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CASCODE AMPLIFIER

I. AIM To plot the frequency response of Cascode amplifier and to calculate the gain and bandwidth II. APPARATUS REQUIRED i. APPARATUS CRO (Dual Channel) 1 No.s Function Generator, Regulated power supply (0 - 30V) ii. Components Resistors 1K-2, 33K-2, 3.3K-2, 2.2K-1, 560-1 Capacitors 10f -4, 0.01f - 1

III. THEORY The cascade amplifier consists of a common emitter amplifier stage in series with a common base amplifier stage. It is one approach to solve the low impedance problem of a common base circuit. Transistor, T1 and its associated components operate as a common emitter amplifier stage, while the circuit of Ts functions as a common base output stage. The cascade amplifier gives the high input impedance of a common emitter amplifier, as well as the good voltage gain and high frequency performance of a common base circuit. IV. CIRCUIT DIAGRAM

V.

PROCEDURE 1. 2 3. 4. 5. Make the circuit connections as shown in the figure. Set Vin= 50mv (say), using the signal generator. Keeping the input voltage constant, vary the frequency from 50 HZ to 1 MHZ in regular steps and note down the corresponding output voltage. Plot the graph of gain v/s frequency. Find the bandwidth.

PROGRAM *CASCODE AMPLIFIER VIN 1 0 AC 50MV VCC 4 0 DC 24V RS 1 2 1K C1 2 3 10U R3 4 3 33K R4 3 0 3.3K R1 4 5 33K R2 5 0 3.3K C2 5 0 10U Rc 4 6 2.2K RE 8 0 560 CE 8 0 10U cc 6 9 10u Rl 9 0 1K CSH 9 0 0.01U Q1 6 5 7 BC107 .MODEL BC107 NPN(BF=100) Q2 7 3 8 BC107A .MODEL BC107A NPN(BF=100) .AC DEC 10 10HZ 100MEGAHZ .PRINT AC V(9) .PLOT AC V(9) .PROBE .END

VI. CALCULATIONS Band width = fH - fL Mid frequency gain AVM =VII. GRAPH

VIII. INFERENCE Emitter bypass capacitors are used to short circuit the emitter resistor and thus increase the gain at high frequency. These coupling and bypass capacitors cause the fall off in the low frequency response of the amplifier because their impedance becomes large at low frequencies. In the mid frequency, the-large capacitors are effective short circuits and the stray capacitors are open circuits, so that no capacitance appears in the mid frequency range hence the midband gain is maximum. At the high frequencies the bypass and coupling capacitors are replaced by short circuits and stray capacitors and the transistors determine the response IX. 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. X. 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. PRECAUTIONS Note down the type number of the transistor. Note the important specifications of the transistor from the data book. Do not exceed the maximum values specified in data book Do not install a transistor or remove one from a circuit with power ON. Identify the terminals of the transistors. Check .the transistors. Set the function generator just below the point of distortion, so that the maximum undistorted sine wave appears. Adjust the oscilloscope for proper viewing. TROUBLE SHOOTING: Check the transistor. Check the battery connections. Measure VBE and VCE (=VCC/2) with the DMM.. Check for undistorted input signal can be viewed on the CRO. Check the CRO probe.

XI 1. 2.

RESULT / CONCLUSION Frequency response is plotted Bandwidth was calculated.

XII.

EXTENSION Multistage amplifier.

XIII. APPLICATIONS 1. Amplifiers. 2. Radio transmitter and receiver circuits. XIX. 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. QUESTIONS What is meant by Q point? Which multistage configuration results in cascade amplifier? What is the need for biasing a transistor What factors are to be considered for selecting the operating point for an amplifier? What is thermal runaway? How it can be avoided. What three factors contribute to thermal instability?