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Modul 3 Pemilihan Bahan & Proses


Disarikan dari buku : Ashby, M.F. : Material Selection in Mechanical Desi n!, Per amon Press, "##$. %leh: &. Ariosuko Dh. ' $(()

*eknik Mesin Fakultas *eknik +ni,ersitas Mercu Buana

*an

al re,isi

"#-"(-$(()

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BAB 3 &ekayasa Material & Pro.ertinya


3." 3.$ 3.3 3.2 3.3 3.5 /ntro & Sino.sis 0elas &ancan ban un Material De1inisi Pro.erti Material &an kuman & 0esim.ulan Bacaan lan4ut 6,aluasi

3.1 Intro & Sinopsis Material, bisa dikatakan, adalah makanan utk disain. Sebuah .roduk y sukses 7 adalah y .er1ormanya ba us, yaitu bernilai baik utk uan & memberi ke.uasan utk .emakai 8 memerlukan material terbaik utk tu asnya, & memaksimalkan semua .otensi & karakteristiknya: boleh dikatakan, menerbitkan bumbu mereka. Bab ini menya4ikan menu: da1tar belan4a material y len ka.. 0elas7kelas material9 lo am, .olimer, keramik, dsb., dikenalkan di sesi 3.$. *eta.i ini bukanlah akhir dari suatu material y kita cari9 itu adalah meru.akan .ro1il tertentu tt .ro.erti. Pro.erti :si1at7si1at; y .entin utk disain thermomekanik dide1inisikan di sesi 3.3. Pembaca y sdh tahu de1inisi moduli, kekuatan, ka.asitas redaman, kondukti,itas thermal dsb, bisa melom.ati sesi ini, & men unakannya sb re1erensi, bila .erlu, utk arti .ersisnya & satuan data .d dia ram seleksi y akan dibahas kemudian. Bab ini diakhiri d , s.t biasa, sebuah ran kuman & e,aluasi. 3.2 Kelas-kelas Material rekayasa <ara kon,ensional untuk men kom.osit. An olon kan bahan7bahan rekayasa ke dalam enam kelas y ditun4ukkan di b. 3.": lo am, .olimer, elastomer, keramik, kaca dan ota suatu kelas mem.unyai 1itur utama: .ro.erti y seru.a, rute .en olahan y seru.a, dan, serin kali, a.likasi y seru.a. =o am memiliki moduli relati1 tin i. Mereka da.at dibuat kuat d .aduan atau

cam.uran lo am dan oleh .erlakuan .anas dan mekanik, teta.i mereka teta. ulet sh da.at dibentuk, memun kinkan mereka utk dibentuk d .roses de1ormasi.

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Paduan lo am kekuatan tin

i tertentu :ba4a .e as, seba ai contoh; memiliki

keuletan serendah $>, teta.i meski.un ini cuku. utk memastikan bah?a yield material sebelum .atah dan retak itu, manakala itu ter4adi .d suatu material 4enis tan uh. Seba ian oleh karena keuletan mereka, lo am adalah man sa utk kelelahan9 dan dari semua kelas material, mereka adalah .alin sedikit bersi1at tahan karatan-korosi. 0eramik & kaca, 4u a, mem.unyai moduli tin i, teta.i, tidak sama d lo am,

mereka ra.uh. 0ekuatan! mereka dalam te an an tarik artinya kekuatan retak y ra.uh9 dalam te an an tekan, kekuatan hancur y ra.uh, y mana adalah sekitar limabelas kali lebih besar. Dan sebab keramik tidak .unya keuletan-duktilitas, mereka mem.unyai suatu toleransi rendah utk konsentrasi te an an :se.erti luban atau retakan; atau utk te an an kontak y tin i :.d titik7titik .en ekleman, seba ai contoh;. Material ulet men akomodasi konsentrasi te an an d de1ormasi :.erubahan bentuk; d cara y mana memba i7ba i la i beban lebih merata9 dan oleh karena ini, mereka da.at di unakan di ba?ah beban statis d suatu batas-mar in y kecil thd kekuatan luluh mereka. 0eramik & kaca tidak bisa.

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Brittle materials al?ays ha,e a ?ide scatter in stren th and the stren th itsel1 de.ends on the ,olume o1 material under load and the time 1or ?hich it is a..lied. So ceramics are not as easy to desi n ?ith as metals. Des.ite this, they ha,e attracti,e 1eatures. *hey are sti11, hard and abrasion7resistant :hence their use 1or bearin s and cuttin tools;9 they retain their stren th to hi h tem.erature9 and they are corrosion7 resistant. *hey must be considered as an im.ortant class o1 en ineerin material. Polymers and elastomers are at the other end o1 the s.ectrum. *hey ha,e moduli ?hich are lo?, rou hly 1i1ty times less than those o1 metals, but they are stron 8 nearly as stron as metals. A conse@uence o1 this is that elastic de1lections can be lar e. *hey cree., e,en at room tem.erature, meanin that a .olymer com.onent under load may, ?ith time, ac@uire a .ermanent set. And their .ro.erties de.end on tem.erature so that a .olymer ?hich is tou h and 1leAible at $(B< may be brittle at the 2B< o1 a household re1ri erator, yet cree. ra.idly at the "((B< o1 boilin ?ater. Cone ha,e use1ul stren th abo,e $((B<. /1 these as.ects are allo?ed 1or in the desi n, the ad,anta es o1 .olymers can be eA.loited. And there are many. Dhen combinations o1 .ro.erties, such as stren th .er unit ?ei ht, matter, .olymers are as ood as metals. *hey are easy to sha.e: com.licated .arts .er1ormin se,eral 1unctions can be moulded 1rom a .olymer in a sin le o.eration. *he lar e elastic de1lections allo? the desi n o1 .olymer com.onents ?hich sna. to ether, makin assembly 1ast and chea.. And by accurately siEin the mould and .recolourin the .olymer, no 1inishin o.erations are needed. Polymers are corrosion resistant, and they ha,e lo? coe11icients o1 1riction. Food desi n eA.loits these .ro.erties. Composites combine the attracti,e .ro.erties o1 the other classes o1 materials ?hile a,oidin some o1 their dra?backs. *hey are li ht, sti11 and stron , and they can be tou h. Most o1 the com.osites at .resent a,ailable to the en ineer ha,e a .olymer matriA 8 e.oAy or .olyester, usually 8 rein1orced by 1ibres o1 lass, carbon or 0e,lar9 ?e restrict oursel,es to these. *hey cannot be used abo,e $3(B< because the .olymer matriA so1tens, but at room tem.erature, their .er1ormance can be outstandin . <om.osite com.onents are eA.ensi,e and they are relati,ely di11icult to 1orm and 4oin. So des.ite their attracti,e .ro.erties the desi ner ?ill use them only ?hen the added .er1ormance 4usti1ies the added cost.

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*he classi1ication o1 Fi . 3." has the merit o1 rou.in to ether materials ?hich ha,e some commonality in .ro.erties, .rocessin and use. But it has its dan ers, notably those o1 s.ecialiEation :the metallur ist ?ho kno?s nothin o1 .olymers; and o1 conser,ati,e thinkin :?e shall use steel because ?e ha,e al?ays used steel!;. /n the 1ollo?in sections ?e eAamine the en ineerin .ro.erties o1 materials 1rom a di11erent .ers.ecti,e, com.arin .ro.erties across all classes o1 material. /t is the 1irst ste. in de,elo.in the 1reedom o1 thinkin that the desi ner needs. 3.3 De1inisi Pro.erti Material Setia. material d.t di.ikirkan se.erti mem.unyai satu set atribut: yaitu .ro.ertinya. Bukanlah material, y di dalam dirinya, bah?a .erancan mencari9 ini meru.akan suatu kombinasi s.esi1ik dari atribut ini: suatu .ro1il .ro.erti. Cama material adalah identi1ier untuk .ro.erti .ro1il tertentu. Pro.erti itu sendiri adalah standar: density, modulus, stren th, tou hness, thermal conducti,ity dll. :*able 3.";. +tk kelen ka.an dan .resisi, mereka dide1inisikan, d batasannya, di bab ini. /ni membuat .embacaan yan membosankan. Gika kamu ber.ikir kamu men etahui ba aimana .ro.erti di ambarkan, kamu boleh melom.at ke sesi 3.2, kembali ke ba ian ini hanya 4ika kebutuhan muncul. *he density :usual units: M -m3; is the ?ei ht .er unit ,olume. De measure it today as Archimedes did: by ?ei hin in air and in a 1luid o1 kno?n density. *he elastic modulus :usual units: FPa or FC-m$; is de1ined as the slo.e o1 the linear elastic .art o1 the stress 8 strain cur,e! :Fi . 3.$;. Houn Is modulus, E, describes tension or com.ression9 the shear modulus, (, describes shear loadin 9 and the bulk modulus, K, describes thee11ect o1 hydrostatic .ressure, PoissonIs ratio, v, is dimensionless: it is the ne ati,e o1 the ratio o1 the lateral strain to the aAial strain J in aAial loadin . /n reality, moduli measured as slo.es o1 stress 8 strain cur,es are inaccurate :o1ten lo? by a 1actor o1 $ or more;, because o1 the contribution o1 inelasticity and other 1actors. Accurate moduli are measured dynamically: by eAcitin the natural ,ibrations o1 a beam or ?ire, or by measurin

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the ,elocity o1 ?a,es in the material. /n an isotro.ic material, the moduli are related in the 1ollo?in ?ays:

E=

G G /

G=

E ! v

K=

E !v

:3.";

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Biasanya men hasilkan dan

, l "-3 F l 3/8E KlE :3.$;

Data books and databases like those described in <ha.ter "" list ,alues 1or all 1our moduli. /n this book ?e eAamine data 1or E; a..roAimate ,alues 1or the others can be deri,ed 1rom e@uations :3.$; ?hen needed. *he stren th, sf, o1 a solid :usual units: MPa or MC-m$; re@uires care1ul de1inition. For metals, ?e identi1y sf ?ith the (.$(> o11set yield stren th sy : b. 3.$;9 that is, the stress at ?hich the stress 8 strain cur,e 1or aAial loadin de,iates by a strain o1 (.$(> 1rom the linear elastic line. /t is the stress at ?hich dislocations mo,e lar e distance throu h the crystals o1 the metal, and is the same in tension and com.ression. For .olymers, sf is identi1ied as the stress a, at ?hich the stress 8 strain cur,e becomes markedly non7linear: ty.ically, a strain o1 "> : b. 3.3;.

*his may be caused by shear7yieldin !: the irre,ersible sli..in o1 molecular chains9 or it may be caused by craEin !: the 1ormation o1 lo? density, crack7like ,olumes ?hich scatter li ht, makin the .olymer look ?hite. Polymers are a little stron er :J $(>; in com.ression than in tension. Stren th, 1or ceramics and lasses, de.ends stron ly on the mode o1 loadin : b. 3.2;. /n tension, stren th! means the 1racture

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stren th, of. /n com.ression it means the crushin stren th of ?hich is much lar er9 ty.ically sfc l "3 sft :3.3;

De identi1y a,,7 1or a ceramic ?ith the lar er com.ressi,e stren th sfc. *he stren th o1 a com.osite is best de1ined by a set de,iation 1rom linear elastic beha,iour: 0.5% is sometimes taken. <om.osites ?hich contain 1ibres :and this includes natural com.osites like ?ood; are a little ?eaker :u. to 3(>; in com.ression than tension because the 1ibres buckle. /n subse@uent cha.ters, sf 1or com.osites means the tensile stren th.

Stren th, then, de.ends on material class and on mode o1 loadin . %ther modes o1 loadin are .ossible: shear, 1or instance. Hield under multiaAial loads are related to that in sim.le tension by a yield 1unction. For metals, the Kon Mises yield 1unction ?orks ?ell: :s1 7 s2 ;$ L : s2 7 s3; $ L : s3 M s1" $ N $s# $ :3.2;

For .olymers the yield 1unction is modi1ied to include the e11ect o1 .ressure, .

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:s1 7 s2 ;$ L : s2 7 s3; $ L : s3 M s1" $ N $s# $: 1

b s

;:

p ;; f

:3.3;

?here b is a numerical coe11icient ?hich characterises the .ressure de.endence o1 the 1lo? stren th and . N 7 2: s1 Ls2Ls3; ?here s1 , s2 and s3 are the .rinci.al stresses, .ositi,e ?hen tensile. For ceramics, a <oulomb 1lo? la? is used: s1 7 s3 ! C d dan C adalah konstanta. :3.5;

Dhen the material is di11icult to ri. :as is a ceramic;, its stren th can be measured in bendin . *he modulus of rupture or "#$ :usual units MPa or MC-m$; is the maAimum sur1ace stress in a bent beam at the instant o1 1ailure : b. 3.5%. %ne mi ht eA.ect this to be eAactly the same as the stren th measured in tension, but 1or ceramics it is lar er :by a 1actor o1 about ".3; because the ,olume sub4ected to this maAimum stress is small and the .robability o1 a lar e 1la? lyin in it is small also9 in sim.le tension all 1la?s see the maAimum stress.

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&'e ultimate (tensile% stren)t' su :usual units MPa; is the nominal stress at ?hich a round bar o1 the material, loaded in tension, se.arates :Fi . 3.$;. For brittle solids 8 ceramics, lasses and brittle .olymers 8 it is the same as the 1ailure stren th in tension. For metals, ductile .olymers and most com.osites, it is lar er than the stren th s#, by a 1actor o1 bet?een "," dan 3 because o1 ?ork hardenin or :in the case o1 com.osites; load trans1er to the rein1orcement. *he 'ardness, *, o1 a material :usual units: MPa; is a crude measure o1 its stren th. /t is measured by .ressin a .ointed diamond or hardened steel ball into the sur1ace o1 the material. *he hardness is de1ined as the indenter 1orce di,ided by the .ro4ected area o1 the indent. /t is related to the @uantity ?e ha,e de1ined as s# by * j 3 s# :3.O;

*he tou)'ness, +C :usual units: kG-m$;, and the fracture tou)'ness, KC :satuan biasa: MPa mb"-$ atau MC-m3-$;, measure the resistance o1 the material to the .ro.a ation o1 a crack. *he 1racture tou hness is measured by loadin a sam.le containin a deliberately introduced crack o1 len th $c : b. 3.5;, recordin the tensile stress o, at ?hich the crack .ro.a ates. *he @uantity K, is then calculated 1romK, N -o,./i/ :3.);

and the tou hness 1rom K, 8 E(1 L ,; 7 :3.#;

?here - is a eometric 1actor, near unity, ?hich de.ends on details o1 the sam.le eometry, and E is Houn Is modulus and v is PoissonIs ratio. Measured in this ?ay K, and FJ ha,e ?ell7de1ined ,alues 1or brittle materials :ceramic, lasses, and many .olymers;. /n ductile materials a .lastic Eone de,elo.s at the crack ti., introducin ne? 1eatures into the ?ay in ?hich cracks .ro.a ate ?hich necessitate more in,ol,ed characterisation. Kalues 1or K, and FJ are, nonetheless, cited, and are use1ul as a ?ay o1 rankin materials. *he loss0coefficient, iJ :a dimensionless number;, measures the de ree to ?hich a material dissi.ates ,ibrational ener y :Fi . 3.O;. /1 a material is loaded elastically to a

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stress a, it stores an elastic ener y r1ma2 +N4 per unit volume. 3f it is loaded and t'en unloaded, it dissipates an ener)y 45 ! ,a dr *he loss coe11icient is 45 8 6n5 :3."%J " J$

*he cycle can be a..lied in many di11erent ?ays 8 some 1ast, some slo?. *he ,alue o1 J usually de.ends on the timescale or 1re@uency o1 cyclin . %ther measures o1 dam.in include 45 the specific dampin) capacity, 7 N the lo) decrement, A :the lo o1 the ratio o1 successi,e am.litudes o1 natural ,ibrations;, the p'ase la), 5, bet?een stress and strain, and the P! factor or resonance factor, P. Dhen dam.in is small :JQ(.("; these measures are related by 7 4 " :3.""; but ?hen dam.in is lar e, they are no lon er e@ui,alent. <yclic loadin not only dissi.ates ener y9 it can also cause a crack to nucleate and ro?, culminatin in 1ati ue 1ailure. For many materials there eAists a 1ati ue limit: a stress am.litude belo? ?hich 1racture does not occur, or occurs only a1ter a ,ery lar e number :R"(); cycles. *his in1ormation is ca.tured by the fati)ue ratio,f :a dimensionless @uantity;. /t is the ratio o1 the 1ati ue limit to the yield stren th, %J. *he rate at ?hich heat is conducted throu h a solid at steady state :meanin that the tem.erature .ro1ile does not chan e ?ith time; is measured by the t'ermal conductivity, 4 :usual units: D-m 0;. Fi ure 3.) sho?s ho? it is measured: by recordin the heat 1luA @ :D-m$; 1lo?in 1rom a sur1ace at tem.erature &8 to one at "I$ in the material, se.arated by a distance S. *he conducti,ity is calculated 1rom F.urierIs la?:

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8 AJ*TA:*/*$; 9: d; ; :3."$;

*he measurement is not, in .ractice, easy :.articularly 1or materials ?ith lo? conducti,ities;, but reliable data are no? enerally a,ailable. Dhen heat 1lo? is transient, the 1luA de.ends instead on the t'ermal diffusivity, a :usual units: m$-s;, de1ined by A a: (3.83% ?here . is the density and Cp is the specific 'eat at constant pressure :usual units: kG-k 0;. *he thermal di11usi,ity can be measured directly by measurin the decay o1 a tem.erature use ?hen a heat source, a..lied to the material, is s?itched o119 or it can be calculated 1rom ,ia the last e@uation. *his re@uires ,alues 1or C,, :,irtually identical, 1or solids, ?ith C,, the c heat at constant ,olume;. *hey are measured by the techni@ue o1 calorimetry, ?hich the standard ?ay o1 measurin the meltin) temperature, &m, and the )lass temperature, Jual units 1or both: 0;. *his second tem.erature is a .ro.erty o1 non7crystalline solids, do not ha,e a shar. meltin .oint9 itcharacterises the transition 1rom true solid to ,ery li@uid. /t is hel.1ul, in en ineerin 1irst tells us the l2 hest tem.erature at ?hich the material can reasonably be used ?ithout oAidation, chemicaiUchanJe or eAcessi,e cree. becomin a .roblem9 and the second i,es the tem.erature needed tJ make the material 1lo? easily 1or 1ormin and sha.in . Most thaterials eA.and ?hen they are heated :Fi . 3.#;. *he thermal strain .er de ree is measured by the linear t'ermal0e2pansion coefficient, a :units: 0 V;. /1 the material is thermally isotro.ic, the ,olume eA.ansion, .er de ree, is 3a. /1 it is anisotro.ic, t?o or more coe11icie1lts are re@uired, and the ,olume eA.ansion becomes the sum o1 the .rinci.al thermal strains. desi n, to de1ine t?o 1urther tem.eratures: the imE,m service temperature &,,,, and the softenin) temperature, &, :both: 0;. *he

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&'e t'ermal s'oc< resistance (units K% is t'e ma2imum temperature difference t'rou)' ='ic' a material can >e 9uenc'ed suddenly, =it'out dama)e. 3t, and t'e creep resistance, are important in 'i)'0temperature desi)n. Creep is t'e slo=, time0dependent deformation ='ic' occurs ='en materials are loaded a>ove a>out +Tm or +T~ (?i). 3.80%. 3t is c'aracterised >y a set of creep constants@ a creep e2ponent n (dimensionless%, an activation ener)y A (usual units@ <B/mole%, a <inetic factor 4 (units@ s, 3%, and a reference stress o, (units@ "Pa or "CD m6%. &'e creep strain0rate rat a temperature &caused >y a stress a is descri>ed >y t'e e9uation N 4 WJJX CX~ WJX :3."2;

Dear, oAidation and corrosion are harder to @uanti1y, .artly because they are sur1ace, not bulk, .henomena, and .artly because they in,ol,e interactions bet?een t?o materials, not 4ust the .ro.erties o1 one. Dhen solids slide :Fi . 3.""; the ,olume o1 material lost 1rom one sur1ace, .er unit distance slid, is called the ?ear rate, E. *he ?ear resistance o1 the sur1ace is characterised by the 4rc'ard =ear constant, K4 :units: m$-MC or MPaI; de1ined by the e@uation = ,K4P (3.85%

?here 4 is the area o1 the sur1ace and P the normal .ressure .ressin them to ether. Data 1or K4 are a,ailable, but must be inter.reted as the .ro.erty o1 the slidin cou.le, not o1 4ust one member o1 it. Dry corrosion is the chemical reaction o1 a solid sur1ace ?ith dry ases :Fi . 3."$;. *y.ically, a metal, M, reacts ?ith oAy en, ($, to i,e a sur1ace layer o1 the oAide M%$: ML%$7JM%$ /1 the oAide is .rotecti,e, 1ormin a continuous, uncracked 1ilm :thickness, ;% o,er the sur1ace, the reaction slo?s do?n ?ith time, t@

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d; d& ; (3.8F%

Yere $ is the as constant, & the absolute tem.erature, and the oAidation beha,iour is characterised by the para>olic rate constant for o2idation 3c,, :units: m$-s;. Det corrosion 8 corrosion in ?ater, brine, acids or alkalis, is much more com.licated and cannot be ca.tured by rate e@uations ?ith sim.le constants. /t is more usual to catalo ue corrosion resistance by a sim.le scale such as A :,ery ood; to 6 :,ery bad;.

3.4

Su

ary an! Con"lusions lasses and 8 1inally 8 com.osites, ?hich combine the

*here are siA im.ortant classes o1 materials 1or mechanical desi n: metals, .olymers, elastomers, ceramics, .ro.erties o1 t?o or more o1 the others. Dithin a class there is certain common round: ceramics are hard and brittle9 metals are ductile and conduct heat ?ell9 .olymers are li ht and ha,e lar e eA.ansion coe11icients, and so on 8 that is ?hat makes the classi1ication use1ul. But, in desi n, ?e ?ish to esca.e 1rom the constraints o1 class, and think, instead, o1 the material name as an identi1ier 1or a certain .ro.erty .ro1ile 8 one ?hich ?ill, in later cha.ters, be com.ared ?ith an ideal! .ro1ile su ested by the desi n, uidin our choice. *o that end, the .ro.erties im.ortant in thermomechamcal desi n ?ere de1ined in this cha.ter. /n the neAt ?e de,elo. a ?ay o1 dis.layin .ro.erties so as to maAimise the 1reedom o1 choice.

3.#

Further $ea!in%

De1inisi .ro.erti material da.at ditemukan di se4umlah buku teks tt rekayasa material, ini 3 4udul di antaranya. Ashby, M. F. and Gones, D. &. Y. :"#)(, "#)5; En)ineerin) "aterials, Parts " and $. Per amon Press, %A1ord, +0. Dieter, F. 6. :"#)); "ec'anical "etallur)y. McFra? Yill, Sin a.ore. Fontana, M. F. and Freene, C. D. :"#5O; Corrosion En)ineerin). McFra? Yill, Ce? Hork, +SA.

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Gan Glac<, H. *. (8I86% "aterials for En)ineerin). 4ddison0Eesley, $eadin), "ass., 5J4.