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Theme : Indoor Comfort ( Thermal, Lights, Sounds )



Breeze Maringka
Fakultas Teknik Sipil dan Perencanaan, Institut Teknologi Nasional Malang
Jurusan Arsitektur
Jalan Bendungan Sigura-gura No. 2 Malang 65145

Darmawan Wisnu Utomo

Fakultas Teknik Sipil dan Perencanaan, Institut Teknologi Nasional Malang
Jurusan Arsitektur
Jalan Bendungan Sigura-gura No. 2 Malang 65145

In the era of energy, economizing is a principle issue to decrease global heating. High rise buildings need much
energy, especially for apartments. In tropical climatic regions, heat and humidity are main problems in present
thermal comfort. The easiest strategy to overcome them is installing Air Conditioning (AC); but it needs much
energy and the impact is the environmental damage due to the unused gas. We Can seek various strategies for
the solution to get better thermal comfort for high rise buildings; one of which is the design of shadowing for
building envelops.
In general, apartments have more than one tower; therefore this research is aimed at knowing the impact of
shadowing for building envelops either for building envelops themselves and also the design consequences and
the consequences of shadowing upon the towers around. Facade design effects towards refrigeration load is
researched by a computerized-simulation method (Ecotect software) and applied in two different apartment
objects which are different in the typology of the block plan located in Surabaya city. The result is assumed that
50-70 % heat gain that causes highest refrigeration load comes from the internal gain and the shadowing design
for building envelops which can cause space temperature description as big as 0.01-3°C.

Keywords : Tropical climates, Apartment building envelops, thermal performance, shadowing.

1. Introduction
Nowadays, economizing energy is one of the important issues in various fields, disregarding the
architectural world. The architectural paradigm of awareness of energy need is a new paradigm in
architecturing which is oriented to the purpose of energy economizing. The national energy need is as much
as 36-45% which is consumed in construction sector. This, of course, should be redesigned by a
professional designer considering energy efficiency (Priatman 2002). Indonesia is a tropical humid climate
(Heinz 2006), characterized by the high rainfall and humidity, temperature which is always almost high, the
velocity or the wind, the soft radiation of the sun and circulation of the soft sun heat due to the high
humidity. Thus, such conditions make an architect hard to make design in tropical climate from thermal
design point of view (Moore 1996). Related to the energy efficiency, the concept of designing architectural
building construction in tropical countries should adjust the temperature in such a way that the temperature
indoor is not higher that of the outdoor. A good ventilation will adjust the indoor temperature by flowing
the needless air out by cross ventilation. Akmal 2007 defines an apartment or a condominium as follows; an
apartment is residential unit, whereas a condominium is a residential unit to be managed in groups.
Business property enterpreneurs define apartment and condominium as follows: an apartment is a vertical
residential unit which is leased (high-rise), whereas condominium is apartment for sale owned by the
owners. Leased apartment (non-service) are those both fully furnished and non furnished without daily
service. An apartment service is an apartment which is leased together with the daily service like a hotel.
From the thermal design point of view, an apartment is a building having the smallest front performance
compared to other kinds of residential building. For apartments, residential units are so close each other that
the concumption of the energy is more efficient. One of the energy efficiency is the installing air
conditioning system which flows among the residents (Givoni 1994).

2. Research Methodology.
This research was conducted at two apartments in Surabaya by using the simulation method by software
Ecotect in a computer whose abjective is to identity the effects of shadowing to the thermal performance at
the building envelops and the apartment performance in tropical areas, especially when viewed from the
composition and each layer of the building envelops. The discussion is, therefore, concentrated on two main
things, namely:
a. The condition of the thermal performance at the apartment target in which the discussion
• The average temperature achievement (Tiav) to each apartment target
• Comfort gain.
• Cooling load.
b. The effects of shadowing among towers upon the thermal perrformance objects (apartment). This
is identified from the temperature changes in the apartments.
Input data are obtained from modeling details from the elements of the building envelops. This is needed
for the sake of composition arrangements of the building envelops, decorative elements and the style of
Architectural buildings will affect the thermal condition. Next, climitic data are needed for simulation.
They are the results of the climatic data analysis from the meteorology station in Juanda-Surabaya in 2006
as in table 1.

Table 1 : The Climate Data of Surabaya 2006

Source : BMG Juanda – Surabaya
This research is focused on The thermal comfort about the effects of shadowing at building envelops upon
the internal temperature of apartment buildings. A building Envelop is a part of the building space and
formed from a structural system covered by protection covers to protect the interior parts of the building
against the climatic condition around it, and at the same time shows the components of the visual exterior
(facade). A building envelop undergoes and functions as a medium of heat transmission from out to in
either convectively or in radiation. The width of the surface of glass window to wall ratio, the shadow, the
absorptive capacity of the wall to the sun radiation (u-value), the conductivity of the wall and glass
materials, the capacity of glass shade (shading coefficient) are important elements in reducing thermal load
which are dependable to the design of the building envelops (Devi 2002). The shadowing meant is the one
from the composition design of the building envelope components themselves, especially the canopy, the
sun screen/shade and the shadow of the other buildings (in this case-the tower building in the block of
apartments which are researched. Instead of the effects upon thermal condition, the arrangment of the
building envelop also leaves decorative elements and the style of the architectural building itself. The
interrelationship between the thermal condition and the elements on the building envelops can be seen in
table 2.

Table 2 : The relationship between the building envelops and the thermal conditions of the building.
Source : Szokolay (1987)

3. The Description of Building.

By observation, it is known that shapes of Indonesian apartments are classified into two kinds of typology as
1) Building block plan in vertical shapes i.e. a building block plan whose surface is smaller. Such a
shape is usually for an apartment primarily for the sake of view due to the limited land.
2) Building block plan in a horizontal shape i.e. a design of building shape whose surface is large; this
is identic with the shape of building which tends to be lengthening in horizontal shape. This is due
to the various space demand.
As one of the objectives of the research is to know the effects of the building block plan to the thermal
performance at the building envelops, it is dicided to take two apartments suitable with the typology design
of facade apartments in Indonesia especially the ones located in Surabaya as the objects of the research.
The two apartment with an active conditioning system chosen are:
a. Puncak Marina Apartment in Jl Mergorejo Indah, South Surabaya. This apartment is the example of
vertical Building Block Plan with the material composition and percentage of the total width of the
building envelop elements as shown in figure 2.
Figure 2. The Building Performance and the Isometric.
The sketch of Apartment Puncak Marina and the graphic percentage of the total width of elements
facade of apartment Puncak Marina
Source : Personal (2009).
b. Apartment Metropolis, an apartment with modern minimalist architecture, it is located in Jl Raya
Trengilis 91-93 South Surabaya. Having facade performance with a large glass material as the
building envelop and having architectural modern minimalis pattern of the building block plan in the
shape of Horizontal (tower A) and L (tower B). These apartments are examples of typological vertical
building block plan with material composition and percentage of the total width of the building
envelops as seen in figure 3.

Total Jendela  Total  Total  Total 

Total Jendela 
Warna Jendela  Jendela  Pintu
3% Total Pintu Warna Bening 4% Total 
6% 0% 5% Atap
Total Atap


Total Balkon
6% Total 

Total Dinding 

Figure 3. The building performance and isometri as well as the sketch of metropolis apartment and the
graphic percentage of the total width of the elements of facade apartment metropolis.
Source : Personal (2009).

4. The Climatic Analysis

Based on the observation of the climate data in 2006, it is known that November is the hottest and July is the
coldest (Fig.7). Both the comparison and the analysis are needed to make the observation easier and used as
a standard for the thermal comfort condition of the object of the apartment which is research. The following
is the climatic condition in July and November 2006.
Temperatur ('C) Kelembaban rata ‐ rata (%)
Juli Nopember
29.2 30.3
26.4 25.4


('C) ('C) ('C)

T.avg T.max T.min Juli Nopember

Radiasi (W/m2) Kec. rata ‐ rata angin (m/s)

Juli Nopember 3.6

78.98 3.1

Direct Diffuse Juli Nopember

Figur 4. The Graphic of comparison of the climatic condition in July ( Cold weather) and November (hot
Source : Data Processing of BMB (Board of Physical Geometry) Juanda (2006).

4.1. July.
• The average temperature is 26.4°C the highest temperature 30.3°C at 14.00 and the lowest is
21.9°C at 6.00
• The average humidity is 69.7%, the highest is 88% at 6.00 and the lowest is 51% at 12.00-15.00
• The level of direct sun radiation is 161 W/m² at the average with the highest point at 12.00 with
589 W/m² large and for the diffuse radiation is 78.98W/m².
• The wind velocity is 3.1m/s at the average with the fastest velocity is 6.2 m/s at 15.00 and the
slowest is 0.6 at 6.00 and at 7.00, blowing from the east.
Based on that analysis, the temperature is comparatively the lowest among the other months. In this month,
the abtaineble comfort is in large space (the temperature range in July is around 24.08°C – 27.58°C). The
humidity in the space can be reduced by the existing wind velocity. The sun radiation can increase the space
temperature and the facade surface. The wind can be utilized to reduce the effect of the heat radiation to the
building envelop.
4.2. November
• The average temperature is 29.2°C, the highest is 33.5°C at 13.00 and the lowest is 25.4°C at 5.00.
• The average humidity is 68.75%, the highest is 87% at 5.00 and the lowest is 46% at 14.00.
• The average of the sun radiation directly is 134W/m² with the highest point is at 12.00 with
481W/m². The direct and diffuse are not significantly different this month so that the radiation is
potentially raising the outer temperature.
• The average wind velocity is 3.6 m/s with the fastest velocity is 5.9m/s at 14.00 and the lowest is
0.8m/s at 16.00 with the wind flowing from the East.
Related to the highest average each year, November is the worst thermal comfort in a space (the comfortable
range in November is 25.07°C-28.57°C). During year 2006, November has the fastest average velocity.
Thus, the wind can be utilized for cooling down the building envelop and the space, based on the climatic
conditions in November.

5. The Result of the Research.

5.1 The result of the simulation in July.
Figure 5 describes the temperature division (degradation of colours) in the model area and the shadow
range on each apartment blocks so that it is easy to analyse.
Figure 6 describes the result of software Ecotect Analysis (the data after being analysed by Microsoft
office excel). The parametre used is the climatic data and the premier data which result in Tiav. It is
known that the building orientation do not affect the shadowing among the towers in July. This is
proved in the temperature difference at Tiav (the inconsistent average space temperature (tower A) but
it raises to 10°C at tower B. The shadowing in July doesn’t affect much to the tower because the
sunpath is parallel with the direction of tower B, so that many walls cannot be shaded by tower B.
Tower A Tiav relatively remains in the position because it is shaded by tower B, to tower A for
Metropolis Apartment due to the orientation direction, this tower is not shaded so that it raises to
0.02°C, whereas tower B decreases to 0.1°C because it is shaded by tower A.
Figure 5. The Display of the shadowing at Ecotect simulation model in cold weather (July)
Source : Ecotect V5.5 (2009)

Figure 6. Graph of condition comparison Tiav each apartment tower in cold weather (July)
Source : Personal (2009).

It is indicated that, generally, in July Metropolis departments (28.25oC) have the average temperature
more than (0.01°C) compared to Apartment Puncak Marina (28.24°C). It is because the building
envelop plan is better in Marina which has more canopies than apartment Metropolis so that it has better
5.2. The result of the simulation in November.
In figure 7, the area model and the spread of the shadows in November on each block of the apartment
shows that on the day light, the rear part of tower A Metropolis apartments tend to get direct sun rays so
that it potentially causes more radiation in November. No shade among the towers at apartments
Puncak Marina as the direction of the building block plan orientation is not supportive. The results of
the simulation of Ecotect data indicate that the Tiav data of Puncak Marina apartment (31.11°C) have
higher temperature than the ones at apartment Metropolis (30.42°C). This is due to the shades among
the towers at the apartments Metropolis which do not take role. Instead of in figure 7, this can be found
in figure 8, which is not significantly different. Another case is at apartments Metropolis (Tiav
30.42°C). Although the shapes have large surfaces but with the horizontal building block plan, they
have larger shadows.
In figure 8, we can see that tower B, which has smaller building envelops, gets much lower temperature
due to be shaded by that of tower A which has higher temperature with 4.28°C lower difference. Thus,
the strategy of the shadowing should be accurately designed not only for building envelops (facade) but
also for the nearby buildings.
Sun path

Sun path

Figure 7. The display of the shadow analysis in Ecotect simulation model for hot weather in November.
Source: Ecotect V.5.5 (2009).

Figure 8. Comparison graphs of Tiav condition each apartment in cold weather in July.
Source: Personal (2009)

VI. Conclusion.
From the analysis, it is concluded that the design of shadowing at the building envelops takes an
important role in thermal performance of a building. In designing an apartment, not only is it necessary
for the arragement of the building block plan to be noticed but also the analysis of the result of the
designing in accordance with the sunpath tendency each month of the year. Type horizontal building
block plan is more advantageous from any shadowing than that of vertical surface. This is because the
latter shadowing is not effective due to the large building envelops and so sensitive towards the sun

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