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A study on Finite element Analysis

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- Introduction to FEA and FEM
- Crank shaft analysis

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(MCEN 4173/5173)

-- A numerical method. -- Traditionally, a branch of Solid Mechanics. -- Nowadays, a commonly used method for multiphysics problems.

-- Structure analysis: a cantilever, a bridge, an oil platform -- Solid mechanics: a gear, a automotive power train -- Dynamics: vibration of Sears Tower, earthquake, bullet impact -- Thermal analysis: heat radiation of finned surface, thermal stress brake disc -- Electrical analysis: piezo actuator, electrical signal propagation -- Biomaterials: human organs and tissues --

FEA is originally developed for solving solid mechanics problem. Solid Mechanics:

Object: A Solid with known mechanical properties. (Mr. Potato; a shaft; human tissue) Concepts:

Boundary: The surface enclosing the geometry Solid: Interior + Boundary Boundary conditions: Any prescribed quantities, such as prescribed displacements and prescribed tractions on the boundary

X1

P

undeformed

X2

Mr. Potato

Solid Mechanics:

P

undeformed

P

deformed Question: If we apply a force on a solid, what are the values of the displacements, stresses, and strains at EACH MATERIAL POINT?

X2

X2

X1

X1

Input

Boundary conditions (prescribed force; prescribed displacement )

???

To answer this question, we need to solve the following equations:

u j u 1 eij = i + 2 X j X i

ij = 2Geij + ekk ij

i1 i 2 i 3 + + + fi = 0 X 1 X 2 X 3

We need to solve a problem consisting of total 15 equations, among which 9 equations are partial differential equations!! Finding an exact solution:

Then:

Mission changes to find a solution that APPROXIMATES the exact solution.

FEA is a numerical method that offers a means to find this Approximate Solution.

Before we start to look at how FEA works, lets first review some calculus

1 1 1 xdx = x 2 = (12 0) = 0 2 0 2 2

1

2 0

2 0

= cos + cos(0) = 1 2

2 0

(sin x )2 dx

???

Integration using numerical methods: Example:

F=

(x

1 1

+ 6 dx

Exact solution:

F=

(

1 1

38 1 3 2 x + 6 dx = x + 6 x = 12.667 3 1 3

y

y = x2 + 6

x

The integration represents the area under the curve

Integration using numerical methods:

Numerical integration

Scheme 1: 1. Divide the interval of integration into N section; 2. Choose a function to approximate the variation of f (x) in each section; the simplest such function is a constant function that equals to the value of f (x) at the mid-point of each section. 3. The product of this constant function and the length of the section approximates the integration of f (x) over this section. 4. Summing the products for all sections gives an approximate answer to the integration of f (x) over (-1,1)

y = x2 + 6

y = x2 + 6

x

N=1, F=12, Error= -5.26% N=2, F=12.5, Error= -1.32%

Integration using numerical methods:

Numerical integration

y = x2 + 6

y = x2 + 6

x

N=4, F=12.625, Error=-0.33% N=8, F=12.656, Error=-0.08%

Integration using numerical methods:

Numerical integration

Scheme 2: Same as Scheme 1, except that we choose a linear function in each section to approximate the variation of f (x). This linear function takes the same value and slope of f (x) at the mid-point of that section.

y = x2 + 6

y = x2 + 6

Integration using numerical methods: Two key steps: 1. 2. Divide the interval of integration. In each sub-interval, choose proper simple functions to approximate the true function.

Two key features: 1. 2. The numerical result is an approximation to exact solution. The accuracy of numerical result depends on the number of sub-interval and approximate function.

Two key steps in numerical integration: 1. 2. Divide the interval of integration. In each sub-interval, choose proper simple functions to approximate the true function.

Element

Discretize the solid

Node

Mesh of the 3D solid

Describe the problem: Simplifying a real engineering problem into a problem that can be solved by FEA

Discretize/mesh the solid, define material properties, apply boundary conditions

Results

Obtain, visualize and explain the results and make your boss happy

FEA theory

Choose approximate functions, formulate linear equations, and solve equations

Post-processing Fun!

FEA core

Math!!

Examples of FEA

FEM simulation of the damage of San Francisco Oakland Bay Bridge caused by the 1989 Loma Prieta earthquake. (From Adina R & D, Inc.)

Examples of FEA

FEM simulation of crush of a car in roll-over situation. (From Adina R & D, Inc.)

Examples of FEA

FEA simulation of shape memory polymer tube

Examples of FEA

Courtesy of A. D. Mulliken, S. Sarva @ MIT

Do analysis as you design

Self-adaptive analysis

Change the mesh during the analysis

Analyze a model with millions of nodes; Parallel computing

Multi-scale analysis

Analyze physical problem ranging from atomistic level to macroscopic level; Combine FEA with molecular dynamics simulations

Multi-physics analysis

Mechano-electrical coupling (MEMS); mechano-chemical coupling (Chemical-mechanical polishing (CMP) )

Describe the problem: Simplifying a real engineering problem into a problem that can be solved by FEA

Discretize the solid, define material properties, apply boundary conditions

Results

Obtain, visualize and explain the results and make your boss happy

FEA theory

Choose proper approximate functions, formulate linear equations, and solve equations

How to subscribe the mail list: Send an e-mail to listproc@lists.colorado.edu with Subject line empty and SUBSCRIBE MCEN4173_06 Your Name as the content.

Instructor

Dr. H. Jerry Qi Office: ECME 124 Telephone: 2-1270 E-mail: qih@colorado.edu TA Mr. Kevin Long Office: E-mail: kevin.long@colorado.edu Mr. Philip Kao Office: E-mail: philip.kao@colorado.edu

Office Hours

Instructor: M: 4:00-6:00PM W: 4:00PM-6:00PM TA (KL about lecture): Tu: 3:00PM-4:00PM (GS), Th: 3:00PM-4:00PM (GS). TA (PK: @ about lab) Th: 10:00AM-11:00AM

Textbook

A first course in finite element method (3rd Edition). Daryl L. Logan. Brooks/Cole, 2002. ANSYS Tutorial, K.L. Lawrence. SDC Publications, 2003.

References

The finite element methods: Linear static and dynamic finite element analysis. T.J.R. Hughes. Dover Publications, 1987. Finite element procedures. K.J. Bathe. Prentice Hall, 1996.

Homework:

Discussions are encouraged but your work has to be finished by you own. Due on Wednesday before the class.

Be on time!!!

Your final grade depends on the overall performance of the class.

09/04, Labor Day 11/20, 11/22, Fall Break 11/24, Thanksgiving

10/13 (F), First Exam 12/15 (F), Second Exam Exams will be in ECCE 141

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