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Its circuit and impedance model are shown in Figure 15.25. Let us focus on sinusoidal inputs and use the impedance method to obtain its input-output relationship. First, notice that the portion of the circuit within the dashed box is a non-inverting connection of the Op Amp with gain: G=1+
vi R v2 R
C R2 R1
(a) Circuit 1/Cs Vi V1
F I G U R E 15.25 The Sallen-Key circuit.
(b) Impedance model
for the purpose of analysis.98) We can simplify Equation 15.97) RCs + 1 G Vo .96) = V1 1/Cs . G = 2 and the 866b . (15. (15. we can replace the circuit within the dashed box with an amplifier whose gain is G. Applying KCL for node V1 V2 − V 1 R which simplifies to: V2 = (RCs + 1)V1 . KCL for node V2 yields.95. Substituting for V1 in terms of Vo from Equation 15. Vi − V 2 R = V2 − V1 R + V2 − Vo 1/Cs . let us draw the frequency response for the filter transfer function for RC = 1 and R1 = R2 .96.98 and obtain the following expression relating the output voltage to the input voltage: H(s) = Vo (s) Vi (s) = G R 2 C 2 s2 + RCs(3 − G) + 1 . Therefore. (15.95) Substituting for V1 and V2 in terms of Vo from Equations 15. (15. (15.95 and 15. we get Vi − RCs+1 Vo G RCs+1 G R = Vo − R 1 V G o + RCs+1 G Vo − Vo 1 Cs .Thus. we can write Vo = GV1 . we get V2 = Now. For these values.99) As a specific example.
5 F I G U R E 15.5 Real Axis 0 0. In terms of the pole-zero nomenclature introduced in Section 13. factoring the denominator.2 -0.3.8 -1 -1. The expression in the denominator has a pair of complex conjugate roots: −1/2 + j 3/4 and −1/2 − j 3/4.100) The transfer function represents a second-order filter.8 0. transfer function is given by: H(s) = or.26 depicts the pole locations using X’s in the complex plane. their locations are depicted using circles. (When zeros exist.102) 866c . Figure 15.4 Imag Axis 0.6 -0.2 0 -0.4 -0.101) 2 s2 + s + 1 (15.27 by substituting s = jω in the transfer function: H( jω) = 2 ( jω)2 + jω + 1 (15. the transfer function has two poles and no zeros.26 Pole-zero plot of the Sallen-Key ﬁlter. H(s) = 2 (s + 1/2 + j 3/4)(s + 1/2 − j 3/4) .5 -1 -0.1 0.6 0.4. The poles are a complex conjugate pair located at −1/2 + j 3/4 and −1/2 − j 3/4.) We can now plot the frequency response as shown in Figure 15. (15.
H( jω) = 2 ( jω + 1/2 + j 3/4)( jω + 1/2 − j 3/4) . in terms of the factored transfer function. (15. 100 Frequency (radians) 101 0 -50 -100 -150 -200 10-1 100 Frequency (radians) 101 or.101 Magnitude 100 10-1 10-2 10-1 Phase (degrees) F I G U R E 15.103) As before. 866d .27 Frequency response for the Sallen-Key ﬁlter.27 plots the magnitude and the phase of H( jω) versus the frequency ω. the frequency response in Figure 15.