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404

CHAPTER 8

Mathematical Modeling with Dierential

Equations

EXERCISE SET 8.1

1. y

= 9x

2

e

x

3

= 3x

2

y and y(0) = 3 by inspection.

2. y

= x

3

2 sinx, y(0) = 3 by inspection.

3. (a) rst order;

dy

dx

= c; (1 +x)

dy

dx

= (1 +x)c = y

(b) second order; y

= c

1

cos t c

2

sint, y

+y = c

1

sint c

2

cos t + (c

1

sint +c

2

cos t) = 0

4. (a) rst order; 2

dy

dx

+y = 2

_

c

2

e

x/2

+ 1

_

+ce

x/2

+x 3 = x 1

(b) second order; y

= c

1

e

t

c

2

e

t

, y

y = c

1

e

t

+c

2

e

t

_

c

1

e

t

+c

2

e

t

_

= 0

5. False. It is a rst-order equation, because it involves y and dy/dx, but not d

n

y/dx

n

for n > 1.

6. True. y = 1/2 is a solution.

7. True. As mentioned in the marginal note after equation (2), the general solution of an nth order

dierential equation usually involves n arbitrary constants.

8. False. Every solution of the rst order dierential equation y

x

= Ae

x+b

with b = 0.

9. (a) If y = e

2x

then y

= 2e

2x

and y

= 4e

2x

, so

y

+y

2y = 4e

2x

+ (2e

2x

) 2e

2x

= 0.

If y = e

x

then y

= e

x

and y

= e

x

, so y

+y

2y = e

x

+e

x

2e

x

= 0.

(b) If y = c

1

e

2x

+c

2

e

x

then y

= 2c

1

e

2x

+c

2

e

x

and y

= 4c

1

e

2x

+c

2

e

x

, so

y

+y

2y = (4c

1

e

2x

+c

2

e

x

) + (2c

1

e

2x

+c

2

e

x

) 2(c

1

e

2x

+c

2

e

x

) = 0.

10. (a) If y = e

2x

then y

= 2e

2x

and y

= 4e

2x

, so

y

6y = 4e

2x

(2e

2x

) 6e

2x

= 0.

If y = e

3x

then y

= 3e

3x

and y

= 9e

3x

, so y

6y = 9e

3x

3e

3x

6e

3x

= 0.

(b) If y = c

1

e

2x

+c

2

e

3x

then y

= 2c

1

e

2x

+ 3c

2

e

3x

and y

= 4c

1

e

2x

+ 9c

2

e

3x

, so

y

6y = (4c

1

e

2x

+ 9c

2

e

3x

) (2c

1

e

2x

+ 3c

2

e

3x

) 6(c

1

e

2x

+c

2

e

3x

) = 0.

11. (a) If y = e

2x

then y

= 2e

2x

and y

= 4e

2x

, so y

4y

+ 4y = 4e

2x

4(2e

2x

) + 4e

2x

= 0.

If y = xe

2x

then y

= (2x + 1)e

2x

and y

= (4x + 4)e

2x

, so

y

4y

+ 4y = (4x + 4)e

2x

4(2x + 1)e

2x

+ 4xe

2x

= 0.

(b) If y = c

1

e

2x

+ c

2

xe

2x

then y

= 2c

1

e

2x

+ c

2

(2x + 1)e

2x

and y

= 4c

1

e

2x

+ c

2

(4x + 4)e

2x

, so

y

4y

+4y = (4c

1

e

2x

+c

2

(4x +4)e

2x

) 4(2c

1

e

2x

+c

2

(2x +1)e

2x

) +4(c

1

e

2x

+c

2

xe

2x

) = 0.

12. (a) If y = e

4x

then y

= 4e

4x

and y

= 16e

4x

, so y

8y

+ 16y = 16e

4x

8(4e

4x

) + 16e

4x

= 0.

If y = xe

4x

then y

= (4x + 1)e

4x

and y

= (16x + 8)e

4x

, so

y

8y

4x

8(4x + 1)e

4x

+ 16xe

4x

= 0.

(b) If y = c

1

e

4x

+c

2

xe

4x

then y

= 4c

1

e

4x

+c

2

(4x +1)e

4x

and y

= 16c

1

e

4x

+c

2

(16x +8)e

4x

, so

y

8y

+16y = (16c

1

e

4x

+c

2

(16x+8)e

4x

)8(4c

1

e

4x

+c

2

(4x+1)e

4x

)+16(c

1

e

4x

+c

2

xe

4x

) = 0.

November 10, 2008 19:17 ISM ET chapter 8 Sheet number 2 Page number 405 black

Exercise Set 8.1 405

13. (a) If y = sin2x then y

= 2 cos 2x and y

= 4 sin2x, so y

+ 4y = 4 sin2x + 4 sin2x = 0.

If y = cos 2x then y

= 2 sin2x and y

= 4 cos 2x, so y

+ 4y = 4 cos 2x + 4 cos 2x = 0.

(b) If y = c

1

sin2x +c

2

cos 2x then y

= 2c

1

cos 2x 2c

2

sin2x and y

= 4c

1

sin2x 4c

2

cos 2x,

so y

+ 4y = (4c

1

sin2x 4c

2

cos 2x) + 4(c

1

sin2x +c

2

cos 2x) = 0.

14. (a) If y = e

2x

sin3x then y

= e

2x

(2 sin3x+3 cos 3x) and y

= e

2x

(5 sin3x12 cos 3x), so

y

+4y

+13y = e

2x

(5 sin3x12 cos 3x) +4e

2x

(2 sin3x+3 cos 3x) +13e

2x

sin3x = 0.

If y = e

2x

cos 3x then y

= e

2x

(3 sin3x 2 cos 3x) and y

= e

2x

(12 sin3x 5 cos 3x), so

y

+4y

+13y = e

2x

(12 sin3x 5 cos 3x) +4e

2x

(3 sin3x 2 cos 3x) +13e

2x

cos 3x = 0.

(b) If y = e

2x

(c

1

sin3x +c

2

cos 3x) then y

= e

2x

[(2c

1

+ 3c

2

) sin3x + (3c

1

2c

2

) cos 3x] and

y

= e

2x

[(5c

1

+ 12c

2

) sin3x (12c

1

+ 5c

2

) cos 3x], so

y

+ 4y

+ 13y = e

2x

[(5c

1

+ 12c

2

) sin3x (12c

1

+ 5c

2

) cos 3x]

+ 4e

2x

[(2c

1

+ 3c

2

) sin3x + (3c

1

2c

2

) cos 3x]

+ 13e

2x

(c

1

sin3x +c

2

cos 3x) = 0.

15. From Exercise 9, y = c

1

e

2x

+c

2

e

x

is a solution of the dierential equation, with

y

= 2c

1

e

2x

+c

2

e

x

. Setting y(0) = 1 and y

(0) = 4 gives c

1

+c

2

= 1 and 2c

1

+c

2

= 4.

So c

1

= 1, c

2

= 2, and y = e

2x

2e

x

.

16. From Exercise 10, y = c

1

e

2x

+c

2

e

3x

is a solution of the dierential equation, with

y

= 2c

1

e

2x

+ 3c

2

e

3x

. Setting y(0) = 1 and y

(0) = 8 gives c

1

+c

2

= 1 and 2c

1

+ 3c

2

= 8.

So c

1

= 1, c

2

= 2, and y = e

2x

+ 2e

3x

.

17. From Exercise 11, y = c

1

e

2x

+c

2

xe

2x

is a solution of the dierential equation, with

y

= 2c

1

e

2x

+c

2

(2x + 1)e

2x

. Setting y(0) = 2 and y

(0) = 2 gives c

1

= 2 and 2c

1

+c

2

= 2,

so c

2

= 2 and y = 2e

2x

2xe

2x

.

18. From Exercise 12, y = c

1

e

4x

+c

2

xe

4x

is a solution of the dierential equation, with

y

= 4c

1

e

4x

+c

2

(4x + 1)e

4x

. Setting y(0) = 1 and y

(0) = 1 gives c

1

= 1 and 4c

1

+c

2

= 1,

so c

2

= 3 and y = e

4x

3xe

4x

.

19. From Exercise 13, y = c

1

sin2x +c

2

cos 2x is a solution of the dierential equation, with

y

= 2c

1

cos 2x 2c

2

sin2x. Setting y(0) = 1 and y

(0) = 2 gives c

2

= 1 and 2c

1

= 2,

so c

1

= 1 and y = sin2x + cos 2x.

20. From Exercise 14, y = e

2x

(c

1

sin3x +c

2

cos 3x) is a solution of the dierential equation, with

y

= e

2x

[(2c

1

+ 3c

2

) sin3x + (3c

1

2c

2

) cos 3x]. Setting y(0) = 1 and y

(0) = 1 gives

c

2

= 1 and 3c

1

2c

2

= 1, so c

1

= 1 and y = e

2x

(sin3x + cos 3x).

21. y

= 24x so y =

_

(24x) dx = 2x

2

+2x+C. Setting y(0) = 3 gives C = 3, so y = 2x

2

+2x+3.

22. (y

= 6x so y

=

_

(6x) dx = 3x

2

+C. Setting y

(0) = 2 gives C = 2, so y

= 3x

2

+ 2 and

y =

_

(3x

2

+ 2) dx = x

3

+ 2x +D. Setting y(0) = 1 gives D = 1 so y = x

3

+ 2x + 1.

23. If the solution has an inverse function x(y) then, by equation (3) of Section 3.3,

dx

dy

=

1

dy/dx

= y

2

. So x =

_

y

2

dy = y

1

+C. When x = 1, y = 2, so C =

3

2

and x =

3

2

y

1

.

Solving for y gives y =

2

3 2x

. The solution is valid for x <

3

2

.

November 10, 2008 19:17 ISM ET chapter 8 Sheet number 3 Page number 406 black

406 Chapter 8

24. If the solution has an inverse function x(y) then, by equation (3) of Section 3.3,

dx

dy

=

1

dy/dx

=

1

1 +y

2

. So x =

_

dy

1 +y

2

= tan

1

y +C. When x = 0, y = 0,

so C = 0, x = tan

1

y, and y = tanx. The solution is valid for /2 < x < /2.

25. By the product rule,

d

dx

(x

2

y) = x

2

y

+ 2xy = 0, so x

2

y = C and y = C/x

2

. Setting y(1) = 2

gives C = 2 so y = 2/x

2

. The solution is valid for x > 0.

26. By the product rule,

d

dx

(xy) = xy

+y = e

x

, so xy =

_

e

x

dx = e

x

+C. Setting y(1) = 1 +e

gives C = 1, so xy = e

x

+ 1 and y =

e

x

+ 1

x

. The solution is valid for x > 0.

27. (a)

dy

dt

= ky

2

, y(0) = y

0

, k > 0 (b)

dy

dt

= ky

2

, y(0) = y

0

, k > 0

28. (a) Either y is always zero, or y is positive and increases at a rate proportional to the square

root of y.

(b) Either y is always zero, or y is positive and decreases at a rate proportional to the cube of y,

or y is negative and increases at a rate proportional to the cube of y.

29. (a)

ds

dt

=

1

2

s (b)

d

2

s

dt

2

= 2

ds

dt

30. (a)

dv

dt

= 2v

2

(b)

d

2

s

dt

2

= 2

_

ds

dt

_

2

31. (a) Since k > 0 and y > 0, equation (3) gives

dy

dt

= ky > 0, so y is increasing.

(b)

d

2

y

dt

2

=

d

dt

(ky) = k

dy

dt

= k

2

y > 0, so y is concave upward.

32. (a) Both y = 0 and y = L satisfy equation (4).

(b) The rate of growth is

dy

dt

= k

_

1

y

L

_

y; we wish to nd the value of y which maximizes

this. Since

d

dy

_

k

_

1

y

L

_

y

_

=

k

L

(L 2y), which is positive for y < L/2 and negative for

y > L/2, the maximum growth rate occurs for y = L/2.

33. (a) Both y = 0 and y = L satisfy equation (6).

(b) The rate of growth is

dy

dt

= ky(L y); we wish to nd the value of y which maximizes this.

Since

d

dy

[ky(L y)] = k(L 2y), which is positive for y < L/2 and negative for y > L/2,

the maximum growth rate occurs for y = L/2.

34. If T is constant then

dT

dt

= 0, so equation (7) gives T = T

e

. Hence T = T

e

is the unique constant

solution of (7).

November 10, 2008 19:17 ISM ET chapter 8 Sheet number 4 Page number 407 black

Exercise Set 8.2 407

35. If x = c

1

cos

_

_

k

m

t

_

+ c

2

sin

_

_

k

m

t

_

then

dx

dt

= c

2

_

k

m

cos

_

_

k

m

t

_

c

1

_

k

m

sin

_

_

k

m

t

_

and

d

2

x

dt

2

= c

1

k

m

cos

_

_

k

m

t

_

c

2

k

m

sin

_

_

k

m

t

_

=

k

m

x. So m

d

2

x

dt

2

= kx; thus x satises

the dierential equation for the vibrating string.

36. (a) From Exercise 35 we have x = c

1

cos

_

_

k

m

t

_

+c

2

sin

_

_

k

m

t

_

and

x

= c

2

_

k

m

cos

_

_

k

m

t

_

c

1

_

k

m

sin

_

_

k

m

t

_

. Setting x(0) = x

0

and x

(0) = 0 gives

c

1

= x

0

and c

2

_

k

m

= 0, so c

2

= 0 and x = x

0

cos

_

_

k

m

t

_

.

(b) From the discussion before Example 2 in Section 0.3, the amplitude is |x

0

|, the period is

2

_

k/m

= 2

_

m

k

, and the frequency is

_

k/m

2

. The amplitude is the maximum displacement

of the mass from its rest position. The period is the length of time the mass takes to move

back and forth once. The frequency tells how often the mass moves back and forth in one

unit of time.

EXERCISE SET 8.2

1.

1

y

dy =

1

x

dx, ln|y| = ln|x| +C

1

, ln

y

x

= C

1

,

y

x

= e

C1

= C, y = Cx

including C = 0 by inspection.

2.

dy

1 +y

2

= 2xdx, tan

1

y = x

2

+C, y = tan

_

x

2

+C

_

3.

dy

1 +y

=

x

1 +x

2

dx, ln|1 +y| =

_

1 +x

2

+C

1

, 1 +y = e

1+x

2

e

C1

= Ce

1+x

2

,

y = Ce

1+x

2

1, C = 0

4. y dy =

x

3

dx

1 +x

4

,

y

2

2

=

1

4

ln(1 +x

4

) +C

1

, 2y

2

= ln(1 +x

4

) +C, y =

_

[ln(1 +x

4

) +C]/2

5.

2(1 +y

2

)

y

dy = e

x

dx, 2 ln|y| +y

2

= e

x

+C; by inspection, y = 0 is also a solution.

6.

dy

y

= xdx, ln|y| = x

2

/2 +C

1

, y = e

C1

e

x

2

/2

= Ce

x

2

/2

, including C = 0 by inspection.

7. e

y

dy =

sinx

cos

2

x

dx = sec xtanxdx, e

y

= sec x +C, y = ln(sec x +C)

8.

dy

1 +y

2

= (1 +x) dx, tan

1

y = x +

x

2

2

+C, y = tan(x +x

2

/2 +C)

November 10, 2008 19:17 ISM ET chapter 8 Sheet number 5 Page number 408 black

408 Chapter 8

9.

dy

y

2

y

=

dx

sinx

,

_ _

1

y

+

1

y 1

_

dy =

_

csc xdx, ln

y 1

y

1

,

y 1

y

= e

C1

(csc x cot x) = C(csc x cot x), y =

1

1 C(csc x cot x)

, C = 0;

by inspection, y = 0 is also a solution, as is y = 1.

10.

1

y

dy = cos xdx, ln|y| = sinx +C, y = C

1

e

sin x

11. (2y + cos y) dy = 3x

2

dx, y

2

+ siny = x

3

+C,

2

+ sin = C, C =

2

, y

2

+ siny = x

3

+

2

12.

dy

dx

= (x + 2)e

y

, e

y

dy = (x + 2)dx, e

y

=

1

2

x

2

+ 2x +C, 1 = C,

e

y

=

1

2

x

2

+ 2x 1, e

y

=

1

2

x

2

2x + 1, y = ln

_

1 2x

1

2

x

2

_

13. 2(y 1) dy = (2t + 1) dt, y

2

2y = t

2

+t +C, 1 + 2 = C, C = 3, y

2

2y = t

2

+t + 3

14.

dy

dx

cosh

2

x = y cosh2x, y

1

dy =

cosh2x

cosh

2

x

dx =

2 cosh

2

x 1

cosh

2

x

dx = (2 sech

2

x) dx,

lny = 2x tanhx +C, y = e

C

e

2xtanh x

, 3 = e

C

e

20tanh 0

= e

C

, y = 3e

2xtanh x

15. (a)

dy

y

=

dx

2x

, ln|y| =

1

2

ln|x| +C

1

,

|y| = C

2

|x|

1/2

, y

2

= Cx;

by inspection y = 0 is also a solu-

tion.

(b) 1

2

= C 2, C = 1/2, y

2

= x/2

2 2

2

2

x

y

x = 0.5y

2

x = 1.5y

2

x = y

2

x = 2y

2

x = 2.5y

2

y = 0 x = 3y

2

16. (a) y dy = xdx,

y

2

2

=

x

2

2

+C

1

, y =

_

C

2

x

2

(b) y =

25 x

2

3 3

3

3

x

y

y = 9 x

2

y = 6.25 x

2

y = 4 x

2

y = 1 x

2

y = 2.25 x

2

y = 0.25 x

2

17.

dy

y

=

xdx

x

2

+ 4

ln|y| =

1

2

ln(x

2

+ 4) +C

1

y =

C

x

2

+ 4

1.5

1

2 2

C = 1

C = 1

C = 0

C = 2

C = 2

November 10, 2008 19:17 ISM ET chapter 8 Sheet number 6 Page number 409 black

Exercise Set 8.2 409

18. cos y dy = cos xdx

siny = sinx +C

y = 2n + sin

1

(sinx +C) or y = (2n + 1) sin

1

(sinx +C) for some integer n

For C = 0, the integral curves are lines of the form y =

2n+x and y = (2n+1)x for integers n. These divide

the xy-plane into squares rotated 45

C = 0, 2 < C < 2, each integral curve stays within either

the top half or the bottom half of one of these squares. The

gure shows 5 such curves in the square x 2 < y < x,

x < y < 3 x. From top to bottom, their equations

are y = sin

1

(sinx + 0.5), y = sin

1

(sinx + 1.5),

y = sin

1

(sinx + 1.7), y = sin

1

(sinx + 1), and y =

sin

1

(sinx + 0.3).

x

y

!

!!

!

19. (1 y

2

) dy = x

2

dx,

y

y

3

3

=

x

3

3

+C

1

, x

3

+y

3

3y = C

2 2

2

2

x

y

20.

_

1

y

+y

_

dy = dx, ln|y| +

y

2

2

= x +C

1

,

ye

y

2

/2

= e

C1

e

x

= Ce

x

including C = 0.

5 5

3

3

x

y

21. True. The equation can be rewritten as

1

f(y)

dy

dx

= 1, which has the form (1).

22. False. The equation can be rewritten as

1

g(y)

dy

dx

=

1

h(x)

, which has the form (1).

23. True. After t minutes there will be 32 (1/2)

t

grams left; when t = 5 there will be 32 (1/2)

5

= 1

gram.

24. True. The population will quadruple in twice the doubling time.

25. Of the solutions y =

1

2x

2

C

, all pass through the point

_

0,

1

C

_

and thus never through (0, 0).

A solution of the initial value problem with y(0) = 0 is (by inspection) y = 0. The method of

Example 1 fails in this case because it starts with a division by y

2

= 0.

26. If y

0

= 0 then, proceeding as before, we get C = 2x

2

1

y

, C = 2x

2

0

1

y

0

, and

y =

1

2x

2

2x

2

0

+ 1/y

0

, which is dened for all x provided 2x

2

is never equal to 2x

2

0

1/y

0

; this

last condition will be satised if and only if 2x

2

0

1/y

0

< 0, or 0 < 2x

2

0

y

0

< 1. If y

0

= 0 then y = 0

is, by inspection, also a solution for all real x.

27.

dy

dx

= xe

y

, e

y

dy = xdx, e

y

=

x

2

2

+C, x = 2 when y = 0 so 1 = 2 +C, C = 1, e

y

= x

2

/2 1

November 10, 2008 19:17 ISM ET chapter 8 Sheet number 7 Page number 410 black

410 Chapter 8

28.

dy

dx

=

3x

2

2y

, 2y dy = 3x

2

dx, y

2

= x

3

+C, 1 = 1 +C, C = 0,

y

2

= x

3

, y = x

3/2

passes through (1, 1).

2

0

0 1.6

29. (a)

dy

dt

= 0.02y, y

0

= 10,000 (b) y = 10,000e

t/50

(c) T =

1

0.02

ln2 34.657 h (d) 45,000 = 10,000e

t/50

,

t = 50 ln

45,000

10,000

75.20 h

30. k =

1

T

ln2 =

1

20

ln2

(a)

dy

dt

= ((ln2)/20)y, y(0) = 1 (b) y(t) = e

t(ln 2)/20

= 2

t/20

(c) y(120) = 2

6

= 64 (d) 1,000,000 = 2

t/20

,

t = 20

ln10

6

ln2

398.63 min

31. (a)

dy

dt

= ky, y(0) = 5.0 10

7

; 3.83 = T =

1

k

ln2, so k =

ln2

3.83

0.1810

(b) y = 5.0 10

7

e

0.181t

(c) y(30) = 5.0 10

7

e

0.1810(30)

219,000

(d) y(t) = (0.1)y

0

= y

0

e

kt

, kt = ln0.1, t =

ln0.1

0.1810

= 12.72 days

32. (a) k =

1

T

ln2 =

1

140

ln2 0.0050, so

dy

dt

= 0.0050y, y

0

= 10.

(b) y = 10e

0.0050t

(c) 10 weeks = 70 days so y = 10e

0.35

7 mg.

(d) 0.3y

0

= y

0

e

kt

, t =

ln0.3

0.0050

240.8 days

33. 100e

0.02t

= 10,000, e

0.02t

= 100, t =

1

0.02

ln100 230 days

34. y = 10,000e

kt

, but y = 12,000 when t = 5 so 10,000e

5k

= 12,000, k =

1

5

ln1.2. y = 20,000 when

2 = e

kt

, t =

ln2

k

= 5

ln2

ln1.2

19, in the year 2017.

35. y(t) = y

0

e

kt

= 10.0e

kt

, 3.5 = 10.0e

k(5)

, k =

1

5

ln

3.5

10.0

0.2100, T =

1

k

ln2 3.30 days

36. y = y

0

e

kt

, 0.7y

0

= y

0

e

5k

, k =

1

5

ln0.7 0.07

(a) T =

ln2

k

9.90 yr

November 10, 2008 19:17 ISM ET chapter 8 Sheet number 8 Page number 411 black

Exercise Set 8.2 411

(b) y(t) y

0

e

0.07t

,

y

y

0

e

0.07t

, so e

0.07t

100 percent will remain.

38. (a) None; the half-life is independent of the initial amount.

(b) kT = ln2, so T is inversely proportional to k.

39. (a) T =

ln2

k

; and ln2 0.6931. If k is measured in percent, k

= 100k,

then T =

ln2

k

69.31

k

70

k

.

(b) 70 yr (c) 20 yr (d) 7%

40. Let y = y

0

e

kt

with y = y

1

when t = t

1

and y = 3y

1

when t = t

1

+ T; then y

0

e

kt1

= y

1

(i) and

y

0

e

k(t1+T)

= 3y

1

(ii). Divide (ii) by (i) to get e

kT

= 3, T =

1

k

ln3.

41. From (19), y(t) = y

0

e

0.000121t

. If 0.27 =

y(t)

y

0

= e

0.000121t

then t =

ln0.27

0.000121

10,820 yr, and

if 0.30 =

y(t)

y

0

then t =

ln0.30

0.000121

9950, or roughly between 9000 B.C. and 8000 B.C.

42. (a)

1

0

0 50000

(b) t = 1988 yields

y/y

0

= e

0.000121(1988)

79%.

43. (a) Let T

1

= 5730 40 = 5690, k

1

=

ln2

T

1

0.00012182; T

2

= 5730 +40 = 5770, k

2

0.00012013.

With y/y

0

= 0.92, 0.93, t

1

=

1

k

1

ln

y

y

0

= 684.5, 595.7; t

2

=

1

k

2

ln(y/y

0

) = 694.1, 604.1; in

1988 the shroud was at most 695 years old, which places its creation in or after the year 1293.

(b) Suppose T is the true half-life of carbon-14 and T

1

= T(1 +r/100) is the false half-life. Then

with k =

ln2

T

, k

1

=

ln2

T

1

we have the formulae y(t) = y

0

e

kt

, y

1

(t) = y

0

e

k1t

. At a certain

point in time a reading of the carbon-14 is taken resulting in a certain value y, which in the

case of the true formula is given by y = y(t) for some t, and in the case of the false formula

is given by y = y

1

(t

1

) for some t

1

.

If the true formula is used then the time t since the beginning is given by t =

1

k

ln

y

y

0

. If

the false formula is used we get a false value t

1

=

1

k

1

ln

y

y

0

; note that in both cases the

value y/y

0

is the same. Thus t

1

/t = k/k

1

= T

1

/T = 1 + r/100, so the percentage error in

the time to be measured is the same as the percentage error in the half-life.

44. If y = y

0

e

kt

and y = y

1

= y

0

e

kt1

then y

1

/y

0

= e

kt1

, k =

ln(y

1

/y

0

)

t

1

; if y = y

0

e

kt

and

y = y

1

= y

0

e

kt1

then y

1

/y

0

= e

kt1

, k =

ln(y

1

/y

0

)

t

1

.

November 10, 2008 19:17 ISM ET chapter 8 Sheet number 9 Page number 412 black

412 Chapter 8

45. (a) If y = y

0

e

kt

, then y

1

= y

0

e

kt1

, y

2

= y

0

e

kt2

, divide: y

2

/y

1

= e

k(t2t1)

, k =

1

t

2

t

1

ln(y

2

/y

1

),

T =

ln2

k

=

(t

2

t

1

) ln2

ln(y

2

/y

1

)

. If y = y

0

e

kt

, then y

1

= y

0

e

kt1

, y

2

= y

0

e

kt2

,

y

2

/y

1

= e

k(t2t1)

, k =

1

t

2

t

1

ln(y

2

/y

1

), T =

ln2

k

=

(t

2

t

1

) ln2

ln(y

2

/y

1

)

.

In either case, T is positive, so T =

(t

2

t

1

) ln2

ln(y

2

/y

1

)

.

(b) In part (a) assume t

2

= t

1

+ 1 and y

2

= 1.25y

1

. Then T =

ln2

ln1.25

3.1 h.

46. (a) In t years the interest will be compounded nt times at an interest rate of r/n each time. The

value at the end of 1 interval is P + (r/n)P = P(1 + r/n), at the end of 2 intervals it is

P(1 +r/n) +(r/n)P(1 +r/n) = P(1 +r/n)

2

, and continuing in this fashion the value at the

end of nt intervals is P(1 +r/n)

nt

.

(b) Let x = r/n, then n = r/x and

lim

n+

P(1 +r/n)

nt

= lim

x0

+

P(1 +x)

rt/x

= lim

x0

+

P[(1 +x)

1/x

]

rt

= Pe

rt

.

(c) The rate of increase is dA/dt = rPe

rt

= rA.

47. (a) A = 1000e

(0.08)(5)

= 1000e

0.4

$1, 491.82

(b) Pe

(0.08)(10)

= 10, 000, Pe

0.8

= 10, 000, P = 10, 000e

0.8

$4, 493.29

(c) From (11), with k = r = 0.08, T = (ln2)/0.08 8.7 years.

48. Let r be the annual interest rate when compounded continuously and r

1

the eective annual

interest rate. Then an amount P invested at the beginning of the year is worth Pe

r

= P(1 + r

1

)

at the end of the year, and r

1

= e

r

1.

49. (a) Given

dy

dt

= k

_

1

y

L

_

y, separation of variables yields

_

1

y

+

1

L y

_

dy = k dt so that

ln

y

L y

= lny ln(L y) = kt + C. The initial condition gives C = ln

y

0

L y

0

so

ln

y

L y

= kt + ln

y

0

L y

0

,

y

L y

= e

kt

y

0

L y

0

, and y(t) =

y

0

L

y

0

+ (L y

0

)e

kt

.

(b) If y

0

> 0 then y

0

+ (L y

0

)e

kt

= Le

kt

+ y

0

(1 e

kt

) > 0 for all t 0, so y(t) exists for

all such t. Since lim

t+

e

kt

= 0, lim

t+

y(t) =

y

0

L

y

0

+ (L y

0

) 0

= L.

(Note that for y

0

< 0 the solution blows up at t =

1

k

ln

y

0

L y

0

, so lim

t+

y(t) is undened.)

50. The dierential equation for the spread of disease can be rewritten as

dy

dt

= kL

_

1

y

L

_

y, which is

the logistic equation with k replaced by kL. Making this replacement in the solution from Exercise

49 gives y(t) =

y

0

L

y

0

+ (L y

0

)e

kLt

.

November 10, 2008 19:17 ISM ET chapter 8 Sheet number 10 Page number 413 black

Exercise Set 8.2 413

51. (a) k = L = 1, y

0

= 2

2

0

0 2

(b) k = L = y

0

= 1

2

0

0 2

(c) k = y

0

= 1, L = 2

2

0

0 5

(d) k = 1, y

0

= 0.5, L = 10

0

0

10

10

52. y

0

400, L 1000; since the curve y =

400,000

400 + 600e

kt

passes through the point (200, 600),

600 =

400,000

400 + 600e

200k

, 600e

200k

=

800

3

, k =

1

200

ln2.25 0.00405.

53. y

0

2, L 8; since the curve y =

2 8

2 + 6e

kt

passes through the point (2, 4), 4 =

16

2 + 6e

2k

,

6e

2k

= 2, k =

1

2

ln3 0.5493.

54. This is the logistic equation (Equation (4) of Section 8.1) with

k = 0.98, L = 5, and y

0

= 1. From Exercise 49, the solution is

given by y(t) =

5

1 + 4e

0.98t

.

5

0

0 12

55. (a) y

0

= 5 (b) L = 12 (c) k = 1

(d) L/2 = 6 =

60

5 + 7e

t

, 5 + 7e

t

= 10, t = ln(5/7) 0.3365

(e)

dy

dt

=

1

12

y(12 y), y(0) = 5

56. (a) y

0

= 1 (b) L = 1000 (c) k = 0.9

(d) 750 =

1000

1 + 999e

0.9t

, 3(1 + 999e

0.9t

) = 4, t =

1

0.9

ln(3 999) 8.8949

(e)

dy

dt

=

0.9

1000

y(1000 y), y(0) = 1

November 10, 2008 19:17 ISM ET chapter 8 Sheet number 11 Page number 414 black

414 Chapter 8

57. (a) Assume that y(t) students have had the u t days after the break. If the disease spreads

as predicted by equation (6) of Section 8.1 and if nobody is immune, then Exercise 50 gives

y(t) =

y

0

L

y

0

+ (L y

0

)e

kLt

, where y

0

= 20 and L = 1000. So y(t) =

20000

20 + 980e

1000kt

=

1000

1 + 49e

1000kt

. Using y(5) = 35 we nd that k =

ln(193/343)

5000

. Hence y =

1000

1 + 49(193/343)

t/5

.

(b)

t

y(t)

0

20

1

22

2

25

3

28

4

31

5

35

6

39

7

44

8

49

9

54

10

61

11

67

12

75

13

83

14

93

(c)

3 6 9 12

25

50

75

100

t

y

58. If T

0

< T

a

then

dT

dt

= k(T

a

T) where k > 0. If T

0

> T

a

then

dT

dt

= k(T T

a

) where k > 0;

both cases yield T(t) = T

a

+ (T

0

T

a

)e

kt

with k > 0.

59. (a) From Exercise 58 with T

0

= 95 and T

a

= 21, we have T = 21 + 74e

kt

for some k > 0.

(b) 85 = T(1) = 21 + 74e

k

, k = ln

64

74

= ln

32

37

, T = 21 + 74e

t ln(32/37)

= 21 + 74

_

32

37

_

t

,

T = 51 when

30

74

=

_

32

37

_

t

, t =

ln(30/74)

ln(32/37)

6.22 min

60.

dT

dt

= k(70 T), T(0) = 40; ln(70 T) = kt +C, 70 T = e

kt

e

C

, T = 40 when t = 0, so

30 = e

C

, T = 70 30e

kt

; 52 = T(1) = 70 30e

k

, k = ln

70 52

30

= ln

5

3

0.5,

T 70 30e

0.5t

61. (a)

dv

dt

=

ck

m

0

kt

g, v = c ln(m

0

kt) gt +C; v = 0 when t = 0 so 0 = c lnm

0

+C,

C = c lnm

0

, v = c lnm

0

c ln(m

0

kt) gt = c ln

m

0

m

0

kt

gt.

(b) m

0

kt = 0.2m

0

when t = 100 so

v = 2500 ln

m

0

0.2m

0

9.8(100) = 2500 ln5 980 3044 m/s.

62. (a) By the chain rule,

dv

dt

=

dv

dx

dx

dt

=

dv

dx

v so m

dv

dt

= mv

dv

dx

.

(b)

mv

kv

2

+mg

dv = dx,

m

2k

ln(kv

2

+mg) = x +C; v = v

0

when x = 0 so

C =

m

2k

ln(kv

2

0

+mg),

m

2k

ln(kv

2

+mg) = x +

m

2k

ln(kv

2

0

+mg), x =

m

2k

ln

kv

2

0

+mg

kv

2

+mg

.

November 10, 2008 19:17 ISM ET chapter 8 Sheet number 12 Page number 415 black

Exercise Set 8.2 415

(c) x = x

max

when v = 0 so

x

max

=

m

2k

ln

kv

2

0

+mg

mg

=

3.56 10

3

2(7.3 10

6

)

ln

(7.3 10

6

)(988)

2

+ (3.56 10

3

)(9.8)

(3.56 10

3

)(9.8)

1298 m

63. (a) A(h) = (1)

2

= ,

dh

dt

= 0.025

h,

h

dh = 0.025dt, 2

h = 0.025t + C; h = 4 when

t = 0, so 4 = C, 2

h = 0.025t + 4,

h = 2

0.025

2

t, h (2 0.003979 t)

2

.

(b) h = 0 when t 2/0.003979 502.6 s 8.4 min.

64. (a) A(h) = 6

_

2

_

4 (h 2)

2

_

= 12

_

4h h

2

,

12

_

4h h

2

dh

dt

= 0.025

h, 12

4 hdh = 0.025dt,

8(4 h)

3/2

= 0.025t +C; h = 4 when t = 0 so C = 0,

(4 h)

3/2

= (0.025/8)t, 4 h = (0.025/8)

2/3

t

2/3

,

h 4 0.021375t

2/3

ft

h 2

2

24 (h 2)

2

h

(b) h = 0 when t =

8

0.025

(4 0)

3/2

= 2560 s 42.7 min

65.

dv

dt

=

1

32

v

2

,

1

v

2

dv =

1

32

dt,

1

v

=

1

32

t +C; v = 128 when t = 0 so

1

128

= C,

1

v

=

1

32

t

1

128

, v =

128

4t + 1

cm/s. But v =

dx

dt

so

dx

dt

=

128

4t + 1

, x = 32 ln(4t + 1) +C

1

;

x = 0 when t = 0 so C

1

= 0, x = 32 ln(4t + 1) cm.

66.

dv

dt

= 0.02

v,

1

v

dv = 0.02dt, 2

2

v = 0.02t + 6, v = (3 0.01t)

2

cm/s. But v =

dx

dt

so

dx

dt

= (3 0.01t)

2

,

x =

100

3

(3 0.01t)

3

+C

1

; x = 0 when t = 0 so C

1

= 900, x = 900

100

3

(3 0.01t)

3

cm.

67. Suppose that H(y) = G(x) + C. Then

dH

dy

dy

dx

= G

(x). But

dH

dy

= h(y) and

dG

dx

= g(x), hence

y(x) is a solution of (1).

68. Suppose that y(x) satises y(x

0

) = y

0

and

_

y(x)

y

0

h(r) dr =

_

x

x

0

g(s) ds for all x in some interval

containing x

0

. Dierentiate with respect to x; by the Fundamental Theorem of Calculus (Theorem

5.6.3) and the chain rule, we have h(y(x))

dy

dx

= g(x).

69. If h(y) = 0 then (1) implies that g(x) = 0, so h(y) dy = 0 = g(x) dx. Otherwise the slope of L

is

dy

dx

=

g(x)

h(y)

. Since (x

1

, y

1

) and (x

2

, y

2

) lie on L, we have

y

2

y

1

x

2

x

1

=

g(x)

h(y)

. So h(y)(y

2

y

1

) =

g(x)(x

2

x

1

); i.e. h(y) dy = g(x) dx.

70. It is true that the method may not give a formula for y as a function of x. But sometimes such a

formula (in terms of familiar functions) does not exist. In such cases the method at least gives a

relationship between x and y, from which we can nd as good an approximation to y as we want.

November 10, 2008 19:17 ISM ET chapter 8 Sheet number 13 Page number 416 black

416 Chapter 8

71. Suppose that y = f(x) satises h(y)

dy

dx

= g(x). Integrating both sides of this with respect to x

gives

_

h(y)

dy

dx

dx =

_

g(x) dx, so

_

h(f(x))f

(x) dx =

_

g(x) dx. By equation (2) of Section

5.3 with f replaced by h, g replaced by f, and F replaced by

_

h(y) dy, the left side equals

F(f(x)) = F(y). Thus

_

h(y) dy =

_

g(x) dx.

EXERCISE SET 8.3

1.

x

y

-2 -1 1 2

-2

-1

1

2

2.

x

y

1 2 3 4

1

2

3

4

3.

5

1

2

x

y

y(0) = 1

y(0) = 2

y(0) = 1

4.

dy

dx

+y = 1, = e

_

dx

= e

x

,

d

dx

[ye

x

] = e

x

, ye

x

= e

x

+C, y = 1 +Ce

x

(a) 1 = 1 +C, C = 2, y = 1 2e

x

(b) 1 = 1 +C, C = 0, y = 1

(c) 2 = 1 +C, C = 1, y = 1 +e

x

5. lim

x+

y = 1

6. (a) IV, since the slope is positive for x > 0 and negative for x < 0.

(b) VI, since the slope is positive for y > 0 and negative for y < 0.

(c) V, since the slope is always positive.

(d) II, since the slope changes sign when crossing the lines y = 1.

(e) I, since the slope can be positive or negative in each quadrant but is not periodic.

(f ) III, since the slope is periodic in both x and y.

7. y

0

= 1, y

n+1

= y

n

+

1

2

y

1/3

n

n

x

n

y

n

0

0

1

1

0.5

1.50

2

1

3 4

2

5

2.07

1.5

2.71 3.41

2.5

4.16

6

3

4.96

7

3.5

5.81

8

4

6.71

2 4 1 3

9

x

y

November 10, 2008 19:17 ISM ET chapter 8 Sheet number 14 Page number 417 black

Exercise Set 8.3 417

8. y

0

= 1, y

n+1

= y

n

+ (x

n

y

2

n

)/4

n

x

n

y

n

0

0

1

1

0.25

0.75

2 3 4 5

0.50

0.67

0.75

0.68

1.00

0.75

1.25

0.86

6

1.50

0.99

7

1.75

1.12

8

2.00

1.24

0.5 1 1.5 2

0.5

1

1.5

2

x

y

9. y

0

= 1, y

n+1

= y

n

+

1

2

cos y

n

n

t

n

y

n

0

0

1

1

0.5

1.27

2

1

3 4

2

1.42

1.5

1.49 1.53

3

3

t

y

10. y

0

= 0, y

n+1

= y

n

+e

yn

/10

n

t

n

y

n

0

0

0

1

0.1

0.10

2 3 4 5

0.2

0.19

0.3

0.27

0.4

0.35

0.5

0.42

6

0.6

0.49

7

0.7

0.55

8

0.8

0.60

9

0.9

0.66

10

1.0

0.71

1

1

t

y

11. h = 1/5, y

0

= 1, y

n+1

= y

n

+

1

5

sin(n/5)

n

t

n

y

n

0

0

0

1

0.2

0.12

0.4

0.31

2 3 4

0.6

0.50

0.8

0.62

1.0

0.62

5

12. False. This is only true if the slope at (x, y) does not depend on y.

13. True.

dy

dx

= e

xy

> 0 for all x and y. So, for any integral curve, y is an increasing function of x.

14. True.

d

2

y

dx

2

=

d

dx

(e

y

) = e

y

dy

dx

= e

2y

> 0 for all y.

15. True. Every cubic polynomial has at least one real root. If p(y

0

) = 0 then y = y

0

is an integral

curve that is a horizontal line.

16. (a) By inspection,

dy

dx

= e

x

2

and y(0) = 0.

(b) y

n+1

= y

n

+e

x

2

n

/20 = y

n

+e

(n/20)

2

/20 and y

20

= 0.7625. From a CAS, y(1) = 0.7468.

17. (b) y dy = xdx, y

2

/2 = x

2

/2 +C

1

, x

2

+y

2

= C; if y(0) = 1 then C = 1 so y(1/2) =

3/2.

November 10, 2008 19:17 ISM ET chapter 8 Sheet number 15 Page number 418 black

418 Chapter 8

18. (a) Yes.

(b) y = 0 is an integral curve of y

19. (b) The equation y

= 1 y is separable:

dy

1 y

= dx, so

_

dy

1 y

=

_

dx, ln|1 y| = x +C.

Substituting x = 0 and y = 1 gives C = ln2, so x = ln2ln|1y| = ln

2

1 y

. Since the

integral curve stays below the line y = 1, we can drop the absolute value signs: x = ln

2

1 y

and y = 1 2e

x

. Solving y = 0 shows that the x-intercept is ln2 0.693.

20. (a) y

0

= 1, y

n+1

= y

n

+ (

y

n

/2)x

x = 0.2 : y

n+1

= y

n

+

y

n

/10; y

5

1.5489

x = 0.1 : y

n+1

= y

n

+

y

n

/20; y

10

1.5556

x = 0.05 : y

n+1

= y

n

+

y

n

/40; y

20

1.5590

(b)

dy

y

=

1

2

dx, 2

y = x/2 +C, 2 = C,

y = x/4 + 1, y = (x/4 + 1)

2

,

y(1) = 25/16 = 1.5625

21. (a) The slope eld does not vary with x, hence along a given parallel line all values are equal

since they only depend on the height y.

(b) As in part (a), the slope eld does not vary with x; it is independent of x.

(c) From G(y) x = C we obtain

d

dx

(G(y) x) =

1

f(y)

dy

dx

1 =

d

dx

C = 0, i.e.

dy

dx

= f(y).

22. (a) Separate variables:

dy

y

= dx, 2

y = x + C, y = (x/2 + C

1

)

2

is a parabola that opens up,

and is therefore concave up.

(b) A curve is concave up if its derivative is increasing, and y

y is increasing.

23. (a) By implicit dierentiation, y

3

+ 3xy

2

dy

dx

2xy x

2

dy

dx

= 0,

dy

dx

=

2xy y

3

3xy

2

x

2

.

(b) If y(x) is an integral curve of the slope eld in part (a), then

d

dx

{x[y(x)]

3

x

2

y(x)} = [y(x)]

3

+3xy(x)

2

y

(x) 2xy(x) x

2

y

must be of the form x[y(x)]

3

x

2

y(x) = C.

(c) x[y(x)]

3

x

2

y(x) = 2

24. (a) By implicit dierentiation, e

y

+xe

y

dy

dx

+e

x

dy

dx

+ye

x

= 0,

dy

dx

=

e

y

+ye

x

xe

y

+e

x

(b) If y(x) is an integral curve of the slope eld in part (a), then

d

dx

{xe

y(x)

+ y(x)e

x

} = e

y(x)

+ xy

(x)e

y(x)

+ y

(x)e

x

+ y(x)e

x

= 0 from part (a). Thus

xe

y(x)

+y(x)e

x

= C.

(c) Any integral curve y(x) of the slope eld above satises xe

y(x)

+ y(x)e

x

= C; if it passes

through (1, 1) then e +e = C, so xe

y(x)

+y(x)e

x

= 2e denes the curve implicitly.

25. (a) For any n, y

n

is the value of the discrete approximation at the right endpoint, that, is an

approximation of y(1). By increasing the number of subdivisions of the interval [0, 1] one

might expect more accuracy, and hence in the limit y(1).

November 10, 2008 19:17 ISM ET chapter 8 Sheet number 16 Page number 419 black

Exercise Set 8.4 419

(b) For a xed value of n we have, for k = 1, 2, . . . , n, y

k

= y

k1

+y

k1

1

n

=

n + 1

n

y

k1

. In partic-

ular y

n

=

n + 1

n

y

n1

=

_

n + 1

n

_

2

y

n2

= . . . =

_

n + 1

n

_

n

y

0

=

_

n + 1

n

_

n

. Consequently,

lim

n+

y

n

= lim

n+

_

n + 1

n

_

n

= e, which is the (correct) value y = e

x

x=1

.

26. Eulers Method is repeated application of local linear approximation, each step dependent on the

previous step.

27. Visual inspection of the slope eld may show where the integral curves are increasing, decreasing,

concave up, or concave down. It may also help to identify asymptotes for the integral curves.

For example, in Exercise 3 we see that y = 1 is an integral curve that is an asymptote of all other

integral curves. Those curves with y < 1 are increasing and concave down; those with y > 1 are

decreasing and concave up.

EXERCISE SET 8.4

1. = e

_

4 dx

= e

4x

, e

4x

y =

_

e

x

dx = e

x

+C, y = e

3x

+Ce

4x

2. = e

2

_

x dx

= e

x

2

,

d

dx

_

ye

x

2

_

= xe

x

2

, ye

x

2

=

1

2

e

x

2

+C, y =

1

2

+Ce

x

2

3. = e

_

dx

= e

x

, e

x

y =

_

e

x

cos(e

x

)dx = sin(e

x

) +C, y = e

x

sin(e

x

) +Ce

x

4.

dy

dx

+ 2y =

1

2

, = e

_

2dx

= e

2x

, e

2x

y =

_

1

2

e

2x

dx =

1

4

e

2x

+C, y =

1

4

+Ce

2x

5.

dy

dx

+

x

x

2

+ 1

y = 0, = e

_

(x/(x

2

+1))dx

= e

1

2

ln(x

2

+1)

=

_

x

2

+ 1,

d

dx

_

y

_

x

2

+ 1

_

= 0, y

_

x

2

+ 1 = C, y =

C

x

2

+ 1

6.

dy

dx

+y =

1

1 e

x

, = e

_

dx

= e

x

, e

x

y =

_

e

x

1 e

x

dx = ln(1e

x

)+C, y = e

x

ln(1e

x

)+Ce

x

7.

dy

dx

+

1

x

y = 1, = e

_

(1/x)dx

= e

ln x

= x,

d

dx

[xy] = x, xy =

1

2

x

2

+C, y =

x

2

+

C

x

,

2 = y(1) =

1

2

+C, C =

3

2

, y =

x

2

+

3

2x

8. Divide by x to put the dierential equation in the form (3):

dy

dx

x

1

y = x. We have p(x) =

1

x

and

q(x) = x, so

_

p(x) dx = ln|x|. So we may take e

ln |x|

= |x

1

| as an integrating factor. Since

integrating factors are only determined up to a constant factor, we may drop the absolute value

signs and simply take = x

1

. We have

d

dx

(x

1

y) = x

1

dy

dx

x

2

y = x

1

_

dy

dx

x

1

y

_

= 1, so

x

1

y = x +C and y = x

2

+Cx. Since y(1) = 1, C = 2 and y = x

2

2x.

November 10, 2008 19:17 ISM ET chapter 8 Sheet number 17 Page number 420 black

420 Chapter 8

9. = e

2

_

x dx

= e

x

2

, e

x

2

y =

_

2xe

x

2

dx = e

x

2

+C,

y = 1 +Ce

x

2

, 3 = 1 +C, C = 4, y = 1 + 4e

x

2

10. = e

_

dt

= e

t

, e

t

y =

_

2e

t

dt = 2e

t

+C, y = 2 +Ce

t

, 1 = 2 +C, C = 1, y = 2 e

t

11. False. If y

1

and y

2

both satisfy

dy

dx

+p(x)y = q(x) then

d

dx

(y

1

+y

2

)+p(x)(y

1

+y

2

) = 2q(x). Unless

q(x) = 0 for all x, y

1

+y

2

is not a solution of the original dierential equation.

12. True. If y = C is a solution, then dy/dx = 0, so p(x)C = q(x).

13. True. The concentration in the tank will approach the concentration in the solution owing into

the tank.

14. False. Although equation (18) implies that v

=

mg

c

, where mg is the weight of the object, the

model does not specify how c depends on the object.

15.

-2 2

10

10

x

y

y(0) = 1

y(1) = 0

y(1) = 1

16.

dy

dx

2y = x, = e

2

_

dx

= e

2x

,

d

dx

_

ye

2x

= xe

2x

,

ye

2x

=

1

4

(2x + 1)e

2x

+C, y =

1

4

(2x + 1) +Ce

2x

(a) 1 = 3/4 +Ce

2

, C = 1/(4e

2

), y =

1

4

(2x + 1) +

1

4

e

2x2

(b) 1 = 1/4 +C, C = 5/4, y =

1

4

(2x + 1)

5

4

e

2x

(c) 0 = 1/4 +Ce

2

, C = e

2

/4, y =

1

4

(2x + 1) +

1

4

e

2x+2

17. It appears that lim

x+

y =

_

+, if y

0

1/4;

, if y

0

< 1/4.

To conrm this, we solve the equation using the method of integrating factors:

dy

dx

2y = x, = e

2

_

dx

= e

2x

,

d

dx

_

ye

2x

= xe

2x

, ye

2x

=

1

4

(2x + 1)e

2x

+ C,

y =

1

4

(2x + 1) +Ce

2x

. Setting y(0) = y

0

gives C = y

0

1

4

, so y =

1

4

(2x + 1) +

_

y

0

1

4

_

e

2x

.

If y

0

= 1/4, then y =

1

4

(2x + 1) + as x +. Otherwise, we rewrite the solution as

y = e

2x

_

y

0

1

4

+

2x + 1

4e

2x

_

; since lim

x+

2x + 1

4e

2x

= 0, we obtain the conjectured limit.

November 10, 2008 19:17 ISM ET chapter 8 Sheet number 18 Page number 421 black

Exercise Set 8.4 421

18. (a) y

0

= 1, y

n+1

= y

n

+ (2y

n

x

n

)(0.1) = (12y

n

x

n

)/10

n 0 1 2 3 4 5

x

n

0 0.1 0.2 0.3 0.4 0.5

y

n

1 1.2 1.43 1.696 2.0052 2.36624

(b) Less. The integral curve appears to be concave up, so each y

n

is an underestimate of the

actual value of y(x

n

).

(c) From Exercise 16, we have y =

1

4

(2x + 1) + Ce

2x

for some constant C. Since y(0) = 1 we

nd C =

3

4

, so y =

3e

2x

+ 2x + 1

4

and y

_

1

2

_

=

3e + 2

4

2.53871.

19. (a) y

0

= 1,

y

n+1

= y

n

+ (x

n

+y

n

)(0.2) = (x

n

+ 6y

n

)/5

n

x

n

y

n

0

0

1

1

0.2

1.20

2 3 4 5

0.4

1.48

0.6

1.86

0.8

2.35

1.0

2.98

(b) y

y = x, = e

x

,

d

dx

_

ye

x

= xe

x

,

ye

x

= (x + 1)e

x

+C, 1 = 1 +C,

C = 2, y = (x + 1) + 2e

x

x

n

y(x

n

)

abs. error

perc. error

0

1

0

0 3

0.2

1.24

0.04

6 9 11 13

0.4

1.58

0.10

0.6

2.04

0.19

0.8

2.65

0.30

1.0

3.44

0.46

(c)

0.2 0.4 0.6 0.8 1

3

x

y

20. h = 0.1, y

n+1

= (x

n

+ 11y

n

)/10

n

x

n

y

n

0

0

1.00

1

0.1

1.10

2 3 4 5

0.2

1.22

0.3

1.36

0.4

1.53

0.5

1.72

6

0.6

1.94

7

0.7

2.20

8

0.8

2.49

9

0.9

2.82

10

1.0

3.19

With x = 0.2, Eulers method gives y(1) 2.98; with x = 0.1, it gives y(1) 3.19. The true

value is y(1) = 2e 2 3.44; so the absolute errors are approximately 0.46 and 0.25 respectively.

21.

dy

dt

= rate in rate out, where y is the amount of salt at time t,

dy

dt

= (4)(2)

_

y

50

_

(2) = 8

1

25

y, so

dy

dt

+

1

25

y = 8 and y(0) = 25.

= e

_

(1/25)dt

= e

t/25

, e

t/25

y =

_

8e

t/25

dt = 200e

t/25

+C,

y = 200 +Ce

t/25

, 25 = 200 +C, C = 175,

(a) y = 200 175e

t/25

oz (b) when t = 25, y = 200 175e

1

136 oz

22.

dy

dt

= (5)(20)

y

200

(20) = 100

1

10

y, so

dy

dt

+

1

10

y = 100 and y(0) = 0.

November 10, 2008 19:17 ISM ET chapter 8 Sheet number 19 Page number 422 black

422 Chapter 8

= e

_

(1/10)dt

= e

t/10

, e

t/10

y =

_

100e

t/10

dt = 1000e

t/10

+C,

y = 1000 +Ce

t/10

, 0 = 1000 +C, C = 1000;

(a) y = 1000 1000e

t/10

lb (b) when t = 30, y = 1000 1000e

3

950 lb

23. The volume V of the (polluted) water is V (t) = 500 +(20 10)t = 500 +10t; if y(t) is the number

of pounds of particulate matter in the water, then y(0) = 50 and

dy

dt

= 010

y

V

=

y

50 +t

. Using

the method of integrating factors, we have

dy

dt

+

1

50 +t

y = 0; = e

_

dt

50+t

= 50+t;

d

dt

[(50+t)y] = 0,

(50 + t)y = C, 2500 = 50y(0) = C, y(t) = 2500/(50 + t). (The dierential equation may also be

solved by separation of variables.)

The tank reaches the point of overowing when V = 500 + 10t = 1000, t = 50 min, so

y = 2500/(50 + 50) = 25 lb.

24. The volume of the lake (in gallons) is V = 264r

2

h = 264(15)

2

3 = 178,200 gals. Let y(t)

denote the number of pounds of mercury salts at time t; then

dy

dt

= 0 10

3

y

V

=

y

178.2

lb/h

and y

0

= 10

5

V = 1.782 lb;

dy

y

=

dt

178.2

, lny =

t

178.2

+ C

1

, y = Ce

t/(178.2)

, and

C = y(0) = y

0

= 1.782, y = 1.782e

t/(178.2)

lb of mercury salts.

t 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12

y(t) 5.588 5.578 5.568 5.558 5.549 5.539 5.529 5.519 5.509 5.499 5.489 5.480

We assumed that the mercury is always distributed uniformly throughout the lake, and doesnt

settle to the bottom.

25. (a)

dv

dt

+

c

m

v = g, = e

(c/m)

_

dt

= e

ct/m

,

d

dt

_

ve

ct/m

_

= ge

ct/m

, ve

ct/m

=

gm

c

e

ct/m

+C,

v =

gm

c

+Ce

ct/m

, but v

0

= v(0) =

gm

c

+C, C = v

0

+

gm

c

, v =

gm

c

+

_

v

0

+

gm

c

_

e

ct/m

(b) Replace

mg

c

with v

in (16).

(c) From part (b), s(t) = C v

t (v

0

+v

)

v

g

e

gt/v

; s

0

= s(0) = C (v

0

+v

)

v

g

,

C = s

0

+ (v

0

+v

)

v

g

, s(t) = s

0

v

t +

v

g

(v

0

+v

)

_

1 e

gt/v

_

26. (a) Let t denote time elapsed in seconds after the moment of the drop. From Exercise 25(b),

while the parachute is closed

v(t) = e

gt/v

(v

0

+v

) v

= e

32t/120

(0 + 120) 120 = 120

_

e

4t/15

1

_

and thus

v(25) = 120

_

e

20/3

1

_

119.85, so the skydiver is falling at a speed of 119.85 ft/s

when the parachute opens. From Exercise 25(c), s(t) = s

0

120t +

120

32

120

_

1 e

4t/15

_

,

s(25) = 10000 120 25 + 450

_

1 e

20/3

_

7449.43 ft.

(b) If t denotes time elapsed after the parachute opens, then, by Exercise 25(c),

s(t) 7449.4324t+

24

32

(119.85+24)(1e

32t/24

). A calculating utility nds that s(t) = 0

for t 307.4 s, so the skydiver is in the air for about 25 + 307.4 = 332.4 s.

November 10, 2008 19:17 ISM ET chapter 8 Sheet number 20 Page number 423 black

Review Exercises, Chapter 8 423

27.

dI

dt

+

R

L

I =

V (t)

L

, = e

(R/L)

_

dt

= e

Rt/L

,

d

dt

(e

Rt/L

I) =

V (t)

L

e

Rt/L

,

Ie

Rt/L

= I(0) +

1

L

_

t

0

V (u)e

Ru/L

du, I(t) = I(0)e

Rt/L

+

1

L

e

Rt/L

_

t

0

V (u)e

Ru/L

du.

(a) I(t) =

1

5

e

2t

_

t

0

20e

2u

du = 2e

2t

e

2u

_

t

0

= 2

_

1 e

2t

_

A.

(b) lim

t+

I(t) = 2 A

28. From Exercise 27 and Endpaper Table #42,

I(t) = 15e

2t

+

1

3

e

2t

_

t

0

3e

2u

sinudu = 15e

2t

+e

2t

e

2u

5

(2 sinu cos u)

_

t

0

= 15e

2t

+

1

5

(2 sint cos t) +

1

5

e

2t

.

29. (a) Let y =

1

[H(x) + C] where = e

P(x)

,

dP

dx

= p(x),

d

dx

H(x) = q, and C is an arbitrary

constant. Then

dy

dx

+p(x)y =

1

(x)

2

[H(x) +C] +p(x)y = q

p

(b) Given the initial value problem, let C = (x

0

)y

0

H(x

0

). Then y =

1

[H(x)+C] is a solution

of the initial value problem with y(x

0

) = y

0

. This shows that the initial value problem has

a solution.

To show uniqueness, suppose u(x) also satises (3) together with u(x

0

) = y

0

. Following the

arguments in the text we arrive at u(x) =

1

condition requires C = (x

0

)y

0

H(x

0

), and thus u(x) is identical with y(x).

30. (a) y = x and y = x are both solutions of the given initial value problem.

(b)

_

y dy =

_

xdx, y

2

= x

2

+ C; but y(0) = 0, so C = 0. Thus y

2

= x

2

, which is

impossible.

REVIEW EXERCISES, CHAPTER 8

2. (a) yes (b) yes (c) no (d) yes

3.

dy

1 +y

2

= x

2

dx, tan

1

y =

1

3

x

3

+C, y = tan

_

1

3

x

3

+C

_

4.

1

tany

dy =

3

sec x

dx,

cos y

siny

dy = 3 cos xdx, ln| siny| = 3 sinx +C

1

,

siny = e

3 sin x+C1

= e

C1

e

3 sin x

= Ce

3 sin x

, C = 0,

y = sin

1

_

Ce

3 sin x

_

, as is y = 0 by inspection

5.

_

1

y

+y

_

dy = e

x

dx, ln|y| +y

2

/2 = e

x

+C; by inspection, y = 0 is also a solution

November 10, 2008 19:17 ISM ET chapter 8 Sheet number 21 Page number 424 black

424 Chapter 8

6.

dy

y

2

+ 1

= dx, tan

1

y = x +C, /4 = C; y = tan(x +/4)

7.

_

1

y

5

+

1

y

_

dy =

dx

x

,

1

4

y

4

+ ln|y| = ln|x| +C;

1

4

= C, y

4

+ 4 ln(x/y) = 1

8.

dy

y

2

= 4 sec

2

2xdx,

1

y

= 2 tan2x +C, 1 = 2 tan

_

2

8

_

+C = 2 tan

4

+C = 2 +C, C = 3,

y =

1

3 2 tan2x

9.

dy

y

2

= 2xdx,

1

y

= x

2

+C, 1 = C, y = 1/(x

2

+ 1)

1 1

1

x

y

10. 2y dy = dx, y

2

= x + C; if y(0) = 1 then C = 1, y

2

= x + 1, y =

x + 1; if y(0) = 1 then

C = 1, y

2

= x + 1, y =

x + 1.

1 1

1

1

x

y

1 1

1

1

x

y

11.

x

y

1 2 3 4

1

2

3

4

12.

dy

y

=

1

8

xdx, ln|y| =

1

16

x

2

+C, y = C

1

e

x

2

/16

13. y

0

= 1, y

n+1

= y

n

+

y

n

/2

n 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8

x

n

0 0.5 1 1.5 2 2.5 3 3.5 4

y

n

1 1.50 2.11 2.84 3.68 4.64 5.72 6.91 8.23

2 4 1 3

9

x

y

November 10, 2008 19:17 ISM ET chapter 8 Sheet number 22 Page number 425 black

Review Exercises, Chapter 8 425

14. y

0

= 1, y

n+1

= y

n

+

1

2

siny

n

n 0 1 2 3 4

t

n

0 0.5 1 1.5 2

y

n

1 1.42 1.92 2.39 2.73

3

3

t

y

15. h = 1/5, y

0

= 1, y

n+1

= y

n

+

1

5

cos(2n/5)

n 0 1 2 3 4 5

t

n

0 0.2 0.4 0.6 0.8 1.0

y

n

1.00 1.20 1.26 1.10 0.94 1.00

16. y

n+1

= y

n

+ 0.1(1 + 5t

n

y

n

), y

0

= 5

n 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10

t

n

1 1.1 1.2 1.3 1.4 1.5 1.6 1.7 1.8 1.9 2

y

n

5.00 5.10 5.24 5.42 5.62 5.86 6.13 6.41 6.72 7.05 7.39

17. From formula (19) of Section 8.2, y(t) = y

0

e

0.000121t

, so 0.785y

0

= y

0

e

0.000121t

, t = ln0.785/0.000121

2000.6 yr

18. (a)

d

dt

y(t) = 0.01y, y(0) = 5000

(b) y(t) = 5000e

0.01t

(c) 2 = e

0.01t

, t = 100 ln2 69.31 h

(d) 30,000 = 5000e

0.01t

, t = 100 ln6 179.18 h

19. = e

_

3 dx

= e

3x

, e

3x

y =

_

e

x

dx = e

x

+C, y = e

2x

+Ce

3x

20.

dy

dx

+y =

1

1 +e

x

, = e

_

dx

= e

x

, e

x

y =

_

e

x

1 +e

x

dx = ln(1 +e

x

) +C, y = e

x

ln(1 +e

x

) +Ce

x

21. = e

_

x dx

= e

x

2

/2

, e

x

2

/2

y =

_

xe

x

2

/2

dx = e

x

2

/2

+C,

y = 1 +Ce

x

2

/2

, 3 = 1 +C, C = 4, y = 1 + 4e

x

2

/2

22.

dy

dx

+

2

x

y = 4x, = e

_

(2/x)dx

= x

2

,

d

dx

_

yx

2

= 4x

3

, yx

2

= x

4

+C, y = x

2

+Cx

2

,

2 = y(1) = 1 +C, C = 1, y = x

2

+ 1/x

2

23. By inspection, the left side of the equation is

d

dx

(y coshx), so

d

dx

(y coshx) = cosh

2

x =

1

2

(1 + cosh2x) and y coshx =

1

2

x +

1

4

sinh2x +C =

1

2

(x + sinhxcoshx) +C.

When x = 0, y = 2 so 2 = C, and y = 2 sech x +

1

2

(x sech x + sinhx).

November 10, 2008 19:17 ISM ET chapter 8 Sheet number 23 Page number 426 black

426 Chapter 8

24. (a) = e

_

dx

= e

x

,

d

dx

_

ye

x

= xe

x

sin3x,

ye

x

=

_

xe

x

sin3xdx =

_

3

10

x

3

50

_

e

x

cos 3x +

_

1

10

x +

2

25

_

e

x

sin3x +C;

1 = y(0) =

3

50

+C, C =

53

50

, y =

_

3

10

x

3

50

_

cos 3x +

_

1

10

x +

2

25

_

sin3x +

53

50

e

x

(c)

10 2

2

4

x

y

25. (a) linear (b) both (c) separable (d) neither

26.

dy

dx

4xy = x

(a) IF: e

_

(4x)dx

= e

2x

2

,

d

dx

[ye

2x

2

] = xe

2x

2

, ye

2x

2

=

_

xe

2x

2

dx =

1

4

e

2x

2

+ C,

y =

1

4

+Ce

2x

2

(b)

dy

dx

= 4xy +x,

dy

4y + 1

= xdx,

1

4

ln(4y + 1) =

1

2

x

2

+C, ln(4y + 1) = 2x

2

+C

1

,

4y + 1 = C

2

e

2x

2

, y =

1

4

(C

2

e

2x

2

1) = C

3

e

2x

2

1

4

, same as in part (a)

27. Assume the tank contains y(t) oz of salt at time t. Then y

0

= 0 and for 0 < t < 15,

dy

dt

= 5 10

y

1000

10 = (50 y/100) oz/min, with solution y = 5000 +Ce

t/100

. But y(0) = 0 so

C = 5000, y = 5000(1 e

t/100

) for 0 t 15, and y(15) = 5000(1 e

0.15

). For 15 < t < 30,

dy

dt

= 0

y

1000

5, y = C

1

e

t/200

, C

1

e

0.075

= y(15) = 5000(1e

0.15

), C

1

= 5000(e

0.075

e

0.075

),

y = 5000(e

0.075

e

0.075

)e

t/200

, y(30) = 5000(e

0.075

e

0.075

)e

0.15

646.14 oz.

28. (a) Assume the air contains y(t) ft

3

of carbon monoxide at time t. Then y

0

= 0 and for

t > 0,

dy

dt

= 0.04(0.1)

y

1200

(0.1) = 1/250 y/12000,

d

dt

_

ye

t/12000

_

=

1

250

e

t/12000

,

ye

t/12000

= 48e

t/12000

+C, y(0) = 0, C = 48; y = 48(1 e

t/12000

). Thus the percentage

of carbon monoxide is P =

y

1200

100 = 4(1 e

t/12000

) percent.

(b) 0.012 = 4(1 e

t/12000

), t = 36.05 min

MAKING CONNECTIONS, CHAPTER 8

1. (a) u(x) = q p y(x) so

du

dx

= p

dy

dx

= p(q py(x)) = (p)u(x).

If p < 0 then p > 0 so u(x) grows exponentially.

If p > 0 then p < 0 so u(x) decays exponentially.

November 10, 2008 19:17 ISM ET chapter 8 Sheet number 24 Page number 427 black

Making Connections, Chapter 8 427

(b) From (a), u(x) = 4 2y(x) satises

du

dx

= 2u(x), so equation (14) of Section 8.2 gives

u(x) = u

0

e

2x

for some constant u

0

. Since u(0) = 4 2y(0) = 6, we have u(x) = 6e

2x

;

hence y(x) = 2 3e

2x

.

2. (a)

du

dx

=

d

dx

(ax+b y(x) +c) = a+b

dy

dx

= a+b f(ax+by +c) = a+b f(u), so

1

a +b f(u)

du

dx

= 1.

(b) From (a) with a = b = 1, c = 0, f(t) = 1/t, we have

1

1 + 1/u

du

dx

= 1, where u = x + y. So

u

u + 1

du = dx,

_

u

u + 1

du =

_

dx, u ln|u +1| = x +C, x +y ln|x +y +1| = x +C, and

y ln|x +y + 1| = C.

3. (a)

du

dx

=

d

dx

_

y

x

_

=

x

dy

dx

y

x

2

=

xf

_

y

x

_

y

x

2

. Since y = ux,

du

dx

=

xf(u) ux

x

2

=

f(u) u

x

and

1

f(u) u

du

dx

=

1

x

.

(b)

dy

dx

=

x y

x +y

=

1 y/x

1 +y/x

has the form given in (a), with f(t) =

1 t

1 +t

. So

1

1 u

1 +u

u

du

dx

=

1

x

,

1 +u

1 2u u

2

du =

dx

x

,

_

1 +u

1 2u u

2

du =

_

dx

x

,

1

2

ln|1 2u u

2

| = ln|x| + C

1

, and

|1 2u u

2

| = e

2C1

x

2

. Hence 1 2u u

2

= Cx

2

where C is either e

2C1

or e

2C1

.

Substituting u =

y

x

gives 1

2y

x

y

2

x

2

= Cx

2

, and x

2

2xy y

2

= C.

4. (a)

du

dx

= (1 n)y

n

dy

dx

= (1 n)y

n

[q(x)y

n

p(x)y] = (1 n)q(x) (1 n)p(x)y

1n

=

(1 n)q(x) (1 n)p(x)u. Hence

du

dx

+ (1 n)p(x)u = (1 n)q(x).

(b)

dy

dx

1

x

y = 2y

2

, so this has the form given in (a) with p(x) = 1/x, q(x) = 2, and n = 2.

So u = y

1

satises

du

dx

+

1

x

u = 2. An integrating factor is given by = e

_

dx/x

= e

ln x

= x.

So

d

dx

(xu) = x

du

dx

+u = 2x, xu = x

2

+C, u = x+Cx

1

, and y = u

1

=

1

x +Cx

1

=

x

x

2

+C

.

Since y(1) =

1

2

, C = 1 and y =

x

x

2

+ 1

.

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