substancGt
and:ho2 2e-ting 5oints ɛ
re-ati,e2ent a-in Ci' ɛ
)etco25arG8 2 a e-hidrogGn 8 ɛ
e-he-)o2!1 )etsa22e8 th-ouFa1
Ci2a e-2G1 a22onia 8 2ethan1
8 Beda sa Vt )etsa22e8 ɛ
8aLLad:ho2 b.ice giants0.
E-5-anetGt e-Co-- and:ho2 orbit ɛ
5resEue9circu-Gr 2a8Foud 'i
8ost disC Euasi92sattaL
)etsa22a .ec-i5tic 5-ane0.
4ateria- 'or both 2ethods1 as 8e-- as 2odi'ied Ce)board a55-ications and tutoria-s 'or the
three 2ain o5erating s)ste2s DAJIS n.d.!1 i.e. "indo8s1 Linu?1 and 4ac1 ha,e been co25i-ed and
2ade a,ai-ab-e at the STUNdard 8eb-og.
.. Conclusion
This essa) sought to argue 'or an i22inent standardisation o' the Tunisian Language. To
'urther add to the discussion1 it 5ro5oses t8o 5ossib-e transcri5tion 2ethods. In the u5co2ing
'uture1 i' the 5ro5er resource needs 8ou-d be adressed1 a dictionar) in Tunisian and ,arious other
too-s to 5ro2ote the o''icia- use o' the nati,e -anguage1 cou-d ho5e'u--) be 2ade 5ub-ic-) a,ai-ab-e
b) the League o' Tunisian Hu2anists1 or other organisations. These estab-ish2ents1 through a
ON THE STANDARDISATION OF TUNISIAN %*
Tunisian Acade2) 5roFect1 8ou-d 5ro,ide the needed institutiona- su55ort 'or a natura--)
'orthco2ing standardisation o' Tunisian.
E25hasis on 5ub-ications1 dictionaries1 and other -iterature in Tunisian is a 5riorit) 'or
2u-ti5-e reasons1 2an) o' the2 a-read) cited. The 5o-itica- e''orts o' e25t)ing a Tunisian identit)
and 'i--ing it 8ith another 'oreign one are ,i-e and 2ust co2e to an end. The attain2ent o' the
.honourab-e status0 o' a -anguage 8ou-d bring an end to the identit) crisis in the countr) and 8ou-d
indeed c-ear-) re'-ect the 5-ura- co25onents o' this identit) through its tongue1 8hich has been
carr)ing Tunisian heritage1 histor)1 and identit) 'or as -ong as Tunisia has been a -and. Tunisian is
,er) interre-ated 8ith Arabic1 but it is not the sa2e1 and it is 5erha5s ti2e to e?a2ine c-ose-) a-- the
as5ects o' the Tunisian cu-ture 8ith the 5ro5er too-s> the 2ost i25ortant o' a--1 a co22on
standardised Tunisian -anguage. Indeed1 an) e''orts in such direction 8ou-d be 2et 8ith 2uch
conser,ati,e o55osition1 accusing such a55roaches o' being nationa-ist or other1 )et 8ho is it b-a2e
here> Those 8ho c-ai2 their right to 8rite their -anguage and trans'er their heritage to 'uture
generations1 or those 8ho -ooC do8n u5on their -anguage and identit) and seeC to absurd-) dei')
an) other one# There is 5erha5s an as5iration that1 8ith the ho5e'u--) increasing 'reedo2 o'
in'or2ation1 a8areness 8ou-d be raised and Tunisians 8ou-d ho5e'u--) 8orC on 8hat 2a) see2
2ore e''icient in that direction 8hi-e considering the 5ro5er obFecti,es and conte?ts.
This 2a) indeed see2 as a de'iance o' the status Euo1 8here Tunisian re2ains un8ritten and
o''icia- use is the e?c-usi,it) o' Arabic and French@ it is instead suggested to ,ie8 the
standardisation o' Tunisian as a natura- ste5 in the course o' the -inguistic rea-it) o' Tunisia and the
region.
Illustration Inde/
I--ustration 1> An E?a25-e o' Te?ts in Tunisian.................................................................................11
ON THE STANDARDISATION OF TUNISIAN %1
Inde/ of Tables
Tab-e 1> The STUNdard 4ethod........................................................................................................1$
Tab-e 2> STUNdard T8o9Letter &o2binations..................................................................................1(
Tab-e %> Transcri5tion o' De'inite Artic-es.........................................................................................1K
Tab-e $> Issues o' Transcri5tion Re-ated to the Joiced +har)ngea- Fricati,e P A55ro?i2ate Sound. 1K
Tab-e (> A2aBigh Latin1 Arabic1 4a-tese1 Ti'inagh1 and Tunisian A-5habets....................................2*
Tab-e 6> The STUNdard Ar-ette 4ethod............................................................................................22
Tab-e H> &o25arison o' the A-5habets...............................................................................................26
Tab-e K> &o25arison Through the E?a25-e o' an Artic-e Re-ated to the So-ar S)ste2....................2K
0ibliogra-h
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