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CFD MODELING AND OPTIMIZATION OF MARINE DIESEL ENGINES
Lambros Kaiktsis Department of Naval Architecture and Marine Engineering National Technical University of Athens Heroon Polytechniou 9, 157 73 Athens, Greece email@example.com
Christos Chryssakis Det Norske Veritas, Reseach and Innovation Veritasveien 1, 1363 Hovik, Norway firstname.lastname@example.org
Recent legislation imposes strict limits on the emissions from new marine Diesel engines, especially in the Emission Control Areas (ECAs). Computational Fluid Dynamics (CFD), supported by experimental data, is a cost effective approach for characterizing engine flow and combustion processes. CFD, properly coupled with optimization tools, can be a valuable tool for guiding development towards cleaner and more efficient marine engines, complying with the recent regulations. This paper summarizes recent CFD research activities at the National Technical University of Athens aiming at understanding and optimizing marine Diesel engine aerothermochemistry. The examples discussed include injection profile optimization, Heavy Fuel Oil modeling, and water addition studies.
CFD, marine Diesel engines, optimization, Heavy Fuel Oil modeling, water injection.
Recent attempts to reduce atmospheric pollution from seagoing ships include the adoption of a corresponding strategy by the European Commission . Further, the International Maritime Organization (IMO) adopted in 1997 a set of regulations, outlined in Annex VI of the MARPOL Convention. MARPOL Annex VI came into force in 2005 and was modified in 2008, setting limits on the emissions of sulphur oxides (SOx) and nitrogen oxides (NOx) . MARPOL Annex VI sets limits on SOx and NOx emissions, and also contains provisions for setting up special SOx Emission Control Areas (ECAs), which are characterized by more stringent controls on emissions. Along these lines, the Marine Environment Protection Committee, at its 57th session in April 2008, agreed on a three-tier structure, which would set progressively tighter NOx emission standards for new marine engines, depending on the date of their installation (see Figure 1). The Tier III standards presented in Figure 1 will be enforced in the ECAs
only, which include the North Sea, the Baltic Sea, and near-urban areas. Soot emission standards have not been announced yet but are expected to come into force in the near future. Regarding large two-stroke marine Diesel engines, it is evident from Figure 1 that, in comparison to recent engine designs, 2011 engines correspond to reduced NOx emissions by 15 per cent, while designs providing an 80 per cent reduction should be developed by 2016. Recent advances in Computational Fluid Dynamics (CFD) enable an accurate description of flow and combustion in marine Diesel engines. Given the lower cost of computational studies to that of experimental ones, validated CFD simulations can nowadays be a valuable tool in guiding engine development. CFD simulations could be combined with optimization techniques, for optimizing engine performance and emissions. Hence, such studies have been recently initiated. The present paper summarizes recent CFD research performed at the National Technical
both in the unconstrained and the one-constraint cases. Tetradecane (C14H30) has been used as the fuel. an optimization study was carried out at NTUA. as sketched in Figure 2. Recently. in particular: (a) the final NOx concentration. and (b) an approximation of SFOC. which is based on evolutionary algorithms. in terms of the corresponding Pareto fronts. forming the Patero front. RESEARCH EXAMPLES 2. possibly including water addition and exhaust gas recirculation (EGR) is necessary to meet the 2016 standards with incylinder only measures (thus avoiding exhaust gas aftertreatment). While the obtained NOx reduction of the order of 15–20 per cent is substantial and complies with the 2011 regulations. The goal of this research has been the identification of optimal injection profiles.416 Common Rail -96 105 Exhaust valve opening (oATDC) 120 Figure 1. The study has built on coupling a KIVA-3 based CFD code  with the optimization code EASY . normalized by the corresponding value of a reference design of continuous injection. it is far from meeting the 2016 standards. The injection profiles considered in  consisted of a pilot and a main injection event. supervised by the authors. and (iii) a problem constrained by both the maximum pressure and the minimum work output per engine cycle (that of the reference design of continuous injection). The improvements are marginal when both constraints are imposed. Thus. proper objective functions have been introduced. and (c) water addition studies for nitric oxides (NOx) reduction.58 2. NOx emissions standards (g/kW h) of marine engines versus engine speed (rpm). fuel oil consumption (SFOC). a more complex combination of incylinder measures. aiming at understanding and optimizing flow and combustion processes in large marine Diesel engines. The goal of optimization has been the simultaneous minimization of NOx emissions and engine specific 2 By evolving an initial population of randomly generated individuals (possible solutions. (ii) a problem constrained by the maximum acceptable cylinder pressure (150 bar). 2. each corresponding to a certain combination of the problem design variables). Main characteristics of the engine used in the optimization study of . Evidently. These profiles have been parametrized in terms of four designs variables (see Table 2). allowing for a wide variation of the injection profile parameters. In this approach. aiming at optimizing the injection profile of a large two-stroke marine Diesel engine at full load . The outcome of all three problems considered in  is presented in Figure 3. Three problem set-ups were considered: (i) an unconstrained problem. Table 1. Thus. (b) the development of Heavy Fuel Oil (HFO) models for CFD studies in marine Diesel engines. The main engine characteristics are summarized in Table 1. the genetic algorithm converges to the final set of optimal solutions. Bore diameter (m) Stroke (m) Injection system Exhaust valve closing (oATDC) Engine speed (rpm) 0.University of Athens (NTUA). given by the ratio of the total injected fuel mass to the work integral of the closed part of the engine cycle (this ratio is also normalized by the corresponding reference value). . consisting in a pilot and a main injection event. individuals are evaluated based on the results of a CFD run.1 INJECTION PROFILE OPTIMIZATION IN A LARGE TWO-STROKE ENGINE Modern marine Diesel engines are equipped with Common Rail injection systems. the optimum solutions are characterized by substantial improvements in both NOx emissions (of the order of 15–20 per cent) and SFOC (of the order of 2 percent). The research examples presented here include: (a) the optimization of injection profile in a large two-stroke marine Diesel engine. for minimizing both NOx emissions and engine specific fuel consumption. according to the IMO .
Figure 2. For example. expressing the ratio of viscous to surface tension forces. next steps in the research work of the NTUA team will include modeling and optimization of HFO combustion in large marine Diesel engines. as illustrated in Figure 4. 6 and 7 present the dependence of dynamic viscosity. As lighter components are also present in the HFO used in marine Diesel engines. Figure 4 is based on the findings of . a two-component evaporation model was developed in . expressing the ratio of aerodynamic to surface tension forces. Evidently. Sketch of the generic injection profile with pilot injection utilized in the optimization studies of . value -5 2. Final Pareto fronts (normalized values of the exhaust NOx concentration and SFOC) for the constrained and the unconstrained optimization studies reported in . The model assumes uniform droplet composition. latent heat of evaporation and fuel enthalpy are required. Further. depending on the combination of the above parameters. SOMI and PMF) are indicated with arrows. surface tension and vapor pressure on temperature. Based on the computational tools developed. An accurate representation of HFO thermophysical properties is essential for modeling fuel spray breakup and evaporation. and the Ohnesorge number. To this end. Figures 5. for HFO residual (and diesel) fuel. following the development of . a detailed model of residual HFO thermophysical properties was developed in . different types of secondary breakup occur. 1 4 0 5 20 4 Table 2. multicomponent fuel models are needed for a more accurate description of the spray dynamics and fuel evaporation. Figure 3. Design variables and their prescribed ranges in the optimization study of . is essential. for an accurate modeling of spray breakup. value -40 Max. where a map of the secondary breakup regimes is presented. surface tension and density).SOPI (oCA ATDC) Start Of Main Injection – SOMI (oCA ATDC) Pilot Mass Fraction – PMF (% of total injected mass) Mass reduction – MR (% of reference design) Min. Hence. HFO is a mixture of residual and lighter distillation products. accurate values of vapor pressure. Three design variables (SOPI. 3 . HFO composition may vary substantially. thus introducing uncertainties in CFD modeling. The new model was tested for spray breakup and combustion in constant volume combustion chambers (see Figure 8) . and tested by CFD simulations of spray breakup in a constant volume combustion chamber. with a residual and a lighter component.2 HEAVY FUEL OIL MODELING Marine Diesel engines commonly operate with Heavy Fuel Oil (HFO). for accurately modeling fuel evaporation. based on the development reported in . here the areas of typical gasoline and diesel sprays for automotive applications are identified.Design variable Start Of Pilot Injection . as compiled in . a proper representation of the thermophysical properties affecting the values of Weber and Ohnesorge numbers (fuel viscosity. The dynamics of both the primary (jet) and secondary (droplet) breakup depends on two dimensionless parameters: the Weber number. each of properly defined thermophysical properties.
In both cases. Soot formation has been also taken into account by means of the Hiroyasu soot model .02 0. Deform. The droplets still in liquid phase are presented in white color . Dynamic viscosity for diesel fuel and HFO. The engine considered in . Surface tension for diesel fuel and HFO. in which the areas representative of automotive gasoline and diesel sprays are identified . the decrease in specific NO emissions is presented versus the increase in SFOC (in comparison to the reference design). In the air fumigation simulations.00E+00 Vapor Pressure [bar] 1. (b) Direct Water Injection (DWI) into the combustion chamber.025 0.015 250 300 350 400 450 Temperature [K] Figure 6. as a function of temperature . Figure 4. Water can be introduced in the following ways: (a) air fumigation. 1. Dynamic Viscosity [cP] 10000 1000 100 10 1 0.00E-04 1. Clearly. 100000 2. a homogeneous mixture has been assumed at the beginning of compression.00E-07 250 300 350 Temperature [K] 400 Diesel HFO 450 Figure 7: Vapor pressure for diesel fuel and HFO. and (c) fuel-water emulsions. In addition.00E-05 1.035 Diesel Surface Tension [N/m] 0.  is the large two-stroke marine Diesel engine also utilized in the optimization study of  (see Table 1). 0. the reduced levels of NO should be primarily attributed to the increased specific heat of the mixture.00E-02 1. and to a smaller extent to the reduced amount of O2 available for combustion. 4 . 1 0. Map of secondary atomization regimes as functions of Ohnesorge and Weber numbers. In Figure 11. as a function of temperature . reduced amounts of water are required with DWI. . Figures 9 and 10 present the computed histories of NO concentration. direct water injection has a more drastic effect on NO production.1 250 Diesel HFO 300 350 400 450 Temperature [K] Figure 5.00E-06 1.001 0. the position of injectors as well as the injection profile was initially assumed the same for both fuel and water.00E-01 1. normalized by the final concentration of the reference case (no water addition). in particular air fumigation and direct injection in a large two-stroke marine engine has been explored in the computational studies reported in .03 HFO 0.Breakup Regimes 100000 10000 Catastrophic 1000 Weber Shear 100 Multimode Bag 10 Osc.3 WATER ADDITION STUDIES A promising approach for substantial NOx reduction in marine Diesel engines is the introduction of water in the combustion chamber. Evidently Direct Water Injection leads to significantly higher NO reduction. Specific NO emissions can be defined in terms of the exhaust concentration divided by the work output of the closed part of the engine cycle. as a function of temperature .1 Ohnesorge 1 10 Figure 8.00E-03 1. in which water is added to the intake air. for both water addition techniques.01 Diesel Gasoline 0. in which the formation of NO has been modeled based on the extended Zeldovich mechanism . compared to the one achieved with air fumigation. HFO injection in a constant volume chamber: color coded contours of temperature at different time instants. The potential of water addition. In the simulations corresponding to direct water injection.
and for the reference case .6 0. Change in specific NO emissions.  are used. for air fumigation and DWI techniques. as functions of local stoichiometry and temperature.8 200% w ater 0. The models and software developed enable . Clearly. the relatively lower temperatures hinder the soot oxidation. soot can increase dramatically when DWI is used. In conjunction with the lower oxidation rates due to the lower temperature levels. which is very pronounced for the DWI case. for different levels of water addition. Moreover. Computed average NO concentration histories. this is further elaborated below. for different values of added water mass by means of air fumigation.4 0.2 0 0 10 20 30 40 50 60 soot is lower with the DWI technique. normalized by the final value of the reference case. with respect to reference case.2 Ref erence 1 20% w ater 40% w ater 50% w ater 0.2 Reference 1 50% w ater 100% w ater 150% w ater 0. for air fumigation and DWI techniques . Computed average NO concentration histories. Change in specific NO emissions. for the reference case. the maps provide information on the soot formation process only. In CFD studies of Diesel engines. the change in specific NO emissions is presented. normalized by the final value of the reference case. at different levels of water addition. Figure 11. Here. versus the change in soot emissions. Figure 13 presents T-φ maps including the local T. with respect to reference case. φ values of all computational cells. this results in the computed higher exhaust soot levels in the case of DWI.2 0 0 10 20 30 40 50 60 Crank Angle [deg] Figure 12. T-φ maps present concentrations of produced NOx and soot. and for two water addition cases. SUMMARY The paper has summarized recent research at NTUA. for both techniques. 1. However. for a representative crank angle value (18o CA aTDC). for a given reduction of NO emissions. versus corresponding SFOC change. related to modeling and optimization of flow and combustion processes in marine Diesel engines. versus corresponding change in soot emissions.8 60% w ater 80% w ater ΝΟ [-] ΝO [-] 0. and for the reference case . understanding of the emissions formation processes can be enhanced by utilizing temperature . The significant increase in soot emissions for large quantities of water directly injected into the combustion chamber is attributed to the shift of the overall mixture to conditions (temperature and equivalence ratio) that favor soot formation. Figure 13 demonstrates that water addition results in a shift from the NOx production to the soot production regime. 1.equivalence ratio (T-φ) maps. the increase in 5 3. corresponding to 50% of air fumigation and DWI. the maps of Kitamura et al. for different values of directly injected water mass.4 0. Figure 10. Crank Angle [deg] Figure 9. The numbers adjacent to the curves indicate the percentage of water mass .6 0. It is noted that for soot. leading to larger soot quantities in the exhaust gases. In Figure 12. respectively.
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